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Sample records for antimony 122

  1. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  2. In vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: samanta@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo (IMT-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail:hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-10-15

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes {sup 122} Sb and {sup 124} Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology. (author)

  3. 122Sb - a potential radiotracer: Evaluation of cyclotron production via novel routes

    OpenAIRE

    Enferadi Milad; Sadeghi Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-122, having a half-life of 2.723 d and Iß-=97.59%, is an important radiotracer in studies of environmental contamination and food crops. For the work discussed in this paper, the production of 122Sb was done via the natSn(p, xn)122Sb nuclear reaction. Radiochemical separation was performed by silica gel column chromatography and liquid-liquid extraction methods. Excitation functions for the 122Sb radionuclide, via 122Sn(p, n)122Sb, natSn(p, xn)122Sb, 122Sn(d, 2n)122Sb, natSn(d,...

  4. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  5. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® , is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer studies have a potential in pharmaceutical development. The aim of this study was to obtain a radiotracer for antimony, with suitable physical and biological properties. Meglumine antimoniate was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This compound showed the same antileishmanial activity as the native compound. The use of the radiotracers, easily created by neutron irradiation, could be an interesting tool to solve important questions in antimonial pharmacology.Os antimoniais pentavalentes, como o antimoniato de meglumina (Glucantime® ou estibogluconato de sódio (Pentostam® , são o principal tratamento para a leishmaniose, um complexo de doenças causadas pelo protozoário parasita Leishmania, uma doença endêmica e negligenciada no Brasil. Apesar do seu uso clínico por mais de meio século, seu mecanismo de ação, toxicidade e dados de farmacocinética permanecem desconhecidos. Os métodos analíticos para determinação de antimônio em sistemas biológicos são complexos e apresentam baixa sensibilidade. Estudos utilizando radiotraçadores têm papel potencial no desenvolvimento farmacológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um radiotraçador de antimônio, com propriedades físicas e biológicas adequadas. O antimoniato de meglumina foi irradiado por nêutrons no reator nuclear IEA-R1, produzindo dois radioisótopos: 122

  6. Pentavalent Antimonials: New Perspectives for Old Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Raul R.; Cynthia Demicheli; Frédéric Frézard

    2009-01-01

    Pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, have been used for more than half a century in the therapy of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis. Even though antimonials are still the first-line drugs, they exhibit several limitations, including severe side effects, the need for daily parenteral administration and drug resistance. The molecular structure of antimonials, their metabolism and mechanism of action are still being investigated. Some recent stud...

  7. Solubility behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) solids in basic aqueous solutions at 300{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemire, R.J.; Tosello, N.B.; Halliday, J.D

    1999-12-01

    The major contributions of the isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb to activity transport in a CANDU reactor primary heat transport system (HTS), have been associated with oxygen ingress during reactor shutdown. As part of a program to minimize the release and redeposition of these isotopes, the solubilities of antimony(III) and (V) oxides and salts have been measured in basic solutions at temperatures from 25 to 300{sup o}C. The results provide information on the charge and the stability as a function of temperature of antimony solution species and, hence, a guide to the trends in the temperature dependence of the solubilities of antimony solids. In solutions in which oxidation of antimony(III) to antimony(V) is minimized, the solubility of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases by about two orders of magnitude between 25 and 200{sup o}C, and then levels out or decreases slightly. At 250{sup o}C, in oxidizing solutions, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O and simple sodium antimonate(V) were found to be unstable in sodium hydroxide solutions with respect to the solid, Na{sub 2{alpha}}[H(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2-2{alpha}}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, which has a pyrochlore structure. The solubility of this partially protonated sodium antimonate increases from 25 to 200{sup o}C and decreases at temperatures above 250{sup o}C. These solubility changes for the antimony (V) solids reflect changes in the stability of the anionic antimony solution species (SbO{sub 3}{sup -} or Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}), even though the compositions of antimony-containing solids in basic oxidizing solutions are strongly dependent on the cations and their aqueous phase concentrations. All solids used in the present experiments would be expected to generate total solution antimony concentrations {>=} 0.00005 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} in any neutral or basic aqueous solutions (assuming no added sodium salts). Therefore, under HTS conditions, precipitation of any antimony oxides or mixed oxides is unlikely. It cannot be

  8. Pentavalent Antimonials: New Perspectives for Old Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate, have been used for more than half a century in the therapy of the parasitic disease leishmaniasis. Even though antimonials are still the first-line drugs, they exhibit several limitations, including severe side effects, the need for daily parenteral administration and drug resistance. The molecular structure of antimonials, their metabolism and mechanism of action are still being investigated. Some recent studies suggest that pentavalent antimony acts as a prodrug that is converted to active and more toxic trivalent antimony. Other works support the direct involvement of pentavalent antimony. Recent data suggest that the biomolecules, thiols and ribonucleosides, may mediate the actions of these drugs. This review will summarize the progress to date on the chemistry and biochemistry of pentavalent antimony. It will also present the most recent works being done to improve antimonial chemotherapy. These works include the development of simple synthetic methods for pentavalent antimonials, liposome-based formulations for targeting the Leishmania parasites responsible for visceral leishmaniasis and cyclodextrin-based formulations to promote the oral delivery of antimony.

  9. Testing of antimony selective media for treatment of liquid radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants have sought radiation source term reduction and reduced discharge of radioactive constituents for many years. In the case of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the latter efforts have been directed toward capture and immobilization of recalcitrant (ubiquitous radionuclides with long half-lives) species such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 and Co-58 and Co-60. As these plants resolved, or at least mitigated, the problems with radiocesium and radio-cobalt, antimony radionuclides (Sb-122, Sb-124, and Sb-125) have become a primary concern in liquid liquid radwaste systems Graver Technologies developed a granular composite metal oxide media with good selectivity for radio-antimony. Initial laboratory data were collected using non-radioactive salts of antimony, cesium, and cobalt to judge efficacy of selective removal of antimony. Based on success of those trials, the media, designated Gravex GX187, was tested in partnership with Energy Solutions (nee Duratek) using actual liquid liquid radwaste in two PWR plants. One of these plants performed extensive slip-stream trials comparing the GX187 with strong base anion resins. With more than 2500 bed volumes of throughput, the GX187 outperformed the other competitors by reducing both Sb-124 and Sb-125 radionuclides below minimum detectable activity (MDA) with average decontamination factors (DF's) of 170, even when subjected to high levels of borate. Based on these favorable results, Energy Solutions installed the GX187 in a layered bed in their ALPS liquid radwaste processing system at this plant in August 2005. After one year of intermittent, batchwise operation including an outage, the GX187 processed more than 2.25 million liters (>600,000 gallons) of liquid liquid radwaste while reducing the Sb-125 activity to 2.9 E-08 Bq/L (DF=111) on average. This evaluation is ongoing and will continue at least until the fall 2006 outage at this plant. Concurrently, Graver developed a second generation antimony selective

  10. FIRST REPORT ON OTOTOXICITY OF MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE

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    Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pentavalent antimonials are the first drug of choice in the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Data on ototoxicity related with such drugs is scarcely available in literature, leading us to develop a study on cochleovestibular functions. Case Report: A case of a tegumentary leishmaniasis patient, a 78-year-old man who presented a substantial increase in auditory threshold with tinnitus and severe rotatory dizziness during the treatment with meglumine antimoniate, is reported. These symptoms worsened in two weeks after treatment was interrupted. Conclusion: Dizziness and tinnitus had already been related to meglumine antimoniate. However, this is the first well documented case of cochlear-vestibular toxicity related to meglumine antimoniate.

  11. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  12. 21 CFR 862.3110 - Antimony test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... antimony, a heavy metal, in urine, blood, vomitus, and stomach contents. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of antimony poisoning. (b) Classification. Class I....

  13. Psalm 122: Jerusalem reviviscut!

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    H. Viviers

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available An incisive literary analysis of Psalm 122 as well as the reconstruction of the possible historical context is necessary to fully grasp the original impact and function of this psalm. Sociological models have proved to be useful for the reconstruction of the (macro- context. Psalm 122 is a post-exilic (ca 445-350 B.C. psalm bringing hope in a disconsolate situation with its main theme being "Jerusalem! where Yahweh is". In this regard it matches its wider literary context, the ma'alôt collection. The poet portrays rebuilt Jerusalem as being ‘greater’ than it actually was to enhance his message. He endeavours to ‘revive’ contemporary Jerusalem on the model of the glorious Jerusalem gone by. In this way he could 'revive'his people’s faith as well.

  14. Perspectives of antimony compounds in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj SHARMA; Diego PEREZ; Armando CABRERA; Nee ROSAS; Jose Luis ARIAS

    2008-01-01

    Antimony, a natural element that has been used as a drug for over more than 100 years, has remarkable therapeutic efficacy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. This review focuses on recent advances in developing antimony anti- cancer agents with an emphasis on antimony coordination complexes, Sb (Ⅲ) and Sb (V). These complexes, which include many organometallic complexes, may provide a broader spectrum of antitumoral activity. They were compared with classical platinum anticancer drugs. The review covers the literature data pub- lished up to 2007. A number of antimonials with different antitumoral activities are known and have diverse applications, even though little research has been done on their possibilities. It might be feasible to develop more specific and effective inhibitors for phosphatase-targeted, anticancer therapeutics through the screen- ing of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and potassium antimonyltartrate-related compounds, which are comprised of antimony conjugated to different organic moieties. For example, SSG appears to be a better inhibitor than suramin which is a compound known for its antineoplastic activity against several types of cancers.

  15. Infrared surface polaritons on antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W; Medhi, Gautam; Shahzad, Monas; Rezadad, Imen; Maukonen, Doug; Peale, Robert E; Boreman, Glenn D; Wentzell, Sandy; Buchwald, Walter R

    2012-01-30

    The semimetal antimony, with a plasma frequency ~80 times less than that of gold, is potentially useful as a host for infrared surface polaritons (SPs). Relevant IR SP properties, including the frequency-dependent propagation length and penetration depths for fields into the media on either side of the interface, were determined from optical constants measured on optically-thick thermally-evaporated Sb films over the wavelength range 1 to 40 μm. Plasma and carrier relaxation frequencies were determined from Drude-model fits to these data. The real part of the permittivity is negative for wavelengths beyond 11 μm. Distinct resonant decreases in specular reflected intensity were observed for Sb lamellar gratings in the wavelength range of 6 to 11 μm, where the real part of the permittivity is positive. Both resonance angles and the angular reflectance spectral line shapes are in agreement with theory for excitation of bound surface electromagnetic waves (SPs). Finite element method (FEM) electrodynamic simulations indicate the existence of SP modes under conditions matching the experiments. FEM results also show that such waves depend on having a significant imaginary part of the permittivity, as has been noted earlier for the case of surface exciton polaritons.

  16. Antimony in the Contaminated Site of El Triunfo, Baja California Sur, Mexico

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    Marmolejo-Rodríguez A. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimony has properties similar to arsenic with some of its compounds toxic to humans. Therefore it is necessary to control the wastes accumulated by anthropogenic activities, such as mining, where it is in tailings to be released to the environment. According to the Environment Protection Agency, the maximum value in sediments is 11.2 mg Sb kg–1 and the Earth’s crust average is 0.2 mg Sb kg–1. In this semiarid area, the drainage basin El Carrizal is impacted with wastes of an abandoned gold mine at the Mining District El Triunfo (MD – ET which have tailings with 17,600 mg kg–1 of antimony. In the main dry river (arroyo, the Sb content is between 0.6 and 122 mg kg–1. This element is transported from the source throughout the fluvial basin to discharge into the Pacific Ocean. In the arroyo mouth we collected one sedimentary core and the sediment from dunes (28.6 – 45.7 and 6.43 – 7.74 mg Sb kg–1. This research concluded the antimony is enriched in this semiarid system, with Normalized Enrichment Factors severely enriched mainly in arroyo sediments close to the MD-ET

  17. Synthesis and application of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-nian; LI Hong-bing; SHU Wan-gen; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new type of thermal stabilizer, antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate)(Sb(SCH2COOC8H17)5), was synthesized by using antimony trioxide, isooctanol and thioglycolic acid in 2 steps. Firstly, antimony trioxide was oxidized into colloidal antimony peroxide. Then antimony peroxide and isooctyl thioglycollate reacted stoichiometrically for 2 h with the yield of 87%. This compound was used as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride(PVC). The results show that the thermal stability time is 52 min at 200 ℃ by heat-ageing oven test when adding 2.5% thermal stabilizer to PVC resin. Compared with antimony tris(isooctyl thiolycollate), the initial thermal stability of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) is better than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate), while the long-term thermal stability time is shorter than that of antimony tris(isooctyl thioglycollate). Meanwhile, the synergism of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) with calcium stearate was studied, indicating that when the mass ratio of antimony pent(isooctyl thioglycollate) to calcium stearate is 2:1, the thermal stability time of PVC is 58 min.

  18. Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

    2012-11-01

    A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

  19. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  20. Arsenic and antimony transporters in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciaszczyk-Dziubinska, Ewa; Wawrzycka, Donata; Wysocki, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony are toxic metalloids, naturally present in the environment and all organisms have developed pathways for their detoxification. The most effective metalloid tolerance systems in eukaryotes include downregulation of metalloid uptake, efflux out of the cell, and complexation with phytochelatin or glutathione followed by sequestration into the vacuole. Understanding of arsenic and antimony transport system is of high importance due to the increasing usage of arsenic-based drugs in the treatment of certain types of cancer and diseases caused by protozoan parasites as well as for the development of bio- and phytoremediation strategies for metalloid polluted areas. However, in contrast to prokaryotes, the knowledge about specific transporters of arsenic and antimony and the mechanisms of metalloid transport in eukaryotes has been very limited for a long time. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding of arsenic and antimony transport pathways in eukaryotes, including a dual role of aquaglyceroporins in uptake and efflux of metalloids, elucidation of arsenic transport mechanism by the yeast Acr3 transporter and its role in arsenic hyperaccumulation in ferns, identification of vacuolar transporters of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in plants and forms of arsenic substrates recognized by mammalian ABC transporters.

  1. In Vitro antileishmanial properties of neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior; João Alberto Osso Junior; Nanci do Nascimento

    2005-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony, as meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime® ) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam® ), is the main treatment for leishmaniasis, a complex of diseases caused by the protozoan Leishmania, and an endemic and neglected threat in Brazil. Despite over half a century of clinical use, their mechanism of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetic data remain unknown. The analytical methods for determination of antimony in biological systems remain complex and have low sensitivity. Radiotracer...

  2. Separation of traffic related antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. It is known that most of the brake pads contain Sb2S3 as lubricant to achieve better friction stability. Due to braking the brake lining crumbles away and its Sb content gets into the air. As a result of the temperature increase accompanying the braking a part of the antimony may oxidize to oxides, as Sb2O3 or even to the more stable form, Sb2O4. Since Sb2O3 more readily soluble than the others, its absorption from the lung so its environmental impact effect is more harmful. After a systematic investigation involving solubilization of the solid compounds, citric and tartaric acid as well as 6 mol/dm3 HCl were tested for leaching of trace antimony compounds from natural matrix. To prepare reference material related to these species, soil and activated charcoal was spiked in 10 μg/g concentration with all the three material (Sb2S3, Sb2O3,Sb2O4). separately. Recovery of the different forms was checked by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GFAAS) analysis of the leachates. The soil was confirmed to oxidize the sulfide content while the activated charcoal was established to enrich antimony from HCl solution as ion association complex. It was concluded, that Sb2S3 is leached only in slight amount in 4 hours by 0.1-0.5 mol/dm3 citric acid, while leaching of Sb2O3 is quantitative. On the other side, it was proved that Sb2O3 as well as Sb2S3 traces are soluble in 6 HCl solution in 60 min, whilst Sb2O4 is not destroyed. So, the Sb2O3 and Sb2S3 content of a flying dust can be determined. The GFAAS temperature program had to be modified in order to be capable to analyze high organic matrix as citric or tartaric acid even in 0.5 mol/dm3 concentration. Concerning their decomposition temperature an additional step was inserted into the temperature program, pyrolysis on 300 and 400 deg C, respectively. The antimony concentration of the highly acidic leachates were determined by hydride generation GFAAS. The reproducibility of

  3. Selective determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone by atomic-absorption spectrometry with a carbon-tube atomizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, T; Yamamoto, Y

    1977-05-01

    The extraction behaviour of antimony(III) and antimony(V) with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and dithizone in organic solvents has been investigated by means of frameless atomic-absorption spectrophotometry with a carbon-tube atomizer. The selective extraction of antimony(III) and differential determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) have been developed. With ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and methyl isobutyl ketone, when the aqueous phase/solvent volume ratio is 50 ml/10 ml and the injection volume in the carbon tube is 20 mul, the sensitivity for antimony is 0.2 ng/ml for 1% absorption. The relative standard deviations are ca. 2%. Interferences by many metal ions can be prevented by masking with EDTA. The proposed methods have been applied satisfactorily to determination of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in various types of water. PMID:18962096

  4. Structural and electrical characterization of zinc oxide doped with antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Juárez Díaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the results of structural and electrical characterization realized on zinc oxide single crystal samples with (001 orientation, which were doped with antimony. Doping was carried out by antimony thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for periods of 1 and 2 hours under nitrogen environment from a solid source formed by antimony oxide. Electrical characterization by I-V curves and Hall effect shown an increase in acceptor concentration which demonstrates that doping is effective and create holes in zinc oxide samples.

  5. Deposition of rod-shaped antimony sulfide thin films from single-source antimony thiosemicarbazone precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Sawant, Narayan V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India); Garje, Shivram S., E-mail: ssgarje@chem.mu.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai - 400 098 (India)

    2010-04-02

    Antimony sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition technique using single source precursors, namely, antimony(III) thiosemicarbazones, SbCl{sub 3}(L) (L = thiosemicarbazones of thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (1) and cinnamaldehyde (2)). The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UV-visible spectroscopy in order to identify their phases, morphologies, compositions and optical properties respectively. These characterizations revealed that the films were comprised of rod-shaped particles of orthorhombic stibnite (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) with a Sb:S stoichiometry of {approx} 1:1.3. The calculated optical band gap from UV-vis absorption spectrum is found to be 3.48 eV.

  6. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Riba Coelho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Meglumine antimoniate (MA and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous. Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain. The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  7. How can we adapt to geological scarcity of antimony? Investigation of antimony's substitutability and of other measures to achieve a sustainable use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antimony is an element that is applied in many useful applications for mankind. However, antimony resources are very scarce, when comparing the current extraction rates with the availability of antimony containing ores. From an inter-temporal sustainability perspective, current generations

  8. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  9. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  10. 47 CFR 12.2 - Backup power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Backup power. 12.2 Section 12.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL REDUNDANCY OF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS § 12.2 Backup power..., must have an emergency backup power source (e.g., batteries, generators, fuel cells) for all...

  11. 4 CFR 28.122 - Negotiability issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiability issues. 28.122 Section 28.122 Accounts... Special Procedures; Unfair Labor Practices § 28.122 Negotiability issues. Where the GAO and an exclusive... shall review the arguments, hold a hearing if the administrative judge deems it necessary, and issue...

  12. 46 CFR 122.503 - Voyage plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plan. 122.503 Section 122.503 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels shall prepare a voyage plan: (1) A... United States Great Lakes port from a Canadian Great Lakes port. (b) The voyage plan required...

  13. 46 CFR 122.410 - Watchmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watchmen. 122.410 Section 122.410 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 122.410 Watchmen. The... suitable number of watchmen patrol throughout the vessel during the nighttime, whether or not the vessel...

  14. 20 CFR 345.122 - Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest. 345.122 Section 345.122 Employees...' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Reporting and Collecting Contributions § 345.122 Interest. (a) Rate. If... this part, interest accrues at the rate of 1 percent per month, or fraction of a month. Interest...

  15. 42 CFR 421.122 - Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance standards. 421.122 Section 421.122... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Intermediaries § 421.122 Performance standards. (a) Development of standards. In addition to the performance criteria (§ 421.120), CMS develops...

  16. 9 CFR 122.2 - Permits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits required. 122.2 Section 122.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ORGANISMS AND VECTORS § 122.2...

  17. 19 CFR 122.131 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application. 122.131 Section 122.131 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.131 Application. (a) Liquor and tobacco. Subpart...

  18. 49 CFR 1.22 - Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structure. 1.22 Section 1.22 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary § 1.22 Structure. (a) Secretary and Deputy Secretary. The Secretary and Deputy Secretary...

  19. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  20. 12 CFR 19.122 - Newspaper notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newspaper notice. 19.122 Section 19.122 Banks... Exemption Hearings Under Section 12(h) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 19.122 Newspaper notice... notice one time in a newspaper of general circulation in the community where the issuer's main office...

  1. 19 CFR 122.165 - Air cabotage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.165 Air cabotage. (a) The air cabotage law (49 U.S.C. 41703... provided for in 14 CFR 121.153, and those aircraft used exclusively in the service of any government. (b... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cabotage. 122.165 Section 122.165...

  2. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  3. 45 CFR 12.2 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 12.2 Section 12.2 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION DISPOSAL AND UTILIZATION OF SURPLUS REAL PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PURPOSES § 12.2 Scope. This part is applicable to surplus real property located within any State which is appropriate...

  4. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL-1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL-1, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  5. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiuming; Wen, Shengping; Xiang, Guoqiang

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by l-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3 sigma) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL(-1) for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c=1.0 ng mL(-1), n=7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results. PMID:19853991

  6. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China); Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: xianggq@haut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, South Song Shan Road No. 140, Zhengzhou City 450001 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3{sigma}) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL{sup -1} for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL{sup -1}, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  7. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L-1). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 μg L-1. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L-1 thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L-1, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 μg L-1 using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth μg L-1 level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 μg L-1). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%

  8. Noninferiority of Miltefosine Versus Meglumine Antimoniate for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiano, Luisa Consuelo; Miranda, María Consuelo; Muvdi Arenas, Sandra; Montero, Luz Mery; Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Garcerant, Daniel; Prager, Martín; Osorio, Lyda; Rojas, Maria Ximena; Pérez, Mauricio; Nicholls, Ruben Santiago; Gore Saravia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background. Children have a lower response rate to antimonial drugs and higher elimination rate of antimony (Sb) than adults. Oral miltefosine has not been evaluated for pediatric cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.; Radmanovac Aleksandar R.; Stojanov Aleksander M.; Pocajt Viktor V.; Ristić Mirjana Đ.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potent...

  10. The influence of pet containers on antimony concentration in bottled drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić-Grujić Aleksandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 is the most frequently used catalyst in the polyethylene terephthalate (PET manufacture. As a result, antimony is incorporated into PET bottles at concentration level of 100-300 mg/kg. PET containers are used for drinking water and beverages, as well as food packaging and in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, it is important to understand the factors that may influence the release of antimony from the catalysts into water and other products, since antimony is potentially toxic trace element. In this paper, the antimony content in nine brands of bottled mineral and spring water from Serbia, and seven brands of bottled mineral and spring water from EU countries was analyzed. The measurements were conducted using the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS technique. In the all examined samples the antimony concentration was bellow the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by the Serbian and EU regulations. Comparison of the content of antimony in PET bottled waters with the content of antimony in water bottled commercially in glass and the natural content of antimony in pristine groundwaters, provides explicit evidence of antimony leaching from PET containers. Since waters bottled in PET have much greater concentration ratio of Sb to Pb than corresponding pristine groundwaters, it can be assumed that bottled waters cannot be used as the relavant source for the study of the natural antimony content in groundwaters. There is a clear relation between the quality of water in bottles (composition, ion strength and antimony leaching rate. Moreover, while the rate of antimony leaching is slow at temperatures below 60 oC, at the temperature range of 60-80 oC antimony release occurs and reaches maximum contaminant level rapidly. As antimony can cause both acute and chronic health problems, factors that promote the increase of antimony concentration should be avoided.

  11. Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films: Co Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 serves as an important base material in a variety of resistive type gas sensors. The widespread applicability of this semicoducting oxide is related both to its range of conductance variability and to the fact that it responds to both oxidising and reducing gases. The antimony doped tin-oxide films were prepared by spray pyrolysis method. The as-deposited films are blackish in colour. Addition of antimony impurity showed little increase in the thickness. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows characteristic tin oxide peaks with tetragonal structure. As the doping concentration of antimony was increased, new peak corresponding to Sb was observed. The intensity of this peak found to be increased when the Sb concentration was increased from 0.01 % to the 1 % which indicates the antimony was incorporated into the tin oxide. For gas sensing studies ohmic contacts were preferred to ensure the changes in resistance of sensor is due to only adsorption of gas molecule. The graph of I-V shows a straight line in nature which indicates the ohmic contact. The sensitivity of the sensor for CO gas was tested. The sensitivity of antimony doped tin oxide found to be increased with increasing Sb concentration. The maximum sensitivity was observed for Sb = 1 % at a working temperature of 250 °C.

  12. Behavior of arsenic impurity at antimony electric precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the arsenic impurity electrochemical behavior and it purification from antimony by electric precipitation out of fluoride solutions was studied. For this the arsenic sample with mass 0.003-0.006 g has been irradiated at the WWR-SM nuclear reactor during 3-5 hour in the thermal neutron flux 1013 n/cm2 s, after 24 h keeping the sample has being dissolved in the concentrated nitric acid, and then it has been evaporated several times with distillation water addition up to wet precipitation state. It is shown, that arsenic impurity behavior character in the antimony electric precipitation out to fluoride electrolyte depends on the electrolyte content, electrolysis conditions, arsenic valency state in arsenic impurity existence in the five-valency state its joint electric reduction with antimony is practically not observing. In the case the arsenic being in three-valency state, it joint electric reduction with antimony is taking place. In this time the electrolytic antimony contents arsenic impurities less in dozen time than initial material

  13. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb+ ions to a fluence of 5 x 1020 ions/m2, thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  14. Behavior of antimony isotopes in the primary coolant of WWER-1000-type nuclear reactors in NPP Kozloduy during operation and shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrevski, Ivan D.; Zaharieva, Neli N. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy; Minkova, Katia F.; Gerchev, Nikolay B. [Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, Kozloduy (Bulgaria). Dept. of Chemistry and Radiochemistry

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the behavior of the antimony isotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb in the coolant of the WWER reactors in the nuclear power plant Kozloduy (Bulgaria) during operation and shutdown. It is concluded that the chemical properties of their actual precursor, the isotope {sup 121}Sb, determine the behavior of {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb during operation, load fluctuations, and shutdown as well as during the reactor coolant purification process. It is supposed that differences between the reactor bulk and the core fuel cladding surface chemistry as well as the presence of sub-cooled nucleate boiling at the fuel cladding may create conditions under which a local oxidizing environment may come into existence. (orig.)

  15. Antimony Resistance in Leishmania, Focusing on Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Jeddi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is mainly limited by the cost of alternative molecules. In this paper, we reviewed the studies carried out on antimonial resistance in Leishmania. Several common limitations of these works are presented before prevalent approaches to evidence antimonial resistance are related. Afterwards, phenotypic determination of resistance is described, then confronted to clinical outcome. Finally, we detail molecular mechanisms and targets involved in resistance and already identified in vitro within selected mutant strains or in clinical isolates.

  16. Lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Mahmoud Hanafy; Bugayev, Aleksey; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafast electron diffraction is used to probe the lattice dynamics of femtosecond laser-excited antimony thin film. The temporal hierarchies of the intensity and position of diffraction orders are monitored. The femtosecond laser excitation of antimony film was found to lead to initial compression after the laser pulse, which gives way to tension vibrating at new equilibrium displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator model, in which the hot electron-blast force contributes to the driving force of oscillations in lattice spacing, is used to interpret the data. The electron-phonon energy-exchange rate and the electronic Grüneisen parameter were obtained.

  17. Heat-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcellino, Sebastien [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Attar, Hossein [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France); Lievremont, Didier; Lett, Marie-Claire [Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire, Genetique et Microbiologie, CNRS UMR 7156, 28 rue Goethe, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Barbier, Frederique [CNRS USR 59, Service Central d' Analyse, 59 Chemin du Canal BP22 69390 Vernaison (France); Lagarde, Florence [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Universite Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Sciences Separatives, CNRS UMR 7178, ECPM, 25 rue Becquerel 67087 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: florence.lagarde@univ-lyon1.fr

    2008-11-23

    An analytical method was developed for antimony speciation and antimony(III) preconcentration in water samples. The method is based on the selective retention of Sb(III) by modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of Sb(V). Heat, caustic and solvent pretreatments of the biomass were investigated to improve the kinetics and thermodynamics of Sb(III) uptake process at room temperature. Heating for 30 min at 80 deg. C was defined as the optimal treatment. Antimony accumulation by the cells was independent of pH (5-10) and ionic strength (0.01-0.1 mol L{sup -1}). 140 mg of yeast and 2 h of contact were necessary to ensure quantitative sequestration of Sb(III) up to 750 {mu}g L{sup -1}. In these conditions, Sb(V) was not retained. Sb(V) was quantified in sorption supernatant by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Sb(III) was determined after elution with 40 mmol L{sup -1} thioglycolic acid at pH 10. A preconcentration factor close to nine was achieved for Sb(III) when 100 mL of sample was processed. After preconcentration, the detection limits for Sb(III) and Sb(V) were 2 and 5 ng L{sup -1}, respectively, using ICP-MS, 7 and 0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} using ICP-OES. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in spiked river and mineral water samples. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) were in the 2-5% range at the tenth {mu}g L{sup -1} level and less than 10% at the lowest Sb(III) and Sb(V) tested concentration (0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Corrected recoveries were in all cases close to 100%.

  18. 19 CFR 122.43 - General declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General declaration. 122.43 Section 122.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  19. 19 CFR 122.45 - Crew list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew list. 122.45 Section 122.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  20. 19 CFR 122.77 - Clearance certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clearance certificate. 122.77 Section 122.77 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  1. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  2. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores list. 122.47 Section 122.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  3. 19 CFR 122.75 - Complete manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complete manifest. 122.75 Section 122.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  4. 9 CFR 122.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or infectious disease of animals (including poultry). (e) Vectors. All animals (including poultry... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 122.1 Section 122.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  6. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Morizot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  7. Antimony to Cure Visceral Leishmaniasis Unresponsive to Liposomal Amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Gloria; Jouffroy, Romain; Faye, Albert; Chabert, Paul; Belhouari, Katia; Calin, Ruxandra; Charlier, Caroline; Miailhes, Patrick; Siriez, Jean-Yves; Mouri, Oussama; Yera, Hélène; Gilquin, Jacques; Tubiana, Roland; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer, Marie-France; Legendre, Christophe; Peyramond, Dominique; Caumes, Eric; Lortholary, Olivier; Buffet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report on 4 patients (1 immunocompetent, 3 immunosuppressed) in whom visceral leishmaniasis had become unresponsive to (or had relapsed after) treatment with appropriate doses of liposomal amphotericin B. Under close follow-up, full courses of pentavalent antimony were administered without life-threatening adverse events and resulted in rapid and sustained clinical and parasitological cure.

  8. Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kathawa, J.; Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, thirty-eight palladium, thirty-eight antimony, thirty-nine tellurium, thirty-eight iodine, and forty xenon isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  9. Validation of methodology and uncertainty assessment of antimony determination in environmental materials using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest because of the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a suitable method for the determination of several elements in different types, but in case of Sb, the analysis presents some difficulties due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the method of NAA and uncertainty assessment for Sb determination in environmental samples. The experimental procedure consisted of irradiating twelve certified reference samples of different kind of matrices. The samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA R1 IPEN/CNEN/SP followed by measurement of induced radioactivity, using a hyperpure germanium detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometry. The radioisotopes 122Sb and 124Sb were measured and the Sb concentrations with their respective uncertainties were obtained by the comparative method. Relative errors and values of Z scores were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results for Sb determination in certified reference materials. The evaluation of the components that contribute to uncertainty measurement of the Sb concentration, showed that the major uncertainty contribution is due to statistical counting. The results also indicated that the uncertainty value of the combined standard uncertainty depends on the radioisotope measured and the decay time used for counting. (author)

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS122 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11458-1 CHS122P (Link to Original site) CHS1...22F 663 CHS122Z 819 CHS122P 1462 - - Show CHS122 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS122Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...22P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS122 (CHS122Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1...ant alignments: (bits) Value CHS122 (CHS122Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS122Q.Seq.d/ 2391 0.0 SSG440 (SSG440Q) /CSM/S

  11. The determination of the thermodynamic activity of antimony in alpha-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is suggested for determining the thermodynamic activity of antimony dissolved in alpha-iron, based on the study of antimony distribution between the two phases: liquid lead and solid iron. By this method, it was found that solid solutions of antimony in alpha-iron can be distinguished by positive divergences from the ideal state. Over a fairly wide range of concentrations, solutions of antimony in iron obey Henry's law. Special experiments on the distribution of antimony between lead and liquid iron showed that in the liquid state also the iron-antimony system is marked by positive divergences from the ideal state when small concentrations of antimony are present. The heat required for the solution of antimony in alpha-iron, and the excess partial molar entropy, were calculated from the activity temperature. The results were used for accurately locating the line showing the solubility limit of antimony in alpha-iron. Since alloys of antimony with iron were obtained by diffusion saturation and not by cooling from the liquid state, there was no liquefaction. Thus the lattice constant of the alloys and its relation to the alloy concentration could be reliably determined. The solubility limit established from X-ray data agrees with that obtained with Sb124. (author)

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Application Testing Requirements (§ 122.21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 19Vethylbenzene 20Vmethyl bromide 21Vmethyl chloride 22Vmethylene chloride 23V1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane... 29Vtrichloroethylene 31Vvinyl chloride Acid Compounds 1A2-chlorophenol 2A2,4-dichlorophenol 3A2,4-dimethylphenol 4A4,6...) and Total Phenols Antimony, Total Arsenic, Total Beryllium, Total Cadmium, Total Chromium,...

  13. TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 2014.122 Cities Mortality Reporting System. Each week, the vital statistics offices of 122 cities across the United States...

  14. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  15. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  16. 5 CFR 185.122 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 185.122 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... document or of the truth of any relevant fact; (3) Written interrogatories; and (4) Depositions. (b)...

  17. States of antimony and tin atoms in lead chalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy of the 119Sb(119mSn) isotope that impurity antimony atoms in PbS, PbSe, and PbTe lattices are distributed between cation and anion sublattices. In n-type samples, the greatest part of antimony is located in the anion sublattice; in hole ones, in the cation sublattice. The tin atoms formed as a result of radioactive decay of 119Sb (antisite state) are electrically inactive in the anion sub-lattice of PbS and PbSe, while, in the cation sublattice, they form donor U− centers. Electron exchange between the neutral and doubly ionized tin U− centers via the allowed band states is observed. The tin atoms formed after radioactive decay of 119Sb are electrically inactive in the anion and cation sublattices of PbTe.

  18. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  19. Correlation of CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CsK{sub 2}Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  20. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Hernandez-Garcia, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA; Elmustafa, A. A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529, USA; The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA

    2015-06-01

    CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  1. Correlation of CsK2Sb photocathode lifetime with antimony thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mamun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CsK2Sb photocathodes with quantum efficiency on the order of 10% at 532 nm, and lifetime greater than 90 days at low voltage, were successfully manufactured via co-deposition of alkali species emanating from an effusion source. Photocathodes were characterized as a function of antimony layer thickness and alkali consumption, inside a vacuum chamber that was initially baked, but frequently vented without re-baking. Photocathode lifetime measured at low voltage is correlated with the antimony layer thickness. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick antimony layers exhibited the best lifetime. We speculate that the antimony layer serves as a reservoir, or sponge, for the alkali.

  2. Resistance to Arsenic- and Antimony-Based Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Salerno; Arlette Garnier-Suillerot

    2003-01-01

    Organic arsenicals were the first antimicrobial agents specifically synthesized for the treatment of infectious diseases such as syphilis and sleeping sickness. For the treatment of diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites, organic derivatives of arsenic and the related metalloid antimony are still the drugs of choice. Arsenic trioxide, As203, has been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of various diseases, and it has recently been shown to be clinically ac...

  3. Crystallization of antimony orthotantalate and its physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physicochemical conditions of monophase synthesis of antimony orthoniobate monocrystals in the system SbO3-Ta2O5-KHF2-H2O2-H2O were investigated. In the area of monophase synthesis of SbTaO4 monocrystals kinetic studies of its growth conditions for inoculation, depending on solvent concentration, temperature, pyroelectric properties of the monocrystal grown were studied and conclusion was made on their practical use

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSI122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSI122 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16039-1 VSI122P (Link to Original site) VSI...122P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VSI122 (VSI122Q) /CSM/VS/VSI1-A/VSI1...122F 544 VSI122Z 402 VSI122P 946 - - Show VSI122 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSI...122 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16039-1 Original site... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VS/VSI1-A/VSI122Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VSI

  5. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  6. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. PMID:26092367

  7. Heavy weight vehicle traffic and its relationship with antimony content in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Waldo; De Gregori, Ida; Basilio, Paola; Bravo, Manuel; Pinto, Marcela; Lobos, Maria Gabriela

    2009-05-01

    Brake pads systems are nowadays considered as one of the most important sources of antimony in airborne particulate matter. One way that antimony can enter the body is through the lungs and specially by the interaction of antimony with -SH groups present in erythrocyte membrane cells. In spite of that, there are no studies about antimony enrichment in blood of workers exposed to high vehicle traffic. Port workers are generally exposed to heavy weight vehicle traffic. In Chile the biggest marine port is found in Valparaíso City. In this study antimony in whole blood and its fractions (erythrocytes-plasma and erythrocytes membranes-cytoplasm) of 45 volunteers were determined. The volunteers were port workers from Valparaíso city, and two control groups, one from Valparaíso and another from Quebrada Alvarado, the latter being a rural area located about 100 Km away from Valparaíso. The results demonstrate that port workers are highly impacted by antimony emissions from heavy weight vehicle traffic showing an average concentration of 27 +/- 9 ng Sb kg(-1), 5-10 times higher than the concentration of antimony in the blood of control groups. These are the highest antimony levels in blood ever reported in the literature. The highest antimony percentages (>60%) were always found in the erythrocyte fractions. However, the exposure degree to vehicle traffic is significant over antimony distribution in plasma, erythrocytes and cytoplasm. This results shows that the antimony mass in the erythrocyte membranes, was approximately constant at 1.0 +/- 0.1 ng Sb g(-1) of whole blood in all blood samples analyzed.

  8. 49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions. S3. Application. This standard applies to motorcycles. S4. Definitions. Braking interval means... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.122 Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems. S1. Scope... the sequence specified in S7. Corresponding test procedures of S7 are indicated in parentheses. If...

  9. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; Berg, van den A.

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources, respecti

  10. Oxidation and mobilization of metallic antimony in aqueous systems with simulated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Majs, F.; Barker, A. J.; Douglas, T. A.; Trainor, T. P.

    2014-05-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of concern that can be present in elevated concentrations in shooting range soils due to mobilization from spent lead/antimony bullets. Antimony in shooting range soils has been observed as either metallic Sb(0) or as Sb(V) immobilized by iron (hydr)oxides. The absence of Sb(III) in soils is indicative of rapid Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) under surface soil conditions. However, the major controls on antimony oxidation and mobility are poorly understood. To better understand these controls we performed multiple batch experiments under oxic conditions to quantify the oxidation and dissolution of antimony in systems where Sb(0) is oxidized to Sb(III) and further to Sb(V). We also tested how variations in the aqueous matrix composition and the presence of metallic lead (Pb) affect the dissolution, solid phase speciation, and oxidation of antimony. We monitored changes in the aqueous antimony speciation using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To test which solid phases form as a result of Sb(0) oxidation, and therefore potentially limit the mobility of antimony in our studied systems, we characterized the partially oxidized Sb(0) powders by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  11. Leishmania donovani: an in vitro study of antimony-resistant amphotericin B-sensitive isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharief, Abdalla Hassan; Gasim Khalil, Eltahir Awad; Theander, Thor G;

    2006-01-01

    Drug sensitivity of clinically antimony-unresponsive Leishmania donovani isolates from Eastern Sudan was evaluated in an in vitro culture system against sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and Amphotericin B. Eight isolates, six from antimony-resistant and two from clinically responsive patients were...

  12. Research on Percolation Network and Physical Properties of Graphite/Antimony Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ya-fei; HE Min; WANG Qi-li

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, friction and wear behaviour of graphite preform and graphite/antimony composites are analysed based on the percolation theory of hydrodynamics to investigate the relationship between the percolation network and physical properties of graphite/antimony composites. The result shows that there are two important factors to enhance friction and wear behaviour of graphite/antimony composites at high temperature: 1) the formation of the pore network in the preform, which is called the first percolation and 2) the optimization of infiltration method in the process of infiltrating antimony, which is called the second percolation. By adding some pyrolysate and controlling the roasting process, perfect net pores and sub-micron percolation microstructure may be formed in the graphite preform. By controlling the infiltration process, the saturation of molten antimony infiltrating into perfect pores can be optimized.

  13. 38 CFR 21.122 - School course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Educational and Vocational Training Services § 21.122 School course. (a) Explanation of terms—schools..., vocational school, correspondence school, business school, junior college, teacher's college, college,...

  14. 19 CFR 122.182 - Security provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demand an approved access seal issued by Customs. The approved Customs access seal must be in the... this section or upon demand by any authorized Customs officer for any cause referred to in § 122.187(a... will inform the applicant of the current Federal Bureau of Investigation user fee for...

  15. A note on Lysias 1.22

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Solución de la notoria crux de Lys. 1.22, donde la mayoría de editores desde Reiske ha propuesto la existencia de una laguna. Propongo que la lectura preservada μεγλοις es una corrupción del original μν λλοις.

  16. Behavior of ruthenium, cesium and antimony during simulated HLLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of ruthenium, cesium, and antimony during the vitrification of simulated high-level radioactive liquid wastes (HLLW) in a liquid fed melter was studied on a laboratory scale and on a semi-pilot scale. In the laboratory melter of a 2.5 kg capacity, a series of tests with the simulate traced with 103Ru, 134Cs and 124Sb, has shown that the Ru and Cs losses to the melter effluent are generally higher than 10% whereas the antimony losses remain lower than 0.4%. A wet purification system comprising in series, a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column retains most of the activity present in the off-gas so that the release fractions for Ru at the absolute filter inlet ranges between 5.10-3 to 5.10-5% of the Ru fed, for Cs the corresponding release fraction ranges between 3.10-3 to 10-4% and for Sb the release fraction ranges between 1.7 10-4 to 1.7 10-5%. The same experiments were performed at a throughput of 1 to 2 1 h-1 of simulated solution in the semi-pilot scale unit RUFUS. The RUFUS unit comprises a glass melter with a 50 kg molten glass capacity and the wet purification train comprises in series a dust scrubber, a condenser, an ejector venturi and an NOx washing column. The tracer tests were restricted to 103Ru and 134Cs since the laboratory tests had shown that the antimony losses were very low. The results of the tests are presented

  17. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur

  18. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  19. Antimony implanted strained Si for nMOSFET applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Atieh

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of implanted antimony (Sb) in strained-silicon (s-Si) formed on relaxed-SiGe virtual substrates (10 and 30% Ge) has been studied. The implantation doses were 5×1013- 5×1014 cm-2 with an energy of 20 keV. The activation of dopant was performed by an rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment at 700 and 800 °C for 30 sec. Projected range of this implantation is about 20 nm which was also confirmed by different techniques. The layers were analyzed in terms of strain relaxation, sheet ...

  20. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 1962-2016. 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains the complete set of data reported to 122 Cities Mortality Reposting System. The system was retired as of 10/6/2016. While the system was running...

  1. Antimony removal from the polyethylene terephthalate manufacture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Vengris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimony removal by coagulation from polyethylene terephthalate resin production wastewater of „Orion Global PET“ factory in Klaipėda city was investigated, with regard to the dependence of coagulant type and dosage, pH and presence of organics. FeCl3 ∙6H2O, FeSO4 ∙7H2O, AlCl3∙6H2O and TiCl4 salts were used as coagulants. Ti(IV and Fe(III revealed oneself to be the most effective coagulants. Antimony removal effectiveness is moderate and low using FeSO4 ∙7H2O and AlCl3∙6H2O coagulants, respectively. The addition of 10 mg dm-3 Ti(IV and 30 mg dm-3 Fe(III reduces by ~98% of the Sb, when the initial amount of Sb in wastewater is about 1200 mkg/l. The action of Fe(III is practically independent in the pH range 4-9, and that of Ti(IV slightly decreases in the same pH interval. The Sb amount in wastewater can be reduced to 13-20 mkg dm-3, while the initial Sb concentration is 1200 mkg dm-3. The presence of organic compounds in wastewater determines the reduction of Sb removal by coagulation.

  2. Alkali oxide-tantalum, niobium and antimony oxide ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. S.; Brower, W. S.; Parker, H. S.; Minor, D. B.; Waring, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The phase equilibrium relations of four systems were investigated in detail. These consisted of sodium and potassium antimonates with antimony oxide and tantalum and niobium oxide with rubidium oxide as far as the ratio 4Rb2O:llB2O5 (B=Nb, Ta). The ternary system NaSbO3-Sb2O4-NaF was investigated extensively to determine the actual composition of the body centered cubic sodium antimonate. Various other binary and ternary oxide systems involving alkali oxides were examined in lesser detail. The phases synthesized were screened by ion exchange methods to determine mobility of the mobility of the alkali ion within the niobium, tantalum or antimony oxide (fluoride) structural framework. Five structure types warranted further investigation; these structure types are (1) hexagonal tungsten bronze (HTB), (2) pyrochlore, (3) the hybrid HTB-pyrochlore hexagonal ordered phases, (4) body centered cubic antimonates and (5) 2K2O:3Nb2O5. Although all of these phases exhibit good ion exchange properties only the pyrochlore was prepared with Na(+) ions as an equilibrium phase and as a low porosity ceramic. Sb(+3) in the channel interferes with ionic conductivity in this case, although relatively good ionic conductivity was found for the metastable Na(+) ion exchanged analogs of RbTa2O5F and KTaWO6 pyrochlore phases.

  3. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  4. Thermal decomposition kinetics of antimony oxychloride in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳卫军; 唐谟堂; 金胜明

    2002-01-01

    The DTA and XRD techniques were employed to study thermal decomposition mechanism of antimony oxychloride SbOCl in the air. The thermal decomposition reaction occurs in four steps, and the former three steps as: SbOCl(s)→Sb4O5Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb8O11Cl2(s)+SbCl3(g)→Sb2O3(s)+SbCl3(g). The forth step is the oxidation of Sb2O3 by air, Sb2O3(s)+O2→Sb2O4(s). The activation energy and the order of the thermal decomposition reaction of antimony oxychloride in three steps presented in DTA curves were calculated according to Kinssinger methods from DTA curves. The values of activation energy and the order are respectively 91.97kJ/mol, 0.73 in the first step, 131.14kJ/mol, 0.63 in the second step and 146.94kJ/mol, 1.58 in the third step.

  5. BSA activated CdTe quantum dot nanosensor for antimony ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shenguang; Zhang, Congcong; Zhu, Yuanna; Yu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuangshuang

    2010-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for Sb(3+) determination was reported based on thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. It was the first antimony ion sensor using QD nanoparticles in a receptor-fluorophore system. The water-soluable TGA-capped CdTe QDs were prepared through a hydrothermal route, NaHTe was used as the Te precursor for CdTe QDs synthesis. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated to TGA-capped CdTe via an amide link interacting with carboxyl of the TGA-capped CdTe. When antimony ion enters the BSA, the lone pair electrons of the nitrogen and oxygen atom become involved in the coordination, switching off the QD emission and a dramatic quenching of the fluorescence intensity results, allowing the detection of low concentrations of antimony ions. Using the operating principle, the antimony ion sensor based on QD nanoparticles showed a very good linearity in the range 0.10-22.0 microg L(-1), with the detection limit lower than 2.94 x 10(-8) g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) 2.54% (n = 6). In a study of interferences, the antimony-sensitive TGA-QD-BSA sensor showed good selectivity. Therefore, a simple, fast, sensitive, and highly selective assay for antimony has been built. The presented method has been applied successfully to the determination of antimony in real water samples (n = 6) with satisfactory results.

  6. Removal of cobalt from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 王德全; 姜澜; 金曼

    2002-01-01

    The process of cobalt removal from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as an additive was investigated. The rude antimony trioxide was produced in treatment of copper and lead anode mud and its main components are antimony trioxide, antimony arsenate and lead antimonate. Using the rude antimony trioxide as the additive of cobalt removal can not only decrease operation cost of purification but also find out a new way for utilization of the rude antimony trioxide. The effects of temperature, dosage of zinc dust, the rude antimony trioxide, copper ion and solution pH on removal of cobalt were studied. And experimental data using the rude Sb2O3 as additive were compared with those using Sb2O3. The results indicate that using rude Sb2O3 as additive, cobalt concentration in solution could be decreased from 24mg/L to below 1mg/L under about the same conditions as using Sb2O3.

  7. Leaching Mechanism of Complicated Antimony-Lead Concentrate and Sulfur Formation in Slurry Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChengyan; QiuDingfan; JiangPeihai

    2004-01-01

    Anodic reaction mechanism of complicated antimony-lead concentrate in slurry electrolysis was investigated by the anodic polarization curves determined under various conditions. The main reactions on the anode are the oxidations of FeCln(2-n) . Though the oxidation of jamesonite particle on the anode can occur during the whole process, it is less. With the help of mineralogy studies and relevant tests, the leaching reaction mechanism of jameson[to and gudmundite during slurry electrolysis was ascertained. Because of the oxidation reaction of FeCl3 produced by antimony-lead concentrate itself, the non-oxidation complex acid dissolution of jameson[re, the oxidation complex acid dissolution of gudmundite, and the oxidation of air carried by stirring, the leaching ratio of antimony reaches about 35% when HCl-NH4Cl solution is used to leach antimony-lead concentrate directly. So when the theoretical electric quantity is given to oxidation of antimony in slurry electrolysis, all of antimony, lead and iron containing in antimony-lead concentrate, are leached. The formation of sulfur is through the directly redox reaction of Fe3+ and jameson[re. The S2- in jamesonite is oxidized into S0 , and forms the crystals of sulfur again on the spot. The redox reaction of Fe3+ and H2S formed by non-oxidative acid dissolution of jamesonite is less.

  8. In Vitro Antiparasitic and Apoptotic Effects of Antimony Sulfide Nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Soflaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the most important sever diseases in tropical and subtropical countries. In the present study the effects of antimony sulfide nanoparticles on Leishmania infantum in vitro were evaluated. Antimony sulfide NPs (Sb2S5 were synthesized by biological method from Serratia marcescens bacteria. Then the cytotoxicity effects of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of this nanoparticle were assessed on promastigote and amastigote stages of L. infantum. MTT method was used for verification results of promastigote assay. Finally, the percentages of apoptotic, necrotic, and viable cells were determined by flow cytometry. The results indicated the positive effectiveness of antimony sulfide NPs on proliferation of promastigote form. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of antimony sulfide NPs on promastigotes was calculated 50 μg/mL. The cytotoxicity effect was dose-dependent means by increasing the concentration of antimony sulfide NPs, the cytotoxicity curve was raised and the viability curve of the parasite dropped simultaneously. Moreover, the IC50 of antimony sulfide NPs on amastigote stage was calculated 25 μg/mL. On the other hand, however, antimony sulfide NPs have a low cytotoxicity effect on uninfected macrophages but it can induce apoptosis in promastigote stage at 3 of 4 concentrations.

  9. Bacillus sp.处理含锑废水试验研究%Bacillus sp. Treatment of Wastewater Containing Antimony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娇; 陈平; 陈才丽; 成应向; 龚道新; 向仁军; 王强强

    2013-01-01

    Antimony ore dressing wastewater was treated by using Bacil us sp. and the influences of treatment time, temperature, inoculation size, and pH value on Sb removal effect were explored. The results showed that the best removal efficiency of Sb in mineral processing wastewater could reach 99.75% in 4 d under the optimum conditions of 30 ℃, microbial inoculated quantity 5%, and pH value at 2.0. After the treatment, the concentration of Sb in wastewater was reduced from 122.21 to 0.30 mg/L, which was lower than the local industrial wastewater discharge standard of 0.50 mg/L.%利用某芽孢杆菌属微生物( Bacillus sp.)对锑矿选矿废水进行了处理。研究微生物的接种量、作用时间、温度、体系 pH值等对废水中Sb的去除效果的影响。结果表明:作用时间4 d微生物接种量为5处理体系 pH为2最佳处理体系温度为30时,效果最佳,对废水中Sb的去除率达到99.75%,处理后废水中 Sb的浓度由122.21 mg/L降低至0.30 mg/L,出水Sb浓度低于湖南省地方标准排放限值0.50 mg/L。

  10. Segregation of antimony in InP in MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeke, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    In this work the segregation of antimony in indium phosphide in metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE)was systematically investigated. Therefore phosphine stabilized InP surfaces were treated with tri-methyl-antimony (TMSb) in MOVPE. An antimony rich Sb/InP surface was established, showing a typical spectra for the antimonides observed in reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS).Adsorption and desorption of antimony are investigated, as well as the incorporation of Sb during overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface with InP. Therefore the growth parameters temperature, TMSb partial pressure and treatment time are varied and their influence investigated. The experiments are monitored in-situ with RAS, the achieved data is correlated with ex-situ characterisation such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). It is shown that under treatment with TMSb a stable Sb/InP surface is formed within seconds, which does not change under further TMSb treatment. This process is rarely influenced by the TMSb partial pressure. On the contrary, the desorption of Sb is a very slow process. Two main processes can be distinguished: The desorption of excess Sb from the surface and the formation of the MOVPE prepared InP (2 x 1) surface. The reaction velocity of adsorption and desorption increases with temperature. Above a critical value the increase of TMSb partial pressure has no influence on the time for desorption. During overgrowth of the Sb/InP surface the opposite temperature dependence is observed: with increasing growth temperature the typical spectra for antimonides is observed longer. An analysis of the grown samples with XRD and SIMS showed the formation of an InPSb double quantum well. One layer is formed at the interface, the second one 50 nm-120 nm deep in the InP. The location of the 2nd InPSb layer can be correlated with the vanishing of the Sb signature in RAS. The distance between the quantum wells increases with growth temperature, until it

  11. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  12. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  13. Structural and optical characterization of thermally evaporated bismuth and antimony films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimathy, N.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this present study, the thin film of bismuth and antimony is coated by thermal evaporation system equipped with the inbuilt ultra high vacuum system. XRD analysis confirmed the rhombohedral structure of Bismuth and Antimony on the prepared film. The surface roughness and physical appearance is analyzed by Atomic force microscopy. The results of Raman Spectroscopy show the wave functions and the spectrum of electrons. The preparation technique and conditions strongly influence the crystalline structure and the phase composition of bismuth and antimony thin films. The electrical and optical properties for the prepared film are analyzed. The results show a great interest and promising applications in Photovoltaic devices.

  14. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  15. Coordination- and Redox-Noninnocent Behavior of Ambiphilic Ligands Containing Antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J Stuart; Gabbaï, François P

    2016-05-17

    Stimulated by applications in catalysis, the chemistry of ambiphilic ligands featuring both donor and acceptor functionalities has experienced substantial growth in the past several years. The unique opportunities in catalysis offered by ambiphilic ligands stem from the ability of their acceptor functionalities to play key roles via metal-ligand cooperation or modulation of the reactivity of the metal center. Ligands featuring group 13 centers, most notably boranes, as their acceptor functionalities have undoubtedly spearheaded these developments, with remarkable results having been achieved in catalytic hydrogenation and hydrosilylation. Motivated by these developments as well as by our fundamental interest in the chemistry of heavy group 15 elements, we became fascinated by the possibility of employing antimony centers as Lewis acids within ambiphilic ligands. The chemistry of antimony-based ligands, most often encountered as trivalent stibines, has historically been considered to mirror that of their lighter phosphorus-based congeners. There is growing evidence, however, that antimony-based ligands may display unique coordination behavior and reactivity. Additionally, despite the diverse Lewis acid and redox chemistry that antimony exhibits, there have been only limited efforts to explore this chemistry within the coordination sphere of a transition metal. By incorporation of antimony into the framework of polydentate ligands in order to enforce the main group metal-transition metal interaction, the effect of redox and coordination events at the antimony center on the structure, electronics, and reactivity of the metal complex may be investigated. This Account describes our group's continuing efforts to probe the coordination behavior, reactivity, and application of ambiphilic ligands incorporating antimony centers. Structural and theoretical studies have established that both Sb(III) and Sb(V) centers in polydentate ligands may act as Z-type ligands toward late

  16. 7 CFR 97.122 - Certified seed only election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified seed only election. 97.122 Section 97.122 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION Reissuance of Certificate § 97.122 Certified seed only election. When...

  17. 39 CFR 122.2 - Stand-alone special services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stand-alone special services. 122.2 Section 122.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT SPECIAL SERVICES PRODUCTS § 122.2 Stand-alone special services. (a) The service standard for P. O....

  18. 46 CFR 122.340 - Vessels carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying vehicles. 122.340 Section 122.340... Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 122.340 Vessels carrying vehicles. (a) Automobiles or other vehicles must... vehicles freely in the event of fire or other disaster. The decks, where necessary, must be...

  19. 19 CFR 122.181 - Definition of Customs security area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of Customs security area. 122.181 Section 122.181 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.181 Definition...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.122 - Engine cooling and lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine cooling and lubrication. 1065.122 Section 1065.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.122 Engine cooling...

  1. 19 CFR 122.4 - English language required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false English language required. 122.4 Section 122.4... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.4 English language required. A translation in the English language shall be attached to the original and each copy of any form or...

  2. 46 CFR 122.518 - Inflatable survival craft placards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable survival craft placards. 122.518 Section 122... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.518 Inflatable survival craft placards. (a) Every vessel equipped with an inflatable survival craft must have approved placards or other cards containing instructions for...

  3. 42 CFR 483.122 - FFP for NF services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for NF services. 483.122 Section 483.122 Public... Annual Review of Mentally Ill and Mentally Retarded Individuals § 483.122 FFP for NF services. (a) Basic...(e)(7)(E) of the Act, FFP is available in State expenditures for NF services provided to a...

  4. TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities – 2016. 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System — Each week, the vital statistics offices of 122 cities across the United...

  5. 19 CFR 122.30 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.30 Section 122.30 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.30 Other Customs laws and...

  6. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  7. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  8. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission to land. Permission to land at a landing rights airport may be given as follows: (1) Scheduled flight....

  9. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... requested to don life jackets and go to the appropriate embarkation station during the safety...

  10. 46 CFR 122.360 - Use of auto pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of auto pilot. 122.360 Section 122.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Requirements § 122.360 Use of auto pilot. Whenever an automatic pilot is used the master shall ensure that:...

  11. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report damage to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery that renders further use of the item...

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam

    2014-02-15

    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices.

  13. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  14. Biogeochemistry of Antimony(V) in Microcosms under Sulfidogenic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Johnson, C. R.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Boyanov, M.; Flynn, T. M.; Koval, J. C.; Kemner, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the mining and use of antimony continues to increase, environmental concerns involving the element have grown. Antimony(V) and (III) are the two most environmentally-relevant oxidation states, but little is known about the redox transitions between the two in natural systems. To better understand the behavior of antimony in anoxic environments, we examined the transformations of Sb(V) under Fe(III)- and sulfate-reducing conditions in aqueous suspensions that contained 2 mM KSb(OH)6, 50 mM Fe(III) (as ferrihydrite), 10 mM sulfate, and 10 mM lactate, and were inoculated with sediment from a wetland on the campus of Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. Samples were collected over time to track changes in the concentrations of Sb, Fe(II), sulfate, and lactate, as well as the composition of the microbial community as determined by 16S rRNA gene inventories. We also examined the interaction of Sb(V) with pure Fe(II) mineral phases in aqueous suspensions containing 2 mM KSb(OH)6 and 50 mM Fe(II) as either magnetite, sideritre, vivianite, green rust, or mackinawite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy was used to determine the valence state of Sb and its chemical speciation. Lactate was rapidly fermented to acetate and propionate concomittant with a bloom of Veillonellaceae. Utilization of propionate for dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) was accompanied by an increase in Desulfobulbaceae. Sb K-edge X-Ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 4 weeks, concurrent with DSR and the formation of FeS. We observed variable responses in the ability of specific Fe(II) minerals to reduce Sb(V). No reduction was observed with magnetite, siderite, vivianite, or green rust. In the presence of mackinawite (FeS), however, Sb(V) was reduced to Sb(III) sulfide. These results suggest that the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) is not likely under solely Fe(III)-reducing conditions, but is expected in sulfidogenic

  15. Geochemical Studies on Dachang Antimony Ore Deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启厚

    1999-01-01

    The Dachang antimony deposit in Qinglong,Guizhou Province,is strictly controlled by the “Dachang Layer” which is a complex altered rock occurring at unconformity between the Permian Emeishan basalt and the Maokou limestone.Based on the studies of the hanging-and foot-wall rocks,the trace elements and REE contents of the rocks and ores and heavy placer minerals in the basalt,this paper is focused on the relations between these data and the “Dachang Layer”and its hanging- and oot-wall rocks.The author pointed out that the “Dachang Layer” and basalt are the source-beds of antimony;ilmenite and magnetite are the major mineral carriers of antimony.In the processes of halmyrosis and burial metamorphism of the “Dachang Layer” an basalt,antimony was mobilized along with the mobilization of iron and was preliminarily concentrated in the“ Dachang Layer”.

  16. Effect of filler on the self-lubrication performance of graphite antimony composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-li; HU Ya-fei; HE Min

    2008-01-01

    Graphite antimony composites were prepared using a mechanical pressure infiltration method to force molten antimony into graphite preforms having a percolation micro-structure and a hop-pocket power filler. The micro-structural and macroscopic properties of the graphite antimony composites were analysed. Observations included metallographic analysis, physical properties and friction and wear behaviour. The results show that the wear loss is decreased by 12.24% and that the friction coefficient is re-duced by 32.61% after hop-pocket power was used. The research indicates that the hop-pocket power method gives a useful way to reduce friction coefficients and wear loss, and to increase service life and self-lubrication properties, of the graphite antimony seal-ing material as compared to carbon black.

  17. Geochemistries of arsenic, antimony, mercury, and related elements in sediments of puget sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, E.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Carpenter, R.

    1975-01-01

    The natural distributions of arsenic, antimony mercury, chromium, cobalt, iron, aluminum, and carbon in the surface sediments of Puget Sound are perturbed by two major anthropogenic sources of trace metals: a copper smelter near Tacoma, Wash., that discharges large amounts of arsenic and antimony, and a chlor-alkali plant in Bellingham, Wash., which, in the recent past, discharged significant amounts of mercury. Arsenic and antimony inputs from the smelter over the past 80 years are evident in sediment cores whose accumulation rates have been determined by the lead-210 technique. An arsenic budget for Puget Sound reveals the importance of atmospheric input resulting from smokestack emissions of the smelter. Chemical extraction studies of sediments showed that more than 82% of the mercury was associated with easily oxidizable organic matter, whereas about 50% of both arsenic and antimony was associated with extractable iron and aluminum compounds.

  18. NEW THIO S2- ADDUCTS WITH ANTIMONY (III AND V HALIDE: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN ALLOUCH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new S2- adducts with SbIII and SbV halides have been synthesized and studied by infrared. Discrete structures have been suggested, the environment around the antimony being tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal or octahedral.

  19. Crystal structure and thermodynamic properties of potassium antimony tungsten oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, Aleksandr V., E-mail: knav@uic.nnov.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Tananaev, Ivan G. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 31 Leninsky prospect, Moscow GSP-1, 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsova, Nataliya Yu.; Smirnova, Nataliya N.; Letyanina, Irene A.; Ladenkov, Igor V. [Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-20

    In the present work potassium antimony tungsten oxide with pyrochlore structure is refined by the Rietveld method (space group Fd3m, Z = 8). The temperature dependences of heat capacity have been measured for the first time in the range from 7 to 370 K for this compound. The experimental data were used to calculate standard thermodynamic functions, namely the heat capacity C{sub p}{sup o}(T), enthalpy H{sup o}(T) - H{sup o}(0), entropy S{sup o}(T) - S{sup o}(0) and Gibbs function G{sup o}(T) - H{sup o}(0), for the range from T {yields} 0 to 370 K. The differential scanning calorimetry was applied to measure the incongruent melting temperature of compound under study. The high-temperature X-ray diffraction was used for the determining thermal expansion coefficients.

  20. Coherent and Incoherent Structural Dynamics in Laser-Excited Antimony

    CERN Document Server

    Waldecker, Lutz; Bertoni, Roman; Vasileiadis, Thomas; Garcia, Martin E; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the excitation of phonons in photoexcited antimony and demonstrate that the entire electron-lattice interactions, in particular coherent and incoherent electron-phonon coupling, can be probed simultaneously. Using femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) with high temporal resolution, we observe the coherent excitation of the fully symmetric \\Ag\\ optical phonon mode via the shift of the minimum of the atomic potential energy surface. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to quantify the change in lattice potential and the associated real-space amplitude of the coherent atomic oscillations. In addition, our experimental configuration allows observing the energy transfer from electrons to phonons via incoherent electron-lattice scattering events. Applying a modified two-temperature model, the electron-phonon coupling is determined from the data as a function of electronic temperature.

  1. Atomistic mechanisms governing structural stability change of zinc antimony thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaolong [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); Lin, Jianping, E-mail: jaredlin@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024 (China); Qiao, Guanjun [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwangzhao@gmail.com [Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710054 (China); State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-01-05

    The structural stability of thermoelectric materials is a subject of growing importance for their energy harvesting applications. Here, we study the microscopic mechanisms governing the structural stability change of zinc antimony at its working temperature, using molecular dynamics combined with experimental measurements of the electrical and thermal conductivity. Our results show that the temperature-dependence of the thermal and electrical transport coefficients is strongly correlated with a structural transition. This is found to be associated with a relaxation process, in which a group of Zn atoms migrates between interstitial sites. This atom migration gradually leads to a stabilizing structural transition of the entire crystal framework, and then results in a more stable crystal structure of β–Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} at high temperature.

  2. Antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes: physicochemical evaluation and antileishmanial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema; João Alberto Osso Junior; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior; Nanci do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine l...

  3. New low-antimony alloy for straps and cycling service in lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prengaman, R. David

    Lead-antimony alloys used for the positive grids in lead-acid batteries for cycling service have generally used antimony contents of 4.5 wt.% and above. Tubular batteries for cycling service that impart high compression of the active material to the grid surface via gauntlet use alloys with antimony contents as low as 1.5 wt.%. These batteries are generally employed in less-severe cycling service. Value-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries can give good cycling service without lead-antimony in the positive grid, but require a high tin content and high compression. The change in automotive battery positive grid alloys to lead-calcium-tin and the tin contents of VRLA positive grids and straps have dramatically increased the tin content of the recycled grid and strap lead in the USA, Europe, and Australia. The higher tin contents can contaminate the lead used for lead-antimony battery grids and generally must be removed to low levels to meet the specifications. This study describes a low-antimony alloy that contains a substantial amount of tin. The high tin content reduces the rate of corrosion of low-antimony positive grid alloys, improves conductivity, increases the bond between the grid and the active material, and cycles as well as the traditional 5-6 wt.% antimony alloys employed in conventional flat-plate batteries. The alloy is also used as a corrosion-resistant cast-on strap alloy for automotive batteries for high temperature service, as well as for posts, bushings, and connectors for all wet batteries.

  4. A study on antimony determination in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis: validation of the methodology and determination of the uncertainty of the measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony is an element found in low concentrations in the environment. However, its determination has attracted great interest due to the knowledge of its toxicity and increasing application in industry. The determination of antimony has been a challenge for researchers since this element is found in low concentrations which make its analysis a difficult task. Therefore, although neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an appropriate method for the determination of various elements in different types of matrix, in the case of Sb its analysis presents some difficulties, mainly due to spectral interferences. The objective of this research was to validate the NAA method for Sb determination in environmental samples. To establish appropriate conditions for Sb determinations, preliminary assays were carried out for further analysis of certified reference materials (CRM). The experimental procedure was to irradiate samples with a synthetic Sb standard for a period of 8 or 16 hours in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, followed by gamma ray spectrometry. The quantification of Sb was performed by measuring the radioactive isotopes of 122Sb and '124Sb. The results of preliminary assays indicated the presence of Sb in Whatman no 40 filter paper used in the preparation of the synthetic standard, but at very low concentrations, which could be considered negligible. In the case of the plastic material used in bags for the sample irradiation, it should be chosen carefully, because depending on the thickness, they may contain Sb. The analyses of the stability of the diluted Sb standard solution showed no change in the Sb concentration within eight months after its preparation. Results obtained in the analysis of certified reference materials indicated the interference of 76As and also of 134Cs and 152Eu in the Sb determinations by measuring '122Sb, due to the proximity of the gamma ray energies. The high activity of '24Na can also mask the peak of 122Sb hindering its detection

  5. Effect of Antimony, Phosphorous and Salinity on Growth, Root Membrane Permeability and Root Antimony, Iron and Zinc Concentration of Corn in Hydroponic Media

    OpenAIRE

    H. Barangizi; M. Afyuni; B. Rezaee

    2010-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has increased in recent years because of human activities and extensive usage of antimony compounds. To date, only a few researches have been conducted in this field in Iran. The purpose of this research is to determine fresh and dry weight, root permeability percentage and root concentration of Sb, Fe and Zn in the corn. This greenhouse research was performed in hydroponics. A factorial experiment (3 × 2 × 3) with three Sb concentrations (0, 6, 18 mgL-1), with and wit...

  6. Effects of antimony on aquatic organisms (Larva and embryo of Oryzias latipes, Moina macrocopa, Simocephalus mixtus, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Yang, Chang-Yong; An, Youn-Joo

    2009-05-01

    Antimony is widespread in aquatic environment. Trivalent forms of antimony are known to be more toxic than other chemical species of antimony. In the present study, antimony potassium tartrate (APT), the trivalent inorganic forms of antimony, was selected as a test antimony compound due to its high water solubility. The effects of antimony on Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), planktonic crustacea (Moina macrocopa and Simocephalus mixtus), and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) were evaluated. Larval survival and the embryonic development were measured for fish assay. APT was less toxic to larval medaka (24-h LC50, 261; 48-h LC50, 238 mg L(-1)). Simocephalus mixtus was killed by very low concentrations of APT (24-h LC50, 4.92 mg L(-1)), and antimony was also toxic to Moina macrocopa (24-h LC50, 12.83 mg L(-1)). Toxicities of APT to S. mixtus and Moina macrocopa were about 50 and 20 times more toxic to Oryzias latipes larvae, respectively, in terms of 24-h LC50 value. Growth inhibition of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was observed in the presence of APT (72-h EC50, 206 mg L(-1)). This study demonstrated that APT is more toxic to planktonic crustacea than fish and green algae, and planktonic crustacea appears a better indicator of antimony pollution in aquatic environment. PMID:19264343

  7. 40 CFR Appendix J to Part 122 - NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) J Appendix J to Part 122 Protection of Environment... POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM Pt. 122, App. J Appendix J to Part 122—NPDES Permit Testing Requirements for Publicly Owned Treatment Works (§ 122.21(j)) Table 1A—Effluent Parameters for All...

  8. Arsenic and Antimony Content in Soil and Plants from Baia Mare Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Oprea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to evaluate the degree of soil contamination with arsenic and antimony in Baia Mare, a nonferrous mining and metallurgical center located in the North West region of Romania. The soil in the area is affected by the emissions of powders containing metals from metallurgical factories. Previous studies indicated the soil contamination with copper, zinc, cadmium and lead, but there is few data about the actual level of soil pollution with arsenic and antimony. Approach: The soil samples were collected from 2 districts of Baia Mare: Ferneziu, which is located in the proximity of a lead smelter and Săsar district which is located along the Sasar River in the preferential direction of the wind over a metallurgical factory producing lead. As reference was considered Dura area located in a less polluted hilly area, in the west part of the town. Samples of soil and plants from the residential area of Ferneziu, Săsar and Dura districts were collected. The arsenic determination was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and the antimony determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: In Ferneziu area, the concentration of arsenic in soil ranged between 0.25 and 255 mg kg-1. In Săsar district the arsenic concentration in the soil ranged between 5.5 and 295 mg kg-1. Regarding antimony, in Ferneziu area the concentration ranged between 5.3 and 40.6 mg kg-1; while in Săsar, antimony soils concentrations vary in the range: 0.9-18.4. Arsenic and antimony concentrations in plants were low for almost of the samples, both in Ferneziu and Săsar area indicating a low mobility of these elements in the studied soils. Conclusion: This study indicated the soil pollution with arsenic both in Ferneziu district and in Săsar district. The soil pollution with antimony was found especially in Ferneziu district.

  9. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas

  10. Antimony distribution and mobility in topsoils and plants (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa) from polluted Sb-mining areas in Extremadura (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. Murciego [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sanchez, A. Garcia [IRNA-CSIC, Departamento de Geoquimica Ambiental, Aptdo. 257, Salamanca (Spain); Gonzalez, M.A. Rodriguez [Area de Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gil, E. Pinilla [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: epinilla@unex.es; Gordillo, C. Toro [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Fernandez, J. Cabezas [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Triguero, T. Buyolo [Area de Ecologia, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas, s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    A study about topsoil antimony distribution and mobility from the soils to the biomass has been afforded in three abandoned Sb mining areas located at Extremadura. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils and total antimony levels were measured in soils and autochthonous plant species (Cytisus striatus, Cistus ladanifer and Dittrichia viscosa). Comparison with corresponding values in reference areas isolated from the mining activities is discussed. Antimony mobility in the soils was estimated by measuring the water extractable fraction; low results were obtained for the three soil areas, with no statistical differences. Plant ability to accumulate antimony was estimated by use of plant accumulation coefficients (PAC). Seasonal (spring vs. autumn) effects on the antimony content in the plant species. Cytisus striatus from Mari Rosa mine presented antimony excluder characteristics, whereas Dittrichia viscosa specimens growing in San Antonio mine showed a significant antimony bioaccumulation. - Bioaccumulation of antimony in vegetal species growing in mining areas.

  11. The MRP1-mediated effluxes of arsenic and antimony do not require arsenic-glutathione and antimony-glutathione complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Milena; Petroutsa, Maria; Garnier-Suillerot, Arlette

    2002-04-01

    Arsenic trioxide is an effective treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia, but resistance to metalloid salts is found in humans. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, we have measured the rate of uptake of arsenic trioxide and of antimony tartrate in GLC4 and GLC4/ADR cells overexpressing MRP1 and the rate of their MRP1-mediated effluxes as a function of the intracellular GSH concentration. In sensitive cells, after 1 h, a pseudosteady state is reached where intra- and extracellular concentrations of metalloid are the same. This precludes the formation, at short term, of complexes between arsenic or antimony with GSH. In resistant cells reduced intracellular accumulation of arsenic (or antimony), reflecting an increased rate of arsenic (or antimony) efflux from the cells, is observed. No efflux of the metalloid is observed in GSH depleted cells. The two metalloids and GSH are pumped out by MRP1 with the same efficiency. Moreover for the three compounds 50% of the efflux is inhibited by 2 microM MK571. This led us to suggest that As- and Sb-containing species could be cotransported with GSH. PMID:12018890

  12. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference of hair antimony concentrations among different occupation types in e-waste recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure. PMID:25501644

  13. Transition probabilities in the (5) candidate 122Ba

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzeti, P G; Tonev, D; Giannatiempo, A; Ur, C A; Dewald, A; Melon, B; Michelagnoli, C; Petkov, P; Bazzacco, D; Costin, A; de Angelis, G; Della Vedova, F; Fantuzi, M; Farnea, E; Fransen, C; Gadea, A; Lenzi, S; Lunardi, S; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Menegazzo, R; Mengoni, D; Moeller, O; Nannini, A; Napoli, D R; Nespolo, M; Pavan, P; Perego, A; Petrache, C M; Pietralla, N; Alvarez, C Rossi; Sona, P

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible X(5) character of 122Ba, suggested by the ground state band energy pattern, the lifetimes of the lowest yrast states of 122Ba have been measured, via the Recoil Distance Doppler-Shift method. The relevant levels have been populated by using the 108Cd(16O,2n)122Ba and the Sn(13C,3n)122Ba reactions. The B(E2) values deduced in the present work are compared to the predictions of the X(5) model and to calculations performed in the framework of the IBA-1 and IBA-2 models.

  14. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  15. Arsenic and antimony removal from drinking water by adsorption on granular ferric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazakli, Eleni; Zouvelou, Stavroula V; Kalavrouziotis, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michalis

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic and antimony occur in drinking water due to natural weathering or anthropogenic activities. There has been growing concern about their impact on health. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of a granular ferric oxide adsorbent medium to remove arsenic and antimony from drinking water via rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs). Three different water matrices - deionized, raw water treated with a reverse osmosis domestic device and raw water - were spiked with arsenic and/or antimony to a concentration of 100 μg L⁻¹. Both elements were successfully adsorbed onto the medium. The loadings until the guideline value was exceeded in the effluent were found to be 0.35-1.63 mg g⁻¹ for arsenic and 0.12-2.11 mg g⁻¹ for antimony, depending on the water matrix. Adsorption of one element was not substantially affected by the presence of the other. Aeration did not affect significantly the adsorption capacity. Granular ferric oxide could be employed for the simultaneous removal of arsenic and antimony from drinking water, whereas full-scale systems should be assessed via laboratory tests before their implementation.

  16. Determination of traces of uranium and thorium in antimony(III) oxide by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traces of uranium and thorium in antimony(III) oxide were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A method of vaporization as the halide was applied to the separation of the analytes from the antimony matrix. Because the above separation method is so simple, reduced of external contamination was expected. In the case of vaporization using hydrochloric acid, however, it was found that antimony trichloride ions overlapped thorium ion of 232 (m/z). To find the most suitable conditions for matrix separation, vaporization behaviors were studied by using different acidic solutions such as HBr, HBr-HClO4 and HBr-H2SO4. Neither HBr+HClO4 nor HBr+H2SO4 was able to reduce the antimony matrix down to an unaffected level on ICP-MS measurement. On the other hand, in the case of the vaporization using hydrobromic acid, almost all the antimony matrix was removed. Determination limits obtained by this method were 0.02 and 0.03 ng g-1 for uranium and thorium, respectively. (author)

  17. Antimony bioavailability: knowledge and research perspectives for sustainable agricultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie; Dumat, Camille

    2015-05-30

    The increasing interest in urban agriculture highlights the crucial question of crop quality. The main objectives for environmental sustainability are a decrease in chemical inputs, a reduction in the level of pollutants, and an improvement in the soil's biological activity. Among inorganic pollutants emitted by vehicle traffic and some industrial processes in urban areas, antimony (Sb) is observed on a global scale. While this metalloid is known to be potentially toxic, it can transfer from the soil or the atmosphere to plants, and accumulate in their edible parts. Urban agriculture is developing worldwide, and could therefore increasingly expose populations to Sb. The objective of this review was in consequences to gather and interpret actual knowledge of Sb uptake and bioaccumulation by crops, to reveal investigative fields on which to focus. While there is still no legal maximal value for Sb in plants and soils, light has to be shed on its accumulation and the factors affecting it. A relative absence of data exists about the role of soil flora and fauna in the transfer, speciation and compartmentation of Sb in vegetables. Moreover, little information exists on Sb ecotoxicity for terrestrial ecosystems. A human risk assessment has finally been reviewed, with particular focus on Sb bioaccessibility.

  18. 22 CFR 12.2 - Claimants denied access to employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claimants denied access to employees. 12.2 Section 12.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL COMPLAINTS AGAINST EMPLOYEES BY ALLEGED... during the hours set apart for the transaction of public business or while the employees concerned are...

  19. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  20. 43 CFR 4.122 - Nature of hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature of hearings. 4.122 Section 4.122 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES... Nature of hearings. Hearings shall be as informal as may be reasonable and appropriate in...

  1. TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TABLE III. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 2015122 Cities Mortality Reporting System ��� Each week, the vital statistics offices of 122 cities across the United...

  2. 46 CFR 122.608 - Fuel shutoff valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel shutoff valves. 122.608 Section 122.608 Shipping....608 Fuel shutoff valves. Remote fuel shutoff stations must be marked in clearly legible letters at least 25 millimeters (1 inch) high indicating purpose of the valve and direction of operations....

  3. 19 CFR 122.5 - Reproduction of Customs forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of Customs forms. 122.5 Section 122.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... languages, so long as the form includes an English version. The instructions on the reverse side of...

  4. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  5. Hepatitis C virus RNA functionally sequesters miR-122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Joseph M.; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Danino, Tal; Shaw, Katharina S.; Mele, Aldo; Fak, John J.; Nishiuchi, Eiko; Takacs, Constantin N.; Catanese, Maria Teresa; de Jong, Ype P.; Jacobson, Ira M.; Rice, Charles M.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatitis C virus uniquely requires the liver specific microRNA-122 for replication, yet global effects on endogenous miRNA targets during infection are unexplored. Here, high-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) experiments of human Argonaute (Ago) during HCV infection showed robust Ago binding on the HCV 5′UTR, at known and predicted miR-122 sites. On the human transcriptome, we observed reduced Ago binding and functional mRNA de-repression of miR-122 targets during virus infection. This miR-122 “sponge” effect was relieved and redirected to miR-15 targets by swapping the miRNA tropism of the virus. Single-cell expression data from reporters containing miR-122 sites showed significant de-repression during HCV infection depending on expression level and site number. We describe a quantitative mathematical model of HCV induced miR-122 sequestration and propose that such miR-122 inhibition by HCV RNA may result in global de-repression of host miR-122 targets, providing an environment fertile for the long-term oncogenic potential of HCV. PMID:25768906

  6. 19 CFR 122.41 - Aircraft required to enter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft required to enter. 122.41 Section 122.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  7. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  8. 19 CFR 122.80 - Verification of statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of statement. 122.80 Section 122.80 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart;...

  9. 19 CFR 122.46 - Crew purchase list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew purchase list. 122.46 Section 122.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  10. 9 CFR 122.4 - Suspension or revocation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of permits. 122.4 Section 122.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ORGANISMS...

  11. 9 CFR 122.3 - Application for permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for permits. 122.3 Section 122.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ORGANISMS AND VECTORS §...

  12. 42 CFR 411.122 - Hearing officer's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing officer's decision. 411.122 Section 411.122 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Limitations on Payment for...

  13. 38 CFR 39.122 - Inspections, audits, and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspections, audits, and reports. 39.122 Section 39.122 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Single Audit Act of 1984 (see part 41 of this chapter). (b) A State will make an annual report on VA...

  14. 28 CFR 0.122 - Office on Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office on Violence Against Women. 0.122...-Office on Violence Against Women § 0.122 Office on Violence Against Women. (a) The Director, Office on Violence Against Women, under the general authority of the Attorney General, shall: (1) Exercise the...

  15. 7 CFR 955.122 - Change in nomination deadlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... position as alternate of the Committee which is vacant, or about to become vacant. Such nominations shall... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change in nomination deadlines. 955.122 Section 955... ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.122 Change in nomination deadlines. Pursuant to §...

  16. 47 CFR 76.122 - Satellite network non-duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Satellite network non-duplication. 76.122... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports Blackout § 76.122 Satellite network non-duplication. (a) Upon receiving notification pursuant...

  17. 27 CFR 9.122 - Western Connecticut Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Highlands. 9.122 Section 9.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... (Litchfield-Hartford-New Haven County line); (6) The boundary then travels approximately 7 miles west along the Litchfield-New Haven County line to Connecticut Route #8 at Waterville in the Town of...

  18. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  19. SESPE-FRAZIER, DIABLO, MATILIJA, DRY LAKES, SAWMILL-BADLANDS, CUYAMA, ANTIMONY, AND QUATAL ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The study area, consisting of the Sespe-Frazier, Diablo, Matilija, Dry Lakes, Sawmill-Badlands, Cuyama, Antimony, and Quatal Roadless Areas, occupies about 872 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Studies indicate that the Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area contains demonstrated resources of gold, gypsum, phosphate and bentonite; deposits in the Cuyama Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of gypsum; mines in the Antimony Roadless Area have demonstrated resources of antimony, gold, silver, and marble; and the Quatal Roadless Area has demonstrated resources of bentonite. The Sespe-Frazier Roadless Area has substantiated potential for geothermal resources suitable for direct-heat purposes, probable and substantiated potential for oil and gas resources, and probable potential for gold resources. Small areas of probable resource potential for antimony and gold were identified in Antimony Roadless Area.

  20. Mixed Antimony(V Complexes with Different Sugars to Modulate the Oral Bioavailability of Pentavalent Antimonial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weverson A. Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the association of the drug meglumine antimoniate (MA with β-cyclodextrin can improve its bioavailability by the oral route. In this work, ribose and maltose were investigated for their ability to form mixed or association complexes with MA, release MA and modulate the serum levels of Sb after oral administration in mice. Analysis of the MA/ribose composition by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LCMS-IT-TOF revealed the presence of mixed meglumine-Sb-ribose and Sb-ribose complexes. Analysis of the MA/maltose composition suggested the formation of MA-maltose association compounds. Circular dichroism characterization of these compositions following dilution in water at 37 °C suggested a partial and slow dissociation of the association compounds. When the MA/ribose composition was administered orally and compared to MA, the serum concentration of Sb was significantly lower after 1 h and greater after 3 h. On the other hand, the MA/maltose composition showed similar serum Sb concentration after 1 h and higher level of Sb after 3 h, when compared to MA. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated the formation of mixed or association complexes of MA with sugars, such as maltose and ribose, which promoted sustained serum level of Sb after oral administration.

  1. Anodic stripping voltammetry of antimony using gold nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of antimony using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Metallic gold nanoparticles deposits have been obtained by direct electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. Any undue effects caused by the presence of foreign ions in the solution were also analyzed to ensure that common interferents in the determination of antimony by ASV. The detection limit for Sb(III) obtained was 9.44 x 10-10 M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.69% (n = 10). The method was applied to determine levels of antimony in seawater samples and pharmaceutical preparations

  2. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  3. Response of cutaneous leishmaniasis (chiclero's ulcer) to treatment with meglumine antimoniate in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Gonzalez, A; Canto-Lara, S B; Damian-Centeno, A G; Andrade-Narvaez, F J

    1999-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis, known as chiclero's ulcer in southeastern Mexico, is characterized by a predominantly single, painless, ulcerated lesion, without lymphangitis or adenopathy. When located on the ear, it tends to become chronic, causing destruction of the pinna and disfigurement. It is caused predominantly by Leishmania (L.) mexicana. Although pentavalent antimonials (Sb5+) are the mainstay of leishmanial therapy and have been used for more than 50 years, dosage regimens have been repeatedly modified and the best one has not been fully identified. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the response of chiclero's ulcer to treatment with meglumine antimoniate. One hundred five patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate at a daily dose of 1 ampule per day (425 mg of Sb5+) until healing. The lesions healed after a mean of 25 days (range = 5-60 days). PMID:10674678

  4. Geothermal and fluid flowing simulation of ore-forming antimony deposits in Xikuangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ruiyan; MA Dongsheng; BAO Zhengyu; PAN Jiayong; CAO Shuanglin; XIA Fei

    2006-01-01

    The Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit located in the Mid-Hunan Basin, China, is the largest antimony deposit in the world. Based on the hydrogeological and geochemical data collected from four sections, Xikuangshan-Dajienao (AO), Xikuangshan-Dashengshan (BO), Xikuangshan-Longshan (CO) and Dafengshan (DO) in the Basin, an advanced metallogenic model related to deep-cyclic meteoric water of Xikuangshan Antimony Deposit is put forward in this paper using a model of heat-gravity-driving fluid flow transportation. The simulation results show that the ore-forming fluid of the deposit mainly comes from the Dashengshan and Longshan areas where BO and CO sections are located if the overall basin keeps a constant atmospheric precipitation and infiltration rate during mineralization, and that the average transportation speed of the ore-forming fluids is about 0.2-0.4 m/a.

  5. Superdeformed and Hyperdeformed States in Z=122 Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, S K; Mehta, M S; Gupta, Raj K

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the binding energy, root-mean-square radius and quadrupole deformation parameter for the recent, possibly discovered superheavey element Z=122, using the axially deformed relativistic mean field (RMF) and non-relativistic Skyrme Hartree-Fock (SHF) formalisms. The calculation is extended to include various isotopes of Z=122 element, strarting from A=282 to A=320. We predict highly deformed structures in the ground state for all the isotopes. A shape transition appears at about A=290 from a highly oblate to a large prolate shape, which may be considered as the superdeformed and hyperdeformed structures of Z=122 nucleus in the mean field approaches. The most stable isotope (largest binding energy per nucleon) is found to be $^{302}$122, instead of the experimentally observed $^{292}$122.

  6. On-line lab-in-syringe cloud point extraction for the spectrophotometric determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Portugal, Lindomar A; Estela, José M; Rocha, Fábio R P; Cerdà, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Most of the procedures for antimony determination require time-consuming sample preparation (e.g. liquid-liquid extraction with organic solvents), which are harmful to the environment. Because of the high antimony toxicity, a rapid, sensitive and greener procedure for its determination becomes necessary. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical procedure exploiting for the first time the cloud point extraction on a lab-in-syringe flow system aiming at the spectrophotometric determination of antimony. The procedure was based on formation of an ion-pair between the antimony-iodide complex and H(+) followed by extraction with Triton X-114. The factorial design showed that the concentrations of ascorbic acid, H2SO4 and Triton X-114, as well as second and third order interactions were significant at the 95% confidence level. A Box-Behnken design was applied to obtain the response surfaces and to identify the critical values. System is robust at the 95% confidence level. A linear response was observed from 5 to 50 µg L(-1), described by the equation A=0.137+0.050C(Sb) (r=0.998). The detection limit (99.7% confidence level), the coefficient of variation (n=5; 15 µg L(-1)) and the sampling rate was estimated at 1.8 µg L(-1), 1.6% and 16 h(-1), respectively. The procedure allows quantification of antimony in the concentrations established by environmental legislation (6 µg L(-1)) and it was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in freshwater samples and antileishmanial drugs, yielding results in agreement with those obtained by HGFAAS at the 95% confidence level.

  7. Future trends of global atmospheric antimony emissions from anthropogenic activities until 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junrui; Tian, Hezhong; Zhu, Chuanyong; Hao, Jiming; Gao, Jiajia; Wang, Yong; Xue, Yifeng; Hua, Shenbin; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the scenario forecast of global atmospheric antimony (Sb) emissions from anthropogenic activities till 2050. The projection scenarios are built based on the comprehensive global antimony emission inventory for the period 1995-2010 which is reported in our previous study. Three scenarios are set up to investigate the future changes of global antimony emissions as well as their source and region contribution characteristics. Trends of activity levels specified as 5 primary source categories are projected by combining the historical trend extrapolation with EIA International energy outlook 2013, while the source-specific dynamic emission factors are determined by applying transformed normal distribution functions. If no major changes in the efficiency of emission control are introduced and keep current air quality legislations (Current Legislation scenario), global antimony emissions will increase by a factor of 2 between 2010 and 2050. The largest increase in Sb emissions is projected from Asia due to large volume of nonferrous metals production and waste incineration. In case of enforcing the pollutant emission standards (Strengthened Control scenario), global antimony emissions in 2050 will stabilize with that of 2010. Moreover, we can anticipate further declines in Sb emissions for all continents with the best emission control performances (Maximum Feasible Technological Reduction scenario). Future antimony emissions from the top 10 largest emitting countries have also been calculated and source category contributions of increasing emissions of these countries present significant diversity. Furthermore, global emission projections in 2050 are distributed within a 1° × 1°latitude/longitude grid. East Asia, Western Europe and North America present remarkable differences in emission intensity under the three scenarios, which implies that source-and-country specific control measures are necessary to be implemented for abating Sb emissions from

  8. Orbit of Comet 122P/ de Vico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Branham, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se calcula una órbita para el Cometa 122P/ de Vico. La órbita se basa en 400 observaciones en ascensión recta y 396 en declinación hechas entre el 20 de febrero de 1846 y el 16 de mayo de 1996, pero con un intervalo de 150 años entre las observaciones del siglo XIX y las del siglo XX. Fue difícil enlazar la órbita de 1846 con la de 1995 y fue necesario un enfoque de condiciones del contorno para enlazar ambas órbitas en un punto común. El sistema lineal que resulta tiene forma de matriz de banda simétrica y negativa definida, que se resuelve fácilmente con la descomposición de Cholesky libre de raíz cuadrada. Pruebas estadísticas indican que la órbita es buena.

  9. Studies on Thin Films of Antimony Vacuum Evaporated from a Knudsen-Type Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Chaudhary

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A Knudsen-type evaporation source was used for the deposition of thin films of antimony to study their growth and microstructure under different rates of evaporation and substrate temperatures when vacuum evaporated onto air-cleaved KC1, mica, amorphous carbon and doped KCl substrates. The crystallisation of these films on exposure to an electron beam of moderate intensity inside the electron microscope was studied, and the orientations of the crystallised films wrt the substrate were established. It has been concluded that antimony films prepared by this source compare well with those prepared by other sources of vacuum evaporation.

  10. Co-doping with antimony to control phosphorous diffusion in germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2013-02-15

    In germanium, phosphorous and antimony diffuse quickly and as such their transport must be controlled in order to design efficient n-typed doped regions. Here, density functional theory based calculations are used to predict the influence of double donor co-doping on the migration activation energies of vacancy-mediated diffusion processes. The migration energy barriers for phosphorous and antimony were found to be increased significantly when larger clusters involving two donor atoms and a vacancy were formed. These clusters are energetically stable and can lead to the formation of even larger clusters involving a number of donor atoms around a vacancy, thereby affecting the properties of devices.

  11. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  12. Bacillus sp.Treating Wastewater Containing Antimony%Bacillus sp.处理含锑废水试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娇; 成应向; 龚道新; 向仁军; 王强强

    2012-01-01

    利用某芽孢杆菌属微生物(Bacillus sp.)对锑矿选矿废水进行了处理.研究微生物的接种量、作用时间、温度、体系pH值等对废水中Sb的去除效果的影响.结果表明:作用时间4d、微生物接种量为5%、处理体系pH为2、最佳处理体系温度为30℃时,效果最佳,对废水中Sb的去除率达到99.75%,处理后废水中Sb的浓度由122.21 mg/L降低至0.30 mg/L,出水Sb浓度低于湖南省地方标准排放限值0.50 mg/L.%Antimony ore dressing wastewater was treated by using a certain Bacillus microorganism (Bacillus sp.). Sb removal efficiency in mineral processing wastewater was affected by microbial inoculums size, treating time, temperature and the system pH value. Results showed that the best removal efficiency of Sb in mineral processing wastewater could reach 99.75% in 4d under the optimum conditions of 30 ℃, microbial inoculated quantity 5% and pH value 2.0. After the treatment, the concentration of Sb in wastewater was reduced from 122.21 mg/L to 0.30 mg/L, which was lower than local industrial wastewater discharge standard of 0.50 mg/L.

  13. Commerce Ministry Announced the Export Quotas for Zinc,Antimony,Tungsten,Tin and Silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The Ministry of Commerce recently announcedits decision on the export quotas for zinc,anti-mony,tungsten,tin and silver in 2004.Accord-ing to the data released,all the export quotasare reduced except for silver.Relevant peoplesay that the raw materials shortage is a majorissue for the production of antimony and tin,

  14. Determination of barium and antimony in gun shot residues by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimony contents on both hands of 7 persons before and after firing an automatic pistol were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The gun shot residues were removed from hands by a 4% solution of cellulose acetate in acetone. The average content of antimony on both hands before firing obtained from 70 measurements (35 from each hand) was 0.040 ± 0.010 micro gram, whereas the average contents on the right and the left hands after 1 firing were 0.385 ± 0.036 and 0.144 ± 0.029 micro gram respectively. The ration of the antimony contents after 1 firing to the normal level (before firing) was 9.9 for the right and 3.6 for the left. No significant difference was observed between male and female, smoker and non-smoker. The antimony content after several firings was not much different from that of 1 firing and it reduced to the normal level within 2 days after firing. The barium contents before and after firing were studied from one person. Barium was precipitated as Ba SO4 before counting. An average contents of 0.936 ± 0.551 micro gram for both hands before firing, 4.092 ± 2.687 micro gram for the right hand and 1.363 ± 0.879 micro gram for the left hand after 1 firing were found

  15. Investigation on the thermal radiation properties of antimony doped tin oxide particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Cheng-Wu; Zhang Shuan-Qin; Chen Ming-Qing

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation of antimony doped tin oxide crystalline powders by chemical coprecipitation method. The influence of sintering temperature and the sintering retention time on the thermal infrared emissivity is analysed. The thermal infrared reflectivity is measured and the optimum doping concentration is proposed.

  16. Thermodynamics for arsenic and antimony in copper matte converting—computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, P. C.; Nagamori, M.

    1988-08-01

    Thermodynamic data for arsenic and antimony and their sulfide and oxide gases have been critically reviewed and compiled. The entropy values for AsS(g), SbS(g), and BiS(g) have been recalculated based on a statistical thermodynamic method. The standard heat of formation and entropy of As2O3(g) have been newly assessed to be △H{298/0} = -81,500 cal/mole and S{298/0} = 81.5 cal/deg/mole. Copper matte converting has been mathematically described using the stepwise equilibrium simulation technique together with quadratic approximations of oxygen and magnetite solubilities in molten mattes. A differential equation for the volatilization of arsenic and antimony has been derived and solved for successive reaction microsteps, whereby the volatilization, slagging, and alloying of the minor elements in copper matte converting have been examined as functions of reaction time and other process variables. Only the first (slag-making) stage of converting is responsible for the elimination of arsenic and antimony by volatilization. Arsenic volatilizes mainly as AsS(g) and AsO(g), with As2(g) also contributing when initial mattes are unusually rich in arsenic (above 0.5 pct arsenic). Antimony volatilizes chiefly as SbS(g), and the contributions of other gases such as SbO(g) and Sb(g) always remain negligibly low. The results of the stepwise equilibrium simulation compare favorably with the industrial operating data.

  17. Synthesis of antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) as thermal stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒万艮; 刘又年; 陈启元

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of thermal stabilizers-antimony tris(mercaptoethyl carboxylates) (Sb(SCH2CH2OOCR) 3), was synthesized from carboxylic acid, antimony trioxide and 2-mercaptoethanol in two steps. The experimental results show that the molar ratio of carboxylic acid to antimony tris(2-hydroxyethyl mercaptide) is 1.2, when adding 0.6% tetra-n-butyl titanate as catalyst and xylene as isotropic solvent, heating and refluxing for about 2~4h. The thermal stability was measured by heat-aging oven test. The thermal stability time is about 8~40min(at 200℃) when adding 2% tetra-n-butyl titanate in polyvinyl chloride(PVC). Among these stabilizers, antimony tris(mercaptoethyl stearate) has best thermal stability. Its thermal stability is better than that of Ca-Zn complex and basic lead stabilizers, and equal to that of organotin. In addition, the stabilization mechanism of this kind of stabilizers for PVC was discussed briefly.

  18. Antimony production by carbothermic reduction of stibnite in the presence of lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padilla R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on the carbothermic reduction of Sb2S3 in the presence of lime was carried out in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K to produce antimony in an environmentally friendly manner. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing antimony by this method without producing SO2 gas. Complete conversion of Sb2S3 was obtained at 1023 K in about 1000 seconds and at 1123 K in less than 250 seconds using stibnite-carbon-lime mixtures with molar ratios Sb2S3:CaO:C = 1:3:3. It was found that the reduction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate oxide SbO2, which is subsequently reduced by CO(g to yield antimony metal and CaS. The kinetics of the Sb2S3 reduction was analyzed by using the equation ln(1-X = -kt. The activation energy was 233 kJ mol-1 in the temperature range of 973 to 1123 K. This value would correspond to an antimony catalyzed carbon oxidation by CO2.

  19. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  20. 46 CFR 122.202 - Notice of marine casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration (OSHA) in 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 1904. (c) Notice given as required by § 122... condition before the occurrence, but does not include the cost of salvage, cleaning, gas freeing,...

  1. Antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes: physicochemical evaluation and antileishmanial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Etel Treiger Borborema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes and to analyze their biological and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: Liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (MA or pentavalent antimony salt (Sb were obtained through filter extrusion (FEL and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum were incubated with the drugs and the viability was determined with a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay. The effects of these drugs against intracellular amastigotes were also evaluated by optical microscopy, and mammalian cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay. RESULTS: Liposomes had an average diameter of 162nm. MA-FEL showed inhibitory activity against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 0.9μg/mL, whereas that of MA was 60μg/mL. Sb-FEL showed an IC50 value of 0.2μg/mL, whereas that of free Sb was 9μg/mL. MA-FEL and Sb-FEL had strong in vitro activity that was 63-fold and 39-fold more effective than their respective free drugs. MA-FEL tested at a ten-times higher concentration than Sb-FEL did not show cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a higher selectivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Antimonial drug-containing liposomes are more effective against Leishmania-infected macrophages than the non-liposomal drugs.

  2. Electrodes modified with bismuth, antimony and tin precursor compounds for electrochemical stripping analysis of trace metals (a short review)

    OpenAIRE

    Lezi, Nikolitsa; Economou, Anastasios; Barek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, intensive research is being carried out towards the development of “green” electrochemical sensors. Bismuth, antimony and tin electrodes have been proposed as potential substitutes of mercury electrodes in electrochemical stripping analysis of trace metals. The main advantage of these metals as electrode materials is their lower toxicity compared to mercury. Among the different configuration of bismuth, antimony and tin electrodes, one of the most attractive inv...

  3. Investigation into properties of the mixture of perfluoro-2-methyl-bicyclo(4,4,0) decane with antimony fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State diagram was constructed for a binary system formed by antimony fluoride and perfluoro-2-methyl-bicyclo-(4,4,0)decane in the temperature range of -58 deg to +56 deg C. Temperature dependence of solubility and the differential molar heat of solubility of solid Sb F5 were determined. Above the melting point of antimony fluoride these components were found to form a system of two sparingly miscible liquids with upper critical dissolution temperature

  4. Electrodeposition of SnSbCu Alloy on Copper from an Electrolyte with Varied Content of Antimony Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of electrodeposited alloys of the SnSbCu system with varied concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte have been investigated. It is shown that during electrodeposition mechanical-mixture alloys are not formed, but rather intermetallic compounds. It is found that increasing the concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte leads to a decrease in the tin content and cracking of the coating.

  5. The Ministry of Land and Resources Continued to Impose Total Exploitation Control on Tungsten, Antimony and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The General Office of the Ministry of Land and Resources distributed "Notice on Issuing Total Exploitation Control Quota of Tungsten Mine, Antimony Mine and Rare Earth Mine (First Batch) for 2013" (the "Notice") on January 5, it issued total exploitation control quota of tungsten mine, antimony mine and rare earth mine (first batch) for 2013. According to the Notice, the first batch of national

  6. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  7. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  8. Antimony segregation in stressed SiGe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the growth temperature, composition, and elastic strains in separate layers on the segregation of antimony are studied experimentally for stressed SiGe structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. It is established that the growth conditions and parameters of the structures exert an interrelated influence on the segregation of Sb: the degree of the influence of the composition and elastic stresses in the SiGe layers on Sb segregation depends on the growth temperature. It is shown that usage of a method previously proposed by us for the selective doping of silicon structures with consideration for the obtained dependences of Sb segregation on the growth conditions and parameters of the SiGe layers makes it possible to form SiGe structures selectively doped with antimony

  9. Deciphering lead and cadmium stripping peaks for porous antimony deposited electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taimoor Aqeel Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium and lead are generally taken as model heavy metal ions in water to scale the detection limit of various electrode sensors, using electrochemical sensing techniques. These ions interact with the electrochemically deposited antimony electrodes depending on the diffusion limitations. The phenomenon acts differently for the in-situ and ex-situ deposition as well as for porous and non-porous electrodes. A method has been adopted in this study to discourage the stripping and deposition of the working ions (antimony to understand the principle of heavy metal ion detection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS technique was used to establish the interaction between the working and dissolved ions. In addition to the distinct peaks for each analyte, researchers also observed a shoulder peak. A possible reason for the presence of this peak was provided. Different electrochemical tests were performed to ascertain the theory on the basis of the experimental observations.

  10. A facile and fast route to prepare antimony (Sb) nanostructures without additives

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report a safe, low cost and reproducible approach for the synthesis of antimony (Sb) nanostructures with most of them having prism like morphology and having well defined faces in the range of ∼70210 nm. The organics free approach is based on a reaction of antimony powder and pure water at ∼210 °C without using any harmful additives and amines. The XRD pattern confirmed the composition and crystallinity of the grown nanostructures. The reported method besides being organics free is economical, fast and free of pollution, which will make it suitable for large scale production. Furthermore, it is well expected that such a technique could be extended to prepare many other important metal and metal oxide nanostructures. The prospects of the process are bright and promising. © 2012 Sharif University of Technology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bi-antimony capped Keggin polyoxometalate modified with Cu-ligand fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jiao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhang, Heng; Yu, Haitao [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China); Zhai, Xueliang, E-mail: xlzhai253@mail.hebtu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Hebei Normal University, No. 20 Road East of 2nd Ring South, Yuhua District, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Three polyoxometalates consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters: [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}[PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (1), [Cu(mbpy){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}] (2) and {l_brace}Cu(mbpy)[Cu(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 2}{r_brace}[VMo{sub 8}V{sub 4}O{sub 40}Sb{sub 2}]{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (3) (mbpy=4,4 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime - dipyridyl in 1 and 2; 5,5 Prime -dimethyl-2,2 Prime -dipyridyl in 3) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. Single-crystal analysis revealed that all of three compounds are built upon bi-antimony capped Keggin-type polyoxoanions and Cu-mbpy cations. In 1-3, two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt fundamentally tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Both compounds 1 and 2 consist of P-centered Keggin structure, while compound 3 presents a V-centered Keggin anion. The Keggin-type anions present different structural features: isolated cluster in 1 and Cu-ligand-supported cluster in 2 and 3. - Graphical abstract: Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters modified with Cu-ligand cations have been synthesized and characterized. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three hybrid compounds consisting of bi-antimony capped Keggin-type clusters have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two Sb{sup III} centers located at the two opposite of anionic surface adopt tetragonal pyramidal coordination geometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anions present different structural features: isolated and Cu-ligand-supported cluster.

  12. Metal corrosion studies with the fluorosulphonic acid-antimony pentafluoride superacid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their rapid dissolution of many actinide metals and refractory oxides, superacids such as HSO3F/SbF5 have potential applications in actinide processing. However, material compatibility must first be addressed because of the highly corrosive nature of superacids. This paper describes the qualitative rates of attack of fluorosulphonic acid-antimony pentafluoride superacid on a variety of metal substrates relevant to nuclear processing

  13. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    OpenAIRE

    Rajmund Michalski; Sebastian Szopa; Magdalena Jabłońska; Aleksandra Łyko

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemi...

  14. Electrodeposition Mechanism of Trivalent Antimony%三价锑的电沉积机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 谢刚; 杨大锦

    2011-01-01

    The reduction mechanism of Sb3+ in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 electrolyte system was studied by means of electrochemical methods, including chronopotentiometry and alternating current impedance.Analysis of potential-time transients clearly shows that antimony (Ⅲ) could be reduced to antimony metal via two-steps irreversible electron transfer process in H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3 system.The relationship between iτ1/2 and i calculated by chronopotentiometry indicates that the trivalent antimony complex undergoes chemical transformation reaction before its reduction in the cathode.The impedance results confirm the above conclusion and indicate that the adsorption states which are the middle product of trivalent antimony have different influences on two electron transfer steps.%采用恒电流阶跃法及交流阻抗法等电化学方法,研究了H2SO4-NH4F-SbF3体系中三价锑的阴极还原机理.电势~时间暂态曲线出现二步反应特征,表明Sb"还原分两步进行.由恒电流阶跃曲线中iτ1/2~i关系可知Sb3+阴极还原存在前置化学转化.Sb3+阴极还原的交流阻抗测定结果进一步验证Sb3+还原是存在化学前置转化步骤的二步反应,且电活性中间产物吸附在电极表面,吸附反应对两步电子转移步骤的影响不同.

  15. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico); Pena, Yolanda [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico); Nair, M.T.S. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mtsn@cie.unam.mx; Nair, P.K. [Department of Solar Energy Materials, Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos-62580 (Mexico)

    2005-12-22

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10{sup -8} ({omega} cm){sup -1} and photoconductivity, about 10{sup -6} ({omega} cm){sup -1} under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m{sup -2}. An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1}.

  16. Studies in atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy-V The fluorescence characteristics and determination of antimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnall, R M; Thompson, K C; West, T S

    1967-10-01

    Atomic-fluorescence of antimony may be generated in an air-propane flame by nebulizing aqueous solutions of antimony salts whilst irradiating the flame by means of a microwave-excited electrode-less discharge tube operating at 30 W. The strongest fluorescence is exhibited by the (4)S(11 2 ) --> (4)P(1 3 ) 2311 A resonance line and weaker signals are observed at the 2068 and 2176 A resonance lines and at four intercombination lines, at 2598, 2671, 2770 and 2878 A. A process of thermally assisted direct-line fluorescence is postulated to account for the otherwise inexplicable intensity of the 2598 A line emission. Atomic-fluorescence spectroscopy at 2176 A permits the determination of antimony in the range 0.1-120 ppm with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. With the same equipment and source, the range of measurement for atomic-absorption was 6-120 ppm and the detection limit was 1 ppm. No interferences were observed from 100-fold molar amounts of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, NH(4), Pb and Zn or from arsenate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. PMID:18960212

  17. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb3Zn4, The precipitated β-Sb3Zn4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb3Zn4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb3Zn4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  18. Parto prematuro após uso de antimonial pentavalente: relato de um caso Premature birth after the use of pentavalent antimonial: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Pinheiro Silveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de uma mulher de 19 anos, na 24ª semana de gravidez e com leishmaniose visceral. Tratada com antimonial pentavalente na posologia de 850mg/dia por 20 dias, ocorreu parto prematuro no quinto dia de tratamento e óbito da criança um dia após nascimento. Considerando a importância da protozoose no nosso meio e a raridade da associação com a gestação, julgamos de interesse a publicação do caso.A case is reported of a 19-year-old woman, at week 24 of gestation, with visceral leishmaniosis. She was treated with meglumine antimoniate at a dose of 850mg/day for 20 days. There occurred premature birth on day five of treatment and the neonate died one day after birth. Considering the importance of protozoiasis in our population and the rarity of the association with pregnancy, we resolved to publish the case.

  19. Comparison of oral itraconazole and intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral itraconazole against intramuscular meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Two hundred eligible and consenting patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) were divided in two groups with 100 patients in each. The number and location of the lesions were documented and clinical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis were noted. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin slit smear and histopathology of the lesional skin. Culture on Nicolle Novy MacNeal (NNN) medium and Leishmanin test was done in all patients. All the patients in both groups were subjected to complete blood picture, urine examination, serum urea and creatinine levels and ECG examination. One group was given itraconazole 100 mg twice daily orally for a duration of 6-8 weeks. The other group was given meglumine antimoniate 10 cc in the form of deep intramuscular injections for 15-30 days. The efficacy of the treatment was judged by clinical and parasitological response. Side effects of the agents were also noted during treatment. Out of 200 patients studied, 185 were males and 15 were females. The mean age of presentation was 30 + 6.6 years. Single lesion was seen in 132 (66%) subjects whereas 68 (34%) subjects had multiple lesions. Slit skin smears were positive in 50 (25%) of the patients. Skin biopsy yielded the presence of LT bodies in 150 (75%) subjects. The culture was positive in 102 (51%) cases. Leishmanin test was positive in 94% subjects. Seventy-five (75%) patients on itraconazole therapy showed complete clinical and parasitological cure in 4-8 weeks duration. A rise in ALT was seen in 12% subjects. Five (5%) subjects did not show any improvement till the end of therapy. Sixty-five (65%) subjects on meglumine antimoniate showed complete healing in 15-30 days. In 35 (35%) of the patients, the treatment had to be stopped due to intolerable side-effects. Four cases of lupoid leishmaniasis and 4 cases of sporotrichoid leishmaniasis

  20. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds...

  1. 22 CFR 122.2 - Submission of registration statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authorized to engage in business in the United States. (c) Definition. For purpose of this section, ownership... Section 122.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS REGISTRATION... business in the United States. The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls will notify the registrant if...

  2. Hepatitis C virus RNA functionally sequesters miR-122

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Joseph M; Scheel, Troels K H; Danino, Tal;

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uniquely requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 for replication, yet global effects on endogenous miRNA targets during infection are unexplored. Here, high-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) experiments of human Argonaute (AGO) during...

  3. Hepatitis C virus RNA functionally sequesters miR-122

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Joseph M; Scheel, Troels K H; Danino, Tal;

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uniquely requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 for replication, yet global effects on endogenous miRNA targets during infection are unexplored. Here, high-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) experiments of human Argonaute (AGO) during ...

  4. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section... laws and regulations. Except as otherwise provided for in this chapter, and insofar as such laws and... and regulations applicable to vessels to the extent that such laws and regulations are administered...

  5. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts. PMID:22970588

  6. Development of an analytical method for antimony speciation in vegetables by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, David; Bravo, Manuel; Feldmann, Jorg; Raab, Andrea; Neaman, Alexander; Quiroz, Waldo

    2012-01-01

    A new method for antimony speciation in terrestrial edible vegetables (spinach, onions, and carrots) was developed using HPLC with hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Mechanical agitation and ultrasound were tested as extraction techniques. Different extraction reagents were evaluated and optimal conditions were determined using experimental design methodology, where EDTA (10 mmol/L, pH 2.5) was selected because this chelate solution produced the highest extraction yield and exhibited the best compatibility with the mobile phase. The results demonstrated that EDTA prevents oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) and maintains the stability of antimony species during the entire analytical process. The LOD and precision (RSD values obtained) for Sb(V), Sb(III), and trimethyl Sb(V) were 0.08, 0.07, and 0.9 microg/L and 5.0, 5.2, and 4.7%, respectively, for a 100 microL sample volume. The application of this method to real samples allowed extraction of 50% of total antimony content from spinach, while antimony extracted from carrots and onion samples ranged between 50 and 60 and 54 and 70%, respectively. Only Sb(V) was detected in three roots (onion and spinach) that represented 60-70% of the total antimony in the extracts.

  7. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The

  8. Synthesis, characterization and single crystal X-ray analysis of chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.S. Chauhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound chlorobis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S′antimony(III has been prepared in distilled acetonitrile and characterized by physicochemical [melting point and molecular weight determination, elemental analysis (C, H, N, S & Sb], spectral [FT–IR, far IR, NMR (1H & 13C] studies. The crystal and molecular structure was further confirmed using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis which features a five-coordinate geometry for antimony(III within a ClS4 donor set. The distortion in the co-planarity of ClSbS3 evidences the stereochemical influence exerts by the lone pair of electrons on antimony(III. Two centrosymmetrically related molecule held together via C–H···Cl secondary interaction result in molecular aggregation of the compound.

  9. Selective liquid-liquid extraction of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media by N-n-octylaniline in xylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ANUSE

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available N-n-Octylaniline in xylene was used for the extraction separation of antimony(III from hydrochloric acid media. Antimony(III was extracted quantitatively with 10 mL 4 % N-n-octylaniline in xylene. It was stripped from the organic phase with 0.5 M ammonia and estimated photometrically by the iodide method. The effect of metal ion, acid, reagent concentration and various foreign ions was investigated. The method affords binary and ternary separation of antimony(III from tellurium(IV, selenium(IV, lead(II, bismuth(III, tin(IV, germanium(IV, copper(II, gold(III, iron(III and zinc(II. The method is applicable for the analysis of synthetic mixtures, alloys and semiconductor thin films. It is fast, accurate and precise.

  10. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YGL181W, YIL122W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available y (0) YIL122W POG1 Putative transcriptional activator that promotes recovery from...YIL122W Prey gene name POG1 Prey description Putative transcriptional activator that promotes recovery from

  11. Thin film hybrid Josephson junctions with Co doped Ba-122

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson junctions are a strong tool to investigate fundamental superconducting properties, such as gap behaviour, dependencies from external fields and the order parameter symmetry. Finding secure values enables the possibility of theoretical descriptions to understand the physical processes within the new iron-based superconductors. Based on Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) layers produced via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O3 substrates, we manufactured superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (S-N-S) junctions structures by using photolithography, ion beam etching as well as insulating SiO2 layers. We present working Ba-122/Au/PbIn thin film Josephson junctions with different contact areas and barrier thicknesses, their temperature dependence and response to microwave irradiation. The calculated IcRN product is in the range of a couple of microvolts.

  12. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC50 in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  13. Lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery for grid-level energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangli; Jiang, Kai; Chung, Brice; Ouchi, Takanari; Burke, Paul J.; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Kim, Hojong; Muecke, Ulrich; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2014-10-01

    The ability to store energy on the electric grid would greatly improve its efficiency and reliability while enabling the integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies (such as wind and solar) into baseload supply. Batteries have long been considered strong candidate solutions owing to their small spatial footprint, mechanical simplicity and flexibility in siting. However, the barrier to widespread adoption of batteries is their high cost. Here we describe a lithium-antimony-lead liquid metal battery that potentially meets the performance specifications for stationary energy storage applications. This Li||Sb-Pb battery comprises a liquid lithium negative electrode, a molten salt electrolyte, and a liquid antimony-lead alloy positive electrode, which self-segregate by density into three distinct layers owing to the immiscibility of the contiguous salt and metal phases. The all-liquid construction confers the advantages of higher current density, longer cycle life and simpler manufacturing of large-scale storage systems (because no membranes or separators are involved) relative to those of conventional batteries. At charge-discharge current densities of 275 milliamperes per square centimetre, the cells cycled at 450 degrees Celsius with 98 per cent Coulombic efficiency and 73 per cent round-trip energy efficiency. To provide evidence of their high power capability, the cells were discharged and charged at current densities as high as 1,000 milliamperes per square centimetre. Measured capacity loss after operation for 1,800 hours (more than 450 charge-discharge cycles at 100 per cent depth of discharge) projects retention of over 85 per cent of initial capacity after ten years of daily cycling. Our results demonstrate that alloying a high-melting-point, high-voltage metal (antimony) with a low-melting-point, low-cost metal (lead) advantageously decreases the operating temperature while maintaining a high cell voltage. Apart from the fact that this finding

  14. The LABCG2 Transporter from the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania Is Involved in Antimony Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ana; Manzano, José Ignacio; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Treatment for leishmaniasis, which is caused by Leishmania protozoan parasites, currently relies on a reduced arsenal of drugs. However, the significant increase in the incidence of drug therapeutic failure and the growing resistance to first-line drugs like antimonials in some areas of Northern India and Nepal limit the control of this parasitic disease. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance in Leishmania is now a matter of urgency to optimize drugs used and to identify novel drug targets to block or reverse resistant mechanisms. Some members of the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in Leishmania have been associated with drug resistance. In this study, we have focused our interest to characterize LABCG2's involvement in drug resistance in Leishmania. Leishmania major parasites overexpressing the ABC protein transporter LABCG2 were generated in order to assess how LABCG2 is involved in drug resistance. Assays of susceptibility to different leishmanicidal agents were carried out. Analysis of the drug resistance profile revealed that Leishmania parasites overexpressing LABCG2 were resistant to antimony, as they demonstrated a reduced accumulation of Sb(III) due to an increase in drug efflux. Additionally, LABCG2 was able to transport thiols in the presence of Sb(III) Biotinylation assays using parasites expressing LABCG2 fused with an N-terminal green fluorescent protein tag revealed that LABCG2 is partially localized in the plasma membrane; this supports data from previous studies which suggested that LABCG2 is localized in intracellular vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. In conclusion, Leishmania LABCG2 probably confers antimony resistance by sequestering metal-thiol conjugates within vesicles and through further exocytosis by means of the parasite's flagellar pocket. PMID:27021316

  15. Highly active and stable Pt electrocatalysts promoted by antimony-doped SnO2 supports for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Min; Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng;

    2014-01-01

    Alternative composite supports for platinum catalysts were synthesized from antimony doped tin dioxide (ATO) nanoparticles. In the range of the antimony content from 0 to 11mol%, the highest electrical conductivity of 1.1Scm-1 at 130°C was obtained for the 5mol% Sb ATO, from which composite...... supports composed of oxides and carbon and supported platinum catalysts were prepared. Using the pure oxide support, the Pt/ATO catalyst displayed superior specific activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs). Low surface area of ATO caused poor dispersion of Pt particles compared...

  16. Separation of antimony from synthetic cloth. Application in forensic science using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements, except of Sb, from 0.2M ammonium carbonate solution using Chelex 100 resin and subsequent quantitative elution of the elements of interest with 2M nitric acid for gamma-ray spectrometry. The procedure was tested by simulated gunshot residues. (author)

  17. Influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt impurities on the cathodic process in zinc electrowinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By means of an electrochemical study,the influence of arsenic,antimony and cobalt on cathodic polarization in the zinc electrowinning process,the associated kinetic equations and parameters,and the polarization mechanism have been studied.The results show that the experimental values of the kinetic parameters are in accord with the theoretical values in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution with a single impurity is added.In contrast,the charge transfer coefficient α is smaller than the theoretical value in the ZnSO4/H2SO4 solution when the three impurities are added together.

  18. Polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} doped with pentavalent antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, E.P.; Belov, D.A. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gagor, A.B.; Pietraszko, A.P. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Okólna 2, 50-950 Wrocław (Poland); Alekseeva, O.A. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V.I., E-mail: voronk@polly.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-05

    Highlights: • The limit of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions is at x = 0.05. • Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} does not fully transform into high-temperature monoclinic phase. • Sb{sup 5+} has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric transitions. • γ→γ{sup ‴} transition near 650 °C was observed as strong permittivity peak at 0.01–8 Hz. • The conductivity of Bi{sub 2}W{sub 0.96}Sb{sub 0.04}O{sub 6−y} at 800 °C reaches 0.02 S/cm. -- Abstract: Antimony-containing solid solutions isostructural with bismuth tungstate, Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, have been prepared in air as polycrystalline samples by solid-state reactions and as single crystals by unseeded flux growth. The antimony in the solid solutions is in a pentavalent state and substitutes for tungsten in the structure of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. The Bi{sub 2}W{sub 1−x}Sb{sub x}O{sub 6−y} solid solutions have been shown to exist in the composition range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.05. We have examined the effect of Sb{sup 5+} doping on the polymorphism and properties of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. In contrast to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, antimony-substituted bismuth tungstate does not completely transform into its high-temperature, monoclinic phase at 960 °C and remains two-phase up to temperatures approaching its melting point. Antimony substitution for tungsten has a weak effect on the temperatures of the ferroelectric phase transitions. Heterovalent substitution of Sb{sup 5+} for W{sup 6+} is accompanied by the formation of extra oxygen vacancies and an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solid solutions by one to two orders of magnitude relative to undoped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}.

  19. Electromagnetic absorption and shielding behavior of polyaniline-antimony oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Muhammad; Khasim, Syed

    2013-02-01

    This work highlights the microwave absorption and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of synthesized polyaniline (PAni)-antimony oxide (Sb2O3) composites in the 8-12 GHz (X-band) range. These composites showed absorption dominated EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SEA) of -34 to -40 dB (> 99 % attenuation), indicating their shielding potential throughout the X-band. Our analyses reveal that the Sb2O3 particles in PAni matrix have key impact in determining the microwave absorption properties of the composites.

  20. Determination of arsenic, selenium and antimony by neutron activation analysis. Application to hair samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast rabbit system for instrumental activation analysis with reactor neutrons is described. Its use in the determination of selenium in hair is discussed. A survey is given of the correction factors which are inherent to the use of short-lived radionuclides. An alternative to INAA is NAA based on the separation of arsenic, selenium and antimony by hydride evaporation and adsorption to active carbon. Data for some Standard Reference Materials are given. This work was done under research contract 2440/RI/RB with the IAEA

  1. 25 CFR 122.8 - Administrative costs for management of the fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative costs for management of the fund. 122.8 Section 122.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES MANAGEMENT OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.8 Administrative costs for management of the fund....

  2. 41 CFR 102-42.105 - What special information must be included on the SF 122?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must be included on the SF 122? 102-42.105 Section 102-42.105 Public Contracts and Property Management... and Decorations § 102-42.105 What special information must be included on the SF 122? Conspicuously mark the SF 122, “FOREIGN GIFTS AND/OR DECORATIONS”, and include all information furnished by...

  3. 40 CFR 91.122 - Amending the application and certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 91.122 Section 91.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.122 Amending the application and certificate of conformity. (a... to a certificate of conformity or changes are to be made to a product line covered by a...

  4. 19 CFR 122.188 - Issuance of temporary Customs access seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of temporary Customs access seal. 122.188 Section 122.188 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Access to Customs Security Areas § 122.188 Issuance...

  5. 24 CFR 257.122 - Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees. 257.122 Section 257.122 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Procedures § 257.122 Forgiveness or waiver of prepayment penalties and default fees. The holder or...

  6. 12 CFR 204.122 - Secondary market activities of international banking facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. 204.122 Section 204.122 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF...) Interpretations § 204.122 Secondary market activities of international banking facilities. (a) Questions have...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  8. 21 CFR 801.122 - Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing. 801.122 Section 801.122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....122 Medical devices for processing, repacking, or manufacturing. A device intended for processing... act if its label bears the statement “Caution: For manufacturing, processing, or repacking”....

  9. High levels of antimony in dust from e-waste recycling in southeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global issue. Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element used in semiconductor components and flame retardants for circuit board within electronic equipment. When e-waste is recycled, Sb is released and contaminates the surrounding environment; however, few studies have characterized the extent of this problem. In this study, we investigated Sb and arsenic (As) distributions in indoor dust from 13 e-waste recycling villages in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, southeastern China. Results revealed significantly elevated concentrations of Sb (6.1-232 mg/kg) in dust within all villages, which were 3.9-147 times higher than those from the non e-waste sites, indicating e-waste recycling was an important source of Sb pollution. On the contrary, As concentrations (5.4-17.7 mg/kg) in e-waste dusts were similar to reference values from the control sites. Therefore, dusts emitted from e-waste recycling may be characterized by high Sb/As ratios, which may help identify the contamination due to the e-waste recycling activities. - Highlights: → Antimony and arsenic concentrations in dust from e-waste recycling were investigated. → E-waste recycling is an important emerging source of Sb pollution. → Sb/As ratios may help identify the e-waste contamination.

  10. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  11. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance.

  12. Antimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, René; Conesa, Héctor M; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L(-1) in summer and soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites. PMID:25592464

  13. A Black Phosphate Conversion Coating on Steel Surface Using Antimony(III)-Tartrate as an Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Guiping

    2016-05-01

    A novel black phosphate conversion coating was formed on steel surface through a Zn-Mn phosphating bath containing mainly ZnO, H3PO4, Mn(H2PO4)2, and Ca(NO3)2, where antimony(III)-tartrate was used as the blackening agent of phosphatization. The surface morphology and composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Corrosion resistance of the coating was studied by potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pH value of the solution had significant influence on the formation and corrosion resistance of the coating. The experimental results indicated that the Sb plays a vital role in the blackening of phosphate conversion coating. The optimal concentration of antimony(III)-tartrate in the phosphating bath used in this experiment was 1.0 g L-1, as higher values reduced the corrosion resistance of the coating. In addition, by saponification and oil seals, the corrosion duration of the black phosphate coating in a copper sulfate spot test can be as long as 20 min.

  14. Application of Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis of Arsenic, Antimony, and Thallium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmund Michalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that metals and metalloids have a strong impact on the environment, the methods of their determination and speciation have received special attention in recent years. Arsenic, antimony, and thallium are important examples of such toxic elements. Their speciation is especially important in the environmental and biomedical fields because of their toxicity, bioavailability, and reactivity. Recently, speciation analytics has been playing a unique role in the studies of biogeochemical cycles of chemical compounds, determination of toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected elements, quality control of food products, control of medicines and pharmaceutical products, technological process control, research on the impact of technological installation on the environment, examination of occupational exposure, and clinical analysis. Conventional methods are usually labor intensive, time consuming, and susceptible to interferences. The hyphenated techniques, in which separation method is coupled with multidimensional detectors, have become useful alternatives. The main advantages of those techniques consist in extremely low detection and quantification limits, insignificant interference, influence as well as high precision and repeatability of the determinations. In view of their importance, the present work overviews and discusses different hyphenated techniques used for arsenic, antimony, and thallium species analysis, in different clinical, environmental and food matrices.

  15. Determination of Trace Antimony (III by Adsorption Voltammetry at Carbon Paste Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongyue He

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a sensitive method for the determination of trace antimonybased on the antimony-pyrogallol red (PGR adsorption at a carbon paste electrode (CPE.The optimal conditions were to use an electrode containing 25% paraffin oil and 75%high purity graphite powder as working electrode, a 0.10 mol/L HCl solution containing3.0×10-5 mol/L PGR as accumulation medium and a 0.20 mol/L HCl solution aselectrolyte with an accumulation time of 150 s and a reduction time of 60 s at -0.50 Vfollowed with a sweep from -0.50 V to 0.20 V. The mechanism of the electrode reactionwas discussed. Interferences of other metal ions were studied as well. The detection limitwas 1×10-9 mol/L. The linear range was from 2.0×10-9 mol/L to 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Application of the proposed method to the determination of antimony in water andhuman hair samples gave good results.

  16. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes. PMID:26076768

  17. Morphology-controlled growth of crystalline antimony sulfide via a refluxing polyol process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Xiangying; Mo, Maosong; Wang, Zhenghua; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Xinyuan; Qian, Yitai

    2004-02-01

    By refluxing antimony trichloride (SbCl 3) and thiourea in various solvents at suitable reaction conditions, antimony sulfide (Sb 2S 3) crystallites with a diversity of well-defined morphologies were synthesized. Sb 2S 3 rods with the average diameter of 800 nm and the length of 7 μm, as well as microtubes with the average outer diameter of 1.2 μm, the average inner diameter of 800 nm and the length of 8 μm, were obtained in 1,2-propanediol at 180°C for 10 min. In contrast, a series of experiments under different conditions were carried out to investigate the influencing factors on the reaction. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectra. The results indicate Sb 2S 3 crystals with different morphologies, including rod-like, tube-like, bowknot-like, flower-like, straw-bundled-like, taken under different experimental conditions. It is found that the reaction temperature, time, solvent and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (as a polymer capping reagent) play important roles in the formation of the final Sb 2S 3 crystallites with different morphologies. Also, the possible growth mechanism is discussed.

  18. Organically complexed iron enhances bioavailability of antimony to maize (Zea mays) seedlings in organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Corey; McBride, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table. Chemical similarities between arsenic (As) and Sb produce concerns about potential health effects of Sb and enrichment in the environment. Antimony is found in oxic environments predominately as an oxyanionic species, antimonite (Sb[OH](6-)). As a result of its net negative charge, Sb[OH](6-) was not initially predicted to have strong interactions with natural organic matter. Oxyanionic species could bind the negatively charged organic matter via a ternary complexation mechanism, in which cationic metals mediate the strong association between organic matter functional groups and oxyanions. However, these interactions are poorly understood in how they influence the bioavailability of oxyanionic contaminants to plants. Iron (Fe) additions to organic soils have been found to increase the number of organically complexed Fe sites suitable for Sb exchange, resulting in a reduced bioavailable fraction of Sb. The bioavailability of Sb to maize seedlings as a function of organically complexed Fe was examined using a greenhouse study. A significant increase in plant tissue Sb was observed as organically complexed Fe increased, which was not predicted by methods commonly used to assess bioavailable Sb. Extraction of soils with organic acids common to the maize rhizosphere suggested that organic acid exudation can readily mobilize Sb bound by organic Fe complexes.

  19. Effect of antimony incorporation on structural properties of CuInS{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Rabeh, M., E-mail: mohamedbenrabeh@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaglabou, N., E-mail: nadia_chaglabou@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Kanzari, M., E-mail: Mounir.Kanzari@ipeit.rnu.t [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semi-Conducteurs - ENIT BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) single crystals doped with 1, 2, 3 and 4 atomic percent (at.%) of antimony (Sb) were grown by the horizontal Bridgman method. The effect of Sb doping on the structural properties of CIS crystal was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and PL measurements. X-ray diffraction data suggests that the doping of Sb in the CIS single crystals does not affect the tetragonal (chalcopyrite) crystal structure and exhibited a (1 1 2) preferred orientation. In addition, with increasing Sb concentration, the X-ray diffraction analysis show that Sb doped CIS crystals are more crystallized and the diffraction peaks of the CuInS{sub 2} phase were more pronounced in particular the (1 1 2) plane. EDAX study revealed that Sb atoms can occupy the indium site and/or occupying the sulfur site to make an acceptor. PL spectra of undoped and Sb doped CIS crystals show two emission peaks at 1.52 and 1.62 eV, respectively which decreased with increasing atomic percent antimony. Sb doped CIS crystals show p-type conductivity.

  20. Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Susan C; Tighe, Matthew; Paterson, Ewan; Ashley, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Field samples and a 9-week glasshouse growth trial were used to investigate the accumulation of mining derived arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in vegetable crops growing on the Macleay River Floodplain in Northern New South Wales, Australia. The soils were also extracted using EDTA to assess the potential for this extractant to be used as a predictor of As and Sb uptake in vegetables, and a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) to understand potential for uptake in the human gut with soil ingestion. Metalloids were not detected in any field vegetables sampled. Antimony was not detected in the growth trial vegetable crops over the 9-week greenhouse trial. Arsenic accumulation in edible vegetable parts was risk of exposure through short-term vegetable crops is low. The data also demonstrate that uptake pathways for Sb and As in the vegetables were different with uptake strongly impacted by soil properties. A fraction of soil-borne metalloid was soluble in the different soils resulting in Sb soil solution concentration (10.75 ± 0.52 μg L(-1)) that could present concern for contamination of water resources. EDTA proved a poor predictor of As and Sb phytoavailability. Oral bioaccessibility, as measured by SBET, was risk from soil borne As and Sb in the floodplain environment.

  1. Determination of antimony in nail and hair by thermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of antimony in nail and hair was determined by thermal neutron activation analysis. Samples were collected from the workers of an antimony refinery, inhabitants near the refinery, and residents in control area. They were irradiated by Kyoto University 5000 kW Reactor for 1 h, and cooled for 30 to 100 days. After cooling, the concentration of Sb in nail and hair was estimated by measuring the intensity of γ-ray from 124Sb of the samples, then the samples were washed by 0.1 % aqueous solution of nonionic surface active agent in an ultrasonic cleaner. The γ-ray spectrometry was done again (after washing). The concentration of Sb in nail before washing was 730 ppm for the workers, 2.46 ppm for habitants near the refinery, and 0.19 ppm for the control; after washing, it became 230 ppm for the workers, 0.63 ppm for habitants, and 0.09 ppm for the control. The concentration of Sb in hair before and after washing was 222 ppm and 196 ppm for the workers, and 0.21 ppm and 0.15 ppm for the control, respectively. (author)

  2. One-step synthesis of antimony-doped tin dioxide nanocrystallites and their property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Min; WANG Bao

    2009-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide(ATO) nanoparticles with primary diameter in the range of 9-10 nm were rapidly synthesized via a novel combustion technique, starting with antimony trichloride and tin tetrachloride as metal sources and self-assembly compounds as fuels. The combustion phenomena and characteristics of products were controlled by assembling components in fuel compounds according to appropriate molar ratio. The as-synthesized products were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS, respectively. The electrical conductivity was evaluated through measuring the antistatic property of polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized products. The results show that a mild combustion phenomena without release of smoke can be taken on and perfect azury rutile ATO crystal with complete substitution can be formed rapidly under the appropriate synthetic conditions. The antistatic property of the polyester fiber treated by the as-synthesized ATO products is enhanced remarkably. The triboelectricity voltage below 1.0 kV, half life below 1.0 s and surface resistance below 1.0×106 Ω can be attained.

  3. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  4. MiR-122 in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus dualinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyoungsub Song; Chang Han; Srikanta Dash; Luis A Balart; Tong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV)infections are the most common causes of chronicliver diseases and hepatocelluar carcinomas. Overthe past few years, the liver-enriched microRNA-122(miR-122) has been shown to differentially regulateviral replication of HBV and HCV. It is notable that thelevel of miR-122 is positively and negatively regulatedby HCV and HBV, respectively. Consistent with the welldocumentedphenomenon that miR-122 promotes HCVaccumulation, inhibition of miR-122 has been shown asan effective therapy for the treatment of HCV infectionin both chimpanzees and humans. On the other hand,miR-122 is also known to block HBV replication, andHBV has recently been shown to inhibit miR-122expression; such a reciprocal inhibition betweenmiR-122 and HBV suggests an intriguing possibilitythat miR-122 replacement may represent a potentialtherapy for treatment of HBV infection. As HBV andHCV have shared transmission routes, dual infection isnot an uncommon scenario, which is associated withmore advanced liver disease than either HBV or HCVmono-infection. Thus, there is a clear need to furtherunderstand the interaction between HBV and HCVand to delineate the role of miR-122 in HBV/HCV dualinfection in order to devise effective therapy. This reviewsummarizes the current understanding of HBV/HCVdual infection, focusing on the pathobiological role andtherapeutic potential of miR-122.

  5. Effect of Annealing on the Properties of Antimony Telluride Thin Films and Their Applications in CdTe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimony telluride alloy thin films were deposited at room temperature by using the vacuum coevaporation method. The films were annealed at different temperatures in N2 ambient, and then the compositional, structural, and electrical properties of antimony telluride thin films were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and Hall measurements. The results indicate that single phase antimony telluride existed when the annealing temperature was higher than 488 K. All thin films exhibited p-type conductivity with high carrier concentrations. Cell performance was greatly improved when the antimony telluride thin films were used as the back contact layer for CdTe thin film solar cells. The dark current voltage and capacitance voltage measurements were performed to investigate the formation of the back contacts for the cells with or without Sb2Te3 buffer layers. CdTe solar cells with the buffer layers can reduce the series resistance and eliminate the reverse junction between CdTe and metal electrodes.

  6. Progress of Antimony-containing Wastewater Treatment%含锑废水处理技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鑫; 周广柱; 王翠珍; 王世豪; 彭刚; 何双

    2014-01-01

    在锑矿的开采及冶炼加工过程中,排出了大量含锑废水,这种重金属废水对环境和人体健康构成严重威胁。本文总结了重金属锑元素的物理化学性质、毒性特点,归纳了含锑废水的处理方法,分析了含锑废水处理技术的优势和缺点,提出了工艺联合应用等高效处理含锑废水的相关建议。%A large amount of wastewater containing antimony discharged in the process of antimony ore mining,smelting and processing,which pose a serious threat to the environment and human health. In this paper we summarized the characteristics of physical and chemical properties, toxicity of antimony, and the antimony wastewater treatment. Advantages and disadvantages of these treatment crafts were compared in a table,the recommendations given out for more efficiently processing via crafts combination.

  7. Electrochemical, structural and surface characterization of nickel/zirconia solid oxide fuel cell anodes in coal gas containing antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Edwards, Danny J.

    The interactions of antimony with the nickel-zirconia anode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been investigated. Tests with both anode-supported and electrolyte-supported button cells were performed at 700 and 800 °C in synthetic coal gas containing 100 ppb to 9 ppm antimony. Minor performance loss was observed immediately after Sb introduction to coal gas resulting in ca. 5% power output drop. While no further degradation was observed during the following several hundred hours of testing, cells abruptly and irreversibly failed after 800-1600 h depending on Sb concentration and test temperature. Antimony was found to interact strongly with nickel resulting in extensive alteration phase formation, consistent with expectations based on thermodynamic properties. Nickel antimonide phases, NiSb and Ni 5Sb 2, were partially coalesced into large grains and eventually affected electronic percolation through the anode support. Initial degradation was attributed to diffusion of antimony to the active anode/electrolyte interface to form an adsorption layer, while the late stage degradation was due the Ni-Sb phase formation. Assuming an average Sb concentration in coal gas of 0.07 ppmv, a 500 μm thick Ni/zirconia anode-supported cell is not expected to fail within 7 years when operated at a power output of 0.5 W cm -2 and fuel utilization above 50%.

  8. Ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring : a comparison between antimony, ISFET, and glass pH electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Oors, Jac; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aim Ambulatory oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring is a widely used test to evaluate patients with reflux symptoms. Several types of pH electrodes are available: antimony, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), and glass electrodes. These pH electrodes have not been compared d

  9. POLICY China’s Ministry of Commerce Set the Rules for Antimony and Tungsten Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China’s ministry of commerce recently re-leased the rules and application procedures forthe export of antimony and tungsten productsin 2005 by the domestic producers.Based on the rules set by the ministry,China’santimony and tungsten producers providingtheir products for export must be those enter-prises authorized by the related State authori-ties.

  10. Comparative phytotoxicity of methylated and inorganic arsenic- and antimony species to Lemna minor, Wolffia arrhiza and Selenastrum capricornutum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Duester; H.G. van der Geest; S. Moelleken; A.V. Hirner; K. Kueppers

    2011-01-01

    The alkylation of metalloids through the transfer of methyl groups is an important factor in the biogeochemical cycling of elements like arsenic and antimony. In the environment, many different organic and inorganic forms of these elements can therefore be found in soils, sediments or organisms. Stu

  11. Projected shell model study of neutron-deficient 122Ce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rani Devi; B D Sehgal; S K Khosa

    2006-09-01

    The observed excited states of 122Ce nucleus have been studied in the frame-work of projected shell model (PSM). The yrast band has been studied up to spin 26 ħ. The first band crossing has been predicted above a rotational frequency of 0.4 MeV/ħ that corresponds to first backbending. The calculation reproduces the experimentally observed ground state band up to spin 14ħ. The electromagnetic quantities, transition quadrupole moments and -factors are predicted and there is a need to measure these quantities experimentally.

  12. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed. PMID:21552747

  13. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  14. Production of 122Sb for the study of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents, 122Sb (T1/2 = 2.723 days, I β- 97.59%) was produced via the natSn(p,xn) nuclear process at the AMIRS (Cyclone-30, IBA, Belgium). The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by potassium stannate trihydrate (K2Sn(OH)6) and potassium hydroxide. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tin were as follows: 40 g/L natSn, 20 g/L KOH, 115 g/L K2Sn(OH)6, DC current density of 5 A/dm2 with a bath temperature of 75 deg C. The electroplated Tin-target was irradiated with 26.5 MeV protons at current of 180 μA for 20 min. Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 122Sb from irradiated Tin-natural target hydrochloric solution was investigated using di-n-butyl ether (C8H18O). Yields of about 3.61 MBq/μAh were experimentally obtained. (author)

  15. Determination of natural isotopic variation in antimony using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for an uncertainty estimation of the standard atomic weight of antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic variation of industrially produced antimony was estimated using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A reproducible 123Sb/121Sb ratio of ±0.004% (2 standard deviations) was routinely obtained using a Sn doping mass discrimination correction technique. Only a small isotopic variation of about 0.05% was observed among industrially important Sb materials (five commercially available reagents and two ore minerals). The degree of Sb isotopic variation to determine the uncertainty in Sb atomic weight can be reduced by this new analytical technique to 0.00025 compared to the currently accepted IUPAC isotopic variation determined by conventional mass spectrometry of ±0.001. Heavy isotope enrichment of Sb in a drainage water sample from a stibnite mining area was found. This heavy isotope enrichment tendency in an aqueous environment may be useful in detecting anthropogenic Sb input from industrial emission by the smelting process via air because Sb of anthropogenic origin will have lighter isotope enrichment features. (author)

  16. Spin dynamics of complex oxides, bismuth-antimony alloys, and bismuth chalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cuneyt

    The emerging field of spintronics relies on the manipulation of electron spin in order to use it in spin-based electronics. Such a paradigm change has to tackle several challenges including finding materials with sufficiently long spin lifetimes and materials which are efficient in generating pure spin currents. This thesis predicts that two types of material families could be a solution to the aforementioned challenges: complex oxides and bismuth based materials. We derived a general approach for constructing an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian which is applicable to all nonmagnetic materials. This formalism is useful for calculating spin-dependent properties near an arbitrary point in momentum space. We also verified this formalism through comparisons with other approaches for III-V semiconductors, and its general applicability is illustrated by deriving the spin-orbit interaction and predicting spin lifetimes for strained strontium titanate (STO) and a two-dimensional electron gas in STO (such as at the LAO/STO interface). Our results suggest robust spin coherence and spin transport properties in STO related materials even at room temperature. In the second part of the study we calculated intrinsic spin Hall conductivities for bismuth-antimony (BISb) semimetals with strong spin-orbit couplings, from the Kubo formula and using Berry curvatures evaluated throughout the Brillouin zone from a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Nearly crossing bands with strong spin-orbit interaction generate giant spin Hall conductivities in these materials, ranging from 474 ((h/e)O--1cm--1) for bismuth to 96((h/e)O--1cm --1) for antimony; the value for bismuth is more than twice that of platinum. The large spin Hall conductivities persist for alloy compositions corresponding to a three-dimensional topological insulator state, such as Bi0.83Sb0.17. The spin Hall conductivity could be changed by a factor of 5 for doped Bi, or for Bi0.83Sb0.17, by changing the chemical potential by 0.5 e

  17. First-Principles Study of Antimony Doping Effects on the Iron-Based Superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yuki; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko; Kuroki, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    We study antimony doping effects on the iron-based superconductor CaFe(SbxAs1-x)2 by using the first-principles calculation. The calculations reveal that the substitution of a doped antimony atom into As of the chainlike As layers is more stable than that into FeAs layers. This prediction can be checked by experiments. Our results suggest that doping homologous elements into the chainlike As layers, which only exist in the novel 112 system, is responsible for rising up the critical temperature. We discuss antimony doping effects on the electronic structure. It is found that the calculated band structures with and without the antimony doping are similar to each other within our framework.

  18. Phytoavailability of antimony and heavy metals in arid regions: the case of the Wadley Sb district (San Luis, Potosí, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levresse, G; Lopez, G; Tritlla, J; López, E Cardellach; Chavez, A Carrillo; Salvador, E Mascuñano; Soler, A; Corbella, M; Sandoval, L G Hernández; Corona-Esquivel, R

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents original results on the Sb and heavy metals contents in sediments and waste tailings, plants and water from the giant Wadley antimony mine district (San Luis Potosí State, Mexico). The dominant antimony phases in mining wastes are stibiconite, montroydite and minor hermimorphite. The waste tailings contain high concentrations of metals and metalloids (antimony, iron, zinc, arsenic, copper, and mercury). Manganese, copper, zinc, and antimony contents exceed the quality guidelines values for groundwater, plants and for waste tailings. Results indicate that peak accumulation is seasonal due to the concentration by high metabolism plants as Solanaceae Nicotiana. The metal phytoavailability in waste tailings is highly dependant on the metal speciation, its capability to be transported in water and, more particularly, the plant metabolism efficiency.

  19. Thermoelectric transport in surface- and antimony-doped bismuth telluride nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettes, Michael Thompson; Kim, Jaehyun; Wu, Wei; Bustillo, Karen C.; Shi, Li

    2016-10-01

    We report the in-plane thermoelectric properties of suspended (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 nanoplates with x ranging from 0.07 to 0.95 and thicknesses ranging from 9 to 42 nm. The results presented here reveal a trend of increasing p-type behavior with increasing antimony concentration, and a maximum Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric figure of merit at x ˜ 0.5. We additionally tuned extrinsic doping of the surface using a tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) coating. The lattice thermal conductivity is found to be below that for undoped ultrathin Bi2Te3 nanoplates of comparable thickness and in the range of 0.2-0.7 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature.

  20. Nuclear quadrupole resonance of iodine pentafluoride and its complexes with antimony pentafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) have been obtained at 77 deg K for I127 and Sbsup(121,128) in the IF5, IF5xSbF5, IF5x2SbF5, CsIF6, and RbIF6 compounds. An agreement between quadrupole spectra and structural data have been observed. The results of studying IF5 by NQR, gamma resonance and microwave spectroscopy have been compared. It has been established that unshared electron pair of an iodine atom is stereochemically active which leads to a considerable distortion of octahedral symmetry of coordination polyhedron of the iodine atoms. The structure of complexes of iodine pentafluoride with antimony pentafluoride is given

  1. A novel composite material based on antimony(III) oxide and amorphous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemnukhova, Ludmila A. [Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Panasenko, Alexander E., E-mail: panasenko@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 690022 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-01

    The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. It has been shown that the composition of the material is influenced by the ratio of the initial components and the acidity of the reaction medium. The morphology of the material particles and its specific surface area have been determined. The thermal and optic properties were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Novel composite material containing amorphous silica and crystal antimony(III) oxide has been synthesized by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. Highlights: • The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared in an aqueous medium. • The composition of the material is controllable by a synthesis conditions. • The morphology of the material and its optic properties have been determined.

  2. Preparation and characterization of conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Feng; DUAN; Xue-chen; REN; Xian-jing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) composite particles is prepared by hydroxylation method of metal alcoxides. This method has many advantages such as little pollution, low cost, simple sheet and equipment. The synthesis processing and the ATO nanoparticles are characterized by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and BET. The results show that the ATO nanoparticles is tetragonal rutile crystal structure. TEM show that the particles are monodispersed with weak aggromation. The size of the particles calcinated at 700 is about 8nm. The specific areas are 153 m2 · g-1. In addition to, ATO nanop articles have good electric properties

  3. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tin-Antimony Nanocomposites as Anode Materials for Advanced Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liwen; Zhou, Weidong; Chabot, Victor; Yu, Aiping; Xiao, Xingcheng

    2015-11-11

    Reduced graphene oxides loaded with tin-antimony alloy (RGO-SnSb) nanocomposites were synthesized through a hydrothermal reaction and the subsequent thermal reduction treatments. Transmission electron microscope images confirm that SnSb nanoparticles with an average size of about 20-30 nm are uniformly dispersed on the RGO surfaces. When they were used as anodes for rechargeable sodium (Na)-ion batteries, these as-synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposite anodes delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 407 mAh g(-1), stable cyclic retention for more than 80 cycles and excellent cycle stability at ultra high charge/discharge rates up to 30C. The significantly improved performance of the synthesized RGO-SnSb nanocomposites as Na-ion battery anodes can be attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-based flexible framework and the nanoscale dimension of the SnSb alloy particles (batteries.

  5. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  6. Novel fabrication of an electrochromic antimony-doped tin oxide film using a nanoparticle deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Yunchan; Choi, Dahyun; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2016-07-01

    Novel deposition method of Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films was introduced using a nanoparticle deposition system (NPDS) to fabricate an electrochromic (EC) device. NPDS is a dry deposition method that simplifies the ATO deposition process by eliminating the need for solvents or binders. In this study, an ATO EC layer was deposited using NPDS. The surface morphology and electrochemical and optical transmittance properties were characterized. The optical transmittance change in the ATO EC device was ∼35% over the wavelength range of 350-800 nm, and the cyclic transmittance was stable. The ATO film deposited using NPDS, exhibited a coloration efficiency of 15.5 cm2 C-1. Therefore, our results suggest that ATO EC devices can be fabricated using a simple, cost-effective NPDS, which allows nanoparticles to be deposited directly without pre- or post-processing.

  7. Microbial diversity and community structure in an antimony-rich tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Qingxiang; Sun, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact of antimony (Sb) on microbial community structure, 12 samples were taken from an Sb tailings pile in Guizhou Province, Southwest China. All 12 samples exhibited elevated Sb concentrations, but the mobile and bioaccessible fractions were small in comparison to total Sb concentrations. Besides the geochemical analyses, microbial communities inhabiting the tailing samples were characterized to investigate the interplay between the microorganisms and environmental factors in mine tailings. In all samples, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Thiobacillus, Limnobacter, Nocardioides, Lysobacter, Phormidium, and Kaistobacter demonstrated relatively high abundances. The two most abundant genera, Thiobacillus and Limnobacter, are characterized as sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, respectively, while the genus Lysobacter contains arsenic (As)-resistant bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that TOC and the sulfate to sulfide ratio strongly shaped the microbial communities, suggesting the influence of the environmental factors in the indigenous microbial communities. PMID:27188777

  8. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  9. Renal function evaluation in patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rodrigo A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal evaluation studies are rare in American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. The aim of this study is to investigate whether specific treatment reverts ACL-associated renal dysfunction. Methods A prospective study was conducted with 37 patients with ACL. Urinary concentrating and acidification ability was assessed before and after treatment with pentavalent antimonial. Results The patients mean age was 35.6 ± 12 years and 19 were male. Before treatment, urinary concentrating defect (U/Posm Conclusion As previously described, urinary concentrating and acidification defects were found in an important number of patients with ACL. Present results demonstrate that only some patients recover urinary acidification capacity, while no one returned to normal urinary concentration capacity.

  10. Supermolecular template route to fabrication of well crystallized hollow antimony microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Li; CHEN Shu-da; WEI Xiao-yan

    2006-01-01

    Hollow spheres of elemental antimony (Sb) with good crystallinity, high contrast and thin wall were prepared in the solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oleic acid(OA) associations at the refluxed temperature. The complexes of Sb3+ with tartaric acid were used as precursors, which can avoid the hydrolysis of SbCl3 and the resulting impurity of products. The average diameter and thickness of the as-prepared hollow sphere are about 300 nm and less than 20 nm, respectively. The formation of hollow spheres depends on the template function of PEG and OA associations, which can be confirmed through the theoretical analysis and results of control experiments. The specific surface area reaches 34.669 m2/g.

  11. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy.

  12. 锑环境健康效应的研究进展%Environmental Health Effect of Antimony: a Review of Recent Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈兆凤; 韦朝阳

    2011-01-01

    随着锑的开采及含锑产品的广泛应用,锑所带来的污染问题已越来越严重,锑对环境与健康的危害也受到了更多的关注.该文总结了锑环境健康效应的研究进展,从医学、环境毒理学和生态毒理学的角度分别分析了锑对人、动物以及植物与土壤生物的健康效应.提示今后还需加强锑的致癌性及基因毒性研究,并需从微观与宏观尺度揭示锑的毒性效应,以期为锑的环境健康风险评估提供科学依据.%The antimony mining and widely use of antimony products have resulted in serious antimony contamination,causing hazards to both the environment and human health. The present paper summarized the research progresses on the environmental health effect of antimony. The health effects of antimony on human, animals, and plants as well as soil organisms are introduced and discussed in the view of medical science, environmental toxicology and ecological toxicology, respectively. It is suggested that more researches should be conducted on antimony earcinogenieity and genotoxicity, and the toxic effects of antimony should be explored from micro and macroscopic scales in order to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of antimony.

  13. Successful treatment of feline leishmaniosis using a combination of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Basso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This work describes the diagnosis and successful treatment of a 2-year-old domestic cat infected with Leishmania species and presenting fever, and ulcerative and nodular skin lesions after being treated for pyodermatitis for 1 year without clinical improvement. After anamnesis the cat was submitted to a complete clinical examination. Blood was collected for determination of haematological and biochemical parameters, detection of feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, feline coronavirus (FCoV and Leishmania amastigotes. Fine-needle aspiration puncture from the skin nodules was also performed. After definitive diagnosis the animal was treated and followed up over a 2 year period. The animal tested negative for FIV-specific antibodies, FeLV antigen and feline coronavirus RNA. Leishmania amastigotes in the skin nodules were confirmed by cytology and molecular diagnosis. Treatment was initiated with allopurinol, resulting in a slight clinical improvement. Thus, N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate was added and administered for 30 days, with complete closure of the ulcerative lesions in the hindlimbs requiring a surgical approach. Close monitoring of the patient in the following 24 months indicated that combined therapy was safe and clinical cure was achieved without further relapses or side effects. Relevance and novel information Considering the increasing number of feline leishmaniosis cases and the inconsistent results of most therapeutic protocols described in the literature, the use of new approaches, especially in refractory cases, is essential. Although the use of allopurinol and N-methyl-glucamine antimoniate is off-label in cats, in this case the combination treatment was followed by an extensive analytical monitoring, supporting their safety and effectiveness.

  14. Infrared-to-red upconversion luminescence in samarium-doped antimony glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new antimony-based glass system (K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3) having low phonon energy (about 600 cm-1) doped with Sm3+ ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-Visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with the spectrochemistry of the 15K2O-15B2O3-70Sb2O3 (mol%) glasses have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Sm2O3. UV-Vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 949 nm at room temperature. Three upconverted bands originating from the 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2 and 4G5/2→6H9/2 transitions are found to be centered at 566 (green, weak), 602 (orange, weak) and 636 (red, remarkably strong) nm, respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption, normal (downconversion) fluorescence and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level (4G5/2) by multiphonon deexcitation effect. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm-1, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm-1)

  15. Optical properties of Eu3+-doped antimony-oxide-based low phonon disordered matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Tirtha; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2010-01-01

    A new series of monolithic Eu2O3-doped high antimony oxide (40-80 mol%) content disordered matrices (glasses) of low phonon energy (about 600 cm-1) in the K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 (KBS) system was prepared by the melt-quench technique. Infrared reflection spectroscopy was used to establish the low phonon energy of the glasses. Amorphicity and devitrification of the glasses were confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis. UV-vis absorption spectra of Eu3+ have been measured and the band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of the nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. These Eu2O3-doped glasses upon excitation at 393 nm radiation exhibit six emission bands in the range 500-750 nm due to their low phonon energy. Of these, the magnetic dipole ^{5}\\mathrm {D}_{0} \\to {}^{7} \\mathrm {F_{1}} transition shows small Stark splitting while the electric dipole ^{5}\\mathrm {D}_{0} \\to {}^{7}\\mathrm {F}_{2} transition undergoes remarkable Stark splitting into two components. They have been explained by the crystal field effect. The Judd-Ofelt parameters, Ωt = 2,4,6, were also evaluated and the change of Ωt with the glass composition was correlated with the asymmetric effect at Eu3+ ion sites and the fundamental properties like covalent character and optical basicity. We are the first to report the spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ ion in KBS low phonon antimony glasses.

  16. Optical characterization of antimony-based bismuth-doped thin films with different annealing temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmiao Lu; Yiqun Wu; Yang Wang; Jinsong Wei

    2011-01-01

    Antimony-b ased bismuth-doped thin film,a new kind of super-resolution mask layer,is prepared by magnetron sputtering.The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail.The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state.After annealing at 170-370℃,it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure.The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature.When the thin film is annealed,its refractive index decreased in the most visible region,whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased.The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.As demand for ultrahigh-density information storage continues to grow the recording mark size in optical memory is reduced to the nanometer scale [1- 4].Exceeding the optical diffraction limit with traditional optical storage technology has become a challenge[5-6].%Antimony-based bismuth-doped thin film, a new kind of super-resolution mask layer, is prepared by magnetron sputtering. The structures and optical constants of the thin films before and after annealing are examined in detail. The as-deposited film is mainly in an amorphous state. After annealing at 170-370℃, it is converted to the rhombohedral-type of structure. The extent of crystallization increased with the annealing temperature. When the thin film is annealed, its refractive index decreased in the most visible region, whereas the extinction coefficient and reflectivity are markedly increased. The results indicate that the optical parameters of the film strongly depend on its microstructure and the bonding of the atoms.

  17. Decreased antimony uptake and overexpression of genes of thiol metabolism are associated with drug resistance in a canine isolate of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Pérez, Verónica; García-Hernandez, Raquel; Corpas-López, Victoriano; Tomás, Ana M; Martín-Sanchez, Joaquina; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting dogs and humans in the Mediterranean area. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of L. infantum is regarded as the most significant risk for potential human infection. We have studied the susceptibility profile to antimony and other anti-leishmania drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin) in Leishmania infantum isolates extracted from a dog before and after two therapeutic interventions with meglumine antimoniate (subcutaneous Glucantime(®), 100 mg/kg/day for 28 days). After the therapeutic intervention, these parasites were significantly less susceptible to antimony than pretreatment isolate, presenting a resistance index of 6-fold to Sb(III) for promastigotes and >3-fold to Sb(III) and 3-fold to Sb(V) for intracellular amastigotes. The susceptibility profile of this resistant L. infantum line is related to a decreased antimony uptake due to lower aquaglyceroporin-1 expression levels. Additionally, other mechanisms including an increase in thiols and overexpression of enzymes involved in thiol metabolism, such as ornithine decarboxylase, trypanothione reductase, mitochondrial tryparedoxin and mitochondrial tryparedoxin peroxidase, could contribute to the resistance as antimony detoxification mechanisms. A major contribution of this study in a canine L. infantum isolate is to find an antimony-resistant mechanism similar to that previously described in other human clinical isolates. PMID:27317865

  18. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YDR267C, YHR122W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available it (1) Rows with this bait as prey (0) YHR122W - Protein of unknown function required for establishment of s...nks replication to cohesion establishment; YHR122W is an essential gene Rows with this prey as prey (1) Rows...rey ORF YHR122W Prey gene name - Prey description Protein of unknown function required for estab...inks replication to cohesion establishment; YHR122W is an essential gene Rows with this prey as prey Rows wi

  19. Sodium Antimony Gluconate Induces Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Leishmania donovani-Infected Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Mookerjee Basu, Jayati; Mookerjee, Ananda; Sen, Prosenjit; Bhaumik, Suniti; Sen, Pradip; Banerjee, Subha; Naskar, Ksudiram; Choudhuri, Soumitra K.; Saha, Bhaskar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Roy, Syamal

    2006-01-01

    Pentavalent antimony complexes, such as sodium stibogluconate and sodium antimony gluconate (SAG), are still the first choice for chemotherapy against various forms of leishmaniasis, including visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar. Although the requirement of a somewhat functional immune system for the antileishmanial action of antimony was reported previously, the cellular and molecular mechanism of action of SAG was not clear. Herein, we show that SAG induces extracellular signal-regulated k...

  20. Remediation of antimony-rich mine waters: Assessment of antimony removal and shifts in the microbial community of an onsite field-scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Kalin, Margarete; Krumins, Valdis; Dong, Yiran; Ning, Zengping; Liu, Tong; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Mao, Jianzhong; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-08-01

    An on-site field-scale bioreactor for passive treatment of antimony (Sb) contamination was installed downstream of an active Sb mine in Southwest China, and operated for one year (including a six month monitoring period). This bioreactor consisted of five treatment units, including one pre-aerobic cell, two aerobic cells, and two microaerobic cells. With the aerobic cells inoculated with indigenous mine water microflora, the bioreactor removed more than 90% of total soluble Sb and 80% of soluble antimonite (Sb(III)). An increase in pH and decrease of oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) was also observed along the flow direction. High-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene variable (V4) region revealed that taxonomically diverse microbial communities developed in the bioreactor. Metal (loid)-oxidizing bacteria including Ferrovum, Thiomonas, Gallionella, and Leptospirillum, were highly enriched in the bioreactor cells where the highest total Sb and Sb(III) removal occurred. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that a suite of in situ physicochemical parameters including pH and Eh were substantially correlated with the overall microbial communities. Based on an UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) tree and PCoA (Principal Coordinates Analysis), the microbial composition of each cell was distinct, indicating these in situ physicochemical parameters had an effect in shaping the indigenous microbial communities. Overall, this study was the first to employ a field-scale bioreactor to treat Sb-rich mine water onsite and, moreover, the findings suggest the feasibility of the bioreactor in removing elevated Sb from mine waters. PMID:27208755

  1. Validation and Verification of the Correct Operation of the Thermo Fisher Scientific’s Genesys 10S spectrometer used in ANC122 and NF-ANC122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-19

    In December of 2015, the old qualified Prim UV-Vis instrument used in the ANC122 and NFANC122 procedures failed its monthly calibration check. Attempts to get the system to pass by cleaning flow cells, replacing the light bulb and realigning the light path failed to get sustained reproducible results from the system. As it could no longer pass QA/QC requirements the decision to take it out of service was made. To replace the system, a previously purchased Thermo Fisher Scientific UV-VIS spectrometer (model Genesys 10S; Serial #: 2L5R059137) was retrieved from storage. This report shows that the system is performing as required and meeting all QC requirements listed in ANC122 and NF-ANC122

  2. Cyanide and antimony thermodynamic database for the aqueous species and solids for the EPA-MINTEQ geochemical code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1989-05-01

    Thermodynamic data for aqueous species and solids that contain cyanide and antimony were tabulated from several commonly accepted, published sources of thermodynamic data and recent journal article. The review does not include gases or organic complexes of either antimony or cyanide, nor does the review include the sulfur compounds of cyanide. The basic thermodynamic data, ..delta..G/sub f,298//sup o/, ..delta..H/sub f,298//sup o/, and S/sub f//sup o/ values, were chosen to represent each solid phase and aqueous species for which data were available in the appropriate standard state. From these data the equilibrium constants (log K/sub r,298//sup o/) and enthalpies of reaction (..delta..H/sub r,298//sup o/) at 298 K (25/degree/C) were calculated for reactions involving the formation of these aqueous species and solids from the basic components. 34 refs., 14 tabs.

  3. Antimony incorporation in InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, J.; Sallet, V.; Christophe, H. J.; Oueslati, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2008-01-01

    We have grown InAs(Sb) quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using two different antimony exposures ( ΦSb). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were carried out to investigate the dot size evolution as function of the incorporated antimony content in InAs/GaAs QDs material. Anomalous asymmetric-band feature was observed in room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) spectra of the investigated QD samples grown at relatively high temperature (490 °C). From the temperature-dependent PL measurements, it was found that the asymmetric-band feature is associated with the ground-states transitions from QDs with bimodal size distribution. The analysis of the pump power dependent PL spectra allows us to suggest a type II band lineup for the InAsSb/GaAs QDs materials system.

  4. Interest of lymphoscintigraphy with 99sup(m)Tc-labelled antimony sulfide in the arms after breast carcinoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2 mCi of antimony sulfide colloid labelled with sup(99m)Tc were injected subcutaneously between the digits in 25 patients with postoperative lymphoedema of the arm for breast carcinoma. The two arms are examined successively, the normal one being used as control. The lymphoscintigraphy is realised with a gamma camera during an hour. The information obtained is threefoled; on the peripheral block's importance, the place where the lymphatic flow is stopped, and the presence in 40% of patients of axillary lymph nodes. The diminution of the lymphatic flow is not in correlation with the lymphoedema's importance. Lymphoscintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc antimony sulfide colloid is a simple examination but some side effects may occur. In 7 patients, post-injection lymphangitis was observed, with favorable evolution under antibiotic treatment. The lymphoscintigraphy can give some interesting information on the evolution of treated lymphoedema

  5. Co-administration of glycyrrhizic acid with the antileishmanial drug sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) cures SAG-resistant visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar; Roy, Syamal; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Since there are very few affordable antileishmanial drugs available, antimonial resistance has crippled antileishmanial therapy, thereby emphasising the need for development of novel therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the antileishmanial role of combined therapy with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) and the triterpenoid glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania (GE1F8R). Combination therapy with GA and SAG successfully limited infection with SAG-resistant Leishmania in a synergistic manner (fractional inhibitory concentration index resistant Leishmania and co-treated with GA and SAG exhibited a significant reduction in hepatic and splenic parasite burden. In probing the mechanism, it was observed that GA treatment suppressed the expression and efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), two host ABC transporters responsible for antimony efflux from host cells infected with SAG-resistant parasites. This suppression correlated with greater intracellular antimony retention during SAG therapy both in vitro and in vivo, which was reflected in the reduced parasite load. Furthermore, co-administration of GA and SAG induced a shift in the cytokine balance towards a Th1 phenotype by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα) and inducing nitric oxide generation in GE1F8R-infected macrophages as well as GE1F8R-infected mice. This study aims to provide an affordable leishmanicidal alternative to expensive antileishmanial drugs such as miltefosine and amphotericin B. Furthermore, this report explores the role of GA as a resistance modulator in MRP1- and P-gp-overexpressing conditions. PMID:25600891

  6. Exploring screen printing technology on thermoelectric energy harvesting with printing copper-nickel and bismuth-antimony thermocouples

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Zhuo; Koukharenko, Elena; Torah, R; Beeby, SP

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and testing of copper (Cu) - nickel (Ni) and bismuth (Bi) - antimony (Sb) based thermocouples fabricated using screen printing technology. The transport properties of the printed thermoelectric material were measured in room temperature while the Seebeck voltage and power output of the printed thermocouples were tested under a variety temperature gradient. Initial thermoelectric materials have been integrated in inks and then deposited on substrate by the si...

  7. The Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic and Physical Properties of Antimony Tin Oxide Nanopowder

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Antimony tin oxide (ATO) is known for its high thermal conductivity, optical transmittance, and wide energy band gap, which makes it a promising material for the display devices, solar cells, and chemical sensor industries. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the atomic and physical properties of ATO nanopowder. The ATO nanopowder was divided into two parts: control and treated. The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield ...

  8. The influence of remelting on the properties of AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony

    OpenAIRE

    D. Medlen; D. Bolibruchova

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eut...

  9. EFFECT OF GRAIN BOUNDARY SEGREGATION OF ANTIMONY ON RELAXATION AT GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN SILICON-IRON ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Y.; Fujimoto, K

    1981-01-01

    A sharp grain boundary peak appears in both 2 and 3% silicon-iron alloys due to a substitutional solute of silicon. This peak is highly sensitive to the segregation of the third element of antimony and, contrary to orthodox solute peaks in binary and ternary alloys, largely decreases in magnitude on heating after a segregation treatment. The subsequent measurement on cooling returns the peak to the ordinary magnitude. As a function of annealing time at a temperature of segregation, the height...

  10. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  11. Precipitation of antimony from the solution of sodium thioantimonite by air oxidation in the presence of catalytic agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天足; 赖琼琳; 唐建军; 楚广

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of antimony oxidation in the solution of sodium thioantimonite was studied in the presence of catalytic agents. The catalytic effects of the respective addition of cupric sulfate, sodium tartrate, potassium permanganate, phenol, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and their combination on the oxidation of sodium thioantimonite were investigated. A pilot test was carried out. The results show that the respective use of sodium tartrate, cupric sulfate, potassium permanganate, phenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene have little catalytic effect on the oxidation of sodium thioantimonite. However there exists obvious catalytic oxidation by the combination of 0.25 g/L 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, 0.5 g/L potassium permanganate and 1.0 g/L phenol. Moreover, high blast intensity, the increase of temperature and NaOH concentration favor the oxidation of antimony. The oxidation process of antimony has such advantages as quick reaction and low operation costs. The results of the pilot test are consistent with those of laboratory experiments.

  12. Separation of Lead from Crude Antimony by Pyro-Refining Process with NaPO3 Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Longgang; Hu, Yuejie; Xia, Zhimei; Chen, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to separate lead from crude antimony through an oxidation pyro-refining process and by using sodium metaphosphate as a lead elimination reagent. The process parameters that will affect the refining results were optimized experimentally under controlled conditions, such as the sodium metaphosphate charging dosage, the refining temperature and duration, and the air flow rate, to determine their effect on the lead content in refined antimony and the lead removal rate. A minimum lead content of 0.0522 wt.% and a 98.6% lead removal rate were obtained under the following optimal conditions: W_{{{NaPO}_{{3}} }} = 15% W Sb (where W represents weight), a refining temperature of 800°C, a refining time of 30 min, and an air flow rate of 3 L/min. X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed that high-purity antimony was obtained. The smelting operation is free from smoke or ammonia pollution when using monobasic sodium phosphate or ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the lead elimination reagent. However, this refining process can also remove a certain amount of sulfur, cobalt, and silicon simultaneously, and smelting results also suggest that sodium metaphosphate can be used as a potential lead elimination reagent for bismuth and copper refining.

  13. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  14. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  15. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... degradation of the waters of the territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the oceans) unless the Director... construction or operation will cause or contribute to the violation of water quality standards. The owner...

  16. 29 CFR 794.122 - Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ascertainment of âannualâ gross sales volume. 794.122... Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.122 Ascertainment of “annual” gross sales volume. The annual gross volume of sales of an enterprise engaged in the wholesale or bulk distribution of petroleum...

  17. 40 CFR 125.122 - Determination of unreasonable degradation of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of unreasonable degradation of the marine environment. 125.122 Section 125.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... environment. (a) The director shall determine whether a discharge will cause unreasonable degradation of...

  18. 40 CFR 90.122 - Amending the application and certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate of conformity. 90.122 Section 90.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... of conformity. (a) The engine manufacturer must notify the Administrator when either an engine is to be added to a certificate of conformity, an FEL is to be changed, or changes are to be made to...

  19. 19 CFR 122.186 - Presentation of Customs access seal by other person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of Customs access seal by other person. 122.186 Section 122.186 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Presentation of Customs access seal by other person. If an approved Customs access seal is presented by...

  20. Therapeutic silencing of microRNA-122 in primates with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanford, Robert E; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, Elisabeth S; Petri, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    The liver-expressed microRNA-122 (miR-122) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA accumulation in cultured liver cells, but its potential as a target for antiviral intervention has not been assessed. We found that treatment of chronically infected chimpanzees with a locked nucleic acid (LNA...

  1. 25 CFR 122.5 - Selection/nomination process for committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection/nomination process for committee members. 122.5... OF OSAGE JUDGMENT FUNDS FOR EDUCATION § 122.5 Selection/nomination process for committee members. (a... include a brief statement of interest and qualifications for serving on the committee. (b) Nominations...

  2. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  3. A study on low cost-high conducting fluorine and antimony-doped tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of undoped, fluorine- and antimony-doped tin oxide on glass at 400 deg. C was prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl2), ammonium fluoride (NH4F), and antimony trichloride (SbCl3) were used as source for tin (Sn), fluorine (F), and antimony (Sb), respectively. To ensure the control of solution concentration on growth rate, fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO2:F) thin films were first prepared with different amount of tin precursor, in the range of 5-12g, which has resulted in deposition of films with different thickness values. The optimum amount of tin precursor found from this study (11g) was fixed constant for preparing SnO2 films with different doping levels of F and Sb. From the X-ray diffraction analyses, it is understood that the preferred orientation of SnO2:F films is dependent on their thickness and the solution concentration. The variation in the solution concentration and orientation of the films was reflected in their morphology as examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM studies showed that the variation in the solution concentration lead to different grain shapes for different orientations. The AFM study showed that the RMS roughness of undoped films reduced considerably from 86 to 24nm due to fluorine doping (15wt.%), whereas the antimony doping (2wt.%) has no significance effect on RMS roughness (93nm). The electrical properties of the films were examined by a Hall measurements setup in van der Pauw configuration. A minimum sheet resistance of 1.75 and 2.17Ω/ were obtained for F and Sb doped films, respectively. From the optical studies, it is found that the transmittance of undoped films increased from 42% to a maximum 85% on 30wt.% fluorine doping, whereas that has been decreased to a minimum of 12% on 4wt.% antimony doping (800nm). A discussion on the effect of type of dopants and their concentration on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the SnO2 film have

  4. Preparation of antimony sulfide semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ren-De, E-mail: son003@sekisui.com [Research & Development Institute, High Performance Plastics Company, Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd. 2-1 Hyakuyama, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-Gun, Osaka, 618-0021 (Japan); Tsuji, Takeshi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-Cho, Matsue, 690-8504 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser ablation in liquid (LAL) was applied to prepare antimony sulfide nanoparticles (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs). • Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs with a stoichiometric composition were successfully prepared by LAL in water without using any surfactants or capping agents. • Thus-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} NPs showed low-temperature crystallization and melting at a temperature low as 200 °C. • The NPs-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film showed comparable semiconductor properties (carrier mobility and carrier density) to the vacuum deposited one. • Byproducts such as CS{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO were detected by GC-MS analysis when LAL was performed in organic solvent. • The LAL-induced decomposition mechanism of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic solvents was discussed based on the GC-MS results. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synthesis of antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) semiconductor nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid without using any surfactants or capping agents. Different results were obtained in water and organic solvents. In the case of water, Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles with chemical compositions of stoichiometry were successfully prepared when laser irradiation was performed under the condition with the dissolved oxygen removed by argon gas bubbling. It was shown that thus-obtained Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles exhibit features of not only low-temperature crystallization but also low-temperature melting at a temperature as low as 200 °C. Nanoparticle-coated Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were found to show good visible light absorption and satisfying semiconductor properties (i.e., carrier mobility and density), which are essential for photovoltaic application. On the other hand, in the case of organic solvents (e.g., acetone, ethanol), such unexpected byproducts as CS{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} were detected from the reaction system by GC-MS analysis, which suggests that both Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and organic

  5. Infrared-to-red upconversion luminescence in samarium-doped antimony glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Tirtha [Glass Technology Laboratory, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Karmakar, Basudeb [Glass Technology Laboratory, Glass Division, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)], E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in

    2008-12-15

    A new antimony-based glass system (K{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) having low phonon energy (about 600 cm{sup -1}) doped with Sm{sup 3+} ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-Visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with the spectrochemistry of the 15K{sub 2}O-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-70Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) glasses have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. UV-Vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 949 nm at room temperature. Three upconverted bands originating from the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 7/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}{yields}{sup 6}H{sub 9/2} transitions are found to be centered at 566 (green, weak), 602 (orange, weak) and 636 (red, remarkably strong) nm, respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption, normal (downconversion) fluorescence and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level ({sup 4}G{sub 5/2}) by multiphonon deexcitation effect. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm{sup -1}, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm{sup -1})

  6. Inhibition of Leishmania donovani promastigote DNA topoisomerase I and human monocyte DNA topoisomerases I and II by antimonial drugs and classical antitopoisomerase agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John; Saravia, Nancy G

    2004-10-01

    We have compared the inhibitor sensitivities of DNA topoisomerase I (TOPI) from Leishmania donovani promastigotes and TOPs I and II of human monocytes using pentavalent and trivalent antimonials (SbV, SbIII) and classical TOP inhibitors. Bis-benzimidazoles (Hoechst-33258 and -33342) were potent inhibitors of both parasite and human TOPI, but Hoechst-33342 was markedly less cytotoxic to promastigotes than to monocytes in vitro. Leishmania donovani was also considerably less sensitive than monocytes to camptothecin, both at enzyme and cellular levels. Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) was the only antimonial to inhibit TOPI, exhibiting a significant (P donovani enzyme but showed low cytotoxicities against intact promastigotes. The SbV meglumine antimoniate failed to inhibit TOPI and showed negligible cytotoxicities, whereas SbIII drugs were lethal to parasites and monocytes yet poor inhibitors of TOPI. Monocyte TOPII was inhibited by bis-benzimidazoles and insensitive to antimonials and camptothecin. The disparity between the high leishmanicidal activity and low anti-TOPI potency of SbIII indicates that in vivo targeting of L. donovani TOPI by the reductive pathway of antimonial activation is improbable. Nevertheless, the potent direct inhibition of TOPI by SSG and the differential interactions of camptothecin with L. donovani and human TOPI support the possibility of developing parasite-specific derivatives. PMID:15562618

  7. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R.; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg⋅mL−1 Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg⋅mL−1) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is. PMID:24167266

  8. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-01

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  9. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga

    2004-07-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  10. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells. PMID:26237216

  11. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP(1-x)) Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H B; Andriotis, A N; Menon, M; Jasinski, J B; Martinez-Garcia, A; Sunkara, M K

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP(1-x) alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP(1-x). Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP(1-x) nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields. PMID:26860470

  12. Direct Band Gap Gallium Antimony Phosphide (GaSbxP1-x) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. B.; Andriotis, A. N.; Menon, M.; Jasinski, J. B.; Martinez-Garcia, A.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2016-02-01

    Here, we report direct band gap transition for Gallium Phosphide (GaP) when alloyed with just 1-2 at% antimony (Sb) utilizing both density functional theory based computations and experiments. First principles density functional theory calculations of GaSbxP1-x alloys in a 216 atom supercell configuration indicate that an indirect to direct band gap transition occurs at x = 0.0092 or higher Sb incorporation into GaSbxP1-x. Furthermore, these calculations indicate band edge straddling of the hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions for compositions ranging from x = 0.0092 Sb up to at least x = 0.065 Sb making it a candidate for use in a Schottky type photoelectrochemical water splitting device. GaSbxP1-x nanowires were synthesized by reactive transport utilizing a microwave plasma discharge with average compositions ranging from x = 0.06 to x = 0.12 Sb and direct band gaps between 2.21 eV and 1.33 eV. Photoelectrochemical experiments show that the material is photoactive with p-type conductivity. This study brings attention to a relatively uninvestigated, tunable band gap semiconductor system with tremendous potential in many fields.

  13. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  14. Large anharmonic effect and thermal expansion anisotropy of metal chalcogenides: The case of antimony sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Soh, Jian Rui; Liu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    We derive a compact matrix expression for the linear thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) for a general orthorhombic system which relates elastic properties and integrated quantities based on deformation and mode dependent Grüneisen parameters and mode dependent heat capacities. The density of Grüneisen parameters Γ (ν ) as a function of frequency ν , weighted by the number of phonon modes, is introduced and found to be illuminating in interpreting the TEC results. Using density functional perturbation theory and Grüneisen formalism for thermal expansion, we illustrate the general usefulness of this method by calculating the linear and volumetric TECs of a low-symmetry orthorhombic compound antimony sulfide (Sb2S3 ), which belongs to a large class of technologically and fundamentally important materials. Even though negative Grüneisen parameters are found for deformations in all three crystal directions, the Γ (ν ) data rule out the occurrences of negative TECs at all temperatures. Sb2S3 exhibits a large thermal expansion anisotropy where the TEC in the b direction can reach as high as 13 ×10-6 K-1 at high temperatures, about two and seven times larger than the TECs in the c and a direction, respectively. Our work suggests a general and practical first-principles approach to calculate the thermal properties of other complicated low-symmetry systems.

  15. Controlled n-doping in chemical vapour deposition grown graphene by antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of antimony (Sb) doping on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition without any significant change in its electrical properties. By increasing the metal thickness from 1 to 5 nm, we found a shift in the wave numbers of Raman G and two-dimensional (2D) peaks consistent with n-doping and a change in the Fermi level of the graphene into the conduction band. The relative intensity of the D peak to the G peak did not show a significant change and that of the 2D peak to the G peak remained at a large enough number as a function of metal thickness, implying little degradation by the metal dopants. Transport measurements also confirm the n-doping of graphene through a shift of Dirac point in the transfer characteristics and the quality preservation with little changes in mobility. We also report on the formation of a p–n junction by metal doping on selected areas of the graphene and their electrical properties with transfer characteristics and Hall measurements. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of atmospheric inputs as possible sources of antimony in pregnant women from urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O; Querol, Xavier; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-02-15

    Antimony and copper are common components of brake linings. The occurrence of these two metals in urban atmospheric aerosols has been related to vehicular use. Urine samples (n=466) taken during the 32nd week of pregnancy were analyzed for Sb and Cu in pregnant women from an urban area (Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain). The geometric mean levels were 0.28 and 13 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Positive significant associations between urine concentrations of Sb and seasonality, intensity of physical exercise, working activities and traffic intensity at their home streets were observed. Cu showed the same trends but without statistical significance. In both cases, the estimated dietary ingestion of these two metals was larger than the inhalation inputs but the difference was much higher for Cu than for Sb. While Sb has no dietary role, Cu is an essential element which is also incorporated into humans through diet. The results suggest that inhalation of atmospheric particles may also constitute a source of Sb in pregnant women and general population of urban areas. PMID:26657384

  17. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  18. Spark Plasma Sintering and Densification Mechanisms of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Densification of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO ceramics without sintering aids is very difficult, due to the volatilization of SnO2, formation of deleterious phases above 1000°C, and poor sintering ability of ATO particles. In this paper, monodispersed ATO nanoparticles were synthesized via sol-gel method, and then ATO nanoceramics with high density were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS technology using the as-synthesized ATO nanoparticles without the addition of sintering aids. The effect of Sb doping content on the densification was investigated, and the densification mechanisms were explored. The results suggest that ATO nanoparticles derived from sol-gel method show good crystallinity with a crystal size of 5–20 nm and Sb is incorporated into the SnO2 crystal structure. When the SPS sintering temperature is 1000°C and the Sb doping content is 5 at.%, the density of ATO nanoceramics reaches a maximum value of 99.2%. Densification mechanisms are explored in detail.

  19. A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisarum, Rujira; Ren, Jing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    A selective separation method based on anion exchange cartridge was developed to determine antimony (Sb) speciation in biological matrices by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The selectivity of the cartridge towards antimonite [Sb(III)] and antimonate [Sb(V)] reversed in the presence of deionized (DI) water and 2mM citric acid. While Sb(V) was retained by the cartridge in DI water, Sb(III) was retained in citric acid media. At pH 6, Sb(III) and Sb(V) formed Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-citrate complexes, but the cartridge had higher affinity towards the Sb(III)-citrate complex. Separation of Sb(III) was tested at various concentrations in fresh and spent growth media and plant tissues. Our results showed that cartridge-based Sb speciation was successful in plant tissues, which was confirmed by HPLC-ICP-MS. The cartridge retained Sb(III) and showed 92-104% Sb(V) recovery from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata roots treated with Sb(III) and Sb(V). The cartridge procedure is an effective alternative for Sb speciation, offering low cost, reproducible results, and simple Sb analysis using GFAAS.

  20. Antimony release from contaminated mine soils and its migration in four typical soils using lysimeter experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Zhao, Long; Qin, Yusheng; Hou, Hong; Zhang, Naiming

    2016-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) can pose great risks to the environment in mining and smelting areas. The migration of Sb in contaminated mine soil was studied using lysimeter experiments. The exchangeable concentration of soil Sb decreased with artificial leaching. The concentrations of Sb retained in the subsoil layers (5-25cm deep) were the highest for Isohumosol and Ferrosol and the lowest for Sandy soil. The Sb concentrations in soil solutions decreased with soil depth, and were adequately simulated using a logarithmic function. The Sb migration pattern in Sandy soil was markedly different from the patterns in the other soils which suggested that Sb may be transported in soil colloids. Environmental factors such as water content, soil temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential of the soil had different effects on Sb migration in Sandy soil and Primosol. The high Fe and Mn contents in Ferrosol and Isohumosol significantly decreased the mobility of Sb in these soils. The Na and Sb concentrations in soils used in the experiments positively correlated with each other (Psoil solutions, the Sb chemical fraction patterns, and the Sb/Na ratios decreased in the order Sandy soil>Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol, and we concluded that the Sb mobility in the soils also decreased in that order. PMID:27395817

  1. Synthesis of Copper-Antimony-Sulfide Nanocrystals for Solution-Processed Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Satoshi; Horita, Keisuke; Yuasa, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Tooru; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Ishiwata, Yoichi; Shimanoe, Kengo; Kida, Tetsuya

    2015-08-17

    The p-type nanocrystals (NCs) of copper-based chalcogenides, such as CuInSe2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, have attracted increasing attention in photovoltaic applications due to their potential to produce cheap solution-processed solar cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of copper-antimony-sulfide (CAS) NCs with different crystal phases including CuSbS2, Cu3SbS4, and Cu12Sb4S13. In addition, their morphology, crystal phase, and optical properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy, and photoemission yield spectroscopy. The morphology, crystal phase, and electronic structure were significantly dependent on the chemical composition in the CAS system. Devices were fabricated using particulate films consisting of CAS NCs prepared by spin coating without a high-temperature treatment. The CAS NC-based devices exhibited a diode-like current-voltage characteristic when coupled with an n-type CdS layer. In particular, the CuSbS2 NC devices exhibited photovoltaic responses under simulated sunlight, demonstrating its applicability for use in solution-processed solar cells.

  2. Semiconductor nanocrystals functionalized with antimony telluride zintl ions for nanostructured thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Maksym V; Spokoyny, Boris; Lee, Jong-Soo; Scheele, Marcus; Weber, Andrew; Perera, Susanthri; Landry, Daniel; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2010-05-19

    The energy efficiency of heat engines could be improved by the partial recovery of waste heat using thermoelectric (TE) generators. We show the possibility of designing nanostructured TE materials using colloidal inorganic nanocrystals functionalized with molecular antimony telluride complexes belonging to the family of Zintl ions. The unique advantage of using Zintl ions as the nanocrystal surface ligands is the possibility to convert them into crystalline metal chalcogenides, thus linking individual nanobuilding blocks into a macroscopic assembly of electronically coupled functional modules. This approach allows preserving the benefits of nanostructuring and quantum confinement while enabling facile charge transport through the interparticle boundaries. A developed methodology was applied for solution-based fabrication of nanostructured n- and p-type Bi(2-x)Sb(x)Te(3) alloys with tunable composition and PbTe-Sb(2)Te(3) nanocomposites with controlled grain size. Characterization of the TE properties of these materials showed that their Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities, and ZT values compared favorably with those of previously reported solution-processed TE materials.

  3. Assessment and distribution of antimony in soils around three coal mines, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kang, Y.; Lam, P.K.S.; Chou, C.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-three soil samples were collected from the Luling, Liuer, and Zhangji coal mines in the Huaibei and Huainan areas of Anhui Province, China. The samples were analyzed for antimony (Sb) by inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The average Sb content in the 33 samples was 4 mg kg-1, which is lower than in coals from this region (6.2 mg kg-1). More than 75% of the soils sampled showed a significant degree of Sb pollution (enrichment factors [EFs] 5-20). The soils collected near the gob pile and coal preparation plant were higher in Sb content than those collected from residential areas near the mines. The gob pile and tailings from the preparation plant were high in mineral matter content and high in Sb. They are the sources of Sb pollution in surface soils in the vicinity of coal mines. The spatial dispersion of Sb in surface soil in the mine region shows that Sb pollution could reach out as far as 350 m into the local environment conditions. Crops in rice paddies may adsorb some Sb and reduce the Sb content in soils from paddyfields. Vertical distribution of Sb in two soil profiles indicates that Sb is normally relatively immobile in soils. ?? 2011 Air & Waste Management Association.

  4. DFT Study on the Carrier Concentration and Temperature-Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Antimony Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Jayaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermoelectric properties of Antimony Selenide (Sb2Se3 obtained using first principles calculations. We investigated the electronic band structure using the FP-LAPW method within the sphere of the density functional theory. Thermoelectric properties were calculated using BoltzTrap code using the constant relaxation time (τ approximation at three different temperatures 300 K, 600 K, and 800 K. Seebeck coefficient (S was found to decrease with increasing temperature, electrical conductivity (σ/τ was almost constant in the entire temperature range, and electronic thermal conductivity (κ/τ increased with increasing temperature. With increase in temperature S decreased from 1870 μV/K (at 300 K to 719 μV/K (at 800 K, electronic thermal conductivity increased from 1.56 × 1015 W/m K s (at 300 K to 3.92 × 1015 W/m K s (at 800 K, and electrical conductivity decreased from 22 × 1019/Ω m s (at 300 K to 20 × 1019/Ω m s (at 800 K. The thermoelectric properties were also calculated for different hole concentrations and the optimum concentration for a good thermoelectric performance over a large range of temperatures (from 300 K to 1000 K was found for hole concentration around 1019 cm−3.

  5. Comparison of arsenic and antimony biogeochemical behavior in water, soil and tailings from Xikuangshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhiyou; Wu, Fengchang; Mo, Changli; Deng, Qiujing; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Although similar geochemical behaviors of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) in the environment has been assumed and widely reported, growing evidence suggests the two elements cannot, under some conditions, be assumed to behave similarly. In this four-year study (samples collected in each year), comparative investigation of the biogeochemistry of As and Sb in water/fish, soil/vegetable, tailings/plant samples were carried out at the world's largest active Sb mine area (Xikuangshan, China). Depending on duration the tailings had been stacked, significant differences in spatial distributions between As and Sb were found, and these were associated with change in pH over time. Bio-accumulation factors (BAFs) of As were approximately 10-fold greater than those of Sb in fish/water, plant/tailing, and vegetable/soil systems. Sb had higher BAF in non-fatty tissues such as gills of fishes and shells of crabs. BAFs of Sb in vegetable/soil exhibited insignificantly, but different from As, positive correlation with pH in soil. PMID:26356182

  6. Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Grown by Home Made Spray Pyrolysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo; Babatola, Babatunde Keji; Ishola, Abdulahi Dimeji; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Solar cell Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) films have been deposited on glass substrates by home made spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ATO films have been investigated as a function of Sb-doping level and annealing temperature. The optimum target composition for high conductivity and low resistivity was found to be 20 wt. % SnSb2 + 90 wt. ATO. Under optimized deposition conditions of 450oC annealing temperature, electrical resistivity of 5.2×10-4 Ω -cm, sheet resistance of 16.4 Ω/sq, average optical transmittance of 86% in the visible range, and average optical band-gap of 3.34eV were obtained. The film deposited at lower annealing temperature shows a relatively rough, loosely bound slightly porous surface morphology while the film deposited at higher annealing temperature shows uniformly distributed grains of greater size. Keywords: Annealing, Doping, Homemade spray pyrolysis, Tin oxide, Resistivity

  7. A density-functional study on the electronic and vibrational properties of layered antimony telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Ralf P.; Deringer, Volker L.; Simon, Ronnie E.; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2015-03-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of electronic and lattice-dynamical properties of crystalline antimony telluride (Sb2Te3). In a first step, the electronic structure and chemical bonding have been investigated, followed by calculations of the atomic force constants, phonon dispersion relationships and densities of states. Then, (macroscopic) physical properties of Sb2Te3 have been computed, namely, the atomic thermal displacement parameters, the Grüneisen parameter γ, the volume expansion of the lattice, and finally the bulk modulus B. We compare theoretical results from three popular and economic density-functional theory (DFT) approaches: the local density approximation (LDA), the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a posteriori dispersion corrections to the latter. Despite its simplicity, the LDA shows excellent performance for all properties investigated—including the Grüneisen parameter, which only the LDA is able to recover with confidence. In the absence of computationally more demanding hybrid DFT methods, the LDA seems to be a good choice for further lattice dynamical studies of Sb2Te3 and related layered telluride materials.

  8. Duplication of the segment q12.2 leads to qter of chromosome 22 due to paternal inversion 22(p13q12.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, A; Wilson, M G; Towner, J W

    1983-01-01

    A 1730-g male infant, born at 37 weeks gestation, had multiple congenital anomalies, consisting of microcephaly, hypertelorism, bilateral cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, low-set ears, and cryptorchidism. Chromosome analysis showed a recombinant 22 derived from the paternal inversion (22)(p13q12.2). The proband's karyotype is 46,XY,rec(22),dup q,inv(22)(p13q12.2)pat, which has a duplication of q12.2 leads to qter. An identical recombinant has been reported in a female infant in Mexico whose mother was a carrier of the inversion. Similar congenital anomalies present in these two patients demonstrate the phenotype of duplication of the distal long arm 22. This report also documents the occurrence of an identical inversion in two apparently unrelated Mexican families.

  9. Gold and Antimony Mixed Flotation on a Micrite Gold Antimony ore in Guizhou%贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿金锑混浮试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石贵明; 周意超

    2015-01-01

    贵州某泥晶灰岩型含锑金矿石为块状构造,金属矿物主要为黄铁矿、针铁矿,含量小于1%,非金属矿物以方解石为主,另有少量石英、有机质等;金含量为6.04 g/t,显微镜下未见自然金粒,74.34%的金赋存在硫化矿中,游离金仅占总金的7.14%;硅酸盐、碳酸盐包裹金分别占11.96%和6.56%;锑主要以辉锑矿的形式存在。为高效、低成本回收矿石中的金、锑,对混合浮选工艺进行了试验研究。结果表明,在一段磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占71%的情况下1粗2扫混浮、尾矿再磨细度为-0.074 mm占92.7%的情况下再1粗2扫混浮、两粗精矿合并后3次精选、中矿顺序返回流程处理,最终获得了金品位为47.60 g/t、锑品位为9.81%、金回收率为76.68%、锑回收率为85.22%的金锑混合精矿,金锑混浮效果较理想。尾矿中金的回收及金锑分离工艺研究将另文介绍。%The micrite type antimony-containing gold ore in Guizhou is in blocky construction. Its metallic minerals are mainly pyrite and goethite,with content of less than 1%. Non-metallic minerals are calcite,and few of quartz,organic matter, etc. It contains gold of 6. 04 g/t,and natural gold grains were not seen in microscope,74. 34% of the gold occurred in sulfide ore,free gold accounted for only 7. 14%,wrapped gold in silicate and carbonate accounted for 11. 96% and 6. 56% respective-ly. Antimony mainly existed in the form of stibnite. Bulk flotation process was studied to make high efficient recovery of gold and antimony at low costs. The results indicated that,at the grinding fineness of 71% passing 0. 074 mm,through one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation,one roughing and two scavenging bulk flotation after regrinding the tailings to 92. 7% passing 0. 074 mm,three cleaning flotation for the two mixed rough concentrate,and then middles back to the flow-sheet in turn,rough gold-antimony concentrate with gold grade of 47. 60 g

  10. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United States. 122.49a Section 122.49a Customs Duties U.S..., and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial...

  11. 19 CFR 122.75a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75a Section 122.75a Customs Duties U.S... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.75a Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft departing from...

  12. 40 CFR 51.122 - Emissions reporting requirements for SIP revisions relating to budgets for NOX emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting requirements of 40 CFR part 75, then the state need not provide an every-year cycle report to EPA... SIP revisions relating to budgets for NOX emissions. 51.122 Section 51.122 Protection of Environment... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Control Strategy § 51.122 Emissions reporting requirements for SIP...

  13. File list: His.PSC.10.H3K122ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.10.H3K122ac.AllCell mm9 Histone H3K122ac Pluripotent stem cell ERX631826,ER...X631814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.10.H3K122ac.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: His.PSC.05.H3K122ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.05.H3K122ac.AllCell mm9 Histone H3K122ac Pluripotent stem cell ERX631826,ER...X631814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.05.H3K122ac.AllCell.bed ...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census H Appendix H to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 122 - Incorporated Places With Populations Greater Than 100,000 But Less Than 250,000 According to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census G Appendix G to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. G Appendix G to Part 122—Incorporated Places With Populations Greater Than 100,000 But...

  17. Clinical Analysis of 122 Cases of Placental Abruption%胎盘早剥122例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪琴; 孙彦华; 宣冬梅; 蒙占松

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the causes of placental abruption and clinical manifestations and its effect on the mothers and their infants.Method:The clinical data of 122 patients with placental abruption in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Result:84 mild placental abruption patients and 38 severe placental abruption patients were included in this study.The main incentive of placental abruption was hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy.Abdominal pain,abnormal fetal heart,uterus plate hard with tenderness in patients with severe placental abruption were significantly higher than those of mild placental abruption patients(P0.05).Prenatal ultrasound examination suggested 98 cases(80.33%) of placental abruption.The incidences of cesarean section,sever neonatalasphyxia,dead fetus,postpartum hemorrhage and uteroplacental apoplexy of sever placental abruption were higher than those of mild placental abruption,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05);产前行超声检查提示胎盘早剥98例(80.33%);重型胎盘早剥剖宫产、重度新生儿窒息、死胎、产后出血、子宫胎盘卒中发生率高于轻型胎盘早剥,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:提高对胎盘早剥的认识,及时发现胎盘早剥的诱因,及时产前诊断及处理,以降低孕产妇及围产儿患病率和死亡率。

  18. Quantitative HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of antimony redox speciation in complex sample matrices: new insights into the Sb-chemistry causing poor chromatographic recoveries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus; Schmidt, Bjørn; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt;

    2011-01-01

    In solution antimony exists either in the pentavalent or trivalent oxidation state. As Sb(III) is more toxic than Sb(V), it is important to be able to perform a quantitative speciation analysis of Sb’s oxidation state. The most commonly applied chromatographic methods used for this redox speciation...... analysis do, however, often show a low chromatographic Sb recovery when samples of environmental or biological origin are analysed. In this study we explored basal chemistry of antimony and found that formation of macromolecules, presumably oligomeric and polymeric Sb(V) species, is the primary cause...... of low chromatographic recoveries. A combination of HPLC-ICP-MS, AFFF-ICP-MS and spinfiltration was applied for analysis of model compounds and biological samples. Quantitative chromatographic Sb redox speciation analysis was possible by acidic hydrolysis of the antimony polymers prior to analysis...

  19. 19 CFR 122.66 - Clearance or permission to depart denied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.66 Clearance or permission to depart denied. If advance electronic air cargo information is not received...

  20. Constitutive Equation Models of Hot-Compressed T122 Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CA0Jin-rong; LIUZheng—dong; CHENGShi—chang; YANGGang; XIEJian-xin

    2012-01-01

    Based on dislocation reaction theory and Avrami equation, a constitutive equation model was developed to describe dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization during hot deformation of T122 heat resistant steel, which have taken the effect of dynamic strain aging into account. Uniaxial hot compression test had been carried out over a wide range of strain rate (0.01 to 10 s-1 ) and temperature (900 to 1 200 ~C) with the help of Gleeble 3500. Obtained experimental data was applied to determine the material parameters in proposed constitutive equations of T122 steel, by using the non-linear least square regress optimization method. The calculated constitutive equations are quantita- tively in good agreement with experimentally measured curves and microstructure observation. It shows that propose constitutive equation T122 steel is able to be used to predict flow stress of T122 steel during hot deformation in aus- tenite temperature scope.

  1. Isolated heart transplantation for familial transthyretin (TTR) V122I cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenappan, Thenappan; Fedson, Savitri; Rich, Jonathan; Murks, Catherine; Husain, Aliya; Pogoriler, Jennifer; Anderson, Allen S

    2014-06-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) cardiac amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of either mutant or wild type TTR amyloid protein in the myocardium ultimately leading to progressive cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The most common TTR gene mutation that leads to TTR cardiac amyloidosis is the valine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 122 (V122I or Ile122). Currently, the only definitive treatment suggested for mutant TTR cardiac amyloidosis is the combined or sequential liver-heart transplantation in eligible patients, since liver is the source of TTR production. Here, we report a case of heterozygous Val122L mutated TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis treated with isolated heart transplantation with no recurrence of amyloid in the cardiac allograft and no systemic abnormalities 5 years after heart transplantation. Abbreviations MMF mycophenolate mofetil NYHA New York Heart Association TTR transthyretin VE minute ventilation. PMID:24818650

  2. Minerogenetic Mechanism of the Songxi Silver—Antimony Deposit of Northeastern Guangdong—Ore—Controlling Role of Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯; 肖振宇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and comparisons of characteristics of the organic matter in wall rocks of the ore-controlling strata and ores of the Lower Jurassic Songling black shale formation and the related Songxi silver-antimony deposit of northeastern Guangdong have been studied in this paper.The results show that the Lower Jurassic Songling shale formation is a suite of biologic-rich and organic-rich ore-bearing marine sedimentary rocks.Micro-components of the organic matter in the Songling black shale formation consists primarily of algae,amorphous marine kerogen,solid bitument,and pyrobitument.The thermal evolution of organic matter is at the over-maturity stage.There is a general positive correlation between total organic carbon(CO)and metallogenetic elements such as Ag and Sb in the black shale formation.Organic matter in the host rocks in the Songxi ore deposit played a role in controlling the silver-antimony depositing environment during the forming process of the black shale ore-bearing formation.In the absence of vitrinite,the relative level of thermal maturity calculated by solid bitument reflectance indicates that the ore-forming temperatute of the Songxi silver-antimony deposit was about 150-170℃,which was considered as an epithermally reworked ore deposit.The roles of organic matter in the formation of the Sonxi ore deposit are a primitive accumulation of the metallogenetic elements(Ag,Sb) in the sea-water cycle system for ore source and a concentration of metals by ion exchange of chelation as well as reductionn of the oxidzed metals.

  3. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  4. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  5. Demonstration of the presence of the "deleted" MIR122 gene in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim A Y; Fei, Yue; Kalea, Anastasia Z; Yin, Dan; Smith, Andrew J P; Palmen, Jutta; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Walker, Ann P

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in the liver where it influences diverse biological processes and pathways, including hepatitis C virus replication and metabolism of iron and cholesterol. It is processed from a long non-coding primary transcript (~7.5 kb) and the gene has two evolutionarily-conserved regions containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 hairpin region. Several groups reported that the widely-used hepatocytic cell line HepG2 had deficient expression of miR-122, previously ascribed to deletion of the pre-mir-122 stem-loop region. We aimed to characterise this deletion by direct sequencing of 6078 bp containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 stem-loop region in HepG2 and Huh-7, a control hepatocytic cell line reported to express miR-122, supported by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA. In contrast to previous findings, the entire sequence was present in both cell lines. Ten SNPs were heterozygous in HepG2 indicating that DNA was present in two copies. Three validation isolates of HepG2 were sequenced, showing identical genotype to the original in two, whereas the third was different. Investigation of promoter chromatin status by FAIRE showed that Huh-7 cells had 6.2 ± 0.19- and 2.7 ± 0.01- fold more accessible chromatin at the proximal (HNF4α-binding) and distal DR1 transcription factor sites, compared to HepG2 cells (p=0.03 and 0.001, respectively). This was substantiated by ENCODE genome annotations, which showed a DNAse I hypersensitive site in the pri-mir-122 promoter in Huh-7 that was absent in HepG2 cells. While the origin of the reported deletion is unclear, cell lines should be obtained from a reputable source and used at low passage number to avoid discrepant results. Deficiency of miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells may be related to a relative deficiency of accessible promoter chromatin in HepG2 versus Huh-7 cells. PMID:25811611

  6. Demonstration of the presence of the "deleted" MIR122 gene in HepG2 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A Y Hamad

    Full Text Available MicroRNA 122 (miR-122 is highly expressed in the liver where it influences diverse biological processes and pathways, including hepatitis C virus replication and metabolism of iron and cholesterol. It is processed from a long non-coding primary transcript (~7.5 kb and the gene has two evolutionarily-conserved regions containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 hairpin region. Several groups reported that the widely-used hepatocytic cell line HepG2 had deficient expression of miR-122, previously ascribed to deletion of the pre-mir-122 stem-loop region. We aimed to characterise this deletion by direct sequencing of 6078 bp containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 stem-loop region in HepG2 and Huh-7, a control hepatocytic cell line reported to express miR-122, supported by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA. In contrast to previous findings, the entire sequence was present in both cell lines. Ten SNPs were heterozygous in HepG2 indicating that DNA was present in two copies. Three validation isolates of HepG2 were sequenced, showing identical genotype to the original in two, whereas the third was different. Investigation of promoter chromatin status by FAIRE showed that Huh-7 cells had 6.2 ± 0.19- and 2.7 ± 0.01- fold more accessible chromatin at the proximal (HNF4α-binding and distal DR1 transcription factor sites, compared to HepG2 cells (p=0.03 and 0.001, respectively. This was substantiated by ENCODE genome annotations, which showed a DNAse I hypersensitive site in the pri-mir-122 promoter in Huh-7 that was absent in HepG2 cells. While the origin of the reported deletion is unclear, cell lines should be obtained from a reputable source and used at low passage number to avoid discrepant results. Deficiency of miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells may be related to a relative deficiency of accessible promoter chromatin in HepG2 versus Huh-7 cells.

  7. Comparative Efficacies of Two Antimony Regimens To Treat Leishmania braziliensis-Induced Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, G.; Porrozzi, R.; Friedrich, K.; Teva, A.; Marchevsky, R. S.; Vieira, F.; Miekeley, N.; Paumgartten, F. J. R.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the efficacies of two N-methylglucomine antimoniate (MA) dose regimens for treating macaques with Leishmania braziliensis-induced chronic skin disease. Whereas all animals treated with the full dose (20 mg MA/kg/day) were cured, 50% of the monkeys receiving a low-dose regimen (5 mg MA/kg/day) relapsed. The antimony concentrations in macaque plasma and tissue samples were greater in the full-dose group than in that receiving a subtherapeutic MA regimen. Our data also suggest the presence of drug-induced hepatic pathology. PMID:19822700

  8. Influence of antimony on the mechanical properties and gas content of alloy AlSi6Cu4

    OpenAIRE

    D. Medlen; D. Bolibruchova

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium alloys based on Al-Si are used in automotive and aerospace industries. AlSi6Cu4 alloy is used the complicated castings, whichmust comply high strength requirements. Strength characteristics can also be affected by the modifiers: Na, Sr, Sb. In the li terature ismentioned, that AlSi6Cu4 modified by sodium and strontium has negative effect - increases of the gas absorption. Modification of AlSi6Cu4 alloy by antimony, is still not mentioned in the literature. The article gives the effe...

  9. The influence of remelting on the properties of AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Medlen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eutectic phase particle shape and improve the mechanical properties of the final cast products and Al-Si alloys cast properties.

  10. Flow analysis-hydride generation-gas phase derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometric determination of antimony in antileishmanial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Gallignani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the development of a method based on the coupling of flow analysis (FA, hydride generation (HG, and derivative molecular absorption spectrophotometry (D-EAM in gas phase (GP, is described in order to determine total antimony in antileishmanial products. Second derivative order (D²224nm of the absorption spectrum (190 - 300 nm is utilized as measurement criterion. Each one of the parameters involved in the development of the proposed method was examined and optimized. The utilization of the EAM in GP as detection system in a continuous mode instead of atomic absorption spectrometry represents the great potential of the analytic proposal.

  11. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram V Dabhade; Rama Mohan R Tallapragada; Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2009-10-01

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, 50 and 99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

  12. Contamination of bottled waters with antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) increases upon storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Antimony concentrations were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. Two of the brands were at or above the maximum allowable Sb concentration for drinking water in Japan (2 microg/L). Elevated concentrations of Sb in bottled waters are due mainly to the Sb2O3 used as the catalyst in the manufacture of polyethylene terephthalate (PET(E)). The leaching of Sb from PET(E) bottles shows variable reactivity. In 14 brands of bottled water from Canada, Sb concentrations increased on average 19% during 6 months storage at room temperature, but 48 brands of water from 11 European countries increased on average 90% under identical conditions. A mineral water from France in PET(E), purchased in Germany, yielded 725 ng/L when first tested, but 1510 ng/L when it was stored for 6 months at room temperature; the same brand of water, purchased in Hong Kong, yielded 1990 ng/L Sb. Pristine groundwater containing 1.7+/-0.4 ng/L Sb (n = 6) yielded 26.6+/-2.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) after storage in PET(E) bottles from Canada for 6 months versus 281+/-38 ng/L Sb (n = 3) in PET(E) bottles from Germany. Tap water bottled commercially in PET(E) in December 2005 contained 450+/-56 ng/L Sb (n = 3) versus 70.3+/-0.3 ng/L Sb (n = 3) when sampled from a household faucet in the same village (Bammental, Germany), and 25.7+/-1.5 ng/L Sb (n = 3) from a local artesian flow. PMID:17396641

  13. Uptake, translocation and transformation of antimony in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Ren, Jinghua; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong

    2016-02-01

    Antimony (Sb), as a toxic metalloid, has been gaining increasing research concerns due mainly to its severe pollution in many places. Rice has been identified to be the dominant intake route of Sb by residents close to the Sb mining areas. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice seedlings of four cultivars exposed to 0.2 or 1.0 mg/L of Sb(V). The results showed that mass concentration of iron plaque (mg/kg FW) formed at the root surfaces of cultivar N was the highest among all tested cultivars at both low and high exposure levels of Sb(V). The accumulated Sb concentration in iron plaque significantly increased with an increase in mass concentration of iron plaque formed at the rice root. The total amount of iron plaque (mg/pot) at rice root generally increased with increasing exposed Sb(V) concentration, which was closely associated with the increasing lipid peroxidation in roots. Concentration percentage of Sb in rice root significantly reduced as the corresponding value in the iron plaque increased, suggesting that iron plaque formation strongly suppressed uptake of Sb by rice root. Sb concentration in rice tissues followed an order: root > stem, leaf. The japonica rice (cultivars N and Z) exhibited a stronger translocation tendency of Sb from root to stem than indica hybrid rice (cultivars F and G). Translocation of Sb from root of cultivar F to its stem and leaf was sharply enhanced with increasing Sb exposure concentration. Sb(V) could be reduced to Sb(III) in rice tissues, especially in stems (10-26% of the total Sb). For the sake of food safety, the difference in uptake, translocation and transformation of Sb in rice species planted in Sb-contaminated soils should be taken into consideration.

  14. Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with

  15. Effects of Residual Elements Arsenic, Antimony, and Tin on Surface Hot Shortness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lan; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-10-01

    Scrap-based electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking is limited by a surface cracking problem in the recycled steel products, which is known as surface hot shortness. This problem originates from the excessive amount of copper (Cu) in the steel scrap, which enriches during the oxidation of iron (Fe) and consequently melts and penetrates into the austenite grain boundaries. In this article, the effects of arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and tin (Sn) on surface hot shortness were investigated. A series of Fe-0.3 wt pct Cu- x wt pct (As, Sb, or Sn) alloys with x content ranging from 0.06 to 0.10 wt pct was oxidized in air at 1423 K (1150 °C) for 60, 300, and 600 seconds inside the chamber of a thermogravimety analyzer (TGA) where heat is supplied through infrared radiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations show that (1) the presence of Sb and Sn results in severe grain boundary cracking, whereas the presence of As does not, (2) open cracks with Fe oxides were found beneath the oxide/metal interface in the Sb and Sn alloys, and (3) the oxide/metal interfaces for all As, Sb, and Sn alloys are planar. Penetration experiments of pure Cu and Cu-30 wt pct Sn liquid were also conducted in the chamber of a hot-stage confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in nonoxidizing atmosphere: (1) on the Fe-35 wt pct manganese (Mn) alloys to study the correlation between cracking and grain boundary characters, and (2) on the pure Fe substrates to exclude the bulk segregation effects of Sn on grain boundary cracking. It was found that grain boundary cracking rarely took place on low-energy grain boundaries. The results also suggest that the bulk segregation of Sn in the substrate is not necessary to promote significant grain boundary cracking, and as long as the liquid phase contains Sn, it will be highly embrittling.

  16. Green and red fluorescence upconversion in neodymium-doped low phonon antimony glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new K2O-B2O3-Sb2O3 (KBS) glass system having low phonon energy (about 600 cm-1) doped with Nd3+ ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with special emphasis on the spectrochemistry of the 15K2O-15B2O3-70Sb2O3 (mol%) glass have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Nd2O3. UV-vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 805 nm at room temperature. Two upconverted bands originating from the 4G7/2 → 4I9/2 and 4G7/2 → 4I13/2 transitions are found to be centered at 540 nm (green, medium) and 650 nm (red, strong), respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET), cooperative energy transfer (CET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level (4G7/2) by effects of multiphonon deexcitation and thermal population. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm-1, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm-1).

  17. EPR, optical absorption and luminescence studies of Cr3+-doped antimony phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vicente, F. S.; Santos, F. A.; Simões, B. S.; Dias, S. T.; Siu Li, M.

    2014-12-01

    Antimony phosphate glasses (SbPO) doped with 3 and 6 mol% of Cr3+ were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), UV-VIS optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. The EPR spectra of Cr3+-doped glasses showed two principal resonance signals with effective g values at g = 5.11 and g = 1.97. UV-VIS optical absorption spectra of SbPO:Cr3+ presented four characteristics bands at 457, 641, 675, and 705 nm related to the transitions from 4A2(F) to 4T1(F), 4T2(F), 2T1(G), and 2E(G), respectively, of Cr3+ ions in octahedral symmetry. Optical absorption spectra of SbPO:Cr3+ allowed evaluating the crystalline field Dq, Racah parameters (B and C) and Dq/B. The calculated value of Dq/B = 2.48 indicates that Cr3+ ions in SbPO glasses are in strong ligand field sites. The optical band gap for SbPO and SbPO:Cr3+ were evaluated from the UV optical absorption edges. Luminescence measurements of pure and Cr3+-doped glasses excited with 350 nm revealed weak emission bands from 400 to 600 nm due to the 3P1 → 1S0 electronic transition from Sb3+ ions. Cr3+-doped glasses excited with 415 nm presented Cr3+ characteristic luminescence spectra composed by two broad bands, one band centered at 645 nm (2E → 4A2) and another intense band from 700 to 850 nm (4T2 → 4A2).

  18. Metagenomic approach reveals variation of microbes with arsenic and antimony metabolism genes from highly contaminated soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Luo

    Full Text Available Microbes have great potential for arsenic (As and antimony (Sb bioremediation in heavily contaminated soil because they have the ability to biotransform As and Sb to species that have less toxicity or are more easily removed. In this study, we integrated a metagenomic method with physicochemical characterization to elucidate the composition of microbial community and functional genes (related to As and Sb in a high As (range from 34.11 to 821.23 mg kg-1 and Sb (range from 226.67 to 3923.07 mg kg-1 contaminated mine field. Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA of the relationship between the 18 phyla and the concentration of As and Sb demonstrated that 5 phyla of microbes, i.e. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Tenericutes and Gemmatimonadetes were positively correlated with As and Sb concentration. The distribution, diversity and abundance of functional genes (including arsC, arrA, aioA, arsB and ACR3 were much higher for the samples containing higher As and Sb concentrations. Based on correlation analysis, the results showed a positive relationship between arsC-like (R2 = 0.871 and aioA-like (R2 = 0.675 gene abundance and As concentration, and indicated that intracellular As(V reduction and As(III oxidation could be the dominant As detoxification mechanism enabling the microbes to survive in the environment. This study provides a direct and reliable reference on the diversity of microbial community and functional genes in an extremely high concentration As- and Sb-contaminated environment.

  19. MiR-122 targets the vanin 1 gene to regulate its expression in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xingguo; Yu, Jianfeng; Shao, Fang; Zhang, Yanping; Lu, Xiangyun; Gu, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    As the most abundant microRNA (miRNA) in the liver, miR-122 plays important roles in the growth and development of liver, lipid metabolism, and liver diseases. Vanin 1 (VNN1) plays an important role in hepatic lipid metabolism, and VNN1 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic diseases caused by overactivated gluconeogenesis. In our previous RNA-seq study, we found the expression of VNN1 increased significantly when the expression of miR-122 (gga-miR-122-5p) was knocked down in primary chicken hepatocytes. In this study, we verified this result by real-time qRT-PCR, and we also found that the chicken VNN1 was highly expressed in the liver. By bioinformatics analyses, we found the 3'UTR of VNN1 contained sequences completely complementary to the nucleotides 1 to 8 of miR-122. Co-transfection and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that overexpression of miR-122 decreased the expression of luciferase reporter gene linked to the 3'UTR of chicken VNN1 in the Chinese hamster ovary cells (Pchicken hepatocytes. Overall, this study suggests that miR-122 might play an important role in lipid metabolism in the chicken liver by negatively regulating the expression of the VNN1 gene.

  20. Expression of miRNA-122 Induced by Liver Toxicants in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Sik Nam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-122 (miRNA-122, also known as liver-specific miRNA, has recently been shown to be a potent biomarker in response to liver injury in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine its expression in response to toxicant treatment and acute liver damage, using the zebrafish system as an alternative model organism. For the hepatotoxicity assay, larval zebrafish were arrayed in 24-well plates. Adult zebrafish were also tested and arrayed in 200 mL cages. Animals were exposed to liver toxicants (tamoxifen or acetaminophen at various doses, and miRNA-122 expression levels were analyzed using qRT-PCR in dissected liver, brain, heart, and intestine, separately. Our results showed no significant changes in miRNA-122 expression level in tamoxifen-treated larvae; however, miRNA-122 expression was highly induced in tamoxifen-treated adults in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, we observed a histological change in adult liver (0.5 μM and cell death in larval liver (5 μM at different doses of tamoxifen. These results indicated that miRNA-122 may be utilized as a liver-specific biomarker for acute liver toxicity in zebrafish.

  1. Targeting PCDH20 gene by microRNA-122 confers 5-FU resistance in hepatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Wen Bin; Huang, Da Bing; Jia, Wei; Ji, Chu Shu; Hu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the main hurdles for the successful treatment of hepatic carcinoma. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying resistance remain largely unknown and therapeutic approaches are limited. In the present study, we show that miR-122 confers resistance to 5-fluorouracil induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and reduces the potency of 5-fluorouracil in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Further studies indicate that miR-122 modulates drug resistance through down-regulation of expression of PCDH20, which belongs to the protocadherin gene family and negatively regulates Akt activation. Knockdown of PCDH20 expression increases Akt phosphorylation, which leads to elevated mTOR activity and enhanced 5-fluorouracil resistance; whereas rescue of PCDH20 expression in miR-122-expressing cells decreases Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, re-sensitizing hepatocellular carcinoma cell to 5-fluorouracil induced apoptosis. Moreover, a specific and potent Akt inhibitor reverses miR-122-conferred 5-fluorouracil resistance. These findings indicate that the miR-122/PCDH20/Akt/mTOR signaling axis has an important role in mediating response to chemotherapy in human hepatocellular carcinoma. A major implication of our study is that inhibition of miR-122 or restoration of PCDH20 expression may have significant therapeutic potential to overcome drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma and that the combined use of an Akt inhibitor with 5-fluorouracil may increase efficacy in liver cancer treatment. PMID:27648358

  2. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  3. Detection of pathogenic bacteria in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer: reluctant response to antimonial treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac-Márquez Angélica Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the bacterial flora present in skin lesions of patients with chiclero's ulcer from the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico using conventional culture methods (11 patients, and an immunocolorimetric detection of pathogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (15 patients. Prevalence of bacteria isolated by culture methods was 90.9% (10/11. We cultured, from chiclero's ulcers (60%, pathogenic bacterial such as Staphylococcus aureus (20%, S. pyogenes (1.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.6%, Morganella morganii (1.6%, and opportunist pathogenic bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. (20.0%, Enterobacter spp. (20%, and Enterococcus spp. (20%. We also cultured coagulase-negative staphylococci in 40% (4/10 of the remaining patients. Micrococcus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci constituted the bacterial genuses more frequently isolated in the normal skin of patients with chiclero's ulcer and healthy individuals used as controls. We also undertook another study to find out the presence of S. pyogenes by an immunocolorimetric assay. This study indicated that 60% (9/15 of the ulcerated lesions, but not normal controls, were contaminated with S. pyogenes. Importantly, individuals with purulent secretion and holding concomitant infections with S. pyogenes, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, M. morganii, and E. durans took longer to heal Leishmania (L. mexicana infections treated with antimonial drugs. Our results suggest the need to eliminate bacterial purulent infections, by antibiotic treatment, before starting antimonial administration to patients with chiclero's ulcer.

  4. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy in dogs following intravenous administration of a liposomal formulation of meglumine antimoniate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul R. Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of nanotechnologies in advanced therapies has allowed the observation of specific adverse reactions related to nanostructures. The toxicity of a novel liposome formulation of meglumine antimoniate in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis after single dose has been investigated. Groups of 12 animals received by the intravenous route a single dose of liposomal meglumine antimoniate (group I [GI], 6.5 mg Sb/kg, empty liposomes (GII or isotonic saline (GIII. Evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes 4 days after administration. No undesired effects were registered in the GIII. However, adverse reactions were observed in 67.7% of dogs from both groups that received liposomal formulations. The side effects began moments after bolus administration and disappeared during the first 15 minutes after treatment. Prostation, sialorrhea and defecation were the most frequent clinical signs, registered in 33.3% and 41.6 % of animals from the groups GI and GII, respectively. Tachypnea, mydriasis, miosis, vomiting and cyanosis were also registered in both groups. The adverse reactions observed in this study were attributed to the activation of the complement system by lipid vesicles in a phenomenon known as Complement Activation-Related Pseudoallergy (CARPA. The influence of the physical-chemical characteristics of liposomal formulation in the triggering of CARPA is discussed.

  5. Determination of Antimony (III in Real Samples by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Using a Mercury Film Screen-Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Domínguez-Renedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure for the determination of antimony (III by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a mercury film screen-printed electrode as the working electrode. The procedure has been optimized using experimental design methodology. Under these conditions, in terms of Residual Standard Deviation (RSD, the repeatability (3.81 % and the reproducibility (5.07 % of the constructed electrodes were both analyzed. The detection limit for Sb (III was calculated at a value of 1.27×10–8 M. The linear range obtained was between 0.99 × 10–8 – 8.26 × 10–8 M. An analysis of possible effects due to the presence of foreign ions in the solution was performed and the procedure was successfully applied to the determination of antimony levels in pharmaceutical preparations and sea water samples.

  6. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar;

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers operating at typically 80 °C or at further elevated temperatures suffer from insufficient catalyst activity and durability. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and further doped with an inorganic proton conducting phase...

  7. Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Hill, Matthias; Figi, Renato; Richard, Agnes; Furger, Markus; Rickers, Karen; Falkenberg, Gerald; Zhao, Yongjing; Cliff, Steven S; Prevot, Andre S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Buchmann, Brigitte; Gehrig, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon. PMID:19924925

  8. Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Rojas, Mariela; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of the concentration of three important environmental elements that are often found together in mineral deposits and then associated with mining activities; copper, arsenic and antimony. These elements were determined in 26 different agricultural soils from regions I, II and V in Chile, zones where the most important and biggest copper industries of this country are located. As background levels of these elements in soils have not been well established, in this study, both, impacted and non-impacted agricultural soils from different regions were considered. The relationships between the concentrations of these elements in soils were also examined. The concentration ranges for copper, arsenic and antimony were 11-530; 2.7-202 and 0.42-11 mg kg(-1) respectively. The copper concentrations in non-polluted soils from the north and central zone of Chile were similar. However, three sites from the north region have copper concentration as higher as 100 mg kg(-1), values that exceed the critical concentration for copper in soils. The concentration of arsenic and antimony in the north soils were higher than in non-impacted ones and, in the case of arsenic, greatly exceeded the world average concentration reported for this element in soils. The highest arsenic and antimony concentrations were found in Calama and Quillagua soils, two different sites in the Loa valley. The arsenic/antimony concentration ratio was higher in Quillagua soil. The high concentrations of three elements determined in impacted soils from region V (Puchuncaví and Catemu valleys) clearly shows the impact produced in this zone by the industrial and mining activities developed in their proximities. At Puchuncaví valley a clear decrease was observed in copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations in soils on the function of the distance from the industrial complex "Las Ventanas", and all concentrations exceeded the reported critical values for this matrix. Instead at

  9. Correlation models between environmental factors and bacterial resistance to antimony and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunji Shi

    Full Text Available Antimony (Sb and copper (Cu are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III to the less toxic Sb(V are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III/Cu(II-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Sb(III (>10 mM,making them the most highly Sb(III-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III, including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III or Cu(II resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: MIC(Sb(III=606.605+0.14533 x C(Sb+0.4128 x C(Cu and MIC((Cu(II=58.3844+0.02119 x C(S+0.00199 x CP [where the MIC(Sb(III and MIC(Cu(II represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (μM, and the C(Sb, C(Cu, C(S and C(P represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals.

  10. Green and red fluorescence upconversion in neodymium-doped low phonon antimony glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Tirtha [Glass Technology Laboratory, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Karmakar, Basudeb [Glass Technology Laboratory, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), 196 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)], E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in

    2009-05-12

    A new K{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (KBS) glass system having low phonon energy (about 600 cm{sup -1}) doped with Nd{sup 3+} ions has been developed. Infrared reflection spectroscopic (IRRS) studies have been employed to establish its low phonon energy. Ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption and photoluminescence upconversion properties with special emphasis on the spectrochemistry of the 15K{sub 2}O-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-70Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (mol%) glass have been studied doping with different concentrations (0.1-1.0 wt%) of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. UV-vis-NIR absorption band positions have been justified with quantitative calculation of nephelauxetic parameter and covalent bonding characteristics of the host. NIR to visible upconversion has been investigated by exciting at 805 nm at room temperature. Two upconverted bands originating from the {sup 4}G{sub 7/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 7/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} transitions are found to be centered at 540 nm (green, medium) and 650 nm (red, strong), respectively. These bands have been explained from the evaluation of the absorption and excitation spectra. The upconversion processes have been explained by the excited state absorption (ESA), energy transfer (ET), cooperative energy transfer (CET) and cross-relaxation (CR) mechanisms involving population of the metastable (storage) energy level ({sup 4}G{sub 7/2}) by effects of multiphonon deexcitation and thermal population. It is evident from the IRRS study that the upconversion phenomena are expedited by the low multiphonon relaxation rate in antimony glasses owing to their low phonon energy (602 cm{sup -1}, the main and highest intensity Sb-O-Sb stretching band) which is very close to that of fluoride glasses (500-600 cm{sup -1})

  11. Novel organo-colloidal synthesis, optical properties, and structural analysis of antimony sesquioxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Validzic, Ivana Lj., E-mail: validzic@vinca.rs; Abazovic, Nadica D.; Mitric, Miodrag [University of Belgrade, ' Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia); Lalic, Milan V. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Fisica (Brazil); Popovic, Zoran S. [University of Belgrade, ' Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia); Vukajlovic, Filip R. [' Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences (Serbia)

    2013-01-15

    We report the novel colloidal syntheses in organic media of antimony sesquioxide ( Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} ) spherical nanoparticles (30-250 nm) and octahedron micro- and nanocrystals (100nm - 4{mu}) depending on the synthetic method conditions. It is observed that small differences in the synthetic procedure cause large differences in the very changeable morphology. The structure of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was refined down to the R-factors of 9.57, 7.44, 9.19, 9.78, and 8.30 %. The refinement showed that Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder belongs to the cubic crystal type with space group Fd 3-bar m (No. 227). The values of estimated standard deviations, as well as reliability factors, confirmed that the structure of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} was well refined. Ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance measurements (DRS) reveal that the optical band gap energies found for the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} octahedrons and nanoparticles, micro- and nanocrystals, respectively, are quite independent of the synthetic method conditions and synthesized morphology and is found to be between 4.1-4.4 eV. No peaks in both photoluminescence (PL) emission and excitation spectra have been observed for a broad spectral range, typical for this material. In order to discriminate between conflicting experimental results concerning the band gap energy of this compound, we investigated theoretically the electronic structure and optical properties of one of the cubic sesquioxide Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples synthesized here. This has been done on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and improved version of exchange potential suggested recently by Tran and Blaha (TB-mBJ). The main characteristic of the calculated TB-mBJ electronic structure is the significant improvement of the band gap value, which is in perfect agreement with our experimental measurements. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric tensor are also

  12. The presence and leachability of antimony in different wastes and waste handling facilities in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, G; Almås, Å R; Morin, N; Hale, S E; Arp, H P H

    2015-11-01

    The environmental behaviour of antimony (Sb) is gathering attention due to its increasingly extensive use in various products, particularly in plastics. Because of this it may be expected that plastic waste is an emission source for Sb in the environment. This study presents a comprehensive field investigation of Sb concentrations in diverse types of waste from waste handling facilities in Norway. The wastes included waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), glass, vehicle fluff, combustibles, bottom ash, fly ash and digested sludge. The highest solid Sb concentrations were found in WEEE and vehicle plastic (from 1238 to 1715 mg kg(-1)) and vehicle fluff (from 34 to 4565 mg kg(-1)). The type of acid used to digest the diverse solid waste materials was also tested. It was found that HNO3:HCl extraction gave substantially lower, non-quantitative yields compared to HNO3:HF. The highest water-leachable concentration for wastes when mixed with water at a 1 : 10 ratio were observed for plastic (from 0.6 to 2.0 mg kg(-1)) and bottom ash (from 0.4 to 0.8 mg kg(-1)). For all of the considered waste fractions, Sb(v) was the dominant species in the leachates, even though Sb(iii) as Sb2O3 is mainly used in plastics and other products, indicating rapid oxidation in water. This study also presents for the first time a comparison of Sb concentrations in leachate at waste handling facilities using both active grab samples and DGT passive samples. Grab samples target the total suspended Sb, whereas DGT targets the sum of free- and other chemically labile species. The grab sample concentrations (from 0.5 to 50 μg L(-1)) were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 113 μg L(-1). The DGT concentrations were substantially lower (from 0.05 to 9.93 μg L(-1)) than the grab samples, indicating much of the Sb is present in a non-available colloidal form. In addition, air samples were taken from the chimney and areas within combustible waste incinerators, as

  13. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen

    2016-04-01

    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites. PMID:26711292

  14. Synthesis and Properties of Light-tolerant Organic Antimony%耐光型有机锑的合成及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高勇; 韩永和; 李建丰; 袁余斌; 王爱红

    2014-01-01

    硫醇锑稳定剂由于其耐紫外光性能很差,在存储、运输和使用方面受到很大的限制。为解决这一问题,试探性以三氯化锑和巯基酯为原料,引入抗紫外线活性基团TBP-1(2,4-二羟基二苯甲酮),合成了“晒不黑”的有机锑热稳定剂。用红外光谱对产品结构进行了确认,光敏性实验表明其7周内不变色;静态热稳定性实验结果表明其与硫醇锑热稳定剂相当。%Because of its poor ultraviolet resistance , the storage , transportation and use of antimony mercaptide stabilizer was greatly limited.In order to solve this problem , a kind of synthesized organic antimony thermal stabilizer was prepared, which was light -tolerant with antimony trichloride , isooctyl thioglycollat as raw materials and TBP -1(2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone ) , with an anti-ultraviolet agent added in.The light-tolerant performance and thermal stability of product tested showed that the color of organic antimony as -synthesized was unchangeable when under the impact of direct sunlight for 7 weeks by infrared spectroscopy spectrum that was confirmed for structure of product , and the static experimental results showed that the thermal stability was nearly equivalent to antimony mercaptide.

  15. Low Penetrance Pancreatitis Phenotype in a Venezuelan Kindred with a PRSS1 R122H Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Solomon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hereditary pancreatitis is typically caused by the PRSS1 R122H or N29I mutations resulting in high penetrance (about 80% autosomal dominant disorder that is usually reported in North America, Northern Europe and Northeast Asia, but not South America, Africa or India. Case report Here we report a kindred from Venezuela, South America with the PRSS1 R122H variant. Only the proband, an 11-year old boy with severe chronic pancreatitis, and a maternal grandmother with pancreatitis at age 60 years (confirmed PRSS1 R122H, are symptomatic. Conclusions Issues of mutation prevalence, non-penetrance, and disease recognition in various countries are discussed.

  16. Characterisation of a transgenic mouse expressing R122H human cationic trypsinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner Joachim

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The R122H mutation of the cationic trypsinogen was found in patients with hereditary pancreatitis. A transgenic animal carrying this mutation could be useful as a genetic model system of pancreatitis. Methods Mice transgenic for the human R122H cationic trypsinogen were generated using the -205 fragment of the rat elastase promoter. The presence of the transgene was assayed in the DNA, in pancreatic mRNA and in zymogen granule lysates. Serum levels of amylase, lipase and cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6 were monitored and the histological appearance of the tissue was investigated. Pancreatitis was induced by 7 hourly injections of 50 μg/kg cerulein. The procedure was repeated twice weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. The animals were sacrificed 24 (n = 8 and 48 hours (n = 8 after the first injection and at the end of the whole treatment (n = 7. Results The transgene was detected at the genomic level and in pancreatic mRNA. The corresponding protein was found in low amounts in zymogen granule lysates. R122H mice showed elevated pancreatic lipase, but there was no spontaneous development of pancreatitis within 18 months. After induction of pancreatitis, levels of lipase (after 24 hours and amylase (after 48 hours were higher in R122H mice compared to controls. Repeated treatment with cerulein resulted in a slightly more severe pancreatitis in R122H animals. Amylase, lipase, and the cytokine levels were similar to controls. Conclusion The R122H transgenic mouse failed to develop a spontaneous pancreatitis but a repeatedly provoked cerulein-induced pancreatitis led to a slightly more severe pancreatitis. The rather small difference in comparison to controls could be due to the low expression of the transgene in the mouse pancreas.

  17. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from 1ES 1440+122

    OpenAIRE

    VERITAS Collaboration; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K; Bird, R.; Boettcher, M.; J. H. Buckley(Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, USA); Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V; M. Cerruti(Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645, USA); Chen, X.

    2016-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 hours, resulted in the discovery of $\\gamma$-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift $z$=0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8$\\pm0.7_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm0.8...

  18. Research advances in microbial mechanism of antimony%微生物对锑的代谢机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明顺; 李洁; 王革娇

    2013-01-01

    锑(Sb)是一种自然界普遍存在的剧毒重金属,随着工业生产的日趋发展,我国部分地区土壤、水体及农产品受到严重的锑污染.作为环境污染物,锑中毒会导致人类心肌衰竭,肝坏死等疾病.自然界中的某些生物,特别是微生物却可以在极高锑浓度下生长,甚至可以利用这种元素作为能源物质,因此,微生物在锑的地球物质循环中起着重要的作用.研究生物对锑的代谢机制,对于保护环境与人体健康具有重要的现实意义.本文对锑在环境中的分布、污染状况、微生物对锑的代谢以及生物修复等方面的研究现状进行了综述.同时建议今后应加强以下三方面的研究:(1)筛选更多抗锑微生物或氧化锑的微生物;(2)发掘更多锑抗性基因或氧化基因;(3)开发锑污染土壤及水体的微生物修复技术.%Antimony (Sb) is a highly toxic heavy metal which widespreadly exists in nature.With the increasing development of industry,the soil,water and agricultural products are severely polluted by antimony in some regions of our country.As an environmental pollutant,antimony poisoning can lead to heart failure,human diseases such as liver necrosis.Some organisms in nature,especially the microorganisms can grow in the high concentration of antimony,and can even use the element as an energy material,so the microorganisms play an important role in the cycle of earth's materials.Study on metabolic mechanism of antimony has important practical significance to protect environment and human health.This study reviewed the researches of Sb distribution in the environment,the pollution status,microbial metabolism of antimony and bioremediation.At the same time it suggests that future researches should strengthen the following three aspects:(1) isolating more antimony resistance or antimony oxidizing microorganisms; (2) identifying more antimony resistant or oxidizing genes; (3) exploring microbial techniques to remediate

  19. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured Mn(II) doped antimony-tin oxide (ATO) films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sol–gel Mn(II) doped antimony tin oxide films were developed with precursor of atomic ratio range, Sn:Sb:Mn = 68–72:23–25:9–3. The X-ray diffraction patterns depict tetragonal cassiterite phase of SnO2. Transmission electron microscopy images suggest the nanostructured form of the doped materials. The increase in crystallite size with Mn(II) concentration is reflected by the larger band gap values (4.61–4.73 eV) arising from the excitonic transitions which also respond to PL emissions. Hall effect measurements show that the carrier concentration increases but mobility decreases for Mn(II) doping. Room temperature ferromagnetism with different saturation magnetic moments (Ms) has been observed for all dopant concentrations, 3–9 at%.

  1. The chemistry and behaviour of antimony in the soil environment with comparisons to arsenic: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Susan C., E-mail: swilso24@une.edu.a [School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Lockwood, Peter V., E-mail: peter.lockwood@une.edu.a [School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Ashley, Paul M., E-mail: pashley@une.edu.a [School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Tighe, Matthew, E-mail: mtighe2@une.edu.a [School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    This article provides a critical review of the environmental chemistry of inorganic antimony (Sb) in soils, comparing and contrasting findings with those of arsenic (As). Characteristics of the Sb soil system are reviewed, with an emphasis on speciation, sorption and phase associations, identifying differences between Sb and As behaviour. Knowledge gaps in environmentally relevant Sb data for soils are identified and discussed in terms of the limitations this imposes on understanding the fate, behaviour and risks associated with Sb in environmental soil systems, with particular reference to mobility and bioavailability. - A critical and comparative review of Sb and As chemistry and associations in soil systems identifies research directions needed for better understanding of risks.

  2. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact. PMID:26194244

  3. Conjugative plasmid in Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. oortii that confers resistance to arsenite, arsenate, and antimony(III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrick, C.A.; Haskins, W.P.; Vidaver, A.K.

    1984-07-01

    Gene transfer systems for phytopathogenic corynebacteria have not been reported previously. In this paper a conjugative 46-megadalton plasmid (pDG101) found in Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. oorii CO101 is described that mediates resistance to arsenite, arsenate, and antimony(III). Transfer of the plasmid from CO101 to four other strains from the C. flaccumfaciens group occurred between cells immobilized on nitrocellulose filters or on agar surfaces. Transconjugant strains expressed the same levels of metal resistance as the donor strain and were able to act as donor strains in subsequent matings. The physical presence of the plasmid was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Arsenite-sensitive derivatives of the donor and transconjugant strains were obtained after heat treatment; these were cured of pDG101.

  4. Construction of spongy antimony-doped tin oxide/graphene nanocomposites using commercially available products and its excellent electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei; Gong, Chunhong; Gu, Xiufang; Ma, Zhihua; Zhou, Jingfang; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    We construct successfully a porous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/nitrogen-doped graphene 3-dimensional (3D) frameworks (denoted as ATO/NG/TEPA; TEPA refers to tetraethylenepentamine) by a one-pot hydrothermal process, with which TEPA aqueous solution is adopted to easily re-disperse commercial ATO precursor forming a transparent hydrosol. The results show that TEPA plays a key role in the construction of ATO/NG/TEPA, not only acting as a peptization reagent to re-disperse ATO precursor nanoparticles, and as a linker to combine ATO with graphene sheets. The as-fabricated ATO/NG/TEPA hybrid as the negative electrode of lithium ion batteries exhibits excellent lithium storage capacity and cycling stability. With the advantage of easily re-dispersing commercial ATO, the present synthetic route may be put into use for the large-scale production of the titled nanocomposites as the anode material of lithium ion batteries.

  5. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and heat-insulating antimony doped tin oxide/polyurethane films by cast replica micromolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Huang, Baoyuan; Zhong, Mingqiang

    2009-08-01

    A novel process for fabricating superhydrophobic and heat-insulating polymeric nanocomposite films was developed. Briefly, antimony doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles that commonly endow coats heat-insulating and transparent functions were mixed into commercial waterborne polyurethane (WPU) suspensions to obtain ATO/WPU suspensions, which were then cast onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from stamps, ATO/PU films with superhydrophobic surface and heat-insulating property were created, while PU films without ATO only showed high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the surface of ATO/PU superhydrophobic films had unique micro- and nano-structures similar with those on the lotus leaf. On the contrary, no obvious nano-structures were found on the surface of pure PU films, demonstrating mixing functional nanoparticles into polymers is a necessary and feasible step in creating superhydrophobic and functional films by replica molding method. PMID:19394955

  6. lVIICROSTRUCTURE AND EUTECTIC MORPHOLOGY OF AL-12.5°/o Si ALLOY REFINED WITH ANTIMONY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Kahraman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of Al-Si cast alloys can be achieved in two different ways, namely by additions of certain eleınents orwith rapid cooling rate. Modifications of the Al-Si al1oys are carried out extensivcly in industry to improve themechanical properties, particularly ductility. In this study, the effects of antiınony addition.s and growth rate on theınicrostructure and eutectic morphology on the directionally solidified Al- 1 2.5°/o Si cutectic all oy has beeninvestigated. The results showed that antimony can be identified as a grain refıner. Over modification occurs in Al-12.5 °/oSi alloy when modifier is present in the amount of 1 %Sb results in AISb compound.

  7. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  8. 19 CFR 122.119 - Transportation to another U.S. port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transportation to another U.S. port. 122.119... Transportation to another U.S. port. (a) Application. Air cargo shipments may be transferred for transportation as transit air cargo from the port of arrival to another port in the U.S. under this section....

  9. 19 CFR 122.62 - Aircraft not otherwise required to clear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State export licensing authority as set out in 22 CFR parts 121 and 123. Such aircraft may depart from... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). Aircraft are not required to... (15 CFR part 30), aircraft not required to clear by § 122.61 shall obtain permission to depart...

  10. Shotgun Genome Sequence of the Large Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122

    OpenAIRE

    Duquesne, K.; Sturgis, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the shotgun genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122. The photosynthetic apparatus of this bacterium has been particularly well studied by microscopy. The knowledge of the genome of this oversize bacterium will allow us to compare it with the other purple bacterial organisms to follow the evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  11. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., section 122(a). Assume further that A attains retirement age on December 31, 1966, dies on January 1, 1967..., if A had not attained retirement age at the time of his death, his widow would, under section 101 and... like amount under laws administered by the Veterans Administration. C has not reached retirement...

  12. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  13. 31 CFR 103.122 - Customer identification programs for broker-dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Customer identification programs for... Programs Anti-Money Laundering Programs § 103.122 Customer identification programs for broker-dealers. (a...-U.S. person means a person that is not a U.S. person. (b) Customer identification program:...

  14. 9 CFR 354.122 - Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection... Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.122 Condemnation on ante-mortem inspection. Rabbits found in a... showing, on ante-mortem inspection, any disease or condition, that under §§ 354.129 to 354.131,...

  15. 20 CFR 422.122 - Information on deferred vested pension benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information on deferred vested pension... PROCEDURES General Procedures § 422.122 Information on deferred vested pension benefits. (a) Claimants for... electronic pension benefit record. This record contains information received from IRS on individuals for...

  16. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  17. 14 CFR 21.122 - Location of or change to manufacturing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of or change to manufacturing... § 21.122 Location of or change to manufacturing facilities. (a) An applicant may obtain a production certificate for manufacturing facilities located outside of the United States if the FAA finds no undue...

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  19. 48 CFR 731.770 - OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation. 731.770 Section 731.770 Federal Acquisition... PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Nonprofit Organizations 731.770 OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation. (a) Paragraph 6 of the transmittal letter for...

  20. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 135.122 Section 135.122 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  1. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issued by the TSA to an air carrier subject to the provisions of 49 CFR part 1544, 1546, or 1550. The... and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft departing from the United States. 122.75b Section 122...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  2. 40 CFR 436.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 436.122 Section 436.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE...

  3. 75 FR 52942 - Two Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g) Administrative Agreements for De Minimis Settlements for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Two Proposed CERCLA Section 122(g) Administrative Agreements for De Minimis Settlements for the...''), Region II, of two proposed de minimis administrative agreements pursuant to Section 122(g) of CERCLA,...

  4. Super-resolution readout property of bismuth-doped antimony-based thin film as a functional mask for read-only memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmiao; Wu, Yiqun; Wang, Yang; Wei, Jingsong

    2012-09-01

    Bismuth-doped antimony-based (Sb100- x Bi x , x=2.46) thin films were presented as a functional mask for super-resolution readout of read-only memory (ROM). The pit size of the ROM was 390 nm, and super-resolution readout was realized on a dynamic tester with laser wavelength of 780 nm and the numerical aperture of the focusing objective lens of 0.45. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 22 dB, readout threshold power of 0.8 mW and super-resolution readout cycles of 2×104 was achieved. The influence of film thickness and readout power on CNR was investigated. The reflectivity and transmittance of the film with different temperature at wavelength of 780 nm were detected, and the super-resolution mechanism of the bismuth-doped antimony-based thin films as the functional mask layer was discussed.

  5. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Sae; Cha, Judy J.; Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2012-03-01

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×1011 cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications.

  6. MicroRNA-122 down-regulation is involved in phenobarbital-mediated activation of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Shizu

    Full Text Available Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes.

  7. MicroRNA-122 down-regulation is involved in phenobarbital-mediated activation of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Shindo, Sawako; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes. PMID:22815988

  8. Antimoniais empregados no tratamento da leishmaniose: estado da arte Antimonials employed in the treatment of leishmaniaisis: the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Rath; Luciano Augusto Trivelin; Talitha Rebecca Imbrunito; Daniela Maria Tomazela; Marcelo Nunes de Jesús; Percy Calvo Marzal; Heitor Franco de Andrade Junior; André Gustavo Tempone

    2003-01-01

    Antimony preparations are the drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis over 90 years, a disease that currently affects 12 million people worldwide. Its introduction was based on 19th century concepts of therapeutic effects of metal salts as arsenicals and other metals, most of them abandoned due to toxic effects or better drugs. In the last three decades, there was a great improvement in the knowledge of cell biology and immunology of those infections, but chemotherapy has not been ...

  9. Decreased antimony uptake and overexpression of genes of thiol metabolism are associated with drug resistance in a canine isolate of Leishmania infantum

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Gómez Pérez; Raquel García-Hernandez; Victoriano Corpas-López; Tomás, Ana M.; Joaquina Martín-Sanchez; Santiago Castanys; Francisco Gamarro

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases affecting dogs and humans in the Mediterranean area. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of L. infantum is regarded as the most significant risk for potential human infection. We have studied the susceptibility profile to antimony and other anti-leishmania drugs (amphotericin B, miltefosine, paromomycin) in Leishmania infantum isolates extracted...

  10. Arsenic and antimony determination in refined and unrefined table salts by means of hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry--comparison of sample decomposition and determination methods

    OpenAIRE

    AKSUNER, Nur; TİRTOM, Vedia Nüket; HENDEN, Emür

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation was made of different digestion methods for the determination of arsenic and antimony in table salt samples prior to hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometric analysis. Microwave acid digestion, classical wet digestion, dry ashing, and fusion were applied to the decomposition of salt samples and optimum conditions were investigated. Samples were decomposed by changing heating time, digestion techniques, and the amount and composition of acid, and then the concen...

  11. Discussion on the Acceptance Testing of 122 Emergency Response System%浅谈122接处警系统验收测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓; 黄江平; 卢亮

    2012-01-01

    验收测试是指按照项目任务书或合同、供需双方约定的验收依据文档对软件或信息系统进行的测试与评审,决定是否接收或拒收系统。通过某市交管局122接处警系统验收测试项目,对验收测试的测试流程、测试内容和测试所能解决的问题等内容进行介绍.为信息系统建设提供质量保障和质量把关。%Acceptance testing is a testing and review based on the project mission hook or contracts, the acceptance document agreed by the supply and demand sides, to enable the customer to deter- mine whether to accept the system. Introduces a 122 emergency response system used by traffic management bureau, and leads to introduce acceptance testing's process,eontent and problems solved by testing, thereby building for the information systems quality assurance and quality gatekeeer. A

  12. Study on class flipping Applied in 122 Teaching model%翻转课堂在“122”模式的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国平

    2015-01-01

    Classroom Flipping as a new teaching concept first appears in the United States and gains popularity afterwards all around the world.This thesis combines “classroom flipping”and “122”teaching model in West Anhui University,discussing the application of this method in intensive read-ing class,viewing speaking listening class and network class.This new teaching method has changed traditional College English teaching,thus improving the students’self-study ability,initiative and comprehensive linguistic ability.%“翻转课堂”这一教学理念最早在美国出现,随后在全世界范围内推广。通过将“翻转课堂”和皖西学院的“122”模式相结合,探讨了这一教学方法在读写、视听说和网络课程教学中的应用。“翻转课堂”的教学方法改变了传统的大学英语教学,有利于提高学生的自主性和能动性,增强了学生的综合语言应用能力。

  13. Antimony determination in seawater and pore water of marine sediments by means of coprecipitation with Mg(OH)2 and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of biogeochemical cycling of trace elements in inshore marine environment is of basic importance in order to understand the long-term distribution of both conventional and radioactive pollutants among the ecosystem components. Antimony is of radio- ecological interest, and its determination in some environmental matrices (seawater, pore water, biota) is always difficult from the analytical point of view. A quick method for antimony determination in seawater and interstitial water of marine sediments, by coprecipitation with Mg(OH)2 and subsequent atomic absorption measurement, is reported. Coprecipitation recovery (about 80% in optimal conditions) was evaluated using both radiotracers and the addition of known amounts of stable element, and turned out to depend on several parameters (percentage of precipitated Mg as compared to the natural content in seawater, ageing of Mg(OH)2, concomitant Fe and Mn concentrations, etc.). The total standard deviation of the proposed method is about 10%. The variance analysis showed that about 90% of total variance is due to the preconcentration procedure (sample handling and random contaminations) and only about 10% is due to the instrumental measurement. The results of antimony determinations in seawater and pore water of marine sediments collected at Montalto di Castro (Central Mediterranean Sea) are presented and discussed

  14. 原子荧光光谱法测定环境空气中锑%Antimony Determination by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾志勇

    2014-01-01

    采用过氯乙烯滤膜采集环境空气中锑,盐酸-氢氟酸混酸体系微波消解滤膜,原子荧光光谱法测定锑。方法前处理操作过程简单、省时、酸用量少、环境污染小,方法的灵敏度和准确度都有很大的提高。采样体积为300L时,空气中锑的最低检出质量浓度为0.002mg/m3。%Antimony in air was sampled using perchloroethylene filter.The filter was dipped into hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid system and digested by microwave.Atomic fluorescence spectrometry was used to detect anti-mony after.This process is simple and time-saving with easy pretreatment,less amount of acid,and less negative impacts on environment.In addition,the accuracy and precision of the process is better than previous methods. The detection limit of antimony in air is 0.002mg/m3 when the volume of air sample is 300 liters when this process was applied.

  15. Analysis of arsenic and antimony distribution within plants growing at an old mine site in Ouche (Cantal, France) and identification of species suitable for site revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Ulrike; Chassany, Vincent; Bertrand, Georges; Castrec-Rouelle, Maryse; Aubry, Emmanuel; Boudsocq, Simon; Laffray, Daniel; Repellin, Anne

    2012-11-15

    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the contamination levels in the tailings of an old antimony mine site located in Ouche (Cantal, France). Throughout the 1.3 ha site, homogenous concentrations of antimony and arsenic, a by-product of the operation, were found along 0-0.5 m-deep profiles. Maximum concentrations for antimony and arsenic were 5780 mg kg(-1) dry tailings and 852 mg kg(-1) dry tailings, respectively. Despite the presence of the contaminants and the low pH and organic matter contents of the tailings, several patches of vegetation were found. Botanical identification determined 12 different genera/species. The largest and most abundant plants were adult pines (Pinus sylvestris), birches (Betula pendula) and the bulrush (Juncus effusus). The distribution of the metalloids within specimens of each genera/species was analysed in order to deduce their concentration and translocation capacities. This was the second goal of this work. All plant specimens were highly contaminated with both metalloids. Most were root accumulators with root to shoot translocation factors Plantago major, and Deschampsia flexuosa. PMID:22789654

  16. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laboratórios Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot A and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., São Paulo, Brazil (lot B. We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  17. High frequency of skin reactions in patients with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals: a comparative approach using historical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Flores M, Rico Marlon de Moraes; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Macêdo, Vanize de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed data from historical controls treated with meglumine antimoniate to compare the frequency of adverse events observed in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with the same dose of meglumine antimoniate contaminated with heavy metals in an endemic area of the State of Bahia, Brazil. Group A patients were treated in 2000 with the drug produced by Eurofarma Laborat rios Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot A) and group B patients were treated in 1996 with the reference drug produced by Rhodia Farma Ltda., S o Paulo, Brazil (lot B). We observed an unusual higher frequency of skin reactions in group A patients. However, all type of adverse events observed in group A were also observed in group B. The physico-chemical analysis of these lots revealed that lot A had lower pH and higher concentration of total and trivalent antimony, lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Our findings suggest that the skin reactions could be attributed to heavy metal contamination of lot A.

  18. A green analytical procedure for sensitive and selective determination of antimony in environmental and biological samples by ligandless cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Vida; Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf

    2012-09-01

    A very simple, environmental friendly and sensitive method based on the cloud point extraction (CPE) separation and spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the determination of antimony. The method is founded on the color reaction of Sb (III) with iodide in acidic medium and subsequent micelle-mediated extraction of the product using the non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-114, in the absence of any chelating agent. The Effects of reaction and extraction parameters were studied and optimum conditions were established. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.80-95 ng mL-1 of antimony in the initial solution with r = 0.9994 (n = 9). Detection limit based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3Sb) was 0.23 ng mL-1 and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 10 and 70 ng mL-1 of antimony were 3.32 and 1.85% (n = 8), respectively. The proposed method was compared with other methods and favorably applied to evaluate this metal in some real samples, including seawater, antileishmanial drug (glucantime) and human serum.

  19. A new cloud point extraction procedure for determination of inorganic antimony species in beverages and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2015-05-15

    A new cloud-point extraction (CPE) for the determination of antimony species in biological and beverages samples has been established with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the fact that formation of the competitive ion-pairing complex of Sb(III) and Sb(V) with Victoria Pure Blue BO (VPB(+)) at pH 10. The antimony species were individually detected by FAAS. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration range for Sb(V) is 1-250 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.25 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 76.3 while the calibration range for Sb(III) is 10-400 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 5.15 μg L(-1) and sensitive enhancement factor of 48.3. The precision as a relative standard deviation is in range of 0.24-2.35%. The method was successfully applied to the speciative determination of antimony species in the samples. The validation was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs).

  20. Flame-retardancy of a Cellulosic Fabric by the Application of Synergistic Effect between Ammonium Bromide and Antimony (Ⅲ)Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI Seyed Morteza; MOAFI Hadi Fallah

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic effect between ammonium bromide and antimony(Ⅲ) oxide as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% woven plain cotton fabric(with a density of 144 g/m2,the number of yarns 21 per 10 mm),has been investigated in this study. The laundered totally-dried, weighed specimens were impregnated with suitable concentration individual aqueous ammonium bromide and/or antimony (Ⅲ)oxide suspension solutions and some sets weIle impregnated with appropriate admixed solutions of the both chemicals.A vertical flame spread test Was then carried-out to characterize the flammability of the samples.An acceptable synergistic effect was then experi.enced by using an admixed bath containing 0.1 molar ammonium bromide and O.05 unit formal antimony trioxide solutions for impartation of flame.retardancy to a cotton fabric.The optimum mass of the mixture required to lm.Dart flame-retardancy was about 3.64 g of anhydrous additives per 100 g of fabric.The results obtained are in favor 0f Wall Effect Theory.Moreover synergistic eflfect indicating dehydration of the treated substrate by using this combination via thermogravimetry could be deduced.

  1. Controlled expression of functional miR-122 with a ligand inducible expression system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzertzinis George

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the biological function of miRNAs, and to achieve sustained or conditional gene silencing with siRNAs, systems that allow controlled expression of these small RNAs are desirable. Methods for cell delivery of siRNAs include transient transfection of synthetic siRNAs and expression of siRNAs in the form of short hairpins using constitutive RNA polymerase III promoters. Systems employing constitutive RNA polymerase II promoters have been used to express miRNAs. However, for many experimental systems these methods do not offer sufficient control over expression. Results We present an inducible mammalian expression system that allows for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNAs that are processed in vivo to generate miRNAs or siRNAs. Using modified nuclear receptors in a two hybrid format and a synthetic ligand, the Rheoswitch system allows rapid and reversible induction of mRNA expression. We evaluated the system's properties using miR-122 as a model miRNA. A short hairpin encoding miR-122 cloned into the expression vector was correctly processed to yield mature miRNA upon induction with ligand and the amount of miRNA produced was commensurate with the concentration of ligand. miR-122 produced in this way was capable of silencing both endogenous target genes and appropriately designed reporter genes. Stable cell lines were obtained, resulting in heritable, consistent and reversible expression of miR-122, a significant advantage over transient transfection. Based on these results, obtained with a microRNA we adapted the method to produce a desired siRNA by designing short hairpins that can be accurately and efficiently processed. Conclusion We established an Inducible expression system with a miR-122 backbone that can be used for functional studies of miRNAs and their targets, in heterologous cells that do not normally express the miRNA. Additionally we demonstrate the feasibility of using the miR-122 backbone to

  2. Related factor analysis on 122 cases of missed miscarriage%稽留流产122例的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翙; 陈悦; 周烨

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the cause of missed miscarriage,seeking to prevent it.Method We analyzed various related factors through the comparison between 122 cases of missed miscarriage and 100 intended induced abortion women from January to December in 2011.Results The analysis showed that 58.20% of missed miscarriage was caused by infection,including chlamydozoa trachomatis (CT) and ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) (56.56%),TORCH (toxoplasma,rubella virus,cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus) 1.64%.In contrast,8.00% of intended induced abortion women were detected infection,including CT and UU,without TORCH.The detection rate of CT and UU in missed miscarriage was significantly higher than that in intended induced abortion (P < 0.05).In other words,CT and UU were closely related to missed miscarriage (P < 0.05),while TORCH was irrelevant (P > 0.05).Conclusion CT and UU are closely related to missed miscarriage,which are main causes of missed miscarriage.%目的 探讨稽留流产的发生原因,寻找预防和降低稽留流产发生的方法和途径.方法 总结2011年1至12月122例稽留流产病例,门诊同期正常妊娠人工流产100例作为对照,对与稽留流产相关的各种因素进行分析.结果 感染因素所致稽留流产占58.20%(71/122),其中沙眼衣原体(CT)、解脲支原体(UU)感染占56.56%(69/122);TORCH(弓形虫、风疹病毒、巨细胞病毒、疱疹病毒总称)感染占1.64%(2/122).人工流产组沙眼衣原体(CT)、解脲支原体(UU)感染占8.00%(8/100);TORCH感染未检出(0/100).稽留流产组沙眼衣原体(CT)、解脲支原体(UU)检出率明显高于人工流产组(P< 0.05).CT、UU感染与稽留流产密切相关(P<0.05),TORCH感染与稽留流产无关(P>0.05).结论 生殖道解脲支原体(UU)、沙眼衣原体(CT)感染与稽留流产关系密切,是造成稽留流产的病因之一.

  3. A122

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kolubaeva

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: Expression of CD79b, CD22, CD38 is the main feature of cells with recurrent genetic injuries. Immunophenotype without expression of CD79b, CD22, CD38 in most cases differentiates CLL patients with del(13(q14.3, del (13(q34, (13q(34 trisomy and with normal karyotype. Coexpression in the most of the cells of the three antigens CD79b, CD22, CD38 and more bright expression of CD20 proposes trisomy 12 or del(6q. Partial expression of CD79b and CD38 may correlate with del(11(q23.

  4. 不明原因发热122例病因诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓洁; 巩路

    2008-01-01

    不明原因发热( fever of unknown origin, FUO)的病因诊断是内科领域的世界性难题,迄今还有近10%的FUO患者最终不能明确病因。现分析我院2004年至2006年收治的122例不明原因发热患者的临床诊断。

  5. MicroRNAs and hepatitis C virus: Toward the end of miR-122 supremacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common etiologic agents causing chronic hepatitis are hepatitis C and B viruses (HCV and HBV, respectively. Chronic infection caused by HCV is considered one of the major causative agents of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. In combination with the increasing rate of new HCV infections, the lack of a current vaccine and/or an effective treatment for this virus continues to be a major public health challenge. The development of new treatments requires a better understanding of the virus and its interaction with the different components of the host cell. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs functioning as negative regulators of gene expression and represent an interesting lead to study HCV infection and to identify new therapeutic targets. Until now, microRNA-122 (miR-122 and its implication in HCV infection have been the focus of different published studies and reviews. Here we will review recent advances in the relationship between HCV infection and miRNAs, showing that some of them emerge in publications as challengers against the supremacy of miR-122.

  6. Transthyretin V122I amyloidosis with clinical and histological evidence of amyloid neuropathy and myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A S; Pelayo-Negro, A L; Jaunmuktane, Z; Scalco, R S; Hutt, D; Evans, M R B; Heally, E; Brandner, S; Holton, J; Blake, J; Whelan, C J; Wechalekar, A D; Gillmore, J D; Hawkins, P N; Reilly, M M

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease manifesting with predominant peripheral and autonomic neuropathy; cardiomyopathy, or both. ATTR V122I is the most common variant associated with non-neuropathic familial amyloid cardiomyopathy. We present an unusual case of V122I amyloidosis with features of amyloid neuropathy and myopathy, supported by histological confirmation in both sites and diffuse tracer uptake on (99m)Tc-3,3-Diphosphono-1,2-Propanodicarboxylic acid (DPD) scintigraphy throughout skeletal and cardiac muscle. A 64 year old Jamaican man presented with cardiac failure. Cardiac MR revealed infiltrative cardiomyopathy; abdominal fat aspirate confirmed the presence of amyloid, and he was homozygous for the V122I variant of transthyretin. He also described general weakness and EMG demonstrated myopathic features. Sural nerve and vastus lateralis biopsy showed TTR amyloid. The patient is being treated with diflunisal, an oral TTR stabilising agent. Symptomatic myopathy and neuropathy with confirmation of tissue amyloid deposition has not previously been described. Extracardiac amyloidosis has implications for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25819286

  7. The Karyopherin Kap122p/Pdr6p Imports Both Subunits of the Transcription Factor Iia into the Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, Anton A.; Blobel, Günter

    1999-01-01

    We discovered a nuclear import pathway mediated by the product of the previously identified Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene PDR6 (pleiotropic drug resistance). This gene product functions as a karyopherin (Kap) for nuclear import. Consistent with previously proposed nomenclature, we have renamed this gene KAP122. Kap122p was localized both to the cytoplasm and the nucleus. As a prominent import substrate of Kap122p, we identified the complex of the large and small subunit (Toa1p and Toa2p, resp...

  8. Quantitative study of the effect of deposition temperature on antimony incorporation in InAs/InAsSb superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugan, H. J.; Mahalingam, K.; Szmulowicz, F.; Brown, G. J.

    2016-02-01

    InAs/InAsSb superlattices (SLs) are being actively explored for infrared detector applications owing to their superior carrier lifetimes. However, antimony (Sb) segregation during growth can alter the properties of the grown material. In this study, using X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, authors quantify the compositional profile of individual layers and establish epitaxial parameters for high-quality InAs/InAsSb SL materials. Epitaxial conditions are determined for a nominal 7.7 nm InAs/3.5 nm InAs0.7Sb0.3 SL structure tailored for an approximately 6 μm response at 150 K. Since the growth of mixed anion alloys is complicated by the potential reaction of As2 with Sb surfaces, authors varied the deposition temperature (Tg) in order to control As2 surface reactions on Sb surfaces. Authors find that Sb incorporation is suppressed by 21%, with the increase of Tg from 395 to 440 °C. This incorporation likely stems from Sb surface segregation during InAsSb layer growth that is driven by the As-Sb exchange mechanism, which can lead to significant compositional and dimensional deviations from the intended design.

  9. Microbial degradation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS), an e-plastic with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Mohan, Arya J; Nair, Nimisha R; Bhaskar, Thallada; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-11-15

    Accumulation of electronic waste has increased catastrophically and out of that various plastic resins constitute one of the leading thrown out materials in the electronic machinery. Enrichment medium, containing high impact polystyrene (HIPS) with decabromodiphenyl oxide and antimony trioxide as sole carbon source, was used to isolate microbial cultures. The viability of these cultures in the e-plastic containing mineral medium was further confirmed by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) reduction test. Four cultures were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as Enterobacter sp., Citrobacter sedlakii, Alcaligenes sp. and Brevundimonas diminuta. Biodegradation experiments were carried out in flask level and gelatin supplementation (0.1% w/v) along with HIPS had increased the degradation rate to a maximum of 12.4% (w/w) within 30days. This is the first report for this kind of material. The comparison of FTIR, NMR, and TGA analysis of original and degraded e-plastic films revealed structural changes under microbial treatment. Polystyrene degradation intermediates in the culture supernatant were also detected using HPLC analysis. The gravity of biodegradation was validated by morphological changes under scanning electron microscope. All isolates displayed depolymerase activity to substantiate enzymatic degradation of e-plastic.

  10. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, J., E-mail: jose.montero@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Guillén, C.; Herrero, J. [Department of Energy, Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 40, Ed. 42, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-21

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  11. Antimony segregation in Ge and formation of n-type selectively doped Ge films in molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony segregation in Ge(001) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy was studied. A quantitative dependence of the Sb segregation ratio in Ge on growth temperature was revealed experimentally and modeled theoretically taking into account both the terrace-mediated and step-edge-mediated segregation mechanisms. A nearly 5-orders-of-magnitude increase in the Sb segregation ratio in a relatively small temperature range of 180–350 °C was obtained, which allowed to form Ge:Sb doped layers with abrupt boundaries and high crystalline quality using the temperature switching method that was proposed earlier for Si-based structures. This technique was employed for fabrication of different kinds of n-type Ge structures which can be useful for practical applications like heavily doped n+-Ge films or δ-doped layers. Estimation of the doping profiles sharpness yielded the values of 2–5 nm per decade for the concentration gradient at the leading edge and 2–3 nm for the full-width-half-maximum of the Ge:Sb δ-layers. Electrical characterization of grown Ge:Sb structures revealed nearly full electrical activation of Sb atoms and the two-dimensional nature of charge carrier transport in δ-layers

  12. Photocurrent Generation by Photosynthetic Purple Bacterial Reaction Centers Interfaced with a Porous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide (ATO) Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhang, HaoJie; Mieritz, Daniel; Volosin, Alex; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Yan, Hao; Seo, Dong-Kyun; Lin, Su; Woodbury, Neal W

    2016-09-28

    The ability to exchange energy and information between biological and electronic materials is critical in the development of hybrid electronic systems in biomedicine, environmental sensing, and energy applications. While sensor technology has been extensively developed to collect detailed molecular information, less work has been done on systems that can specifically modulate the chemistry of the environment with temporal and spatial control. The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center represents an ideal photonic component of such a system in that it is capable of modifying local chemistry via light-driven redox reactions with quantitative control over reaction rates and has inherent spectroscopic probes for monitoring function. Here a well-characterized model system is presented, consisting of a transparent, porous electrode (antimony-doped tin oxide) which is electrochemically coupled to the reaction center via a cytochrome c molecule. Upon illumination, the reaction center performs the 2-step, 2-electron reduction of a ubiquinone derivative which exchanges with oxidized quinone in solution. Electrons from the electrode then move through the cytochrome to reoxidize the reaction center electron donor. The result is a facile platform for performing redox chemistry that can be optically and electronically controlled in time and space.

  13. A novel voltammetric sensor based on carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide for the determination of ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by the modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoparticles of antimony tin oxide (ATO). The surface layer was characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction method (EDX) and ATR FT-IR spectroscopy. The proposed electrode was assessed in respect to the electro-oxidation of ractopamine. Compared with a bare GCE and a GCE electrode modified with CNTs, the ATONPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a great catalytic activity towards the oxidation of ractopamine with a well-defined anodic peak at 600 mV. The current response was linear with the concentration of ractopamine over the range from 10 to 240 nM with a detection limit of 3.3 nM. The proposed electrode enabled the selective determination of ractopamine in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed electrode was successfully applied for the determination of ractopamine in feed and urine samples. The sensitive and selective determination of ractopamine makes the developed method of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use and doping control purposes. PMID:26652385

  14. A green synthesis route for the phase and size tunability of copper antimony sulfide nanocrystals with high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Wen; Chen, Qiao; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Yueli

    2016-03-01

    Until now, it is a great challenge for the controllable synthesis of copper antimony sulfide (CAS) nanocrystals (NCs), as the reactivity of precursors is quite difficult to be controlled during the synthesis process. In the present work, a novel solution-based method is proposed to synthesize CAS NCs by choosing N,N'-diphenylthiourea as the sulfide precursor, which is favorable for balancing the relative reactivity of Cu and Sb ions. It is found that three phases (CuSbS2, Cu12Sb4S13 and Cu3SbS4) of CAS NCs with size tunability were successfully synthesized for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, the lowest reaction temperature of 110 °C and the highest yield over 90% for CAS NCs were also achieved for the first time, which may be considered to be a green synthesis route compared with other conventional methods. Optical properties indicate that the as-prepared CAS NCs have strong optical absorption in the visible light region of the solar spectrum, and we also observed the band gap tunability of CuSbS2 and Cu3SbS4 materials for the first time. PMID:26875832

  15. FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO ADHERENCE TO DIFFERENT TREATMENT SCHEMES WITH MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Novato Ribeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The favorable outcome of the treatment of a disease is influenced by the adherence to therapy. Our objective was to assess factors associated with adherence to treatment of patients included in a clinical trial of equivalence between the standard and alternative treatment schemes with meglumine antimoniate (MA in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Between 2008 and 2011, 57 patients with CL were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic data. The following methods were used for adherence monitoring: counting of vial surplus, monitoring card, Morisky test and modified Morisky test (without the question regarding the schedule; we observed 82.1% (vial return, 86.0% (monitoring card, 66.7% (Morisky test and 86.0% (modified Morisky test adherence. There was a strong correlation between the method of vial counting and the monitoring card and modified Morisky test. A significant association was observed between greater adherence to treatment and low dose of MA, as well as with a lower number of people sleeping in the same room. We recommend the use of the modified Morisky test to assess adherence to treatment of CL with MA, because it is a simple method and with a good performance, when compared to other methods.

  16. Arsenic and antimony in water and wastewater: overview of removal techniques with special reference to latest advances in adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, Gabriela; Santos, Sílvia; Boaventura, Rui; Botelho, Cidália

    2015-03-15

    Arsenic and antimony are metalloids, naturally present in the environment but also introduced by human activities. Both elements are toxic and carcinogenic, and their removal from water is of unquestionable importance. The present article begins with an overview of As and Sb chemistry, distribution and toxicity, which are relevant aspects to understand and develop remediation techniques. A brief review of the recent results in analytical methods for speciation and quantification was also provided. The most common As and Sb removal techniques (coagulation/flocculation, oxidation, membrane processes, electrochemical methods and phyto and bioremediation) are presented with discussion of their advantages, drawbacks and the main recent achievements. Literature review on adsorption and biosorption were focused in detail. Considering especially the case of developing countries or rural communities, but also the finite energy resources that over the world are still dependent, recent research have focused especially readily available low-cost adsorbents, as minerals, wastes and biosorbents. Many of these alternative sorbents have been presenting promising results and can be even superior when compared to the commercial ones. Sorption capacities were accurately compiled for As(III,V) and Sb(III,V) species in order to provide to the reader an easy but detailed comparison. Some aspects related to experimental conditions, comparison criteria, lack of research studies, economic aspects and adsorption mechanisms were critically discussed. PMID:25585146

  17. Quadrupole coupling constants and isomeric Moessbauer shifts for halogen-containing gold, platinum, niobium, tantalum and antimony compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have analyzed by means of Density functional theory calculations the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants of a range of gold, antimony, platinum, niobium and tantalum compounds. The geometrical parameters and halogen nuclear quadrupole coupling constants obtained by these calculations substantially corresponded to the data of microwave and nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy. An analysis of the quality of the calculations that employ pseudo-potentials and all-electron basis sets for the halogen compounds was carried out. The zero order regular approximation (ZORA) method is shown to be a viable alternative for the calculation of halogen coupling constants in molecules. In addition, the ZORA model, in contrast to the pseudo-potential model, leads to realistic values of all metal nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. From Klopman's approach, it follows that the relationship between the electrostatic bonding and covalent depends on the nature of the central atom. The results on Moessbauer chemical shifts are also in a good agreement with the coordination number of the central atom.

  18. Use of cloud-point preconcentration for spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of antimony in biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Amin, Alaa S

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a cloud-point extraction process using the micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological and environmental samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and 3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCHNAQ) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 4.5. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal reaction conditions and extraction were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limits of detection and quantification, linear range, preconcentration, improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) was obeyed in the range of 0.2-20 ng ml(-1). The detection and quantification limits for the determination of Sb(III) were 0.055 and 0.185 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method has a lower detection limit and wider linear range, inexpensive instrument, and low cost, and is more sensitive compared with most other methods. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma, urine, biological, and water samples.

  19. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites. PMID:26820933

  20. Demonstration of the Presence of the “Deleted” MIR122 Gene in HepG2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim A. Y.; Fei, Yue; Kalea, Anastasia Z.; Yin, Dan; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Palmen, Jutta; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Walker, Ann P.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA 122 (miR-122) is highly expressed in the liver where it influences diverse biological processes and pathways, including hepatitis C virus replication and metabolism of iron and cholesterol. It is processed from a long non-coding primary transcript (~7.5 kb) and the gene has two evolutionarily-conserved regions containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 hairpin region. Several groups reported that the widely-used hepatocytic cell line HepG2 had deficient expression of miR-122, previously ascribed to deletion of the pre-mir-122 stem-loop region. We aimed to characterise this deletion by direct sequencing of 6078 bp containing the pri-mir-122 promoter and pre-mir-122 stem-loop region in HepG2 and Huh-7, a control hepatocytic cell line reported to express miR-122, supported by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA. In contrast to previous findings, the entire sequence was present in both cell lines. Ten SNPs were heterozygous in HepG2 indicating that DNA was present in two copies. Three validation isolates of HepG2 were sequenced, showing identical genotype to the original in two, whereas the third was different. Investigation of promoter chromatin status by FAIRE showed that Huh-7 cells had 6.2 ± 0.19- and 2.7 ± 0.01- fold more accessible chromatin at the proximal (HNF4α-binding) and distal DR1 transcription factor sites, compared to HepG2 cells (p=0.03 and 0.001, respectively). This was substantiated by ENCODE genome annotations, which showed a DNAse I hypersensitive site in the pri-mir-122 promoter in Huh-7 that was absent in HepG2 cells. While the origin of the reported deletion is unclear, cell lines should be obtained from a reputable source and used at low passage number to avoid discrepant results. Deficiency of miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells may be related to a relative deficiency of accessible promoter chromatin in HepG2 versus Huh-7 cells. PMID:25811611

  1. Bioinformatic Analysis and Prediction of miRNA-122a Target Genes%miRNA-122a靶基因预测及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋永容; 李增鹏; 王东; 王阁; 陈川; 张志敏; 郑继军; 许文; 罗美林; 戴楠; 李梦侠; 杨宇馨

    2011-01-01

    目的:利用基因芯片技术分析肝癌HepG2细胞和正常肝上皮LO2细胞中miRNA的表达,并对HepG2细胞中低表达的miRNA-122a进行靶基因预测及相关生物信息学分析,为以miRNA-122a为靶点的基因治疗提供理论和实验基础.方法:利用基因芯片技术检测HepG2细胞和LO2细胞中miRNA-122a表达水平,通过生物信息学预测miRNA-122a的靶基因,并对其靶基因进行功能富集分析(GO-analysis)、信号转导通路富集分析(Pathway-analysis)和蛋白质相互作用网络分析.结果:与LO2细胞比较,miRNA-122a在HepG2细胞中呈低表达.miRNA-122a预测靶基因有1 104个,其靶基因集合功能分别富集于碳水化合物生物合成、核苷酸代谢、细胞因子受体结合、细胞周期等生物学过程(P<0.001);信号转导通路显著富集于JAK-STAT信号通路、Wnt信号通路、MAPK信号通路、ErbB信号通路、细胞周期等信号转导通路(P<0.001).结论:miRNA-122a在HepG2细胞中呈现低表达,miRNA-122a预测靶基因集合显著富集在与肿瘤发生相关的信号通路中.%Objective: The present study aimed to investigate miRNA expression patterns in hepatocellular carcinoma ( HepG2 ) and normol liver epithelial (LO2) cell lines.Another aim was to bioinformatically analyze as well as predict the target genes of miR-122a to provide both theoretical and experimental basis for gene therapy.Methods: The expression levels of miRNA- 122a in HepG2 and LO2 cells were detected using the gene chip technology.The bioinformatic analysis of the target genes of miRNA-122a involved enrichment ( gene ontology ), signal transduction pathway enrichment, and protein interaction network analyses.Results: miRNA-122a expression significantly decreased in HepG2 cells, compared with LO2 cells.The number of miRNA-122a target genes was 1104.The functions of these target genes were enriched in carbohydrate biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, cytokine receptor binding, cell cycle, and other

  2. AG10 inhibits amyloidogenesis and cellular toxicity of the familial amyloid cardiomyopathy-associated V122I transthyretin

    OpenAIRE

    Penchala, Sravan C; Connelly, Stephen; Wang, Yu; Park, Miki S; Zhao, Lei; Baranczak, Aleksandra; Rappley, Irit; Vogel, Hannes; Liedtke, Michaela; Witteles, Ronald M.; Powers, Evan T.; Reixach, Natàlia; Chan, William K.; Wilson, Ian A.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    The misassembly of soluble proteins into toxic aggregates, including amyloid fibrils, underlies a large number of human degenerative diseases. Cardiac amyloidoses, which are most commonly caused by aggregation of Ig light chains or transthyretin (TTR) in the cardiac interstitium and conducting system, represent an important and often underdiagnosed cause of heart failure. Two types of TTR-associated amyloid cardiomyopathies are clinically important. The Val122Ile (V122I) mutation, which alter...

  3. Upregulation of MiR-122 via Trichostatin A Treatments in Hepatocyte-like Cells Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Effat; Eslaminejad, MohamadReza Baghaban; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Sadeghi, Zohre; Abasi, Mozghan; Herizchi, Roya; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-02-01

    The miR-122 is a tissue-specific miRNA; its expression is abundant in liver. MiR-122 upregulation is crucial for differentiation, functionality, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype in hepatocytes. The improving effects of trichostatin A (TSA) on hepatic differentiation have been reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine whether TSA can affect the expression of miR-122 in hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) generated from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs). The hepatic differentiation of hAT-MSCs induced by a mixture of growth factors and cytokines either with or without TSA treatments. The functionality of HLCs generated with or without TSA and the expression levels of miR-122 were studied. The expression levels of miR-122 in TSA-treated HLCs was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those generated by growth factors and cytokines, only. The downregulation of a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels but enhanced albumin synthesis (p < 0.05) and upregulation of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs) HNF4α (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α) and HNF6 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 6) were observed in TSA-treated HLCs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, administration of TSA in hepatogenic differentiation of hAT-MSCs resulted in higher expression levels of miR-122, facilitation of differentiation, and subsequently attenuation of AFP levels.

  4. Prediction of meteor shower associated with Comet 122P/de Vico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Dusan; Neslusan, Lubos

    2013-01-01

    We model, for a far past, a theoretical stream associated with Comet 122P/de Vico and follow its dynamical evolution until present. Selecting the modeled particles approaching the Earth's orbit at the present, we predict the characteristics of a potential meteor shower and try to identify these particles with the meteors in three databases (photo, radar, and video). Our overall prediction is, however, negative because only the particles released from the comet nucleus before approximately 37 000 years ago are found to evolve into a collision course with the Earth and, therefore, form a possible shower. Meteoroids are known to survive a much shorter time in interplanetary space, unfortunately.

  5. miR-122 targets NOD2 to decrease intestinal epithelial cell injury in Crohn’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Chengxiao; Liu, Ying; Tang, Liwei; Zheng, Mingxia [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Xu, Chundi [Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 (China); Song, Jian, E-mail: jiansongkxy@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China); Meng, Xiaochun [Department of Pediatrics, Jiangwan Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai 200434 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •NOD2 is a target gene of miR-122. •miR-122 inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. •miR-122 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ). •miR-122 promotes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). •NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in inflammatory response induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, miR-122 was found to be deregulated in association with CD progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the gene nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15), which is strongly associated with susceptibility to CD, was identified as a functional target of miR-122. MiR-122 inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. NOD2 interaction with LPS initiates signal transduction mechanisms resulting in the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the stimulation of downstream pro-inflammatory events. The activation of NF-κB was inhibited in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor or NOD2 shRNA. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ was significantly decreased, whereas therelease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was increased in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor, NOD2 shRNA or the NF-κB inhibitor QNZ. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-122 and its target gene NOD2 may play an important role in the injury of intestinal epithelial cells induced by LPS.

  6. STUDY ON THE REMOVAL OF ANTIMONY FOR PRODUCING SODIUM STANNATE BY TIN SLAG%锡渣生产锡酸钠中除锑的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丹艳

    2012-01-01

    利用生产硫酸亚锡、氯化亚锡、锡:扮的含锡废料生产锡酸钠,生产成本低,但在这过程中需要除去的杂质也相对比较多。文章对除锑的工艺参数和条件进行了研究,重点探讨了除锑温度、除锑时间、除锑后溶液静置沉降时间等因素对锑效果的影响。结果表明,采用该工艺,Sb的脱除率为95.3%,产品质量符合Sn-42等级标准。%waste material that contains tin and can be used for producing Stannous sulfate, Stannous chloride and Tin powder is use for producing Sodium stannate. The cost of production may stay at a relative low level. But It needs to get rid of More impurities, Relatively speaking .In this paper, the process parameters and conditions of the removal of Antimony are studied. The factors such as the temperature and time of the removal of Antimony and time of sedimentation time of the Solution are discussed, which have an influence on the removal of Antimony. It is shown that, using this technology, removal rate of Sb is 95.3%, and the Product quality is In accordance with the grading standard of Sn 42.

  7. Development of a non-chromatographic method for the speciation analysis of inorganic antimony in mushroom samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Ferreira, Hadla; Costa Ferreira, Sergio Luis; Cervera, M. Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    A simple and sensitive method has been developed for the direct determination of toxic species of antimony in mushroom samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG AFS). The determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) was based on the efficiency of hydride generation employing NaBH 4, with and without a previous KI reduction, using proportional equations corresponding to the two different measurement conditions. The extraction efficiency of total antimony and the stability of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different extraction media (nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, acetic acid, methanol and ethanol) were evaluated. Results demonstrated that, based on the extraction yield and the stability of extracts, 0.5 mol L - 1 H 2SO 4 proved to be the best extracting solution for the speciation analysis of antimony in mushroom samples. The limits of detection of the developed methodology were 0.6 and 1.1 ng g - 1 for Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively. The relative standard derivation was 3.8% (14.7 ng g - 1 ) for Sb(V) and 5.1% (4.6 ng g - 1 ) for Sb(III). The recovery values obtained for Sb(III) and Sb(V) varied from 94 to 106% and from 98 to 105%, respectively. The method has been applied to determine Sb(III), Sb(V) and total Sb in five different mushroom samples; the Sb(III) content varied from 4.6 to 11.4 ng g - 1 and Sb(V) from 14.7 to 21.2 ng g - 1 . The accuracy of the method was confirmed by the analysis of a certified reference material of tomato leaves.

  8. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Antimony-doped Tin Oxide Nano-powder via Ion-exchange Hydrolysis of SnCl4 and SbCl3 and Azeotropic Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fen; ZHANG Xue-jun; TIAN Fang; WU Xu; GAN Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin hydroxide colloid precipitates have been synthesized by hydrolysis of SnCl4 and SbCl3 using: (1) an ion-exchange hydrolysis to remove chlorine ions, and (2) isoamyl acetate as an azeotropic solvent to obviate water. The obtained dried powder is of high dispersivity without any need for further grinding. The size and dispersivity of the final particles are investigated with the aid of TG-DTA, BET, XRD and TEM. After having calcined, the antimony-doped tin oxide nanopowder possesses a tetragonal rutile structure with high dispersivity, uniform particles and low hard agglomeration.

  9. Facilitated extracellular electron transfer of Shewanella loihica PV-4 by antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles as active microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Huan; Wang, Jinrong; Ren, Guangyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and microbial fuel/electrolysis cells. However, the low EET efficiency remains one of the major bottlenecks for its practical application. We report firstly that the microbial current generated by Shewanella loihica PV-4 (S. loihica PV-4) could be greatly improved that is up to ca. 115 fold, by adding antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles in the electrochemical reactor. The results demonstrate that the biocompatible, electrically conductive ATO nanoparticles acted as active microelectrodes could facilitate the formation of a cells/ATO composite biofilm and the reduction of the outer membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) that are beneficial for the electron transfer from cells to electrode. Meanwhile, a synergistic effect between the participation of OM c-Cyts and the accelerated EET mediated by cell-secreted flavins may play an important role for the enhanced current generation in the presence of ATO nanoparticles. Moreover, it is worth noting that the TCA cycle in S. loihica PV-4 cells is activated by adding ATO nanoparticles, even if the potential is poised at +0.2 V, thereby also improving the EET process. The results presented here may provide a simple and effective strategy to boost the EET of S. loihica PV-4 cells, which is conducive to providing potential applications in bioelectrochemical systems.Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria are capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET) to insoluble metal oxides as external electron acceptors for their anaerobic respiration, which is recognized as an important energy-conversion process in natural and engineered environments, such as in mineral cycling, bioremediation, and

  10. Effect of the antimony thin-film deposition sequence on copper-silicon interdiffusion: Vpliv zaporedja nanosa tankih plasti antimona na interdifuzijo baker-silicij:

    OpenAIRE

    Chaouki, Benazzouz; Fouzia, Zekkar; Mahfoud, Benkerri; Mokhtar, Boudissa; Mounir, Reffas; Nasser, Menni

    2012-01-01

    In this work we present a study of the effect of an antimony layer on the interdiffusion and formation of copper silicides while inverting the sequence of Cu and Sb deposition on Si(111) substrates. Thermal evaporation was used to deposit Cu/Sb and Sb/Cu bilayers on a Si(111) substrate heated at 100 °C, without breaking the vacuum. XRD and RBS analysis showed, for samples heat treated at 200 °C and 400 °C, a segregation of the three elements (i.e., Cu, Sb and Si) to the surface and diffusion ...

  11. Comparative study on the corrosion behavior of the cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony in flue gas desulfurization environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. A.; Kim, J. G.; He, Y. S.; Shin, K. S.; Yoon, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The correlation between the corrosion and microstructual characteristics of cold rolled and hot rolled low-alloy steels containing copper and antimony was established. The corrosion behavior of the specimens used in flue gas desulfurization systems was examined by electrochemical and weight loss measurements in an aggressive solution of 16.9 vol % H2SO4 + 0.35 vol % HCl at 60°C, pH 0.3. It has been shown that the corrosion rate of hot rolled steel is lower than that of cold rolled steel. The corrosion rate of cold rolled steel was increased by grain refinement, inclusion formation, and preferred grain orientation.

  12. New and rapid access to synthesis of novel polysubstituted imidazoles using antimony trichloride and stannous chloride dihydrate as effective and reusable catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Leyla Poorali; Bahador Karami; Khalil Eskandari; Mahboobeh Azizi

    2013-05-01

    In this work, new, efficient and environmentally adapted synthesis of polysubstituted imidazoles in one-pot is repoted. The multicomponent reaction of various aldehydes, benzil, aliphatic and aromatic primary amines and ammonium acetate under solvent-free condition is explained. The highly efficient role of antimony trichloride and stannous chloride dihydrate as catalyst in this synthesis was shown and their effects on the reaction process were studied. By this advantage, several polysubstituted imidazoles as pharmaceutical important molecules can be prepared in high yield and high purity. This method is a very easy and rapid for the synthesis of imidazole derivatives.

  13. Double blind, randomized controlled trial, to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled nitric oxide releasing patch versus meglumine antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis [NCT00317629

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Federico A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease, endemic in 88 countries, that has shown an increasing incidence over the last two decades. So far, pentavalent antimony compounds have been considered the treatment of choice, with a percentage of cure of about 85%. However, the high efficacy of these drugs is counteracted by their many disadvantages and adverse events. Previous studies have shown nitric oxide to be a potential alternative treatment when administered topically with no serious adverse events. However, due to the unstable nitric oxide release, the topical donors needed to be applied frequently, making the adherence to the treatment difficult. The electrospinning technique has allowed the production of a multilayer transdermal patch that produces a continuous and stable nitric oxide release. The main objective of this study is to evaluate this novel nitric oxide topical donor for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods and design A double-blind, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial, including 620 patients from endemic areas for Leishmaniasis in Colombia was designed to investigate whether this patch is as effective as meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but with less adverse events. Subjects with ulcers characteristic of cutaneous leishmaniasis will be medically evaluated and laboratory tests and parasitological confirmation performed. After checking the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the patients will be randomly assigned to one of two groups. During 20 days Group 1 will receive simultaneously meglumine antimoniate and placebo of nitric oxide patches while Group 2 will receive placebo of meglumine antimoniate and active nitric oxide patches. During the treatment visits, the medications will be daily administered and the presence of adverse events assessed. During the follow-up, the research group will visit the patients at days 21, 45, 90 and 180. The

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Synthesized by Co-Evaporation of Sn and Sb using Plasma Assisted Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jariwala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2 thin films are having promising properties such as high visible transmittance and low electric resistivity, makes them very important transparent conductor in a variety of optoelectronics devices. Further, doping with pentavalent impurity such as Antimony (Sb enhances its conductivity considerably. In order to study the effect of Antimony doping, Antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2 : Sb thin films have been prepared by the co-evaporation of Sn and Sb using Plasma Assisted Thermal Evaporation (PATE in oxygen (O2 partial pressure at various doping level from 4% to 25%. The influence of various Sb doping levels on the compositional, electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated using Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS transmission spectroscopy, four-probe resistivity measurement and X-ray Diffraction (XRD, respectively. EDX studies confirmed the different Sb doping levels in the grown films from 4 % to 25 %, while electrical resistivity is obtained in range of 0.36 to 9.5 Ohmcm using four-probe setup for 4 % to 25 % Sb doping levels. Transmittance spectra measured in UV-VIS range for Sb doped films show reduction in an average transmittance in respect to increase in Sb doping levels in the grown films. Whereas, XRD analysis reveals that higher Sb doping of 25 % induce the precipitation of antimony oxide (Sb2O3 phase and its precipitation suppressed the growth of SnO2 peaks as well as responsible for reduction in conductivity and transparency. The best electrical resistivity of optimized SnO2 : Sb (5 % is 0.36 Ohmcm without deteriorating the high (~ 80 % average transmittance in the wavelength region 300-800 nm in comparison to undoped SnO2 film (6.57 Ohmcm , confirm the usefulness of SnO2 : Sb (5 % films for device applications.

  15. Antimony (Sb) sorption studies on zircaloy, carbon steel (CS) and magnetite coated CS (MCS) surfaces in aqueous medium at pH 10.2 and 280℃

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony sorption studies on zircaloy, CS and magnetite coated carbon steel (MCS) at primary heat transport temperature (290℃) of pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) are of direct relevance in investigating Sb activity problem faced in Indian PHWRs. Sb impregnated PHT pump carbon bearing releases Sb to reactor core. This Sb activates, and redeposit on out-of-core surfaces and results in exposure and apparent high decontamination factors. This Sb is not amenable to normal decantation. The form and state of deposited Sb is not yet fully known. This works attempts for this

  16. Molecular diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at a large-scale antimony mining area in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Chen, Zhipeng; Wu, Fengchang; Hou, Hong; Li, Jining; Shangguan, Yuxian; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fasheng; Zeng, Qingru

    2015-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have great potential for assisting heavy metal hyperaccumulators in the remediation of contaminated soils. However, little information is available about the community composition of AMF under natural conditions in soils contaminated by antimony (Sb). The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of AMF molecular diversity, and to explore the effects of Sb content and soil properties on the AMF community structure in an Sb mining area. Four Sb mine spoils and one adjacent reference area were selected from around the Xikuangshan mine in southern China. The association of AMF molecular diversity and community composition with the rhizosphere soils of the dominant plant species was studied by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results from all five studied sites showed that the diversity of AMF decreased with increasing Sb concentration. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the AMF community structure was markedly different among these groups. Further redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Sb contamination was the dominating factor influencing the AMF community structure in the Sb mine area. However, the multivariate analysis showed that, apart from the soil Sb content, extractable nitrogen content and organic matter content also attributed to AMF sequence distribution type. Some AMF sequences were only found in the highly contaminated area and these might be ideal candidates for improving phytoremediation efficiency in Sb mining regions. Gene sequencing analysis revealed that most species were affiliated with Glomus, suggesting that Glomus was the dominant AMF genus in the studied Sb mining area. PMID:25766009

  17. Eficácia do sulfato de aminosidine na leishmaniose visceral grave, resistente ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleudson Castro

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de calazar grave resistente a dez cursos de antimonial petitavalente (glucantime à base de 20mg de Sb5/kg/dia, que respondeu favoravelmente ao sulfato de aminosidine intramuscular na dose de 20mg/kg/dia por 20 dias, repetido após 20 dias. O parasitismo esplénico passou de 50 parasitos por campo a 3 parasitos em 10 campos logo após a primeira série de sulfato de aminosidine, tornando-se negativo depois de sete meses. A melhora clínica foi imediata, com redução gradual da hepatoesplenomegalia, e desaparecimento 26 meses após. Neste período aumentou 13 kg. Após o uso de aminosidine a reação de Monténégro tornou-se positiva e as células mononucleares responderam quando estimuladas com antígenos de leishmânia.A grave kala-azar infection in a 14 years old boy is described. The leishmanial infection failed to respond to ten interrupted courses of glucantime of variable duration (14-56 days at a dose of 20mg Sb5/kg/day. However a favorable response ocurred to intramuscular aminosidine sulphate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days. This same regimen was repeated 20 days later. After the first treatment splenic puncture parasite density fell from 50 amastigotes per oil immersion field to 3 amastigotes in 10 fields. A further splenic puncture 7 months after treatment was negative. The marked hepatoesplenomegaly gradually resolved over 26 months follow up and he gained 13 kilogramas in weight. After aminosidine sulphate therapy his Montenegro reaction become positive and his lymphocytes responded to leishmania antigens.

  18. Imipramine is an orally active drug against both antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani clinical isolates in experimental infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In an endeavor to find an orally active and affordable antileishmanial drug, we tested the efficacy of a cationic amphiphilic drug, imipramine, commonly used for the treatment of depression in humans. The only available orally active antileishmanial drug is miltefosine with long half life and teratogenic potential limits patient compliance. Thus there is a genuine need for an orally active antileishmanial drug. Previously it was shown that imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant alters the protonmotive force in promastigotes, but its in vivo efficacy was not reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that the drug is highly active against antimony sensitive and resistant Leishmania donovani in both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and in LD infected hamster model. The drug was found to decrease the mitochondrial transmembrane potential of Leishmania donovani (LD promastigotes and purified amastigotes after 8 h of treatment, whereas miltefosine effected only a marginal change even after 24 h. The drug restores defective antigen presenting ability of the parasitized macrophages. The status of the host protective factors TNF α, IFN γ and iNOS activity increased with the concomitant decrease in IL 10 and TGF β level in imipramine treated infected hamsters and evolution of matured sterile hepatic granuloma. The 10-day therapeutic window as a monotherapy, showing about 90% clearance of organ parasites in infected hamsters regardless of their SSG sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that imipramine possibly qualifies for a new use of an old drug and can be used as an effective orally active drug for the treatment of Kala-azar.

  19. Migration and leaching risk of extraneous antimony in three representative soils of China: lysimeter and batch experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H; Yao, N; Li, J N; Wei, Y; Zhao, L; Zhang, J; Li, F S

    2013-11-01

    Antimony (Sb) distribution, solubility and mobility onto natural soils of China were studied in lysimeter and batch experiments as a function of physicochemical properties of the soil. An outdoor lysimeter experiment investigated the leaching and migration of Sb in the soils with Sb-polluted topsoil and unpolluted subsoil over a 5month period. Soil solutions were collected by suction cups installed at different depth of lysimeters, and leachates were regularly collected and analyzed for Sb concentrations. The majority of the added Sb was retained in the topsoil layers, but small portions were moved to the sub-layers. Sb concentrations in the soil solutions and leachates ranged from 0-755.5 (6.38±54 on average) μg l(-1) and 0-0.45 (smaller than the detection limit) μg l(-1) respectively, indicating the low solubility of Sb in the soils. Batch experiments were performed in order to determine the sorption capacity and the partition coefficient (Kd). Freundlich isotherm described properly the equilibrium experimental data and results show that the Kd values for Primosol, Isohumosol, Ferrosol equal to 22.5, 87.8, 704 L kg(-1), respectively. These results showed the strong capacity of the soils to retain Sb, and prevent it being leached down the profile. The mobilizable Sb was in the order: Primosol>Isohumosol>Ferrosol. Sb migration in the soils was mainly associated with the exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and metal-organic complex-bound fractions. Health risk assessment indicates that Sb leaching from Ferrosol will not harm to human health through groundwater under the test conditions, while it has certain health risks from the Isohumosol and Primosol. PMID:23931906

  20. Responses and acclimation of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) to metal stress: the inducible antimony tolerance in oak trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulian; Zheng, Lingyu; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Lei, Jingpin; Shi, Shengqing; Shi, Xiang; Li, Huiqing; Li, Qinghe; Wei, Yuan; Chang, Ermei; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has become a pressing environmental problem in recent years. Trees have been proven to have great potential for the feasible phytomanagement; however, little is known about Sb retention and tolerance in trees. The Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) is known to be capable of growth in soils containing high concentrations of Sb. This study explored in detail the retention and acclimation of Q. variabilis under moderate and high external Sb levels. Results revealed that Q. variabilis could tolerate and accumulate high Sb (1623.39 mg kg(-1) DW) in roots. Dynamics of Sb retention in leaves, stems, and roots of Q. variabilis were different. Leaf Sb remained at a certain level for several weeks, while in roots and stems, Sb concentrations continued to increase. Sb damaged tree's PSII reaction cores but elicited defense mechanism at the donor side of PSII. It affected the electron transport flow after QA (-) more strongly than the oxygen-evolving complex and light-harvesting pigment-protein complex II. Sb also decreased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and therefore inhibited plant growth. During acclimation to Sb toxicity, Sb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots decreased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels by the end of the experiment. These findings suggest that Sb tolerance in Q. variabilis is inducible. Acclimation seems to be related to homeostasis of Sb in plants. Results of this study can provide useful information for trees breeding and selection of Sb phytomanagement strategies, exploiting the established ability of Q. variabilis to transport, delocalize in the leaves, and tolerate Sb pollutions.

  1. Correlating microbial community profiles with geochemical conditions in a watershed heavily contaminated by an antimony tailing pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Enzong; Krumins, Valdis; Tang, Song; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Lan, Xiaolong; Sun, Weimin

    2016-08-01

    Mining activities have introduced various pollutants to surrounding aquatic and terrestrial environments, causing adverse impacts to the environment. Indigenous microbial communities are responsible for the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants in diverse environments, indicating the potential for bioremediation of such pollutants. Antimony (Sb) has been extensively mined in China and Sb contamination in mining areas has been frequently encountered. To date, however, the microbial composition and structure in response to Sb contamination has remained overlooked. Sb and As frequently co-occur in sulfide-rich ores, and co-contamination of Sb and As is observed in some mining areas. We characterized, for the first time, the microbial community profiles and their responses to Sb and As pollution from a watershed heavily contaminated by Sb tailing pond in Southwest China. The indigenous microbial communities were profiled by high-throughput sequencing from 16 sediment samples (535,390 valid reads). The comprehensive geochemical data (specifically, physical-chemical properties and different Sb and As extraction fractions) were obtained from river water and sediments at different depths as well. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that a suite of in situ geochemical and physical factors significantly structured the overall microbial community compositions. Further, we found significant correlations between individual phylotypes (bacterial genera) and the geochemical fractions of Sb and As by Spearman rank correlation. A number of taxonomic groups were positively correlated with the Sb and As extractable fractions and various Sb and As species in sediment, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in Sb biogeochemical cycling. PMID:27182975

  2. Differential stimulation of hepatitis C virus RNA translation by microRNA-122 in different cell cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Carmen; Conrad, K Dominik; Niepmann, Michael

    2012-01-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates preferentially in the liver, and in most cases the HCV infection becomes chronic and often results in hepatocellular carcinoma. When the HCV plus-strand RNA genome has been delivered to the cytosol of the infected cell, its translation is directed by the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the viral RNA. Thereby, IRES activity is modulated by several host factors. In particular, the liver-specific microRNA-122 (miR-122) interacts with two target sites in the HCV 5'-UTR and stimulates HCV translation, thereby most likely contributing to HCV liver tropism. Here we show that HCV IRES-dependent translation efficiency in the hepatoma cell line Huh7 is highest during the G₀ and G₁ phases of the cell cycle but significantly drops during the S phase and even more in the G₂/M phase. The superimposed stimulation of HCV translation by ectopic miR-122 works best during the G₀, G₁ and G₂/M phases but is lower during the S phase. However, the levels of Ago2 protein do not substantially change during cell cycle phases, indicating that other cellular factors involved in HCV translation stimulation by miR-122 may be differentially expressed in different cell cycle phases. Moreover, the levels of endogenously expressed miR-122 in Huh7 cells are lowest in the S phase, indicating that the predominant G₀/G₁ state of non-dividing hepatocytes in the liver facilitates high expression of the HCV genome and stimulation by miR-122, with yet unknown factors involved in the differential extent of stimulation by miR-122.

  3. Discovery of very high energy gamma rays from 1ES 1440+122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Böttcher, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Sweeney, K.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-09-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 h, resulted in the discovery of γ-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift z = 0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8 ± 0.7stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (1.2 per cent of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 200 GeV. The measured spectrum is described well by a power law from 0.2 to 1.3 TeV with a photon index of 3.1 ± 0.4stat ± 0.2sys. Quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (0.3-300 GeV) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (0.2-10 keV) are additionally used to model the properties of the emission region. A synchrotron self-Compton model produces a good representation of the multiwavelength data. Adding an external-Compton or a hadronic component also adequately describes the data.

  4. Fermiology of 122 family of Fe-based superconductors: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermiology of various 122 systems are studied through first principles simulation. Electron doping causes expansion of electron and shrinkage of hole Fermi pockets. Isovalent Ru substitution (up to 35%) makes no visible modification in the electron- and hole-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) providing no clue regarding the nature of charge carrier doping. However, in case of 32% P doping there are considerable changes in the hole FSs. From our calculations, it is very clear that two-dimensionality of FSs may favour electron pair scattering between quasi-nested FSs which has important bearings in various orders (magnetic, orbital, superconducting) present in Fe-based superconductors. - Highlights: • DFT-based simulated Fermi surfaces of 122 family of Fe-based superconductors are studied. • Room-temperature experimental structural parameters are used as input of our calculations. • Topological changes in the FS structures for various kinds of doping are presented. • Influence of dimensional cross-over of FS structures in magnetism and superconductivity is investigated

  5. The ionizing sources of luminous compact HII regions in the RCW106 and RCW122 clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Grave, J M C; Ojha, D K; Teixeira, G; Pace, G

    2013-01-01

    Given the rarity of young O star candidates, compact HII regions embedded in dense molecular cores continue to serve as potential sites to peer into the details of high-mass star formation. To uncover the ionizing sources of the most luminous and compact HII regions embedded in the RCW106 and RCW122 giant molecular clouds, known to be relatively nearby (2-4 kpc) and isolated, thus providing an opportunity to examine spatial scales of a few hundred to a thousand AU in size. High spatial resolution (0.3"), mid-infrared spectra (R=350), including the fine structure lines [ArIII] and [NeII], are obtained for four luminous compact HII regions, embedded inside the dense cores within the RCW106 and RCW122 molecular cloud complexes. At this resolution, these targets reveal point-like sources surrounded by nebulosity of different morphologies, uncovering details at spatial dimensions of <1000AU. The point-like sources display [ArIII] and [NeII] lines - the ratios of which are used to estimate the temperature of the...

  6. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal stromal tumors based on 122 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanglong Liu; Zifang Song; Wei Li; Xiaowei Liu; Chen Zhang; Qichang Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to review the clinical records of 122 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs)and analyze their clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics.Methods:The medic records of 122 patients with GISTs during the periods from January 2002 to May 2010 were reviewed.All tumors were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses.Results:The tumors occurred in 59 males and 63 females,ranging from 25to 77 years.Of all cases,46 cases originated from stomach,42 from small intestine,17 from colon and rectum and 9 from retroperitoneal cavity and 4 cases from extra-gastrointestinal site.Liver was the most common organ that tumors metastases involved.Immunohistochemically,there were 114 tumors being positive for CD117 while 8 tumors negative for it.The frequencies of CD34 positive were higher in the stomach and rectum(89.1% and 86.7% respectively)than in the small intestine(64.3%,P < 0.05).Higher expression of SMA was in the tumors located in small intestine(54.8%)while the expressions of SMA in the gastric and rectal tumors were relatively low(21.7% and 20.0% respectively,P < 0.05).Conclusion:Gastrointestinal stromal tumors can occur in the gastrointestinal tract as well as in the extra-gastrointestinal sites.The frequencies of CD34 and SMA expression vary significantly with different locations.

  7. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from 1ES 1440+122

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Barnacka, A; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Boettcher, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Haakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Nelson, T; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Sweeney, K; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Wakely, S P; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2016-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 hours, resulted in the discovery of $\\gamma$-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift $z$=0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8$\\pm0.7_{\\mathrm{stat}}\\pm0.8_{\\mathrm{sys}}$) $\\times$ 10$^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (1.2\\% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 200 GeV. The measured spectrum is described well by a power law from 0.2 TeV to 1.3 TeV with a photon index of 3.1 $\\pm$ 0.4$_{\\mathrm{stat}}$ $\\pm$ 0.2$_{\\mathrm{sys}}$. Quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (0.3--300 GeV) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (0.2--10 keV) are additionally used to model the properties of the emission region. A synchrotron self-Compton model produces a good repr...

  8. Fermiology of 122 family of Fe-based superconductors: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Smritijit, E-mail: smritijit.sen@gmail.com; Ghosh, Haranath

    2015-04-17

    Fermiology of various 122 systems are studied through first principles simulation. Electron doping causes expansion of electron and shrinkage of hole Fermi pockets. Isovalent Ru substitution (up to 35%) makes no visible modification in the electron- and hole-like Fermi surfaces (FSs) providing no clue regarding the nature of charge carrier doping. However, in case of 32% P doping there are considerable changes in the hole FSs. From our calculations, it is very clear that two-dimensionality of FSs may favour electron pair scattering between quasi-nested FSs which has important bearings in various orders (magnetic, orbital, superconducting) present in Fe-based superconductors. - Highlights: • DFT-based simulated Fermi surfaces of 122 family of Fe-based superconductors are studied. • Room-temperature experimental structural parameters are used as input of our calculations. • Topological changes in the FS structures for various kinds of doping are presented. • Influence of dimensional cross-over of FS structures in magnetism and superconductivity is investigated.

  9. 甲基异丁基甲酮萃取—氢化物发生原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭和氧化锑中汞%Determination of mercury in antimony ingot and antimony oxide by methyl isobutyl ketone extraction-hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建平; 谭芳维; 石建荣

    2012-01-01

    After the samples were dissolved in aqua regia/HBr and tartaric acid was added to mask antimony, then mercury in antimony ingot and antimony oxide was extracted into the organic phase with methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and determined by organic phase injection-intermittent flow injection atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Sample dissolution methods and interferences caused by coexisting ions were investigated, and instrument working conditions, extraction conditions, acidity and other factors were optimized. The results showed that under optimal conditions, the mercury content within the range of 0. 02 to 50 μg/L was in good linear relationship, and the detection limit was 0. 013 jxg/L. This method was applied to the actual antimony ingot and antimony oxide sample analysis. It was found that the results were consistent with those obtained by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0. 65%-2. 4% and recoveries of 94 %-99%.%采用王水/HBr溶解样品,酒石酸掩蔽锑,用甲基异丁基甲酮(MIBK)将汞萃取到有机相中,建立了有机相进样—断续流动注射原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭和氧化锑中汞含量的方法.研究了溶样方法和共存离子可能引起的干扰,优化了仪器工作条件、萃取条件、酸度及其他影响因素.结果表明,在最佳条件下,汞含量在0.02~50 μg/L范围内线性关系良好,方法检出限为0.013 μg/L.将方法应用于锑锭和氧化锑实际样品分析,测得结果与电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法一致,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=6)在0.65%~2.4%之间,加标回收率为94%~99%.

  10. Differential TGFβ pathway targeting by miR-122 in humans and mice affects liver cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shenyi; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Zhihua; Hao, Yang; Li, Juan; Sun, Changhong; Yang, Junyu; Yang, Zhenjun; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Jian; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Downregulation of a predominantly hepatocyte-specific miR-122 is associated with human liver cancer metastasis, whereas miR-122-deficient mice display normal liver function. Here we show a functional conservation of miR-122 in the TGFβ pathway: miR-122 target site is present in the mouse but not human TGFβR1, whereas a noncanonical target site is present in the TGFβ1 5′UTR in humans and other primates. Experimental switch of the miR-122 target between the receptor TGFβR1 and the ligand TGFβ1 changes the metastatic properties of mouse and human liver cancer cells. High expression of TGFβ1 in human primary liver tumours is associated with poor survival. We identify over 50 other miRNAs orthogonally targeting ligand/receptor pairs in humans and mice, suggesting that these are evolutionarily common events. These results reveal an evolutionary mechanism for miRNA-mediated gene regulation underlying species-specific physiological or pathological phenotype and provide a potentially valuable strategy for treating liver-associated diseases. PMID:26987776

  11. Association study on CCDC122 gene variants and leprosy in Yi minority%CCDC122基因单核苷酸多态性与彝族麻风相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛翀; 熊俊浩; 宁湧; 沙晓伟; 靳征; 王皓; 刘杨英

    2013-01-01

    目的:确定CCDC122基因单核苷酸多态性(SNP)位点与中国彝族人群麻风的关联.方法:采用单碱基延伸法(SNaP shot)检测300例彝族麻风患者和300名彝族正常健康者CCDC 122基因的两个SNP位点:rs3088362和rs9533634的基因型.结果:rs3088362和rs9533634这两个位点的基因型分布均符合Hardy-Weinberg平衡(P>0.05),并且其等位基因频率在麻风组和对照组间的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:CCDC122基因单核苷酸多态性位点rs3088362和rs9533634与中国彝族人群麻风相关.%Objective: To determine the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CCDC 122 gene and leprosy in Yi minority, China. Methods: The SNPs of CCDC122 gene (rs3088362,rs9533634) in 300 patients with leprosy and 300 ethnic matched healthy controls were genotyped by SNaP shot method. Results: The genotype frequencies of the 2 SNPs were in Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) ( P > 0.05) . The allele frequencies of rs3088362 and rs9533634 in the leprosy patients were significantly different from those of the healthy control group ( P < 0.05) . Conclusion: rs3088362 and rs9533634 of CCDC122 gene arc associated with leprosy in Yi Chinese population.

  12. Ultra-low carrier concentration and surface-dominant transport in antimony-doped Bi2Se3 topological insulator nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seung Sae

    2012-03-27

    A topological insulator is the state of quantum matter possessing gapless spin-locking surface states across the bulk band gap, which has created new opportunities from novel electronics to energy conversion. However, the large concentration of bulk residual carriers has been a major challenge for revealing the property of the topological surface state by electron transport measurements. Here we report the surface-state-dominant transport in antimony-doped, zinc oxide-encapsulated Bi2Se3 nanoribbons with suppressed bulk electron concentration. In the nanoribbon with sub-10-nm thickness protected by a zinc oxide layer, we position the Fermi levels of the top and bottom surfaces near the Dirac point by electrostatic gating, achieving extremely low two-dimensional carrier concentration of 2×10 11cm-2. The zinc oxide-capped, antimony-doped Bi 2Se3 nanostructures provide an attractive materials platform to study fundamental physics in topological insulators, as well as future applications. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability studies of arsenic, selenium, antimony and tellurium species in water, urine, fish and soil extracts using HPLC/ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, T.; Prange, A.; Neidhart, B. [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Analysis; Dannecker, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie

    2000-10-01

    The stability of arsenic, selenium, antimony and tellurium species in water and urine (NIST SRM 2670n) as well as in extracts of fish and soil certified reference materials (DORM-2 and NIST SRM 2710) has been investigated. Stability studies were carried out with As(III), As(V), arsenobetaine, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), Se(IV), Se(VI), selenomethionine, Sb(III), Sb(V) and Te(VI). Speciation analysis was performed by on-line coupling of anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Best storage of aqueous mixtures of the examined species was achieved at 3 C whereas at -20 C species transformation especially of selenomethionine and Sb(V) took place and a new selenium species appeared within a period of 30 days. Losses and species transformations during extraction processes were investigated. Extraction of the spiked fish material with methanol/water led to partial conversion of Sb(III), Sb(V) and selenomethionine to two new antimony and one new selenium species. The other arsenic, selenium and tellurium species were almost quantitatively extracted. For soil spiked with MMA, PAA, Se(IV) and Sb(III), recoveries after extraction with water and sulfuric acid (0.01 mol/L) were below 20%. (orig.)

  14. Antimony(v) cations for the selective catalytic transformation of aldehydes into symmetric ethers, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, and 1,3,5-trioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias Ugarte, Renzo; Devarajan, Deepa; Mushinski, Ryan M; Hudnall, Todd W

    2016-07-01

    1-Diphenylphosphinonaphthyl-8-triphenylstibonium triflate ([][OTf]) was prepared in excellent yield by treating 1-lithio-8-diphenylphosphinonaphthalene with dibromotriphenylstiborane followed by halide abstraction with AgOTf. This antimony(v) cation was found to be stable toward oxygen and water, and exhibited exceptional Lewis acidity. The Lewis acidity of [][OTf] was exploited in the catalytic reductive coupling of a variety of aldehydes into symmetric ethers of type in good to excellent yields under mild conditions using Et3SiH as the reductant. Additionally, [][OTf] was found to selectively catalyze the Aldol condensation reaction to afford α-β unsaturated aldehydes () when aldehydes with 2 α-hydrogen atoms were used. Finally, [][OTf] catalyzed the cyclotrimerization of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to afford the industrially-useful 1,3,5 trioxanes () in good yields, and with great selectivity. This phosphine-stibonium motif represents one of the first catalytic systems of its kind that is able to catalyze these reactions with aldehydes in a controlled, efficient manner. The mechanism of these processes has been explored both experimentally and theoretically. In all cases the Lewis acidic nature of the antimony(v) cation was found to promote these reactions. PMID:27326797

  15. Annealing effects on structural, electrical and optical properties of antimony-tinoxide thin films deposited by sol gel dip coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekshmy, S. Sujatha, E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Anitha, V. S., E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Berlin, I. John, E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Joy, K., E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com [Thin film Laboratory, Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide possess interesting physical and chemical properties. These properties have a wide range of applications such as catalysis and optoelectronic devices. In the present study, antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films were deposited on the quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The films were annealed at temperatures 350°C, 550°C and 850°C in air for 2 hours. The structure and surface morphologies were observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns shows tetragonal structure for the SnO2:Sb films annealed at different temperatures. Crystallite size increased from 6 to 14 nm as annealing temperature increased from 350°C to 850°C. SEM studies reveals crack free and smooth surface for all the films. The grains are found to be homogenously distributed for films annealed at higher temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films annealed at 350°C and 550°C decreased and increased for the films annealed at 850°C. The optical properties of the films were investigated in the UV-visible-NIR region (200-900 nm) using UV spectra. The transmittance of the films decreased for films annealed at higher temperature. The optical energy band gap values (4.13 eV-4.83 eV) increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

  16. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  17. Analysis of clinical characteristics in 122 adult patients with candidemia%成人念珠菌血症122例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹良敏; 黄亮; 曲俊彦; 钟册俊; 吕晓菊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with candidemia for better clinical diagnosis and management of the disease.Method A retrospective study was carried out in 122 patients with confirmed diagnosis of candidemia from January 2010 to June 2014 in West China hospital of Sichuan University.The clinical features,risk factors,laboratory tests,treatments and clinical outcomes were reviewed and analyzed.Results The clinical symptoms mainly include chill,shivering and fever (moderate fever or high fever).A total of 85 patients (69.7%) complicated with more than or equal to two kinds of underlying diseases,and 108 patients (88.5%) have more than or equal to three risk factors.There were 82.8% patients with increased white blood cell counts,49.2% patients with elevated aminotransferase levels and 41.0% patients with increased creatinine levels.The isolated strains were albicans (42,34.6%),tropicalis (32,26.2%),glabrata (23,18.9%) and parapsilosis (18,14.8%).Susceptibility tests indicated some strains were resistant to antifungal drugs.Sixty-seven patients were cured or improved,55 died or discharged voluntarily.The mortality rate was 45.1%.The multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed the independent correlative factors of mortality were mechanical ventilation (OR =4.9,P =0.02),malignancy (OR =11.39,P =0.01) and diabetes (OR =5.93,P =0.02).Early empiric antifungal therapy helped reduce the fatality rate (OR =0.12,P =0.03).Conclusion Actively treating underlying diseases can improve the clinical effect.The key to decrease the mortality is appropriate antifungal chemotherapy.%目的 探讨念珠菌血症的临床特点及预后,为临床诊断和合理用药提供依据.方法 收集四川大学华西医院2010年1月至2014年6月住院患者中122例念珠菌血症病例,回顾性分析患者的临床特点、危险因素、念珠菌种类分布、药敏情况、治疗和转归.结果 男占85.2%,女14.8%,年龄(56.0

  18. Investigation on spread and risk factors of tuberculosis in antimony miners%锑矿工结核病传播及危险因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈开森; 刘涛; 林瑞瑞; 罗涛; 杨崇广

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the infection rate of tuberculosis ( TB) and its risk factors in antimony miners .Methods With cluster sampling method , the strains identification and drug sensitive test were performed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( MTB) of 263 TB patients in antimony miners .The method of 12 sites mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit and variable number of tandem repeat wre used to determine the genetic type of MTB .Risk factors of TB spread were assessed by chi-square test.Results The TB infection rate in antimony miners was 9.8%(472/4 831);among 263 TB cases, 175 cases were found clustered the clustering rate was 66.5%, the least estimated recent TB spread rate was 53.2%.High TB spread rate was found in the antimony miners with failed treatment , length of service longer than 10 years , multidrug-resistant bacterial strains , and positive sputum smear .Conclusion The MTB of antimony miners showed the clustering feature and the bacterial strains had strong toxicity and higher spreading rate .The major risk factors affecting TB spread were therapeutic effect , length of service , drug resistant bacterial strain and sputum smear result .%目的 了解锑矿工肺结核感染率及感染的危险因素. 方法 采用整群抽样方法,对263例锑矿工肺结核患者进行结核分枝杆菌的菌株鉴定和药敏试验. 基因分型采用12位点结核分枝杆菌散在分布重复单元和多位点串联重复序列;采用X2检验评估结核传播的危险因素. 结果 锑矿工肺结核的感染率为9.8%(472/4 831); 纳入研究的263例患者中,175例成簇,成簇率为66 .5%,近期传播率最低估计值为53 .2%. 治疗失败、工龄大于10年、菌株多重耐药及痰涂片阳性的锑矿工肺结核传播率较高. 结论 锑矿工结核分枝杆菌具有成簇性,其菌株毒力更强、传播率高,治疗效果、矿龄、菌株耐药性及痰涂片结果是影响肺结核传播的重要危险因素.

  19. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  20. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Coupled with Dual Plumbing Distribution - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Carmel Elementary School in Carmel, ME -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed for and the results obtained from the arsenic and antimony removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Carmel Elementary School (CES) in Carmel, ME. An innovative approach of employing point of entry (POE) reverse osmo...