WorldWideScience

Sample records for antimonates

  1. The Studies of A New Type of Crystalline Antimonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaozhen; ZHOUJiayin; 等

    1993-01-01

    A new type of crystalline antimonic acid Sb2O5·3H2O was synthesized.The composition,crystal structure,the equilibrium distribution coefficients for sodium and potassium ions and the ion-exchange capacity of this exchanger were determined.With this exchanger,sodium inos were removed from potassium chloride,and the content of sodium chloride was reduced from 3.24% to 0.02%.Compared with other ion-exchange materials,the crystalline antimonic acid gives and unusual selectivity for potassium and sodium ions. The different compositions and properties of antimonic acid exchangers are obtained through different preparing conditions and its crystalline formula of Sb2O5·4H2O(C-SbA1) is currently accepted.This paper reports a new type of crystalline antimonic acid-Sb2O5·3H2O(C-SbA2),synthesized by an improved Kuzin′s method.Sodium ions are removed from potassium chloride with C-SbA2.The exchange efficiency is better than that of C-SbA1.

  2. Theoretical study of the influence of cation vacancies on the catalytic properties of vanadium antimonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messina, S. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FIUBA, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Capital Federal (Argentina); Juan, A. [Departamento de Fisica, UNS, Av. Alem 1253, (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)], E-mail: cajuan@uns.edu.ar; Larrondo, S.; Irigoyen, B.; Amadeo, N. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FIUBA, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Capital Federal (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    We have theoretically studied the influence of antimony and vanadium cation vacancies in the electronic structure and reactivity of vanadium antimonate, using molecular orbital methods. From the analysis of the electronic properties of the VSbO{sub 4} crystal structure, we can infer that both antimony and vanadium vacancies increase the oxidation state of closer V cations. This would indicate that, in the rutile-type VSbO{sub 4} phase the Sb and V cations defects stabilize the V in a higher oxidation state (V{sup 4+}). Calculations of the adsorption energy for different toluene adsorption geometries on the VSbO{sub 4}(1 1 0) surface have also been performed. The oxidation state of Sb, V and O atoms and the overlap population of metal-oxygen bonds have been evaluated. Our results indicate that the cation defects influence in the toluene adsorption reactions is slight. We have computed different alternatives for the reoxidation of the VSbO{sub 4}(1 1 0) surface active sites which were reduced during the oxygenated products formation. These calculations indicate that the V cations in higher oxidation state (V{sup 4+}) are the species, which preferentially incorporate lattice oxygen to the reduced Sb cations. Thus, the cation defects would stabilize the V{sup 4+} species in the VSbO{sub 4} structure, determining its ability to provide lattice oxygen as a reactant.

  3. Autotrophic antimonate bio-reduction using hydrogen as the electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Yu; Wen, Li-Lian; Zhang, Yin; Luo, Shan-Shan; Wang, Qing-Ying; Luo, Yi-Hao; Chen, Ran; Yang, Xiaoe; Rittmann, Bruce E; Zhao, He-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb), a toxic metalloid, is soluble as antimonate (Sb(V)). While bio-reduction of Sb(V) is an effective Sb-removal approach, its bio-reduction has been coupled to oxidation of only organic electron donors. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of autotrophic microbial Sb(V) reduction using hydrogen gas (H2) as the electron donor without extra organic carbon source. SEM and EDS analysis confirmed the production of the mineral precipitate Sb2O3. When H2 was utilized as the electron donor, the consortium was able to fully reduce 650 μM of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in 10 days, a rate comparable to the culture using lactate as the electron donor. The H2-fed culture directed a much larger fraction of it donor electrons to Sb(V) reduction than did the lactate-fed culture. While 98% of the electrons from H2 were used to reduce Sb(V) by the H2-fed culture, only 12% of the electrons from lactate was used to reduce Sb(V) by the lactate-fed culture. The rest of the electrons from lactate went to acetate and propionate through fermentation, to methane through methanogenesis, and to biomass synthesis. High-throughput sequencing confirmed that the microbial community for the lactate-fed culture was much more diverse than that for the H2-fed culture, which was dominated by a short rod-shaped phylotype of Rhizobium (α-Protobacteria) that may have been active in Sb(V) reduction.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisacchi, Davide [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy); Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Bordo, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.bordo@istge.it [Bioinformatics and Structural Proteomics, IST-National Cancer Research Institute, Genova (Italy)

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  5. Single step hydrothermal based synthesis of M(II)Sb2O6 (M = Cd and Zn) type antimonates and their photocatalytic properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyoti Singh; Neha Bhardwaj; S Uma

    2013-04-01

    Experiments involving single step hydrothermal reactions of the divalent metal (Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+) salts with ilmenite NaSbO3 yielded pure divalent antimonates in the case of CdSb2O6 crystallizing in the PbSb2O6 type structure and ZnSb2O6 crystallizing in the trirutile structure type. In the case of Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ divalent cations, phase pure product could not be obtained. The obtained powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and UVvisible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The oxide powders obtained possessed lower crystallite size as compared to their solid-state synthesized counterparts. This was evident from the broadening of the powder X-ray diffraction peaks. The antimonates were photocatalytically active for the decomposition of methylene blue (MB) dye under UV light irradiation.

  6. New sulfido antimonates of the heavy alkali metals. Synthesis, crystal structure and chemical bonding of (K/Rb/Cs){sub 3}SbS{sub 3} and Cs{sub 3}SbS{sub 4} . H{sub 2}O; Neue Sulfido-Antimonate der schweren Alkalimetalle. Synthese, Kristallstruktur und chemische Bindung von (K/Rb/Cs){sub 3}SbS{sub 3} und Cs{sub 3}SbS{sub 4} . H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Lisa V.; Schwarz, Michael; Roehr, Caroline [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2013-12-15

    The new sulfido antimonates(III) (Rb/Cs){sub 3}SbS{sub 3} were prepared from the alkali metal sulfides Rb{sub 2}S/Cs{sub 2}S{sub 2} and elemental antimony and sulfur or Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} at reaction temperatures of about 700 C. The known isotypic potassium compound was similarly synthesized from the elements. The structures of the light-yellow crystals were refined using single-crystal X-ray data. Both compounds are isotypic to the respective Na salt forming the Na{sub 3}AsS{sub 3} structure type (cubic, space group P2{sub 1}3, K/Rb/Cs: a = 947.21(7)/982.28(5)/1025.92(5) pm, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0159/0.0560/0.0582). The {psi}-tetrahedral SbS{sub 3}{sup 3-} anions with Sb-S bond lengths of 242 pm are arranged in a cubic face centered packing, in which the three crystallographically different A{sup +} cations occupy the tetrahedral and octahedral voids, overall exhibiting a distorted octahedral sulfur coordination. The chemical bonding and the characteristics of the stereochemically active lone electron pair have been investigated by means of FP-LAPW band structure calculations. Needle-shaped crystals of the monohydrate of the antimony(V) salt Cs{sub 3}SbS{sub 4} . H{sub 2}O were obtained from a suspension of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CsOH and elemental sulfur. Cs{sub 3}SbS{sub 4} . H{sub 2}O crystallizes in a new structure type (monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/c, a = 987.17(10), b = 994.83(7), c = 1600.46(14) pm, {beta} = 126.895(8) , Z = 4, R1 = 0.0234). As expected, the Sb-S distances (233.1-234.7 pm) in the nearly ideally tetrahedral anion SbS{sub 4}{sup 3-} are considerably shorter than in the antimonates(III) but match the bond lengths in the anhydrous sulfido antimonate(V) Cs{sub 3}SbS{sub 4}. Due to their similar fcc-like anion packing and the stereochemically active lone electron pair of Sb in the antimonates(III), the whole series of compounds A{sub 3}Sb{sup III,V}S{sub 3/4} shows a uniform structure relation, which is elucidated using crystallographic group

  7. RESEARCH ON MECHANISM OF LEACHING ANTIMONOUS OXIDE BY AQUEOUS SOLUTION OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE AND GLYCERIN%NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑的机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘朝群; 邓先和; 宾万达; 杨天足

    2001-01-01

    Antimonous oxide can be dissolved in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and glycerin and the new product is sodium antimonite containing glycerin.The solution is stable under a certain concentration of sodium hydroxide.The mechanism of the reaction and the stability of sodium antimonite containing glycerin solution have been studied.%NaOH、甘油或木糖醇的水溶液浸出锑氧粉得到双金属醇盐,溶液在一定的碱性条件下能保持稳定;本文对NaOH、甘油的水溶液浸出三氧化二锑生成甘油亚锑酸钠的机理及其稳定性作了一系列的研究。

  8. Synthesis and characterization of arsenate antimonic acid AAAc(1 : 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-wen; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; ZHANG Ping-min; WANG Yu-wen

    2005-01-01

    The AAAc(1 : 1) was synthesized in water by As2O3 and Sb2O3 with molar ratio of 1 : 1: AAAc(1 : 1)was characterized by Raman, IR, TG/DTG, DSC, XPS and XRD. The results show that there are four peaks to vsof As-OH, As-O-Sb, Sb-OH and Sb-O-Sb in Raman spectra of AAAc(1 : 1) at 100 - 1 000 cm-1. The solution of AAAc(1 : 1) was also titrated with KOH solution. The titration results show that AAAc(1 : 1) is a hexabasic acid with dissociation constants of k1 = 3.62 × 10-2 , k2 = 3.05 × 10-3 , k3 = 6. 43 × 10-6 , k4 = 9. 78 × 10-8 ,k5 = 1.32 × 10-11 , k6 =3.87 × 10-12. AAAc(1 : 1) has a good solubility and stability in water, its solid obtained by free volatilizing water from its solution under air at ambient temperature is amorphous. Chemical and thermal analyture of AsO ( OH )2-OH-Sb ( OH )4-O-Sb ( OH )4-OH-AsO ( OH )2 or As ( OH )3-O-Sb(OH)4-O-Sb(OH)4-O-As(OH)3 (isomerism) through experimental determination and geometry optimization.

  9. Ionenunterstützte Antimon-Dotierung für die Silizium-Molekularstrahlepitaxie von Bauelementstrukturen

    OpenAIRE

    Eifler, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Die Molekularstrahlepitaxie (MBE) ist eine geeignete Methode zur Herstellung von aktuellen Höchstfrequenz-Bauelementstrukturen, wie dem Silizium-Germanium-Heterobipolartransistor (SiGe-HBT) mit einer ultradünnen (< 20 nm), hochdotierten Basis. Die MBE ermöglicht eine starke Reduzierung der Wachstumstemperatur, um Dotier- und Heterostrukturprofile mit Nanometer-Abmessungen zu erzeugen. In diesem Niedrigtemperatur-Bereich mit vernachlässigbarer Volumendiffusion zeigt sich, dass auch die Entmisc...

  10. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine); . the method was relatively simple; . the method could include an anaerobic step if needed; the method could include food; knowledge of the method existed in Sweden; and the method had been compared and evaluated in a scientific publication. In the experimental part of the study the bioaccessibility of antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in seven different ashes at two different particle size fractions (<63 mum and <2 mm) was investigated. These fractions were chosen to represent voluntary (<2 mm) and involuntary (<63 mum) ingestion of ash. The investigated ashes were produced in different incineration plants and represented different categories, i.e. type of ash (fly ash or bottom ash), fuel and incinerator. In the experimental part the influence of total concentration of the elements on their bioaccessibility was also investigated, as well as the influence of particle size fraction on total content of the elements. The influence of type of ash on both bioaccessibility and total concentration of the specific elements was also investigated. The bioaccessible fraction of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in a selection of ashes showed a higher variation between the different elements than between the different ashes. With the exception of arsenic in two of the investigated ashes, the bioaccessible concentration was substantially less than the total concentration of all elements in all ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of arsenic was high both in fly ashes (>85%) and in bottom ashes (40-85%). The bioaccessible fraction of lead was also relatively high and varied between 14 and 60% in the different ashes. Cadmium also had a high bioaccessible fraction which varied between 50-75% in the investigated ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of chromium was much smaller compared to the bioaccessible fraction of the other elements, and was with two exceptions less than 12%. The bioaccessible fraction of copper was relatively high and varied between 20 and 70% in the different ashes. In this s

  11. Leachability of antimony from energy ashes. Total contents, leachability and remedial suggestions; Lakning av antimon fraan energiaskor. Totalhalter, lakbarhet samt foerslag till aatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In the current project total concentrations for antimony in 31 energy ashes have been compiled. The average concentration of antimony in boiler fly ash and grate boiler fly ash is 192 and 1,140 mg/kg, respectively. The corresponding antimony concentrations for boiler ashes and grate bottom ashes are 86,5 and 61,8 mg/kg, respectively. Multivariate calculations clearly pointed out waste as the major source for antimony in ashes. The difference between total antimony concentration in fly ash and bottom ash is greatest for grate boilers, in average 18 times higher in the fly ash. The difference for CFB/BFB-boilers is only slightly more than 2. However, based on amount, 75% of the total antimony inventory is recovered in the fly ashes for both CFB/BFB and grate boilers. Eleven (eight of which were bottom ashes) out of the 31 samples exceeded the guidelines for inert waste. It is clear that the higher ionic strength in the solutions from the fly ashes contribute to decrease the solubility for critical minerals retaining antimony. In addition, the fly ashes have considerably larger effective surface able to sorb trace elements. A clear and positive covariance was discovered between aluminium and antimony. Furthermore, it was noted that antimony showed no typical anionic behaviour despite the fact that it according to the geochemical calculations should be present as SbO{sub 3}{sup -}. At L/S 10, a maximum of 1% of the total antimony concentration is leached. This should be compared to chloride that had 94% of the total concentration leached at L/S 10. There was no correlation between the leached antimony concentrations and the total antimony concentrations. The sequential extractions also suggest a low leachability for antimony from the ashes. In average only 9,6% is released at pH 7, 7,3% at pH 5, 3,6% during reducing conditions and 3,2% during oxidising conditions. In total, only 24% of the total antimony concentrations is released during the four extraction steps. The remaining 76% is probably to be found in the silicate matrix. Through multivariate calculations (PCA and MLR) and geochemical calculations (PHREEQC) aluminium and sulphate have been identified as being important for antimony leaching from the ashes. It is thus likely that ettringite governs antimony leachability at alkaline pH. When ettringite is solubilized the leachability of antimony will be dependent on the presence of effective sorbents. To decrease the leachability of antimony from the ashes addition of sulphate solution to the ashes is suggested, to increase the stability of ettringite at alkaline pH. Below the pH-range where ettringite is stable addition of manganese solution would give a new effective sorbent for antimony in solution. It was also noted that all fly ashes with addition of activated carbon did not exceed any guide lines for antimony leaching.

  12. Speciation of eight arsenic compounds in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection using antimonate for internal chromatographic standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pritzl, G.; Hansen, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    Four anionic and four cationic arsenic compounds in urine were separated by anion- and cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) at m/z 75. The species were the anions arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate...... and dimethylarsinate and the cations arsenobetaine, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenocholine and the tetramethylarsonium ion. Hexahydroxyantimonate(III) was co-chromatographed with the arsenic anions but detected at m/z 121 and used as an internal standard for their qualitative analysis. Arsenite was prone to oxidation...... to arsenate in urine but was stable after at least 4-fold dilution of the urine with water. Arsenite was unstable in both urine samples and standard mixtures when diluted with the basic (pH 10.3) mobile phase used for anion chromatography. This could not be prevented by adding ascorbic acid as antioxidant...

  13. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine); . the method was relatively simple; . the method could include an anaerobic step if needed; the method could include food; knowledge of the method existed in Sweden; and the method had been compared and evaluated in a scientific publication. In the experimental part of the study the bioaccessibility of antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in seven different ashes at two different particle size fractions (<63 mum and <2 mm) was investigated. These fractions were chosen to represent voluntary (<2 mm) and involuntary (<63 mum) ingestion of ash. The investigated ashes were produced in different incineration plants and represented different categories, i.e. type of ash (fly ash or bottom ash), fuel and incinerator. In the experimental part the influence of total concentration of the elements on their bioaccessibility was also investigated, as well as the influence of particle size fraction on total content of the elements. The influence of type of ash on both bioaccessibility and total concentration of the specific elements was also investigated. The bioaccessible fraction of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in a selection of ashes showed a higher variation between the different elements than between the different ashes. With the exception of arsenic in two of the investigated ashes, the bioaccessible concentration was substantially less than the total concentration of all elements in all ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of arsenic was high both in fly ashes (>85%) and in bottom ashes (40-85%). The bioaccessible fraction of lead was also relatively high and varied between 14 and 60% in the different ashes. Cadmium also had a high bioaccessible fraction which varied between 50-75% in the investigated ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of chromium was much smaller compared to the bioaccessible fraction of the other elements, and was with two exceptions less than 12%. The bioaccessible fraction of copper was relatively high and varied between 20 and 70% in the different ashes. In this study, particle size fraction only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium, and copper. For these elements, bioaccessibility was higher in the smaller particle size fraction representing involuntary ingestion. Particle size fraction also had an effect on the total concentration of cadmium, nickel, antimony and zinc, with higher total concentrations in the smaller particle size fraction. Total concentration only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, copper and lead, with higher bioaccessible fractions at lower total concentrations. The type of ash had an influence on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, cadmium, chromium and antimony, with a higher bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium and antimony in fly ashes compared to in bottom ashes, and a higher bioaccessible fraction of cadmium in bottom ashes compared to in fly ashes.

  14. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    James, D W

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including coba...

  15. Rediscovering ancient glass technologies through the examination of opacifier crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlil, S.; Biron, I.; Galoisy, L.; Morin, G.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study is to understand how antimonate opacifying crystals were obtained throughout history. Two archaeological glass productions opacified with calcium and lead antimonates are studied in this paper, in order to rediscover ancient opaque glass technologies: Roman mosaic tesserae (1st cent. B.C. 4th cent. A.D.) and Nevers lampworking glass (18th cent. A.D.). The fine examination of crystalline phases and of the vitreous matrix is undertaken using various and complementary techniques. Results are compared with a modern reference production, for which the technological process is well known. We demonstrate that Ca-antimonate opacifiers in Roman mosaic tesserae, as well as in Nevers lampworking glass, were obtained by in situ crystallization. Nevertheless, Roman and Nevers glass would have undergone different firing processes. We propose that the addition of previously synthesized crystals or the use of “anime” could be the process used to obtain Pb-antimonate opacified glass, for both productions studied. We demonstrate that CaO, PbO and Sb2O3 concentrations in the bulk compositions and in the matrices, and their evolution with the crystallinity ratio, offer robust criteria for the distinction of the opacification process used. Also, the different crystalline structures help to provide information on the experimental conditions.

  16. A multi-spectroscopic approach to the characterization of early glaze opacifiers: Studies on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa, south-western Iran (mid-first millennium BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holakooei, Parviz

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the results of micro-Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) studies performed on an Achaemenid glazed brick found at Susa (mid-first millennium BC). The results showed that calcium antimonate (CaSb2O6) and lead antimonate (Pb2Sb2O7) were used as white and yellow opacifiers in the white and orange glazes respectively. Moreover, the mixture of calcium antimonate and lead antimonate were used as opacifier in the green glaze. In addition, green, turquoise, blue, and orange colors were achieved by the dissolution of copper, cobalt, and iron-bearing materials in an alkali glaze. A black glazed line, whose color was obtained by copper and iron oxides, was used to separate the colored glazes. The present paper strongly suggests invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of the opacifiers used in the early vitreous materials.

  17. Ultrastructure of Gladiolus x hybridus root endodermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudzińska-Langwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus.x hybridus Van Houtte roots had primary, secondary and tertiary endodermis depending on the distance from the root apex. Free calcium ions were localized with the method of Slocum and Roux (1982. Electron microscopic observations revealed that electron dense calcium antimonite deposits were localized in some endodermis cells. Endodermis cells situated above xylem elements were rich in calcium antimonate deposits in contrary to those situated above the phloem elements and passage cells. The cells rich in calcium ions were present both in endodermis 11 and III stage of development. Localization of calcium deposits was on plasma membrane and tonoplast. There were also numerous calcium antimonate deposits in vacuoles. Dictiosome's cisterns and Golgi derived vesicles show presence of calcium ions. Calcium rich endodermis cells had plastids with antimonate deposits present in their tylacoids lumen. Plasmode-smata looked the same in all endodermis cells, but those from calcium rich endodermis cells had calcium antimonate deposits in the lumen of plasmodesmata.

  18. Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aytekin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection caused by numerous different species of Leishmania protozoa. In our country, CL is due frequently to L. major and L. tropica. Its clinical presentation is extremely diverse. Treatment of CL aims to prevent mucosal invasion, to accelerate the healing of skin lesions, and avoid disfiguring scar. Local and physical treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or pentavalant antimonals can be effective against. Intralesional antimonals are still the drug of choice may patients. WHO recommends an injection of drug under edges of the lesions and the entire lesion until the surface has blanched. Parenteral antimonials are useful for large, persistent or recurrent lesions. Combinations with other drugs such as allopurinol, pentoxifylline must be used for antimony unresponsive lesions.

  19. Antimony: a flame fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Niki E.; Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a brittle, silvery-white semimetal that conducts heat poorly. The chemical compound antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) is widely used in plastics, rubbers, paints, and textiles, including industrial safety suits and some children’s clothing, to make them resistant to the spread of flames. Also, sodium antimonate (NaSbO3) is used during manufacturing of high-quality glass, which is found in cellular phones.

  20. Antimony(V) Adsorption by Variable-Charge Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Yoshioka. 1012. Removal of antimonate ions from an aqueous solution by anion exchange with magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide and the...170 iii List of Tables Table 1. Solid and suspension properties used in the 2-pKa triple layer surface complexation modeling of...pKa triple layer surface complexation modeling of Sb(OH)6, SO4, and PO4 adsorption by gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite, and birnessite

  1. Development and pharmacokinetic of antimony encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine using radioisotopes in experimental leishmaniasis; Desenvolvimento e farmacocinetica de antimonio encapsulado em lipossomas de fosfatidilserina utilizando radioisotopos em leishmaniose experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta Etel Treiger

    2010-07-01

    Leishmaniasis are a complex of parasitic diseases caused by intra macrophage protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and is fatal if left untreated. Pentavalent antimonials, though toxic and their mechanism of action being unclear, remain the first-line drugs for treatment. Effective therapy could be achieved by delivering antileishmanial drugs to these sites of infection. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles that promote improvement in the efficacy and action of drugs in target cell. Liposomes are taken up by the cells of mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). The purpose of this study was to develop a preparation of meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine and to study its pharmacokinetic in healthy mice to establish its metabolism and distribution. Quantitative analysis of antimony from liposomes demonstrated that Neutron Activation Analysis was the most sensitive technique with almost 100 % of accuracy. All liposome formulations presented a mean diameter size of 150 nm. The determination of IC{sub 50} in infected macrophage showed that liposome formulations were between 10 - 63 fold more effective than the free drug, indicating higher selectivity index. By fluorescence microscopy, an increased uptake of fluorescent-liposomes was seen in infected macrophages during short times of incubation compared with non-infected macrophages. Biodistribution studies showed that meglumine antimonate irradiated encapsulated in liposomes of phosphatidylserine promoted a targeting of antimony for MPS tissues and maintained high doses in organs for a prolonged period. In conclusion, these data suggest that meglumine antimonate encapsulated in liposomes showed higher effectiveness than the non-liposomal drug against Leishmania infection. The development of liposome formulations should be a new alternative for the chemotherapy of infection diseases, especially Leishmaniasis, as they are used to sustain and target pharmaceuticals to the local of infection. (author)

  2. 无机锑系阻燃剂%Inorganic Antimony Series Fire Retardants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2012-01-01

    无机锑系阻燃剂主要包括三氧化二锑、五氧化二锑溶胶和锑酸钠等。介绍了它们的性质、生产工艺、产品标准、阻燃用途和研发方向等。%Inorganic antimony series fire retardants include antimony trioxide, antimony pentoxide sol and sodium antimonate, etc. The properties, production process, production standard and uses of several inorganic antimony series fire retardants are introduced.

  3. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pHSb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration.

  4. Temporal and spatial changes in Ca2+ distribution during the programmed cell death of tracheary elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The changes in Ca2+ distribution in the tracheary elements (TEs) of the pepper leaves were studied using the cytochemical method of potassium antimonate. At the early stage of TEs formation, the vacuole and the nucleus held large volume, and antimonate Ca2+ deposits were observed mainly in the intercellular space and the cell wall. As the thickening of secondary wall occurred, the vacuole, nucleus and other organelles began to rupture, concomitant with the increase of calcium deposits in the cytosol, showing the influx of Ca2+ into the cell. With the further rupture of cytoplasm and other organelles, the number of calcium deposits at the non-thickening cell wall increased, but declined at the thickening bands of the secondary wall. When the cytoplasmic contents disappeared completely, the level of Ca2+ decreased at the non-thickening wall, but by contrast,increased at the thickening bands of the secondary wall.These observations indicated that the dynamic changes in Ca2+ distribution spatially and temporarily might have a close correlation with its distinct roles played during the formation of the secondary walls.

  5. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators; Untersuchung kationenselektiver Extraktionssaeulen zur Konzeption nuklearmedizinischer Radionuklidgeneratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-07-09

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high

  6. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Clinical and Histological Presentation: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Moravvej

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Old world cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL usually causes a single, self-healing and uncomplicated lesion mainly on the exposed area of body. This report presents four cases of OWCL from Iran that misdiagnosed with sarcoidosis, lymphoma, and acne agminata. Two out of four patients showed a history of purplish red plaques for at least 5 years who misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis because of histological and clinical characteristics. The other one presented with flesh-colored nodules disseminated all over his skin that was misdiagnosed as lymphoma for ten years. The last patient was misdiagnosed as acne agminata due to tuberculoid reactions in examination of the lesion biopsy. All the patients responded to the treatment with meglumine antimonate.

  7. Microbial antimony biogeochemistry: Enzymes, regulation, and related metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Qian Wang,; Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Rensing, Christopher; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a toxic metalloid that occurs widely at trace concentrations in soil, aquatic systems, and the atmosphere. Nowadays, with the development of its new industrial applications and the corresponding expansion of antimony mining activities, the phenomenon of antimony pollution has become an increasingly serious concern. In recent years, research interest in Sb has been growing and reflects a fundamental scientific concern regarding Sb in the environment. In this review, we summarize the recent research on bacterial antimony transformations, especially those regarding antimony uptake, efflux, antimonite oxidation, and antimonate reduction. We conclude that our current understanding of antimony biochemistry and biogeochemistry is roughly equivalent to where that of arsenic was some 20 years ago. This portends the possibility of future discoveries with regard to the ability of microorganisms to conserve energy for their growth from antimony redox reactions and the isolation of new species of “antimonotrophs.”

  8. Antimony uptake by Zea mays (L.) and Helianthus annuus (L.) from nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschan, Martin; Robinson, Brett; Schulin, Rainer

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the extent of Sb uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) from nutrient solutions containing concentrations from 3 to 24 mg/L of potassium antimonate, with the aim of determining the potential of Sb to enter the food chain. The maximum shoot Sb concentrations in Z. mays and H. annuus were 41 mg/kg and 77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. There was no significant difference in Sb uptake between species. The average bioaccumulation coefficients (the plant/solution concentration quotients) were 1.02 and 1.93 for Z. mays and H. annuus, respectively. Phosphate addition did not affect plant growth or Sb uptake. Antimony uptake by both Z. mays and H. annuus is unlikely to pose a health risk to animals and humans.

  9. Effect heat stress on subcellular localization of Ca2+ in tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Garbaczewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the fruit cell ultrastructure and subcellular localization of Ca2+ after heat stress with the use of the potassium antimonate method (Slocum and Roux 1982, Tretyn et al. 1992. The tomato plants Robin cv., relatively tolerant to heat stress, were grown under uncontrolled greenhouse conditions to the stage of fruiting. The plants were placed for 20h in two temperature regimes: 23oC (optimal temperature or 40oC (heat stress in darkness, under water vapour saturated atmosphere. Immediately after heat stress the fruits were harvested to estimate water soluble and insoluble calcium contents and subcellular localization of Ca2+. After heating the concentration of calcium in tomato fruits increased about twice. In both temperature treatments the water soluble fractions were lower than insoluble ones at smaller differences between insoluble and soluble fractions after heat stress. The shapes and localization of Ca2+ detected with the use of potassium antimonate method show that in fruits of control plants the precipitates were numerous, small and of oval shape. They were dispersed in cytosol or adjoined to endoplasmic reticulum or to external membrane of chloroplast. In the fruit of heated plants the precipitates were irregular in shape, amorphous and singly dispersed in the cytosol. We observed also some cytological changes in the structure of membranes and organelles of the plants of both experimental treatments. The heat induced increase of calcium content and the changes in subcellular localization of Ca2+ under heat stress suggest that calcium ions may be involved in avoiding heat injury. The problem requires more detailed further investigations.

  10. Determination of arsenic in antimony ingot and antimony trioxide by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry%氢化物发生-原子荧光光谱法测定锑锭及三氧化二锑中的砷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱光敏; 赵国杏

    2012-01-01

    The antimony slab and antimonous oxide samples were dissolved by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The Sb3+ in solution was precipitated with sodium hydroxide to separate trace arsenic from matrix antimony. The thiourea-ascorbic acid was added to reduce As5+ to As3+. Then, the arsenic in antimony slab and antimonous oxide was determined by atomic fluorescence spec-trometry. The hydride generation conditions were investigated: the concentration of reducing agent potassium borohydride was 25 g/L, the determination medium was 20% (V/V) hydrochloric acid, and the dosage of thiourea - ascorbic acid solution was 5 mL. The interference test of coexisting elements showed that, the interference of residual antimony in solution after precipitation could be fully eliminated by adding 1 mL of tartaric acid solution. Other impurity elements in sample did not interfere with the determination of arsenic after adding thiourea-ascorbic acid solution. The detection limit of method was 0. 156 ng/mL. The antimony slab and antimonous oxide samples were analyzed by the proposed method, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0. 95%-1.2%. The determination results were consistent with those obtained by national standard methods.%采用硫酸溶解锑锭样品,盐酸溶解三氧化二锑样品,用氢氧化钠溶液使Sb3+沉淀从而使基体锑与微量砷分离,通过加入硫脲-抗坏血酸将As5+还原成As3+,然后在原子荧光仪上测定锑锭及三氧化二锑中的砷.对氢化物发生条件进行考察,确定还原剂硼氢化钾的浓度为25 g/L、测定介质为20%(V/V)盐酸、硫脲-抗坏血酸溶液用量为5 mL.共存元素干扰试验表明,沉淀后溶液中残留少量锑的干扰在加入1 mL酒石酸溶液后可以完全消除,而样品中其他杂质元素在加入硫脲-抗坏血酸溶液后不干扰砷的测定.方法的检出限为0.156 ng/mL.对锑锭及三氧化二锑样品进行分析,相对标准偏差为0.95%~1.2%,测定

  11. Cation-selective extraction column study for the conception of nuclear medical radionuclide generators; Untersuchung kationenselektiver Extraktionssaeulen zur Konzeption nuklearmedizinischer Radionuklidgeneratoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng, Roman

    2012-07-09

    The topic of the present work is the conception of a Yttrium-90 radionuclide generator for nuclear medicine applications. Due to its physical properties Yttrium-90 is considered as one of the most useful nuclides for radiotherapeutic cancer treatment. The parent nuclide Strontium-90 is gained during reprocessing of fission products. Thus, the sustained availability of large quantities of Yttrium-90 is limited to a number of research facilities. A radionuclide generator provides an independent Yttrium-90 source and enhances the capacities for radiopharmaceutical research and biomedical applications. The present work focussed on the identification of appropriate column materials for the separation of Strontium and Yttrium. The results for two materials are reported: AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 and crystalline antimonic acid. Based on the mode of operation of the Technetium-99m generator the aim was to enable the construction of a compact, enclosed apparatus. The projected device comprises a reservoir for the eluant, the ion-exchange column, pipings and radiation shielding. Elution of Yttrium-90 could then be easily performed by connecting evacuated vials to the outlet tube. The prospected concept involves physical and chemical confinements that exclude most of the known processes for Strontium-Yttrium separation. For example no ligands, no oxidizing reactants (e.g. nitric acid) and no organic solvents are to be used, but small volumes of isotonic or buffer solutions and dilute acids respectively. AnaLig {sup registered} Sr-01 is a commercially available resin used in extraction chromatography. Its high selectivity for Strontium cations results from the strictly defined cavity of the imbedded cryptand. Determination of weight distribution coefficients, elution studies and pre-generator experiments were carried out. Quantitative separation of Yttrium from Strontium and Zirconium is possible using small volumes of 0,05 M hydrochloric acid as eluant. Furthermore, high

  12. Proton conductivity in tungsten and antimony-modified titania ceramics prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, Flavio Maron [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof, Lineu Prestes, 748, Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tejedor-Tejedor, Maria Isabel; Anderson, Marc A. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 660 N. Park St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2005-03-15

    Titania ceramic materials modified with 5% antimony and 5% tungsten were prepared by the sol-gel method. For the antimony-modified material, a treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also performed, in order to obtain antimonic acid. The electric conductivity of the xerogels was measured at 25 {sup o}C in the relative humidity (RH) range 33-81%. At 25 {sup o}C, the electrical conductivity of the 'as prepared' 5% Sb ceramic varies from 2.02x10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} at 33% RH to 1.12x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} at 81% R.H. For the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the conductivity varies from 1.56x10{sup -5} to 2.37x10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. For the tungsten-modified material, the conductivity varies from 1.02x10{sup -5} to 2.66x10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} for 33% and 81% R.H., respectively. The activation energies observed for proton conduction were 23.5 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/W 5%, 22.9 kJ mol{sup -1} for TiO{sub 2}/Sb 5% and 20.6 kJ mol{sup -1} for the material treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The highest activation energy was observed for untreated TiO{sub 2}:24.8 kJ mol{sup -1}. The conductivity values for the Sb-modified ceramics are superior to those reported previously for antimonic acid films, and approach the values reported for proton-conducting polymers, such as Nafion(R), making them a potential candidate for application as electrolytes in fuel cell systems.

  13. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  14. Properties of the arsenate reductase of plasmid R773.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysheva, T B; Oden, K L; Rosen, B P

    1994-06-14

    Resistance to toxic oxyanions in Escherichia coli is conferred by the ars operon carried on plasmid R773. The gene products of this operon catalyze extrusion of antimonials and arsenicals from cells of E. coli, thus providing resistance to those toxic oxyanions. In addition, resistance to arsenate is conferred by the product of the arsC gene. In this report, purified ArsC protein was shown to catalyze reduction of arsenate to arsenite. The enzymatic activity of the ArsC protein required glutaredoxin as a source of reducing equivalents. Other reductants, including glutathione and thioredoxin, were not effective electron donors. A spectrophotometric assay was devised in which arsenate reduction was coupled to NADPH oxidation. The results obtained with the coupled assay corresponded to those found by direct reduction of radioactive arsenate to arsenite. The only substrate of the reaction was arsenate (Km = 8 mM); other oxyanions including phosphate, sulfate, and antimonate were not reduced. Phosphate and sulfate were weak inhibitors, while the product, arsenite, was a stronger inhibitor (Ki = 0.1 mM). Arsenate reductase activity exhibited a pH optimum of 6.3-6.8. These results indicate that the ArsC protein is a novel reductase, and elucidation of its enzymatic mechanism should be of interest.

  15. Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water can lead to resistance to antimonial drugs in a mouse model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Meghan R; Wyllie, Susan; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2013-12-03

    The Indian subcontinent is the only region where arsenic contamination of drinking water coexists with widespread resistance to antimonial drugs that are used to treat the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. We have previously proposed that selection for parasite resistance within visceral leishmaniasis patients who have been exposed to trivalent arsenic results in cross-resistance to the related metalloid antimony, present in the pentavalent state as a complex in drugs such as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimonate (Glucantime). To test this hypothesis, Leishmania donovani was serially passaged in mice exposed to arsenic in drinking water at environmentally relevant levels (10 or 100 ppm). Arsenic accumulation in organs and other tissues was proportional to the level of exposure and similar to that previously reported in human liver biopsies. After five monthly passages in mice exposed to arsenic, isolated parasites were found to be completely refractory to 500 μg · mL(-1) Pentostam compared with the control passage group (38.5 μg · mL(-1)) cultured in vitro in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Reassessment of resistant parasites following further passage for 4 mo in mice without arsenic exposure showed that resistance was stable. Treatment of infected mice with Pentostam confirmed that resistance observed in vitro also occurred in vivo. We conclude that arsenic contamination may have played a significant role in the development of Leishmania antimonial resistance in Bihar because inadequate treatment with antimonial drugs is not exclusive to India, whereas widespread antimonial resistance is.

  16. Cytochemical localization of calcium in cap cells of primary roots of Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of calcium (Ca) in caps of vertically- and horizontally-oriented roots of Zea mays was monitored to determine its possible role in root graviresponsiveness. A modification of the antimonate precipitation procedure was used to localize Ca in situ. In vertically-oriented roots, the presumed graviperceptive (i.e., columella) cells were characterized by minimal and symmetric staining of the plasmalemma and mitochondria. No precipitate was present in plasmodesmata or cell walls. Within 5 min after horizontal reorientation, staining was associated with the portion of the cell wall adjacent to the distal end of the cell. This asymmetric staining persisted throughout the onset of gravicurvature. No staining of lateral cell walls of columella cells was observed at any stage of gravicurvature, suggesting that a lateral flow of Ca through the columella tissue of horizontally-oriented roots does not occur. The outermost peripheral cells of roots oriented horizontally and vertically secrete Ca through plasmodesmata-like structures in their cell walls. These results are discussed relative to proposed roles of root-cap Ca in root gravicurvature.

  17. In vivo antileishmanial activity and chemical profile of polar extract from Selaginella sellowii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Priscilla de Souza Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The polar hydroethanolic extract from Selaginella sellowii(SSPHE has been previously proven active on intracellular amastigotes (in vitro test and now was tested on hamsters infected with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis (in vivo test. SSPHE suppressed a 100% of the parasite load in the infection site and draining lymph nodes at an intralesional dose of 50 mg/kg/day × 5, which was similar to the results observed in hamsters treated with N-methylglucamine antimonate (Sb (28 mg/Kg/day × 5. When orally administered, SSPHE (50 mg/kg/day × 20 suppressed 99.2% of the parasite load in infected footpads, while Sb suppressed 98.5%. SSPHE also enhanced the release of nitric oxide through the intralesional route in comparison to Sb. The chemical fingerprint of SSPHE by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and tandem mass spectrometry showed the presence of biflavonoids and high molecular weight phenylpropanoid glycosides. These compounds may have a synergistic action in vivo. Histopathological study revealed that the intralesional treatment with SSPHE induced an intense inflammatory infiltrate, composed mainly of mononuclear cells. The present findings reinforce the potential of this natural product as a source of future drug candidates for American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  18. A fruitful demonstration in sensors based on upconversion luminescence of Yb3+/Er3+codoped Sb2O3-WO3-Li2O (SWL) glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Sukul, Prasenjit; Kumar, Kaushal

    2016-07-01

    In this article, erbium and ytterbium doped lithium tungsten antimonate (Yb3+/Er3+:Sb2O3-WO3-Li2O) glass-ceramics (GC) is synthesized and its novel applications in temperature sensing and detection of latent fingerprints is studied. It is also estimated that this material could be useful as a solar cell concentrator. The upconversion emission studies on Yb3+/Er3+:SWL glass-ceramics have shown intense green emission at 525 nm (2H11/2 → 4I15/2) & 545 nm (4s3/2 → 4I15/2). The variation of UC intensities with external temperature have shown a well-fashioned pattern, which suggests that the 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 levels of Er3+ ion are thermally coupled and can act as a temperature sensor in the 300-500 K temperature range. Dry powder of Yb3+/Er3+:SWL glass-ceramic is used to develop latent fingerprint with high contrast in green color on glass slide.

  19. Protons conductive membranes from sulfonated styrenic copolymers; Membranas conductoras de protons a partir de copolimeros estirenicos sulfonados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, F.J.B.; Silva, M.A.G.; Amico, S.C.; Malfatti, C.F.; Forte, M.M.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EE/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], e-mail: mmcforte@ufrgs.br; Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEM/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells working with polymeric electrolyte known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) have become a promising source for energy generation since they can produce high density electric current in an effective way. In this work, a polymeric precursor based on sulfonated styrenic copolymer (RHS) was used with the aim of producing ion-exchange membranes thermally stable at 80 deg C and over. Films of RHS and poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) mixtures with different polyelectrolyte content were prepared, using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent and antimonic acid. The films or membranes were analyzed by infrared and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and water absorption content. The impedance studies showed that the ionic conductivity of the RHS/PVA membranes was highly dependent on the electrolyte polymer in a way that the higher the content, the higher the membrane ionic conductivity. The RHS66{sub G}1 showed ionic conductivity similar to the Nafion membrane analyzed at the same conditions. (author)

  20. Calcium pretreatment increases thermotolerance of Laminaria japonica sporophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Wang; Qingyun Yu; Xuexi Tang; Lili Wang

    2009-01-01

    Calcium is a secondary messenger in plant signaling,and its concentration changes spatially and temporally during the course of heat stress.In the present study,potassium antimonate was used to visualize calcium localization in blades of a marine macroalga,the juvenile Laminariajaponica sporophytes under heat stress (25 ℃).Result showed that loosely bound calcium was mainly distributed on the cell wall under normal conditions (10 ℃),and flowed into the cytoplasm when exposed to heat.The simutaneous assay on the antioxidant system changes was performed.Oxidative damage,as measured by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) malondialdehyde (MDA) content,increased significantly during heat stress,and calcium pretreatment alleviated oxidative damage.The assay on the activities of six antioxidant enzymes demonstrated that their enzymatic activities were inhibited when exposed to heat stress,but Ca2+ pretreatment effectively attenuated the inhibition.Results in the present study inferred that calcium homeostasis plays an essential role in L.japonica sporophyte when exposed to heat,and calcium pretreatment could improve its thermo-tolerance.

  1. First Principle Calculation for the Electronic Bands and Absorption of CdTe1-xSbx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Long; HUANG Zheng; MA Huan-feng; QIANG Wei-rong; PAN Min

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameters for the derivatives of cadmium telluride, CdTe1-xSbx, with the zinc blend crystal structure are calculated using the generalized gradient approximation method; which is based on the density functional theory (DFT). The effects of antimony (Sb) on the lattices, electric bands, electronic state density, absorption spectroscopy, and band gap between the valence band maximum (VBM) and the conduction band minimum (CBM) of CdTe1-xSbx are discussed. The results show that the antimonic atoms in the lattice are advantageous in promoting the hole concentration and conductivities of CdTe1-xSbx. The increase of the Sb content in CdTe1-xSbx reduces the interaction among Cd, Te, and Sb; resulting in a decreased binding energy within CdTe1-xSbx as well as an increase in the electronic gap. Also discussed are the mechanics for the lattice phase change of CdTe1-xSbx at x=0.5.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, sintering and dielectric properties of nanostructured perovskite-type oxide, Ba2GdSbO6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Vijayakumar; H Padma Kumar; Sam Solomon; J K Thomas; P R S Warriar; J Koshy

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles of barium gadolinium antimonate (Ba2GdSbO6), a complex perovskite-type oxide, has been synthesized using an auto ignition combustion process for the first time. The nanoparticles thus obtained have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The XRD studies have shown that the as-prepared powder is phase pure Ba2GdSbO6 and has a complex cubic perovskite (A2BB′O6) crystalline structure with lattice constant, = 8.449 Å. The TEM image reveals that the particle size of the as-prepared nano powder was in the range 30–60 nm. The nanocrystals of Ba2GdSbO6 synthesized by the combustion technique could be sintered to 96% of the theoretical density by heating at a temperature of 1560°C for a short duration of 3 h. The surface morphology of the sintered pellet has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The dielectric constant ($\\varepsilon_{r}$) was 20 and the loss factor (tan) was 0.03 at 3 MHz. By the present combustion technique a phase pure nanopowder of Ba2GdSbO6 could be obtained by a single step process without the need of any calcination step.

  3. 美国锑业将开发Coahuila锑、银矿项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    美国唯一的小金属生产商蒙大纳锑业开始开发其在墨西哥Coahuila地区锑、银矿项目。公司在项目声明中称,公司目前正在努力与墨西哥政府签订开采协议。该项目从属于美国锑业下属墨西哥Antimonio de Mexico(ADM)公司,项目位于墨西哥银矿带。就目前勘探来看,该矿矿石储量达100万吨,其中含锑量1.8%,每吨矿石中含银量约8.1盎司。该项目将采取公开挖崛的开采方式。如果项目谈判成功,公司希望2006年夏季末期正式开采。

  4. A new method for antimony speciation in plant biomass and nutrient media using anion exchange cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisarum, Rujira; Ren, Jing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoling; Chen, Hao; Lessl, Jason T; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-11-01

    A selective separation method based on anion exchange cartridge was developed to determine antimony (Sb) speciation in biological matrices by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The selectivity of the cartridge towards antimonite [Sb(III)] and antimonate [Sb(V)] reversed in the presence of deionized (DI) water and 2mM citric acid. While Sb(V) was retained by the cartridge in DI water, Sb(III) was retained in citric acid media. At pH 6, Sb(III) and Sb(V) formed Sb(III)- and Sb(V)-citrate complexes, but the cartridge had higher affinity towards the Sb(III)-citrate complex. Separation of Sb(III) was tested at various concentrations in fresh and spent growth media and plant tissues. Our results showed that cartridge-based Sb speciation was successful in plant tissues, which was confirmed by HPLC-ICP-MS. The cartridge retained Sb(III) and showed 92-104% Sb(V) recovery from arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata roots treated with Sb(III) and Sb(V). The cartridge procedure is an effective alternative for Sb speciation, offering low cost, reproducible results, and simple Sb analysis using GFAAS.

  5. Removal of cobalt from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军; 王德全; 姜澜; 金曼

    2002-01-01

    The process of cobalt removal from zinc sulphate solution using rude antimony trioxide as an additive was investigated. The rude antimony trioxide was produced in treatment of copper and lead anode mud and its main components are antimony trioxide, antimony arsenate and lead antimonate. Using the rude antimony trioxide as the additive of cobalt removal can not only decrease operation cost of purification but also find out a new way for utilization of the rude antimony trioxide. The effects of temperature, dosage of zinc dust, the rude antimony trioxide, copper ion and solution pH on removal of cobalt were studied. And experimental data using the rude Sb2O3 as additive were compared with those using Sb2O3. The results indicate that using rude Sb2O3 as additive, cobalt concentration in solution could be decreased from 24mg/L to below 1mg/L under about the same conditions as using Sb2O3.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Bioinorganic Complex [Sb(Hedta]·2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimony(III complex [Sb(Hedta]·2H2O was synthesized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (H4edta and antimonous oxide as main raw materials in aqueous solution. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. The crystal structure of the antimony(III complex belongs to orthorhombic system, space group Pna2(1, with cell parameters of a=18.4823(18 Å, b=10.9408(12 Å, c=7.3671(5 Å, V=1489.7(2 Å3, Z=4, and Dc=1.993 g cm−3. The Sb(III ion is five-coordinated by two amido N atoms and three carboxyl O atoms from a single Hedta3− ligand, forming a distorted trigonal bipyramid geometry. The thermal decomposition processes of the complex include dehydration, oxidation, and pyrolysis of the ligand, and the last residue is Sb2O3 at the temperature of 570°C.

  7. Changes in vacuolation in the root apex cells of soybean seedlings in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D. O.; Kordyum, E. L.; Vorobyova, T. V.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, C. S.

    2003-05-01

    Changes in the vacuolation in root apex cells of soybean ( Glycine max L. [Merr.]) seedlings grown in microgravity were investigated. Spaceflight and ground control seedlings were grown in the absence or presence of KMnO 4 (to remove ethylene) for 6 days. After landing, in order to study of cell ultrastructure and subcellular free calcium ion distribution, seedling root apices were fixed in 2.5% (w/v) glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and 2% (w/v) glutaraldehyde, 2.5% (w/v) formaldehyde, 2% (w/v) potassium antimonate K[Sb(OH) 6] in 0.1 M K 2HPO 4 buffer with an osmolarity (calculated theoretically) of 0.45 and 1.26 osmol. The concentrations of ethylene in all spaceflight canisters were significantly higher than in the ground control canisters. Seedling growth was reduced in the spaceflight-exposed plants. Additionally, the spaceflight-exposed plants exhibited progressive vacuolation in the root apex cells, particularly in the columella cells, to a greater degree than the ground controls. Plasmolysis was observed in columella cells of spaceflight roots fixed in solutions with relatively high osmolarity (1.26 osmol). The appearance of plasmolysis permitted the evaluation of the water status of cells. The water potential of the spaceflight cells was higher than the surrounding fixative solution. A decrease in osmotic potential and/or an increase in turgor potential may have induced increases in cell water potential. However, the plasmolysed (i.e. nonturgid) cells implied that increases in water potential were accompanied with a decrease in osmotic potential. In such cells changes in vacuolation may have been involved to maintain turgor pressure or may have been a result of intensification of other vacuolar functions like digestion and storage

  8. In vivo/In vitro immune responses to L. major isolates from patients with no clinical response to Glucantime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Sedigheh; Arjmand, Reza; Soleimanifard, Simindokht; Khamesipour, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Salehi, Mansoor; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Palizban, Abbas Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in some endemic areas of tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) are essential cytokines associated with initiation of Th1 response. The main objective of this study was to evaluate of the type of immune response to L. major isolates from patients with no clinical response to antimonite (Glucantime). Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out during 2013–2014. In the current study Leishmania major were isolated from 10 CL patients with a history of at least one course of treatment with Meglumine antimonate (Sb5). The isolates were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo response to Sb5. J774 murine macrophage cell line was used for in vitro tests and Balb/c mice was used for in vivo studies. IL-12 gene expression was evaluated using Real-time PCR and IFN-γ serum level was quantified using ELISA technique. SPSS (version: 20), analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used for statistical analysis. Results: PCR results confirmed that all 10 isolates were L. major. The mean of IL-12 gene expression in vitro, in vivo and IFN-γ serum levels (pg/ml) after 2 and 3 weeks treatment in vivo, increased significantly following the treatment with Glucantime in the two groups of Balb/c mice infected either with patients' isolates or standard L. major. No significant difference was seen between the patients' isolates and standard species. Conclusions: Although the L. major were isolated from patients with active lesion and no clinical response to Glucantime after at least one courses of Glucantime treatment but in vivo and in vitro immune response of L. major isolates showed no difference between the patients' isolates and standard L. major. PMID:27563636

  9. Obtaining membranes for alternative treatment hydrogels of cutaneous leishmaniasis; Obtencao de membranas de hidrogeis para tratamento alternativo da leishmaniose tegumentar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Maria Jose Alves de

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric Hydrogels formed by crosslinked polymeric chains were obtained by ionizing radiation process according to Rosiak technique. In the last 40 years the use of hydrogels has been investigated for various applications as curatives. In this work hydrogel membranes were synthesized with poly (N-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), chitosan and laponita clay for use as a vehicle for controlled glucantime release on the surface of skin tissues injured by leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania transmitted by the bite of phlebotomies sandfly. The traditional treatment of patients infected by these parasites is done with pentavalent antimony in injectable form. However, these antimonates are highly toxic and cause side effects in these patients. In addition, patients with heart and kidney disease can not use this treatment. In treatment with drug delivery hydrogel membrane applied on the surface of leishmaniasis injured tissues the drug is released directly to the wound in a controlled manner, reducing the side effects. Membranes prepared in this study were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), swelling, gel fraction, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The characterizations of cytotoxicity and drug release were made 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' with functional test according to ethical protocol of the Division of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases at the Hospital of Clinics, Sao Paulo University-School of Medicine, University. The 'in vivo' test of these membranes proved to be effective in controlled release of drugs directly into leishmaniasis damaged tissues. Results of 'in vivo' tests using PVP/PVAl / clay 1,5% and glucantime membrane showed remarkable contribution to wound reduction and cure in clinical therapy. (author)

  10. 价格歧视抑或价格挤压——辨析中国电信、联通滥用市场支配地位行为之认定%Price discrimination or price squeeze --identification of China telecom and unicom's dominant position abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干潇露

    2012-01-01

    为辨析价格歧视与价格挤压这2种滥用市场支配地位行为之区别,完善《中国人民共和国反垄断-a}立法和执法制度,分析了中国电信行业的现状、电信市场的结构、电信业垄断运营商的定价行为、价格挤压与价格歧视的概念比较、价格挤压的构成要件,并介绍了互联网接入市场价格挤压之国际案件。分析认为:电信、联通对与其有直接竞争关系的运营商和没有竞争关系的经营者、终端用户实行不同接入价格之行为应当被认定为价格挤压行为,而非价格歧视行为。%In order to classify the differences of price discrimination and price squeeze, which are two category of dominant position abuse, and to make contribution to the promotion of China's Anti-mon- opoly Law litigation and enforcement system, this paper analyzed the status quo of Chinese telecommuni- cation industry, its structure, the pricing act of monopolistic operator, the definition comparison of price discrimination and price squeeze, the factors contributed to price squeeze and relevant international cases in this area. The result indicates that China telecom's and unicom's act should be taken as prize squeeze rather than price discrimination when they enact higher price of internet access for other ISPs who directly compete with China telecom and unicom in retail market.

  11. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Coupled with Mn3O4 for Highly Efficient Removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Ping; Liu, Hui-Long; Luo, Jinming; Xing, Qiu-Ju; Du, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Xun-Heng; Luo, Xu-Biao; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Suib, Steven L

    2016-07-20

    Highly porous, three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxides/Mn3O4 (RGO/Mn3O4) were fabricated by a facile method of a combination of reflux condensation and solvothermal reactions and systemically characterized. The as-prepared RGO/Mn3O4 possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which Mn3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly deposited on the surface of the reduced graphene oxide. The adsorption properties of RGO/Mn3O4 to antimonite (Sb(III)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) were investigated using batch experiments of adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Experimental results show that the RGO/Mn3O4 composite has fast liquid transport and superior adsorption capacity toward antimony (Sb) species in comparison to six recent adsorbents reported in the literature and summarized in a table in this paper. Theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of RGO/Mn3O4 toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) are 151.84 and 105.50 mg/g, respectively, modeled by Langmuir isotherms. The application of RGO/Mn3O4 was demonstrated by using drinking water spiked with Sb (320 μg/L). Fixed-bed column adsorption experiments indicate that the effective breakthrough volumes were 859 and 633 mL bed volumes (BVs) for the Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb was reached, which is below the maximum limits allowed in drinking water according to the most stringent regulations. The advantages of being nontoxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali and having high adsorption capacity toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) confirm the great potential application of RGO/Mn3O4 in Sb-spiked water treatment.

  12. Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boujelben, N. [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: nesrine.boujelben@tunet.tn; Bouzid, J.; Elouear, Z. [Laboratoire Eau Energie et Environnement, departement de genie geologique, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Feki, M. [Unite de chimie industrielle I, Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BP W 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Jamoussi, F. [Laboratoire de Georessources CERTE BP 95, 2050 Hamam-Lif (Tunisia); Montiel, A. [Societe Anonyme de Gestion des Eaux de Paris, 9 rue Schoelcher, 75675 Paris Cedex 14 (France)

    2008-02-28

    New filtration materials covered with metallic oxides are good adsorbents for both cation and anion forms of pollutants. Sfax is one of the most important industrial towns in Tunisia. Its phosphate manufacture in particular is causing considerable amounts of water pollution. Therefore, there is a need to find out a new way of getting rid of this excessive phosphate from water. This work is aimed to examining the potential of three sorbent materials (synthetic iron oxide coated sand (SCS), naturally iron oxide coated sand (NCS) and iron oxide coated crushed brick (CB)) for removing phosphate ions from aqueous solutions. According to our literature survey CB was not used as adsorbent previously. Phosphate ions are used here as species model for the elimination of other similar pollutants (arsenates, antimonates). Optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties and morphology of the coated sorbents. Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were also used to characterize the sorbent structures. Results showed that iron coated crushed brick possess more micro pores and a higher surface area owing to its clay nature. The comparative sorption of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} from aqueous solutions by SCS, CB and NCS was investigated by batch experiments. The estimated optimum pH of phosphate ion retention for the considered sorbents was 5. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The sorption capacities of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} at pH 5 were 1.5 mg/g for SCS, 1.8 mg/g for CB and 0.88 mg/g for NCS. The effect of temperature on sorption phenomenon was also investigated. The results indicated that adsorption is an endothermic process for phosphate ions removal. This study demonstrates that all the considered sorbents can be used as an alternative emerging technology for water treatment without any side effect or treatment process alteration.

  13. 采用碱性加压氧化浸出从高铋铅阳极泥中脱除砷锑%Arsenic and antimony removal from bismuth-rich lead anode slime by alkaline pressure oxidation leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阔; 徐瑞东; 何世伟; 陈汉森; 朱云; 华宏全; 舒波

    2015-01-01

    在碱性溶液中釆用加压氧化浸出对高铋铅阳极泥进行脱除砷锑的研究。考察氧化剂用量、氢氧化钠浓度、液固比、碱浸温度及反应时间对铅阳极泥脱砷、锑效果的影响,优选得到较佳的工艺条件,砷、锑的浸出率分别达到95%和80%以上。碱浸液冷却过滤结晶砷酸钠和锑酸铅后,采用过氧化氢进行沉锑处理,沉锑后的溶液再补加定量的氢氧化钠后能够返回浸出工艺,实现碱浸液的循环利用,并保证砷、锑的有效脱除。%The arsenic and antimony were removed from bismuth-rich lead anode slime by alkaline pressure oxidation leaching. The effects of factors including oxidant dosage, NaOH concentration, ratio of liquid to solid, leaching temperature and leaching time on the arsenic and antimony removal were investigated, and the optimal process conditions were determined by experiments. The results show that the leaching rate of arsenic and antimony can reach over 95% and 80%, respectively. The removal of antimony can be realized by adding hydrogen peroxide after the removal of crystal sodium arsenate and lead antimonate by cooling and filtration. The alkaline leaching solution is returned to the leaching process after adding quantitative sodium hydroxide, which achieves the recycling of alkaline solution and the effective separation of arsenic and antimony from other metals.

  14. Preparation and application of aqueous organosilicon-modified polyester resin%水性有机硅改性聚酯树脂的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 曾敬荣; 江俊鸿; 杨雁; 俞金柱

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, hydroxy polyester resins were synthesized through melting. In this process, anti-monous oxide was used as catalyst and 10%, 30% and 50% of organosilicon intermediate was used to chemical modification respectively. The modified organosilicon polyester resin with trimellitic anhydride was processed with water base-side processing,then salted with dimethylethanolamine. This kind of water-soluble organosilicon modified polyester resin treated with this way was used to cure and film with amino resin, which performs excellent high temperature resistant, high solidity and excellent flexibility. The experiment results showed that the compositive property and the price performance is the best when the content of organosilicon is 30%.%本文以Sb2O3为催化剂,采用熔融法合成端羟基聚酯树脂,分别以10%、30%、50%的有机硅中间体进行化学改性,以偏苯三甲酸酐对有机硅改性后的聚酯进行了水性化封端,并采用二甲基乙醇胺成盐,制备的水性有机硅改性聚酯树脂配以氨基树脂固化成膜后,表现出具有优良耐高温性、高硬度、良好柔韧性等性能,实验表明,当有机硅含量为30%时,改性聚酯树脂树脂的综合性能和性价比最好.

  15. Transformaciones y cambios en la policía española durante la Segunda República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Miguélez Rueda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El viejo aparato de Policía que heredó la II República se componía de dos colectivos desiguales: el militar Cuerpo de Seguridad, que dependía de los Ministerios de la Gobernación y de la Guerra, era un cuerpo dedicado a prevenir y reprimir las alteraciones del orden público, en cuya labor había causado y sufrido muchas bajas; por su parte, el menos numeroso y civil Cuerpo de Vigilancia, cuyos miembros actuaban de paisano, debía investigar los delitos y perseguir a los delincuentes, y se había distinguido en el reciente pasado por su ejecutoria contra los antimonárquicos. Tras la victoriosa proclamación del 14 de abril de 1931, gobernantes y policías se observaron con mutua desconfianza y un cierto temor.The old Police machine that the II Republic inherited was composed by two unequal collectives: the military "Cuerpo de Seguridad» which depended of the Government Office and War Office, it was an Institute dedicated to prevent and to repress the public order disorders in which work it had produced and suffered a lot of dead and injured; on the order hand the less numerous and civil «Cuerpo de Vigilancia», whose members worked in plain clothes, had to investigate the crimes and to pursue the crimináis, and it had been distinguished its activity against the antimonarchicals in the recent past. After the victorious proclamation of 14th april 1931, the governing persons and the policemen regarded each other wlth diffidence and a certain fear.

  16. Abiotic and biotic factors responsible for antimonite oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-03-01

    Antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing bacteria can transform the toxic Sb(III) into the less toxic antimonate [Sb(V)]. Recently, the cytoplasmic Sb(III)-oxidase AnoA and the periplasmic arsenite [As(III)] oxidase AioAB were shown to responsible for bacterial Sb(III) oxidation, however, disruption of each gene only partially decreased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. This study showed that in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4, Sb(III) induced cellular H2O2 content and H2O2 degradation gene katA. Gene knock-out/complementation of katA, anoA, aioA and anoA/aioA and Sb(III) oxidation and growth experiments showed that katA, anoA and aioA were essential for Sb(III) oxidation and resistance and katA was also essential for H2O2 resistance. Furthermore, linear correlations were observed between cellular H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vivo and chemical H2O2 and Sb(V) content in vitro (R2 = 0.93 and 0.94, respectively). These results indicate that besides the biotic factors, the cellular H2O2 induced by Sb(III) also catalyzes bacterial Sb(III) oxidation as an abiotic oxidant. The data reveal a novel mechanism that bacterial Sb(III) oxidation is associated with abiotic (cellular H2O2) and biotic (AnoA and AioAB) factors and Sb(III) oxidation process consumes cellular H2O2 which contributes to microbial detoxification of both Sb(III) and cellular H2O2.

  17. Antimony and arsenic biogeochemistry in the western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Cutter, Lynda S.; Featherstone, Alison M.; Lohrenz, Steven E.

    The subtropical to equatorial Atlantic Ocean provides a unique regime in which one can examine the biogeochemical cycles of antimony and arsenic. In particular, this region is strongly affected by inputs from the Amazon River and dust from North Africa at the surface, and horizontal transport at depth from high-latitude northern (e.g., North Atlantic Deep Water) and southern waters (e.g., Antarctic Bottom and Intermediate Waters). As a part of the 1996 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Contaminant Baseline Survey, data for dissolved As(III+V), As(III), mono- and dimethyl arsenic, Sb(III+V), Sb(III), and monomethyl antimony were obtained at six vertical profile stations and 44 sites along the 11,000 km transect from Montevideo, Uruguay, to Bridgetown, Barbados. The arsenic results were similar to those in other oceans, with moderate surface depletion, deep-water enrichment, a predominance of arsenate (>85% As(V)), and methylated arsenic species and As(III) in surface waters that are likely a result of phytoplankton conversions to mitigate arsenate "stress" (toxicity). Perhaps the most significant discovery in the arsenic results was the extremely low concentrations in the Amazon Plume (as low as 9.8 nmol/l) that appear to extend for considerable distances offshore in the equatorial region. The very low concentration of inorganic arsenic in the Amazon River (2.8 nmol/l; about half those in most rivers) is probably the result of intense iron oxyhydroxide scavenging. Dissolved antimony was also primarily in the pentavalent state (>95% antimonate), but Sb(III) and monomethyl antimony were only detected in surface waters and displayed no correlations with biotic tracers such as nutrients and chlorophyll a. Unlike As(III+V)'s nutrient-type vertical profiles, Sb(III+V) displayed surface maxima and decreased into the deep waters, exhibiting the behavior of a scavenged element with a strong atmospheric input. While surface water Sb had a slight correlation with

  18. 酒石酸盐体系制备的SbSbS4及其润滑性能%Synthesis of SbSbS4 in tartrate solution and its lubrication performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜云; 段习韬

    2014-01-01

    Sodium thioantimonate was prepared via sodium sulfide reacting with sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride solution is obtained by hydrochloric acid leaching antimony oxide, then, sodium potassium tartrate was added to prevent hydrolysis. The aqueous solution of antimony trichloride can be stable at acidic, neutral or basic conditions when the range of molar ratio of sodium potassium tartrate to Sb3+ is 1.7-2.1 and antimony concentration is less than 75.24 g/L. Finally, sodium thioantimonate solution was added into the stable antimony trichloride solution to synthesize antimony thioantimonate. The effects of pH value, temperature, reaction time and washing methods on the antimony mass fraction of the product and antimony recovery were investigated. Amorphous antimony thioantimonate containing 65.38% Sb (mass fraction) and 34.26% S, respectively is obtained, which can obviously improve the load capacity of lithium­based lubricant.%以硫化钠溶液与锑酸钠反应制备硫代锑酸钠,采用盐酸溶解氧化锑得到三氯化锑溶液,添加酒石酸钾钠防止三氯化锑水解。当酒石酸钾钠与Sb3+摩尔比范围为1.7~2.1、锑浓度低于75.24 g/L时,三氯化锑溶液在酸性、中性及碱性条件下可稳定存在。然后,将此稳定的三氯化锑溶液与硫代锑酸钠溶液直接合成硫代锑酸锑(SbSbS4),考察pH值、温度、反应时间与洗涤方式对产品锑含量和锑沉淀率的影响,得到了锑含量(质量分数)为65.38%,硫含量为34.26%,形貌为无定形的硫代锑酸锑,它可明显提高锂基润滑油脂的抗负荷能力。

  19. GEMAS: prediction of solid-solution phase partitioning coefficients (Kd) for oxoanions and boric acid in soils using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirby, Jason K; McLaughlin, Michael J; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-02-01

    The authors' aim was to develop rapid and inexpensive regression models for the prediction of partitioning coefficients (Kd), defined as the ratio of the total or surface-bound metal/metalloid concentration of the solid phase to the total concentration in the solution phase. Values of Kd were measured for boric acid (B[OH]3(0)) and selected added soluble oxoanions: molybdate (MoO4(2-)), antimonate (Sb[OH](6-)), selenate (SeO4(2-)), tellurate (TeO4(2-)) and vanadate (VO4(3-)). Models were developed using approximately 500 spectrally representative soils of the Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural Soils of Europe (GEMAS) program. These calibration soils represented the major properties of the entire 4813 soils of the GEMAS project. Multiple linear regression (MLR) from soil properties, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using mid-infrared diffuse reflectance Fourier-transformed (DRIFT) spectra, and models using DRIFT spectra plus analytical pH values (DRIFT + pH), were compared with predicted log K(d + 1) values. Apart from selenate (R(2)  = 0.43), the DRIFT + pH calibrations resulted in marginally better models to predict log K(d + 1) values (R(2)  = 0.62-0.79), compared with those from PSLR-DRIFT (R(2)  = 0.61-0.72) and MLR (R(2)  = 0.54-0.79). The DRIFT + pH calibrations were applied to the prediction of log K(d + 1) values in the remaining 4313 soils. An example map of predicted log K(d + 1) values for added soluble MoO4(2-) in soils across Europe is presented. The DRIFT + pH PLSR models provided a rapid and inexpensive tool to assess the risk of mobility and potential availability of boric acid and selected oxoanions in European soils. For these models to be used in the prediction of log K(d + 1) values in soils globally, additional research will be needed to determine if soil variability is accounted on the calibration.

  20. Removal of Radioactive Nuclides by Multi-Functional Microcapsules Enclosing Inorganic Ion-Exchangers and Organic Extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, H.; Akiba, K.; Onodera, Y.

    2002-02-26

    The microcapsules enclosing two kinds of functional materials, inorganic ion-exchangers and organic extractants, were prepared by taking advantage of the high immobilization ability of alginate gel polymer. The fine powders of inorganic ion-exchanger and oil drops of extractant were kneaded with sodium alginate (NaALG) solution and the kneaded sol readily gelled in a salt solution of CaCl2, BaCl2 or HCl to form spherical gel particles. The uptake properties of various nuclides, 137Cs, 85Sr, 60Co, 88Y, 152Eu and 241Am, for thirty-four specimens of microcapsules in the presence of 10-1-10-4 M HNO3 were evaluated by the batch method. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Cs+ above 103 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules enclosing CuFC or AMP. The Kd of Sr2+ around 102 cm3/g was obtained for the microcapsules containing clinoptilolite, antimonic acid, zeolite A, zeolite X or titanic acid. The microcapsules enclosing DEHPA exhibited relatively large Kd values of trivalent metal ions above 103 cm3/g; for example, the Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for a favorable microcapsule (CuFC/clinoptilolite/DEHPA/CaALG) were 1.1x104, 7.5x10, 1.1x10, 1.0x104, 1.4x104, 3.4x103 cm3/g, respectively. The uptake rates of Cs+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ for this microcapsule were rather fast; the uptake percentage above 90% was obtained after 19 h-shaking and the uptake equilibrium was attained within 1 d. The AMP/CaALG exhibited high uptake ability for Cs+ even after irradiation of 188 kGy, and DEHPA/CaALG microcapsule had similar Kd values of Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, Y3+, Eu3+ and Am3+ ions before and after irradiation. The microcapsules with various shapes such as spherical, columnar, fibrous and filmy forms were easily prepared by changing the way of dipping kneaded sol into gelling salt solution. The microcapsules enclosing inorganic ion-exchangers and extractants have a potential possibility for the simultaneous removal of various radioactive nuclides from waste solutions.

  1. [Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of adult visceral leishmaniasis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Serap; Kaptan, Figen; Sezak, Nurbanu; El, Sibel; Örmen, Bahar; Türker, Nesrin; Demirdal, Tuna; Vardar, İlknur; Özkan Çayıröz, Pınar; Çakalağaoğlu, Fulya

    2015-10-01

    either meglumine antimonate (Glucantime(®), 20 mg/kg/day, intramuscularly for 28 days) or liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/day, intravenously for the first 5 days, then on 14(th) and 21(st) days) according to the availability of drugs. During one year follow-up period all of the patients improved and no recurrence was seen in any patient. In conclusion, among adult patients with fever uncontrolled within 2-week course of ampiric antibiotic treatment without any infectious focus or malignancy, VL should also be considered.

  2. 刺槐花粉萌发和花粉管伸长生长过程中柱头与花柱内钙离子的分布特征%Distribution of Ca2+ in the stigma and style of Robinia pseudoacacia during pollen germination and pollen tube elongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 戴丽; 徐兆翮; 孙非; 袁存权; 胡瑞阳; 孙宇涵; 李云

    2015-01-01

    以去雄后人工授粉的刺槐花为试验材料,并以去雄后不授粉的花为对照,利用焦锑酸钙沉淀法分析刺槐柱头和花柱内钙离子分布对花粉萌发和花粉管生长的影响.结果发现:花粉在萌发前,其萌发孔聚集了大量的钙沉淀.授粉作用会很快促使柱头表面泡状分泌物和胞外基质钙含量增加.随着大量花粉萌发完成,柱头泡状分泌物内的钙含量开始下降,但是柱头胞外基质的钙含量下降不明显,这表明柱头泡状分泌物的钙离子对花粉萌发可能有促进作用.刺槐的花柱含有一个中空花柱道,中空花柱道周围有一层通道细胞,不论授粉与否,通道细胞液泡和细胞壁上都有大量钙离子,这些钙离子对花粉管的生长可能有诱导作用.刺槐花柱内的钙离子梯度现象不明显.本研究结果有利于揭示刺槐乃至其他豆科植物柱头和花柱内钙离子分布对花粉萌发和花粉管生长的影响.%We used antimonate precipitation in combination with transmission electron microscope ( TEM ) in order to investigate the distribution of Ca2+ in stigma and style of black locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia) and its effect on pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Experimental materials were emasculated flowers of black locust with artificial pollination and non-pollination as control. Our findings were as follows. Before germination, a lot of Ca2+ was observed on and near the germinal pore. Pollination could increase the amount of Ca2+ in exudate vesicles and extracellular matrix on stigma. With the finishing of most pollen germination, the amount of Ca2+ in exudate vesicles started to decline;however, no obvious decrease occurred in extracellular matrix, indicating that the amount of Ca2+ in vesicles might promote pollen germination. A hollow stylar canal surrounded by a layer of canal cells was inside the style of black locust. Whether pollinated or not, lots of Ca2+ accumulated in the vacuoles and on

  3. Utilização da reação de imunofluorescência indireta no acompanhamento da terapêutica da leishmaniose tegumentar americana'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacinto Silva de Souza

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 17 indivíduos cujas idades variaram de 2 a 78 anos, procedentes da área endêmica de Jacarepaguá (RJ, com diagnóstico clínico, epidemiológico, imunológico e parasitológico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Todos foram tratados pelo antimoniato de N-metilglucamina na dose de 60 mg/kg/dia em três séries de 10 dias de duração, com 10 dias de intervalo entre cada série e submetidos à coleta e sangue venoso para a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IF-IgG antes, durante e após o medicamento. Estes 17 indivíduos foram reatores a intradermorreação de Montenegro (= 5 mm e soro-reagentes (= 1:45 na IF-1gG, sendo que em 6 deles (31,7% foi demonstrado ou isolado Leishmania braziliensis. A positividade da IF-IgG antes do tratamento foi de 76,4% (13 casos com título = 1:90. As médias geométricas das recíprocas dos títulos antes da primeira série do antimonial (89,9, durante o tratamento (63,6 a 29,3 e 10, 30 e 120 dias após medicação, mostraram uma graduação nitidamente decrescente (14,9;2,1 e 1,2, respectivamente. Todos tiveram suas lesões cicatrizadas ao final do tratamento sendo maior o número de cicatrizações após a 2°série. Somente 120 dias após a terapêutica, foram observados títulos abaixo de 1:45 na quase todalidade dos pacientes (16 casos - 94,1% sugerindo que, na utilização da IF-IgG como controle de cura, faz-se necessário um acompanhamento sorológico de no mínimo 3 a 4 meses.Seventeen persons, from 2 to 78 years of age, with clinical, epidemiological,immunological and parasitological diagnosis of american tegumentary leishmaniasis, were studied. All came from the endemic area of Jacarepaguá, a suburb of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The patients were treated with n-methylglucanine antimonate, using a dosage of 60 mg/kg/day, in three series of ten days duration each series, with intervals of ten days between each series, venous blood samples having been taken for the indirect

  4. 高铅铜阳极泥的工艺矿物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪英; 李雪娇; 佟琳琳; 陈国宝

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the technology of the process of noble metal extracted from high lead copper anode slime, the process mineralogy was investigated by XRD, SEM and microscope. The particle size of high lead anode slime is small, and the composition is complex. The main noble metals are Au 0.33%, Ag 9.94%and Pd 0.1%(mass fraction), and the main base metals are Cu 16.35%and Pb 13.74%. The chief phases include Au and gold­lead alloy, eukairite, sulfate, arsenate, antimonate and oxygen. The results show that there are two main phases of gold as elemental gold and gold­lead alloy with the mass ratio of approximately 3:1. The particle size is uneven, the biggest particle size is about 15μm and the smallest one is about 0.1μm. The elemental Au is often wrapped in copper sulfate, so, Cu should be removal before extracting Au. Ag exists in silver selenide and eukairite. Three elements are miscible and form a solid solution. Cu and Pb are major base metal. Cu exists in Cu, copper sulphate, eukairite and chalcopyrite. Pb exists in lead sulfate, lead antimonite, lead arsenate and lead sulphide. Arsenic antimony bismuth compounds mainly include lead antimonite, bismuth arsenate and antimony arsenate. The characteristics of the structure indicates that bought­out anode slime structured on copper sulphate, nickel oxide constantly wrapped copper, antimony arsenate constantly wrapped chalcopyrite, barium sulfate and lead sulfate constantly growed interactively.%为了高效回收高铅铜阳极泥中贵金属,改进阳极泥的现行生产工艺,采用XRD、SEM和显微镜等对阳极泥进行工艺矿物学研究。结果表明:阳极泥的颗粒较细,成分复杂,贵金属主要为Au 0.33%、Ag 9.94%、Pd 0.1%(质量分数);贱金属主要为Cu 16.35%、Pb 13.74%。主要物相包括金以及金铅合金、铜银硒化合物、硫酸盐、砷酸盐、锑酸盐以及氧化物。分析得知,金主要有单质金以及金铅合金两种