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Sample records for antimitotic drugs

  1. Antimitotic drugs in the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Rustelle Janse; Visagie, Michelle H; Theron, Anne E; Joubert, Annie M

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is a complex disease since it is adaptive in such a way that it can promote proliferation and invasion by means of an overactive cell cycle and in turn cellular division which is targeted by antimitotic drugs that are highly validated chemotherapy agents. However, antimitotic drug cytotoxicity to non-tumorigenic cells and multiple cancer resistance developed in response to drugs such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids are obstacles faced in both the clinical and basic research field to date. In this review, the classes of antimitotic compounds, their mechanisms of action and cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and other limitations of current antimitotic compounds are highlighted, as well as the potential of novel 17-β estradiol analogs as cancer treatment. PMID:26563258

  2. Salinomycin sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via the prevention of G2 arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju-Hwa; Yoo, Hye-In; Kang, Han Sung; Ro, Jungsil [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sungpil, E-mail: yoons@ncc.re.kr [Research Institute, National Cancer Center, Ilsan-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes antimitotic drugs-treated cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal sensitizes them by prevention of G2 arrest and reduced cyclin D1 levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sal also sensitizes them by increasing DNA damage and reducing p21 level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low concentration of Sal effectively sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. -- Abstract: Here, we investigated whether Sal could sensitize cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. We demonstrated that Sal sensitized paclitaxcel (PAC)-, docetaxcel (DOC)-, vinblastin (VIN)-, or colchicine (COL)-treated cancer cell lines, suggesting that Sal has the ability to sensitize the cells to any form of microtubule-targeting drugs. Sensitization to the antimitotic drugs could be achieved with very low concentrations of Sal, suggesting that there is a possibility to minimize Sal toxicity associated with human cancer patient treatments. Sensitization by Sal increased apoptosis, which was observed by C-PARP production. Sal sensitized the cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by preventing G2 arrest, suggesting that Sal contributes to the induction of mitotic catastrophe. Sal generally reduced cyclin D1 levels in PAC-, DOC-, and VIN-treated cells. In addition, Sal treatment increased pH2AX levels and reduced p21 levels in antimitotic drugs-treated cells. These observations suggest that the mechanisms underlying Sal sensitization to DNA-damaging compounds, radiation, and microtubule-targeting drugs are similar. Our data demonstrated that Sal sensitizes cancer cells to antimitotic drugs by increasing apoptosis through the prevention of G2 arrest via conserved Sal-sensitization mechanisms. These results may contribute to the development of Sal-based chemotherapy for cancer patients treated with antimitotic drugs.

  3. Interactions between X-rays and antimitotic drugs: cellular effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions between three drugs and X-rays were examined in rat hepatoma cells in vitro. Incubation with Daunomycine or 9-hydroxy ellipticine decreases the survival of both exponential and plateau phase cells, whereas cis-Pt (II) decreases the survival of plateau cells, especially irradiated in anoxia. The decrease in the Do was greater when the cells were incubated with the drugs prior to X-irradiation, and was greater in the case of plateau cells than in the case of exponential cells. The repair of potentially lethal damages was inhibited by these three compounds. However, the repair of sublethal damages was inhibited by cis-Pt II, but was modified neither by Daunomycine nor 9-hydroxy ellipticine

  4. Effects of an antimitotic drug on mechanical behaviours of the cytoskeleton in distinct grades of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedpour, S M; Pachenari, M; Janmaleki, M; Alizadeh, M; Hosseinkhani, H

    2015-04-13

    Biomechanical behaviours of cells change during cancer progression due to alterations in the main cytoskeletal proteins. Microtubules play a vital role in mitosis and in supporting the integrity of the cell due to their ability to withstand high compressive loads. Accordingly, microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) have become one of the most promising classes of drugs in cancer therapy. This study evaluated changes in visco-elastic parameters induced by an appropriate concentration of an antimitotic drug in two different grades of colon cancer cells. Actin microfilaments and microtubules contents in the cells were evaluated by Western blot analysis and fluorescence intensity calculation. Micropipette aspiration experiments showed that the MTA had distinct mechanical effects on different cell lines. The more aggressive the cells, the greater the reduction in elasticity and viscosity. Invasive cells had a higher initial instantaneous Young's modulus than primary cells, but this reduced to approximately one half of the values for primary cells after 48 h of drug treatment. A considerable association was seen between the changes in mechanical properties and the microtubule to F-actin microfilament content ratio, which decreased with MTA treatment. PMID:25678199

  5. MPT0G066, a novel anti-mitotic drug, induces JNK-independent mitotic arrest, JNK-mediated apoptosis, and potentiates antineoplastic effect of cisplatin in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Li; Chao, Min-Wu; Li, Ya-Chi; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chen, Chun-Han; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Liou, Jing-Ping; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Developing new anticancer agents against ovarian cancer is an urgent medical need. MPT0G066, a novel synthetic arylsulfonamide compound, was shown to inhibit cell growth and decrease viability in human ovarian cancer cells. MPT0G066 induced arrest of the cell cycle at the multipolyploidy (MP) phase in SKOV3 and at the G2/M phase in A2780 cells, while increasing the proportion of cells in the subG1. Additionally, MPT0G066 induced c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) activation, influenced cell cycle regulatory and Bcl-2 family proteins, which triggered intrinsic apoptotic pathways through cleavage of caspase-3, -7, -9, and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Flow cytometry analysis of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) function showed that MPT0G066 was not a substrate of p-gp. Additionally, it was shown that MPT0G066 could decrease cell viability in multiple-drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of MPT0G066 and cisplatin presented a synergistic cytotoxic effect against ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. MPT0G066 also significantly suppressed the growth of ovarian carcinoma and potentiated the antineoplastic effects of cisplatin in vivo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that MPT0G066 can be a potential anticancer agent against ovarian cancer that worthy of further development. PMID:27526962

  6. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant, antimitotic, and antiproliferative activities of Trichodesma indicum shoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta S Saboo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally Trichodesma indicum has been used for its therapeutic effect in folk medicine that include anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer properties. In this work, we validate the anticancer potential of the plant. Aims: To screen the shoot extracts T. indicum for their antimitotic and antiproliferative activities. Materials and Methods: The dried aerial parts of T. indicum were successively extracted with petroleum ether, successive chloroform extract (SCH, successive ethanol extract (SEE and water. The plant extracts were subjected to study of in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2′- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical inhibition systems. The extracts were also tested for their in vitro antimitotic activity in Allium cepa root and antiproliferative activity using the yeast model and five human cell lines (MCF-7, HOP-62, MOLT-4, HCT-15 and PRO. Result and Conclusion: The mitotic index for SCH and SEE was found to be 12.01 ± 1.34 and 12.99 ± 0.25 mg/mL, respectively. The IC 50 value in the antiproliferative assay was found to be 30.14-35.36 mg/mL for SCH and SEE respectively. Both SCH and SEE extracts showed significant antimitotic and antiproliferative activity when compared to the standard methothreaxate, vincreastine and adriamycin. Among the extracts, SEE showed strong inhibition against MCF-7 and MOLT-4 cell lines at concentration <30 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of extracts indicated the presence of β-sitosterol, gallic acid and catechin. Based on these results, it is concluded that T. indicum may be a good candidate for the treatment of a variety of cancer. Thus, its traditional use is validated.

  7. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S.; Soliman, KFA

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust NCI botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015–0.5 mg/ml) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % tested showed inhi...

  8. Purification and some characteristics of liver cytosol cornin, an antimitotic substance from rat liver cytosol

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    Inaba,Kozo

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Further purification and characterization are reported on rat cytosol cornin (RLCC, an antimitotic substance. Fraction I (purified RLCC was purified more than 10-fold from crude RLCC with Sephadex G-50 column chromatography and showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on division of inseminated sea urchin eggs and mouse fibroblast cells. Fraction I was observed as one spot, and the molecular weight was estimated to be about 25,000 by thin layer gel filtration. Fraction I contained protein (92% and RNA (8%, but the antimitotic activity was scarcely affected by treatment by pancreatic RNase. The protein of Fraction I was separated into two bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was estimated as 10,000 and 15,000, respectively. The 50% inhibition dose of Fraction I on the first division of inseminated sea urchin eggs and on proliferation of mouse L cells was about 2.5 X 10(-5 g/ml and 5 X 10(-4 g/ml, respectively. The yield of fraction I was about 35 mg from 100 g rat liver.

  9. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:26042548

  10. Anti-mitotic potential of 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SNU620/5-FU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam Hyun [Department of Pharmacology, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Nam [KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joa Sub [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seokjoon [Department of Basic Science, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DBC exerts antiproliferative potential against 5FU-resistant human gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by destabilization of microtubules and subsequent mitotic arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DBC enhances apoptosis via caspase activation and downregulation of antiapoptotic genes. -- Abstract: In this study, we investigate an anti-mitotic potential of the novel synthetic coumarin-based compound, 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin, in 5-fluorouracil-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SNU-620-5FU and its parental cell SNU-620. It exerts the anti-proliferative effects with similar potencies against both cancer cells, which is mediated by destabilization of microtubules and subsequent mitotic arrest. Furthermore, this compound enhances caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death via decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Taken together, our data strongly support anti-mitotic potential of 7-diethylamino-3(2 Prime -benzoxazolyl)-coumarin against drug-resistant cancer cells which will prompt us to further develop as a novel microtubule inhibitor for drug-resistant cancer chemotherapy.

  11. High throughput screening of natural products for anti-mitotic effects in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, E; Badisa, R; Mack, N; Deiab, S; Soliman, K F A

    2014-06-01

    Some of the most effective anti-mitotic microtubule-binding agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxus brevifolia) were originally discovered through robust National Cancer Institute botanical screenings. In this study, a high-through put microarray format was utilized to screen 897 aqueous extracts of commonly used natural products (0.00015-0.5 mg/mL) relative to paclitaxel for anti-mitotic effects (independent of toxicity) on proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells. The data obtained showed that less than 1.34 % of the extracts tested showed inhibitory growth (IG50 ) properties Phoradendron flavescens), Tou Gu Cao [symbol: see text] Speranskia herb (Speranskia tuberculata), Bentonite clay, Bunge root (Pulsatilla chinensis), Brucea fruit (Brucea javanica), Madder root (Rubia tinctorum), Gallnut of Chinese Sumac (Melaphis chinensis), Elecampane root (Inula Helenium), Yuan Zhi [symbol: see text] root (Polygala tenuifolia), Pagoda Tree fruit (Melia Toosendan), Stone root (Collinsonia Canadensis), and others such as American Witchhazel, Arjun, and Bladderwrack. The strongest tumoricidal herbs identified from amongst the subset evaluated for anti-mitotic properties were wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), beth root (Trillium Pendulum), and alkanet root (Lithospermum canescens). Additional data was obtained on a lesser-recognized herb: (S. tuberculata), which showed growth inhibition on BT-474 (human ductal breast carcinoma) and Ishikawa (human endometrial adenocarcinoma) cells with ability to block replicative DNA synthesis, leading to G2 arrest in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these findings present relative potency of anti-mitotic natural plants that are effective against human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell division. PMID:24105850

  12. Analysis of mitosis and antimitotic drug responses in tumors by in vivo microscopy and single-cell pharmacodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, James D; Kohler, Rainer H; Foijer, Floris; Sorger, Peter K; Weissleder, Ralph; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    Cancer relies upon frequent or abnormal cell division, but how the tumor microenvironment affects mitotic processes in vivo remains unclear, largely due to the technical challenges of optical access, spatial resolution, and motion. We developed high-resolution in vivo microscopy methods to visualize

  13. Prenylated Chalcone 2 Acts as an Antimitotic Agent and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Tumor Cells to Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that prenylated chalcone 2 (PC2, the O-prenyl derivative (2 of 2′-hydroxy-3,4,4′,5,6′-pentamethoxychalcone (1, induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells via disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction. However, the cellular changes through which PC2 exerts its cytotoxic activity and its antitumor potential, remain to be addressed. In the present work, we aimed to (i characterize the effect of PC2 on mitotic progression and the underlying mechanism; and to (ii explore this information to evaluate its ability to sensitize tumor cells to paclitaxel in a combination regimen. PC2 was able to arrest breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in mitosis. All mitosis-arrested cells showed collapsed mitotic spindles with randomly distributed chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint. Live-cell imaging revealed that the compound induced a prolonged delay (up to 14 h in mitosis, culminating in massive cell death by blebbing. Importantly, PC2 in combination with paclitaxel enhanced the effect on cell growth inhibition as determined by cell viability and proliferation assays. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by PC2 is mediated through antimitotic activity as a result of mitotic spindle damage. The enhancement effects of PC2 on chemosensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination.

  14. Prenylated Chalcone 2 Acts as an Antimitotic Agent and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Tumor Cells to Paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Joana; Marques, Sandra; Silva, Patrícia M A; Brandão, Pedro; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena M; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenylated chalcone 2 (PC2), the O-prenyl derivative (2) of 2'-hydroxy-3,4,4',5,6'-pentamethoxychalcone (1), induced cytotoxicity of tumor cells via disruption of p53-MDM2 interaction. However, the cellular changes through which PC2 exerts its cytotoxic activity and its antitumor potential, remain to be addressed. In the present work, we aimed to (i) characterize the effect of PC2 on mitotic progression and the underlying mechanism; and to (ii) explore this information to evaluate its ability to sensitize tumor cells to paclitaxel in a combination regimen. PC2 was able to arrest breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in mitosis. All mitosis-arrested cells showed collapsed mitotic spindles with randomly distributed chromosomes, and activated spindle assembly checkpoint. Live-cell imaging revealed that the compound induced a prolonged delay (up to 14 h) in mitosis, culminating in massive cell death by blebbing. Importantly, PC2 in combination with paclitaxel enhanced the effect on cell growth inhibition as determined by cell viability and proliferation assays. Our findings demonstrate that the cytotoxicity induced by PC2 is mediated through antimitotic activity as a result of mitotic spindle damage. The enhancement effects of PC2 on chemosensitivity of cancer cells to paclitaxel encourage further validation of the clinical potential of this combination. PMID:27483224

  15. STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMISTRY, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING FOR ANTI-MITOTIC EFFICACY OF SALICORNIA BRACHIATA ROXB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Pavan Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicorniabrachiata is a euhalopytic plant belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae. The present study investigates the phytochemistry, characterization and antimitotic activity of ethanolic extract of S.brachiata.Plants popularly known as Sea asparagus are cooked and eaten or pickled. It is also a good fodder for cattle, sheep and goat. Plant material is also used as raw material in paper and board factories. Its seeds yield high quality edible oil which is highly polyunsaturated and similar to safflower oil in fatty acid.S.brachiata was collected from the back waters of Bapatla,Guntur district. The collected plant material was shade dried and pulverized. The plant material Was studied for phytochemistry,spectroscopic analysis i.e.,UV- Visible, FT-IR and anti mitotic activity.S. brachiata has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of intestinal ailments, nephropathy, and hepatitis in Oriental countries. In addition, S.brachiata has recently reported to be effective on the atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. A variety of pharmacological experiments have revealed that solvent-extracted fractions of S.brachiata exhibited anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities,supporting rationale behind its several traditional uses.The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of Tannins and Flavonoids in the plant. UV-Vis Spectrum, used for the quantitative analysis of the plant extract showed peaks at 280 and 290 nm. Identification of the functional groups was performed by FT-IR spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of phenolic, alcoholic and aromatic compounds.

  16. Leiodermatolide, a novel marine natural product, has potent cytotoxic and antimitotic activity against cancer cells, appears to affect microtubule dynamics, and exhibits antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Esther A; Xu, Qunli; Pitts, Tara P; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru Ogawa; Baker, Cheryl; Linley, Patricia A; Oestreicher, Judy; Tendyke, Karen; Winder, Priscilla L; Suh, Edward M; Wright, Amy E

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, has a negative prognosis because metastasis occurs before symptoms manifest. Leiodermatolide, a polyketide macrolide with antimitotic activity isolated from a deep water sponge of the genus Leiodermatium, exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity toward the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, PANC-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa-2, and potent cytotoxicity against skin, breast and colon cancer cell lines. Induction of apoptosis by leiodermatolide was confirmed in the AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 cells. Leiodermatolide induces cell cycle arrest but has no effects on in vitro polymerization or depolymerization of tubulin alone, while it enhances polymerization of tubulin containing microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). Observations through confocal microscopy show that leiodermatolide, at low concentrations, causes minimal effects on polymerization or depolymerization of the microtubule network in interphase cells, but disruption of spindle formation in mitotic cells. At higher concentrations, depolymerization of the microtubule network is observed. Visualization of the growing microtubule in HeLa cells expressing GFP-tagged plus end binding protein EB-1 showed that leiodermatolide stopped the polymerization of tubulin. These results suggest that leiodermatolide may affect tubulin dynamics without directly interacting with tubulin and hint at a unique mechanism of action. In a mouse model of metastatic pancreatic cancer, leiodermatolide exhibited significant tumor reduction when compared to gemcitabine and controls. The antitumor activities of leiodermatolide, as well as the proven utility of antimitotic compounds against cancer, make leiodermatolide an interesting compound with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research. PMID:27376928

  17. Navitoclax (ABT-263) accelerates apoptosis during drug-induced mitotic arrest by antagonizing Bcl-xL

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jue; Zhou, Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Chun; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Combining microtubule-targeting anti-mitotic drugs with targeted apoptosis potentiators is a promising new chemotherapeutic strategy to treat cancer. In this study we investigate the cellular mechanism by which Navitoclax (previously called ABT-263), a Bcl-2 family inhibitor, potentiates apoptosis triggered by paclitaxel and an inhibitor of Kinesin-5 (KSP), across a panel of epithelial cancer lines. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show that Navitoclax has little effect on cell death during in...

  18. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin embryos in extracts from the marine haptophycean Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot) Lagerheim collected along the coast of northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Espen; Eilertsen, Hans Chr; Ernstsen, Arild; Genevière, Anne-Marie

    2003-06-01

    The marine bloom-forming alga Phaeocystis pouchetii is suspected to produce some toxic compound responsible for reduced growth, fecundity and survival of other marine organisms. Sea urchin early development was used as a model to investigate the degree and nature of toxicity. Colonial cells of P. pouchetii were collected during its spring-bloom along the coast of northern Norway and maintained in culture for a short period of time in order to evaluate the concentration of toxic compounds present inside the cells or excreted to the surrounding seawater medium. Cells were harvested by filtration and toxins were extracted separately from the collected cells and the filtrate using organic solvents. We found that extracts from the filtered seawater at a concentration corresponding to 9.0 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) completely blocked cell divisions in embryos of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis, whereas extracts from intact algal cells were only mildly cytotoxic. When the extracts from seawater culture medium were purified by RP-HPLC, cytotoxic activity towards S. granularis embryos was recovered in three consecutive fractions. Moreover, unfertilised eggs incubated in the active HPLC fractions became unproductive, whereas incubation of sperm gave a reduced fertilisation rate. This anti-proliferative effect was further characterized by immunofluorescence staining of sea urchin embryos. DNA labelling revealed that incubating sea urchin embryos in the purified algal extracts inhibited both pronuclei migration and fusion. Incorporation and detection of the DNA-base analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine showed that DNA-replication was blocked. Furthermore, staining of alpha-tubulin subunits demonstrated that embryonic tubulin organisation was altered. We conclude that P. pouchetii produce some anti-mitotic compound, and that senescent colonial cells to a great extent excrete this compound to their surroundings. PMID:12782080

  19. [Drug-induced ventricular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchier, J P; Fauchier, L; Babuty, D; Breuillac, J C; Cosnay, P; Rouesnel, P

    1993-05-01

    Certain drugs can induce ventricular tachycardia (VT) by creating reentry, ventricular after potentials or exaggerating the slope of phase 4. These may or may not be symptomatic, sustained or non-sustained and have variable ECG appearances: monomorphic or polymorphic, bidirectional, torsades de pointes. They risk degenerating into ventricular flutter of fibrillation and have been held responsible for the increased mortality observed unexpectedly in some long-term treatments. The drugs responsible are mainly those used in cardiology, probably due to predisposing circumstances (cardiomegaly, cardiac failure, previous severe ventricular arrhythmias, therapeutic associations, metabolic abnormalities). These include primarily the antiarrhythmic drugs (IA, IC, sotalol and bepridil), digitalis, sympathomimetics and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. These complications may be toxic or idiosyncratic, in patients with or without cardiac disease, and may also occur with other drugs: vasodilators and anti-anginal drugs (lidoflazine, vincamine, fenoxedil), psychotropic agents (phenothiazine and imipramine), antimitotics, antimalarials (chloroquine) or antibiotics (erythromycin, pentamidine). The prognosis is severe and the treatment is often difficult which makes prevention, helped by repeated surface ECG (or Holter monitoring), very important with careful assessment of patients at risk. PMID:8267504

  20. Mixoploidia em híbridos de capim-elefante x milheto tratados com agentes antimitóticos Mixoploidy in napiergrass x pearl millet hybrids treated with antimitotic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juscélio Clemente de Abreu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar métodos de duplicação cromossômica, com uso de agentes antimitóticos e diversos materiais botânicos como explantes dos híbridos entre capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. e milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. Utilizaram-se soluções de colchicina a 50 mg L-1 e 100 mg L-1, e de ciclohexamida 25 mg L-1:8-hidroxiquinoleína 300 mg L-1 (1:1, aplicadas in vitro em segmentos nodais, e in vivo em plântulas e perfilhos, com diferentes períodos de exposição. O efeito dos antimitóticos foi avaliado por meio da taxa de sobrevivência, do número cromossômico e da presença de anomalias no ciclo celular, em meristemas de raízes das plantas sobreviventes. A colchicina apresentou melhor efeito sobre as plântulas, enquanto a ciclohexamida:8-hidroxiquinoleína (1:1 atuou melhor sobre os perfilhos. Observou-se ocorrência de mixoploidia em células que apresentaram de 14 até 42 cromossomos, o que indica que houve duplicação seguida de eliminação cromossômica, confirmada pelas aberrações cromossômicas. Das células analisadas 86,4%, em média, apresentaram número cromossômico diferente de 21.The objective of this work was to evaluate methods of chromosome duplication, using antimitotic agents and several botanical materials as explant hybrids between napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Shum. and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.. Colchicine (50 mg L-1 and 100 mg L-1 and cycloheximide:8-hydroxyquinoline (1:1 (25 mg L-1:300 mg L-1 solutions have been applied in vivo to shoots and in vitro to seedlings and tillers. The antimitotic effect has been evaluated through survival rate, chromosome number and presence of cell cycle anomalies at the root tips of surviving plants. The best results have been obtained when seedlings have been treated with colchicine and tillers with cycloheximide: 8-hydroxyquinoline. Mixoploidy has been observed in cells having 14 to 42 chromosomes, indicating

  1. Drug Facts

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  7. Drug allergies

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    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ... of the drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different ...

  9. Generic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name drug. A brand- name drug has a patent. When the patent runs out— usually after 10 to 14 years— ... if you do not have drug coverage. Condition Diabetes Heart failure High cholesterol Migraine Brand-name drug ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Abuse Hurts Other People Drug Abuse Hurts Families Drug Abuse Hurts Kids Drug Abuse Hurts Unborn Children ... a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free ...

  11. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Search Search close Teens Teachers Parents Drugs & Health Blog NDAFW Enter Search Term(s): Teens / Drug Facts / Prescription Drugs Prescription Drugs Print What Is Prescription Drug Abuse? Also known as: Opioids: Hillbilly heroin, oxy, OC, oxycotton, percs, happy pills, vikes Depressants: ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids About Drugs: What To Say if You Were Once Addicted Drug Abuse Prevention Phone ... English ...

  13. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can cause serious health problems and sometimes death. ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen ... of Health (NIH) , the principal biomedical and behavioral research agency of the United States Government. NIH is ...

  15. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Learn more Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  18. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as gingko and blood thinners ...

  19. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  20. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol ... of the drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different ...

  2. 抗癌药秋水仙碱及其类似物构效关系研究进展%RECENT PROGRESS IN STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP STUDIES ON THE ANTICANCER DRUG COLCHICINE AND ITS ANALOGUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘显道; 方唯硕

    2002-01-01

    @@ Colchicine (1) (Figure 1), the major alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale in 1820, is a potent drug that interferes with microtubules both in vitro and in vivo, thereby causing cells to accumulate in apparent mitotic arrest during the cell cycle. Colchicine has been used in the treatment of acute gout, familial Mediterranean fever, scleroderma, amyloidosis, Behcet's disease and liver disorder, particularly cirrhosis[1]. Although colchicine is a potent antimitotic agent, its medicinal uses are limited due to its high toxicity. Virtually all its therapeutic and toxic effects were believed to be the consequence of its interaction with tubulin. Hence, colchicine has become an attractive molecule that the medicinal chemists were in pursuit of. It is a less toxic and more selective analogue which bind to tubulin.

  3. Analgesic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Kerec Kos, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In the management of pain analgesic drugs are chosen regarding the intensity and type of pain. The selection of analgesic drug depends on pharmacokinetic properties of the drug and available pharmaceutical dosage forms. Beside non-opioid analgesics (non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, acetaminophen), opioid analgesic drugs have an important role in the treatment of pain. Pri zdravljenju bolečine izberemo analgetik glede na jakost in vrsto bolečine. Na izbiro ustreznega analgetika vplivaj...

  4. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) ... addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between ... This Website Tools and Resources | Contact Us | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy | FOIA (NIH) The National Institute on ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved ...

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth ( ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You ...

  12. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that ... about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain ...

  15. Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  16. Medicaid Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Poisal, John A.

    2004-01-01

    The following commentary unites a collection of articles primarily concerned with prescription drug issues in Medicaid. It also features highlights from a piece outlining Australia's pharmaceutical delivery system. Specifically, in this issue, you will find comprehensive analyses of drug expenditure trends, issues regarding access to pharmaceuticals in Medicaid, and an evaluation of ongoing generic drug cost-containment programs.

  17. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin ... HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. ... addiction. Counseling is very helpful to her. All I ...

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near ... different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. ...

  19. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  20. Aurora kinase inhibitors: a new class of drugs targeting the regulatory mitotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roda, Desamparados; Roselló, Susana; Rodríguez-Braun, Edith; Cervantes, Andrés

    2009-12-01

    The present review gives a perspective on the Aurora kinase family members, their function in normal cells, their role in cancer progression as well as their potential as target for anticancer treatment. Mitosis has been an important target for anticancer therapy development, leading to some specific drugs mainly addressing Tubulines, as a key structure of the mitotic spindle. Vinca alkaloids, taxanes or epotilones are good examples of conventionally developed antimitotic agents. However, novel classes of antineoplastic drugs are being studied, targeting the regulatory system that controls functional aspects of mitosis, such as Aurora or Polo-like kinases or Kinespondin inhibitors. The specific role of the different Aurora kinase proteins as regulator enzymes of the mitotic process in normal cells is discussed. Some of the mechanisms that link Aurora overexpression with cancer are also considered. Thereafter, the clinical and preclinical development of the different Aurora kinase inhibitors is presented. This is nowadays a very active area of therapeutic research and at least, sixteen new compounds are being studied as potential antineoplastic drugs. Most of them are in a very early phase of clinical development. However, we summarized the most recently published findings related with these drugs: main characteristics, way of administration, dose limiting toxicities and recommended doses for further studies. Another important aspect in Aurora kinase inhibition is the study and validation of potential biomarkers to optimize the clinical development. Several studies included pharmacodynamic assessments in normal blood cells, skin or/and tumor biopsies. Several proposals included a higher mitotic index, a decreased number of mitosis with bipolar spindles or normal alignment of chromosomes and inhibition of histone H3 phosphorylation. Future strategies and challenges for trials with Aurora kinase inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:20045785

  1. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - control drugs; ...

  2. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  3. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... messages back and forth by releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters. Prescription stimulants have chemical structures that are similar to some neurotransmitters. When someone takes them, the drugs boost the ...

  4. Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WITH HIV MEDICATIONS? Protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are processed by the liver and cause many ... taken with any protease inhibitor or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. You can also check for drug-drug and ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft ...

  6. DRUG METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Singla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The termmetabolism, derived from the Greek language, simply means change or transformation. It relates to various processes within the body that convert food and other substances into energy and other metabolic byproducts used by the body. Drug metabolism is the body’s way of transforming drugs, so they can be excreted from the body. Many drugs arenot active until they have been metabolized in the body by enzymes that transform them. Most drugs are lipophilic, meaning they pass through membranes to reach their target site. Most drugs are treated by the body like foreign substances, also known as xenobiotics. Humans have evolved a complex system for xenobiotic metabolism. 

  7. In vitro haematic proteins adsorption and cytocompatibility study on acrylic copolymer to realise coatings for drug-eluting stents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, a preliminary in vitro analysis of biocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers is reported. In particular, with the aim to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents, blood protein absorption and cytocompatibility were studied. For protein absorption tests, bovine serum albumin and bovine plasma fibrinogen were considered. Cytocompatibility was tested using C2C12 cell line as model, analysing the behaviour of polymeric matrices and of drug-eluting systems, obtained loading polymeric matrices with paclitaxel, an anti-mitotic drug, in order to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacological treatment locally administered from these materials. Results showed that the amount of albumin absorbed was greater than the amount of fibrinogen (comprised in the range of 70%–85% and 10%–22% respectively) and it is a good behaviour in terms of haemocompatibility. Cell culture tests showed good adhesion properties and a relative poor proliferation. In addition, a strong effect related to drug elution and a correlation with the macromolecular composition were detected. In this preliminary analysis, tested materials showed good characteristics and can be considered possible candidates to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents. Highlights: ► Preliminary evaluation of haemo- and cytocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers ► Materials adsorb higher amounts of albumin and with a faster rate than fibrinogen. ► Protein adsorption depended on the macromolecular composition and surface properties. ► Cell viability on pure samples and efficacy of paclitaxel release were verified in C2C12 cultures.

  8. In vitro haematic proteins adsorption and cytocompatibility study on acrylic copolymer to realise coatings for drug-eluting stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Mariacristina, E-mail: mariacristina.gagliardi@iit.it

    2012-12-01

    In the present paper, a preliminary in vitro analysis of biocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers is reported. In particular, with the aim to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents, blood protein absorption and cytocompatibility were studied. For protein absorption tests, bovine serum albumin and bovine plasma fibrinogen were considered. Cytocompatibility was tested using C2C12 cell line as model, analysing the behaviour of polymeric matrices and of drug-eluting systems, obtained loading polymeric matrices with paclitaxel, an anti-mitotic drug, in order to evaluate the efficacy of a pharmacological treatment locally administered from these materials. Results showed that the amount of albumin absorbed was greater than the amount of fibrinogen (comprised in the range of 70%-85% and 10%-22% respectively) and it is a good behaviour in terms of haemocompatibility. Cell culture tests showed good adhesion properties and a relative poor proliferation. In addition, a strong effect related to drug elution and a correlation with the macromolecular composition were detected. In this preliminary analysis, tested materials showed good characteristics and can be considered possible candidates to obtain coatings for drug-eluting stents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preliminary evaluation of haemo- and cytocompatibility of newly-synthesised acrylic copolymers Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Materials adsorb higher amounts of albumin and with a faster rate than fibrinogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein adsorption depended on the macromolecular composition and surface properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell viability on pure samples and efficacy of paclitaxel release were verified in C2C12 cultures.

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop ... marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from family and friends who ...

  10. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one. PMID:20471318

  11. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button that says "Listen" ... the computer will read the text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and ...

  12. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following information: Facts and Figures – Includes the latest information and statistics. Legislation – A sample of links to online Federal and ... recognized agencies and organizations that provide services or information. CLUB DRUGS Summary Facts & ... & Technical Assistance Grants & Funding Related ...

  13. Drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cocaine may need larger amounts of the drug to feel these effects. Regular users of cocaine may develop: Loss of interest in school, work, family, and friends Memory loss Mood swings Sleep problems ...

  14. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that says "Listen" on any page and the computer will read the text to you. This web ... The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , the ...

  15. Drug dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problem or risky use. The user loses any motivation; does not care about school and work; has ... withdrawal. Most employers offer referral services for their employees with substance use problems. Prevention Drug education programs ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer will read the text to you. This web site talks about drug abuse, addiction and treatment. ... of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft ...

  17. Drug allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington Richard; Silviu-Dan Fanny

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR) not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis a...

  18. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs include Amphetamines Anabolic steroids Club drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs There are different ...

  19. Drug misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, T

    1992-12-01

    1. Assessment by history and examination should include: a history of all drugs taken during each day for the previous 7 days (including alcohol), length of drug use and route (including the sharing of needles or syringes), the possibility of pregnancy if female, previous psychiatric history and treatment of drug misuse, social factors (including employment, family, friends, involvement in prostitution, legal problems), medical problems, including evidence of hepatitis, injection abscesses and other infections, suicide attempts, and weight loss. 2. Notification to the Chief Medical Officer of the Drug Branch of the Home Office is a legal obligation. 3. Investigations include: liver function tests (LFTs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), hepatitis C antibody, full blood count (FBC), and urine for drug screening. Consider HIV testing if at risk but it is usually better arranged at a later stage. 4. Prescribing may be considered for a variety of drugs but objectives will differ according to drug type and individual. 5. In the case of opioid users, prescribing may be useful to stabilize their lives and to promote attendance for professional help. It may reduce high risk behaviour for contracting and spreading HIV. 6. If medication is given to opioid users, methadone mixture 1 mg/ml given once a day is the prescription of choice. Dispensing should be on a daily basis and the blue prescription form FP10 (MDA) allows the chemist to dispense daily for up to 14 days. A maximum ceiling of 100 mg methadone/day should not be exceeded. The initial dose will depend on the amount of opioid consumed in the previous week.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1345155

  20. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  1. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Indrati; Herry Prasetyo

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  2. Drug Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  3. Effects of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  4. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  7. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  8. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home Site Map FAQs Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA Contact Subscribe Archives PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word documents require the free Microsoft Word ...

  9. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is a Relapse? Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Friends and Family Can Help Prevent Drug Abuse Help ... her life. She finds support from family and friends who don't use marijuana. Haga clic aquí ...

  10. Drug Rash (Unclassified Drug Eruption) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Drug Eruption, Unclassified (Pediatric) A parent's guide to condition ... lesions coming together into larger lesions typical of drug rashes (eruptions). Overview A drug eruption, also known ...

  11. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects. PMID:21904408

  12. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Prakash; Baltazar Zuniga; Chung Seog Song; Shoulei Jiang; Jodie Cropper; Sulgi Park; Bandana Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0) and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III). Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs), i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor) and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor), and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D recep...

  13. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other over-the-counter medications. Many drugs are addictive. Sometimes the addiction is gradual. However, some drugs ( ... Using such drugs may cause paranoia , hallucinations, aggressive behavior, or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis-containing drugs such ...

  14. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  15. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  18. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav AIDS info Drug Database Home > Drugs Español small medium large Text Size ... health care providers and patients. Search the Drug Database Help × Search by drug name Performs a search ...

  19. Metformin use and gynecological cancers: A novel treatment option emerging from drug repositioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Angiolo; Biglia, Nicoletta; Tana, Roberta; Cosio, Stefania; Gallo, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Metformin exerts antitumor effects mainly through AMP-activated protein kinase [AMPK] activation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibition. This drug leads to activation of the cellular energy-sensing liver kinase B1 [LKB1]/AMPK pathway. LKB1 is implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in molecular pathogenesis of different malignancies. AMPK is a serine/threonine protein kinase that acts as an ultra-sensitive cellular energy sensor maintaining the energy balance within the cell. AMPK activation inhibits mRNA translation and proliferation in cancer cells via down-regulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Moreover, metformin decreases the production of insulin, insulin-like growth factor, inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial growth factor, and therefore it exerts anti-mitotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenetic effects. Recent in vitro and experimental data suggest that metformin electively targets cancer stem cells, and acts together with chemotherapy to block tumor growth in different cancers. Several epidemiological studies and meta-analysis have shown that metformin use is associated with decreased cancer risk and/or reduced cancer mortality for different malignancies. The present review analyzes the recent biological and clinical data suggesting a possible growth-static effect of metformin also in gynecological cancers. The large majority of available clinical data on the anti-cancer potential of metformin are based on observational studies. Therefore long-term phase II-III clinical trials are strongly warranted to further investigate metformin activity in gynecological cancers. PMID:27378194

  20. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR), and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object) by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug). Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin) are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or act...

  1. Prevention of trauma-induced cochlear fibrosis using intracochlear application of anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H; François, F; Bourien, J; Eybalin, M; Lloyd, R V; Van De Water, T R; Puel, J-L; Venail, F

    2016-03-01

    Cochlear fibrosis is a common finding following cochlear implantation. Evidence suggests that cochlear fibrosis could be triggered by inflammation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT). In this study, we investigate the mechanisms of cochlear fibrosis and the risk/benefit ratio of local administration of the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DEX) and antimitotic drug aracytine (Ara-C). Cochlear fibrosis was evaluated in cochlear fibrosis models of rat cochlear slices in vitro and in KLH-induced immune labyrinthitis and platinum wire cochlear implantation-induced fibrosis in vivo. Cochleae were invaded with tissue containing fibroblastic cells expressing α-SMA (alpha smooth muscle actin), which along with collagen I, fibronectin, and laminin in the extracellular matrix, suggests the involvement of a fibrotic process triggered by EMT in vitro and in vivo. After perilymphatic injection of an adenoviral vector expressing GFP in vivo, we demonstrated that the fibroblastic cells derived from the mesothelial cells of the scalae tympani and vestibuli. Activation of inflammatory and EMT pathways was further assessed by ELISA analysis of the expression of IL-1β and TGF-β1. Both markers were elevated in vitro and in vivo, and DEX and Ara-C were able to reduce IL-1β and TGF-β1 production. After 5days of culture in vitro, quantification of calcein-positive cells revealed that Ara-C was 30-fold more efficient in preventing fibrosis, and provoked less sensory hair cell loss, than DEX. In KLH-induced immune labyrinthitis and platinum wire-implanted models, Ara-C was more efficient in preventing proliferation of fibrosis with less side effects on hair cells and neurons than DEX. In conclusion, DEX and Ara-C both prevent fibrosis in the cochlea. Analysis of the risk/benefit ratio favors the use of Ara-C for preventing cochlear fibrosis. PMID:26718602

  2. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  3. Drug-drug interactions in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Vonbach, Priska

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Drug interaction screening programs are an important tool to check prescriptions of multiple drugs for potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs). Several programs are available on the market. They differ in layout, update frequency, search functions, content and price. The aim of the current study was to critically appraise several interaction screening programs in the Department of Medicine of a Swiss public teaching hospital. Methods A drug interaction screening program had to f...

  4. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  5. Food-Drug Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Yar Khan; Nousheen Aslam; Rabia Bushra

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on i...

  6. Drugs and lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinds of drugs who can be transferred through the mother's milk to the lactant and its effects are showed in this work. A list of them as below: cardiotonics, diuretics, anti-hypertensives, beta-blockings, anti-arrythmics, drugs with gastrintestinal tract action, hormones, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, citostatic drugs, central nervous system action drugs and anticoagulants drugs. (L.M.J.)

  7. [Drug-drug interactions in antirheumatic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, K

    2012-04-01

    Clinically relevant drug-drug interactions contribute considerably to potentially dangerous drug side-effects and are frequently the reason for hospitalization. Nevertheless they are often overlooked in daily practice. For most antirheumatic drugs a vast number of interactions have been described but only a minority with clinical relevance. Several potentially important drug interactions exist for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate-mofetil and especially for cyclosporin A. Most importantly co-medication with methotrexate and sulfmethoxazole trimethoprim as well as azathioprine and allopurinol carries the risk of severe, sometimes life-threatening consequences. Nevertheless, besides these well-known high-risk combinations in each case of polypharmacy with antirheumatic drugs it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of drug interactions. As polypharmacy is a common therapeutic practice in older patients with rheumatic diseases, they are at special risk. PMID:22527215

  8. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illegal trafficking in hard drugs. This multifaceted approach established the basic principles and operating practices of contemporary social and criminal drug policy in the Netherlands.

  9. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  10. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  11. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Allergy: Allergens > Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Allergies to medications/drugs are complicated because they ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Allergy Treatment Programs, Adult At National Jewish Health, some ...

  12. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  13. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  14. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Leukemia This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... not listed here. Drugs Approved for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Arranon (Nelarabine) Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi ...

  15. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge Get Started! Correct/Total Questions: Score: Other ... accessible version of the 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge , [PDF, 637KB]. Download an accessible version of ...

  16. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  17. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not lead to physical dependence and withdrawal, the feelings these drugs give people can cause them to use the drugs more and more ...

  19. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  20. Drug: D06722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ranthes bidentata root Major component: Ecdysterone [CPD:C02633] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06...ude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06722 Achyranthes root; Achyranthese root Crude drugs

  1. A new assay for measuring chromosome instability (CIN) and identification of drugs that elevate CIN in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells that is often accompanied by an elevated rate of chromosome mis-segregation termed chromosome instability (CIN). While CIN can act as a driver of cancer genome evolution and tumor progression, recent findings point to the existence of a threshold level beyond which CIN becomes a barrier to tumor growth and therefore can be exploited therapeutically. Drugs known to increase CIN beyond the therapeutic threshold are currently few in number, and the clinical promise of targeting the CIN phenotype warrants new screening efforts. However, none of the existing methods, including the in vitro micronuclei (MNi) assay, developed to quantify CIN, is entirely satisfactory. We have developed a new assay for measuring CIN. This quantitative assay for chromosome mis-segregation is based on the use of a non-essential human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a constitutively expressed EGFP transgene. Thus, cells that inherit the HAC display green fluorescence, while cells lacking the HAC do not. This allows the measurement of HAC loss rate by routine flow cytometry. Using the HAC-based chromosome loss assay, we have analyzed several well-known anti-mitotic, spindle-targeting compounds, all of which have been reported to induce micronuclei formation and chromosome loss. For each drug, the rate of HAC loss was accurately measured by flow cytometry as a proportion of non-fluorescent cells in the cell population which was verified by FISH analysis. Based on our estimates, despite their similar cytotoxicity, the analyzed drugs affect the rates of HAC mis-segregation during mitotic divisions differently. The highest rate of HAC mis-segregation was observed for the microtubule-stabilizing drugs, taxol and peloruside A. Thus, this new and simple assay allows for a quick and efficient screen of hundreds of drugs to identify those affecting chromosome mis-segregation. It also allows ranking of compounds with the same or similar mechanism of

  2. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts. PMID:4075000

  3. CONCEPT OF DRUG INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nidhi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug interaction is an increasingly important cause of adverse reactions (ADR, and is the modification of the effect of one drug (object by the prior or concomitant administration of another drug (precipitant drug. Drug interaction may either enhance or diminish the intended effect of one or both drugs. For example severe haemorrhage may occur if warfarin and salicylates (asprin are combined. Precipitant drugs modify the object drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion or actual clinical effect. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics and, in particular, rifampin are common precipitant drugs prescribed in primary care practice. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range or low therapeutic index are more likely to be the objects for serious drug interactions. Object drugs in common use include warfarin, fluoroquinolones, antiepileptic drugs, oral contraceptives, cisapride and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Many other drugs, act as precipitants or objects, and a number of drugs act as both. The aim of present review is to throw light on the concept of drug interaction.

  4. Drug: D06758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available component: Zizyphus saponin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese m...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06758 Jujub...e (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs St...omachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06758 *Jujube; Jujube Crude drugs

  5. Drug: D07154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aki mature fruit calyx; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drug...s and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...4] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D07154 Kaki calyx Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Ebenaceae (ebony family) D07154 Kaki calyx PubChem: 51091493 ...

  6. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Kumari; Dependra K Timshina; Devinder Mohan Thappa

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalit...

  7. Club Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Club Drug Use Overview What are "club drugs"? Club drugs are popular in nightclubs, at parties and at raves (all- ... MDMA are stimulants that can increase your heart rate and blood pressure. ... if they use GHB, ketamine and flunitrazepam repeatedly. These drugs can ...

  8. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  9. Food and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of drugs, the interval between a meal and drug intake and food composition. Food consistency is of lesser influence on drug bioavailability than food composition (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, cereals. Important interactions can occur during application of drugs with low therapeutic index, whereby the plasma level significantly varies due to changes in resorption or metabolism (e.g. digoxin, theophyllin, cyclosporin and drugs such as antibiotics, whose proper therapeutic effect requires precise plasma concentrations.

  10. Practice Gaps: Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Stephen E

    2016-07-01

    The term "drug reactions" is relevant to dermatology in three categories of reactions: cutaneous drug reactions without systemic features, cutaneous drug reactions with systemic features, and systemic drugs prescribed by the dermatologist with systematic adverse effects. This article uses examples from each of these categories to illustrate several important principles central to drug reaction diagnosis and management. The information presented will help clinicians attain the highest possible level of certainty before making clinical decisions. PMID:27363888

  11. Food and drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Đaković-Švajcer Kornelija

    2002-01-01

    Food can exert a significant influence on the effects of certain drugs. The interactions between food and drugs can be pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic. Pharmacokinetic interactions most often take place on absorption and drug metabolism levels. Absorption can be either accelerated or delayed, increased or decreased, while drug metabolism can be either stimulated or inhibited. The factors which influence food-drug interactions are as follows: composition and physic-chemical properties of d...

  12. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Vihang S. Chawan; Abhishek M. Phatak; Kalpesh V. Gawand; Sagar V. Badwane; Sagar S. Panchal

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and...

  13. Drug: D06742 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Crude drugs D06742 Houttuynia herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drug...s for clearing heat D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Drugs... for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06742 *Houttuynia herb; Houttuynia harb Crude drugs [B

  14. Monitoring of drug-drug and drug-food interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian-Ruffalo, S M; Syrja-Farber, M; Lanius, P M; Plucinski, A

    1988-07-01

    A program for detecting and preventing potentially serious drug-drug and drug-food interactions is described. Two clinical pharmacists developed drug interaction alert (DIA) cards for each potential interaction to be monitored. The cards contain information about the proposed mechanism and potential result of the interaction, as well as information about how to monitor or circumvent the interaction. Staff pharmacists check for the occurrence of potential interactions daily as they verify the filling of the patient-medication cassettes; a poster of all the interactions that are included in the program is posted in each satellite pharmacy to serve as a quick reference for the pharmacists. When a pharmacist detects a potential interaction, he or she completes a DIA card and places it in the medication cassette drawer (if the notice is directed to the nurse) or on the front of the patient's chart (if the notice is directed to the physician). The program was introduced to hospital personnel through inservice education programs and departmental newsletters. The results of a quality assurance review indicated that 95 of 279 (34%) cards dispensed to nurses and 40 of 49 (82%) cards dispensed to physicians resulted in some form of action. The program to detect and prevent potentially serious drug-drug and drug-food interactions has been successful. PMID:3414718

  15. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  16. Drug: D01033 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01033 Crude, Drug Tragacanth (JP16/NF); Powdered tragacanth (JP16); Tragacanth (TN...rude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01033 Tragacanth (JP16/NF); Powdered

  17. Drug: D06813 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nent: Scopoletin [CPD:C01752] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and a...ntidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06813 *Dolichos seed Drugs for dampness Drugs

  18. Drug: D09185 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic ...and antidiarrheal drugs D09185 *Myrica Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D09185 *Myrica Crude dr

  19. Drug: D06894 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available daisy family) Artemisia leaf (dried) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs... for replenishing blood D06894 *Artemisiae folium; Gaiyo Drugs for external use Drugs

  20. Drug: D03404 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drugs D03404 Cardamon (JP16); Cardamom seed (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for dampness Drugs for resolving dampness D03404 Cardamon; Cardamom seed; Cardamon Crude drugs [B

  1. Drug: D09151 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available raditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D09151 Sw...eetflag rhizome Other drugs Drugs for resuscitation D09151 Acorus gramineus rhizo

  2. Drugs and drug policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuw, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The Dutch parliament enacted the revised Opium Act in 1976. This penal law is part of the Dutch drug policy framework that includes tolerance for nonconforming lifestyles, risk reduction in regard to the harmful health and social consequences of drug taking, and penal measures directed against illeg

  3. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Biresh K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecules, liposome, taste-masking, oral fast- dispersing dosage forms, technology for in- soluble drugs, and delivery of drugs through intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, vaginal, colon, and transmucosal routes.

  4. Antiepileptic drugs: newer targets and new drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vihang S. Chawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting 0.5-1% of the population in India. Majority of patients respond to currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, but a small percentage of patients have shown poor and inadequate response to AEDs in addition to various side effects and drug interactions while on therapy. Thus there is a need to develop more effective AEDs in drug resistant epilepsy which have a better safety profile with minimal adverse effects. The United States food and drug administration (USFDA has approved eslicarbazepine acetate, ezogabine, perampanel and brivaracetam which have shown a promising future as better AEDs and drugs like ganaxolone, intranasal diazepam, ICA- 105665, valnoctamide, VX-765, naluzotan are in the pipeline. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 587-592

  5. Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD; Tatiana F. Odegova, PhD, ScD

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary) for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generi...

  6. Drugs to be Discontinued

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Companies are required under Section 506C of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (as amended by the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

  7. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  8. Street Drugs and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... Is it safe? > Street drugs and pregnancy Street drugs and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ...

  9. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  10. Life after Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDONGPING

    2004-01-01

    THE famous Kunming Drug Rehabilitation Center, founded in 1989, is located in the suburbs of Kunming City. Yunnan Province. It is the first drug rehabilitation center in China and the biggest in Asia.Covering 200 hectares, the center is

  11. Drugs@FDA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information about FDA-approved brand name and generic prescription and over-the-counter human drugs and biological therapeutic products. Drugs@FDA includes most of...

  12. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  13. Drug: D06712 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06712 Crude, Drug Cinnamon bark (JP16); Powdered cinnamon bark (JP16); Cinnamon ba...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06712 Cinnamon bark (JP16); Powdered... Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06712 Cinnamon bark; Powdered

  14. Drug: D06780 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06780 Crude, Drug Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes rhizome (JP16... drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06780 Atractylodes rhizome (JP16); Powdered...pness Diuretic drugs D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma Drug...s for resolving dampness D06780 *Atractylodes rhizome; Powdered atractylodes rhizome; Atractyloides rhizoma

  15. Drug: D04705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D:C17412] Boraginaceae (borage family) Macrotomia euchroma root Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D047... for external use Drugs for external use D04705 *Lithospermum root; Lithospermum root Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  16. Drug: D06907 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s family) Bambusa tuldoides, Phyllostachys nigra, Phyllostachys bambusoides culm; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06907 Bamboo culm (no...nd expectorants D06907 Bambusae caulis; Phyllostachysis caulis; Tikujyo Crude drugs

  17. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2012-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  18. Drug discovery in jeopardy

    OpenAIRE

    Cuatrecasas, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Despite striking advances in the biomedical sciences, the flow of new drugs has slowed to a trickle, impairing therapeutic advances as well as the commercial success of drug companies. Reduced productivity in the drug industry is caused mainly by corporate policies that discourage innovation. This is compounded by various consequences of mega-mergers, the obsession for blockbuster drugs, the shift of control of research from scientists to marketers, the need for fast sales growth, and the dis...

  19. IMPROVING ACCESS TO DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Max Joseph Herman

    2012-01-01

    Although essentially not all therapies need drug intervention, drugs is still an important components in health sector, either in preventive, curative, rehabilitative or promotion efforts. Hence the access to drugs is a main problem, either in international or national scale even to the smallest unit. The problem on access to drugs is very complicated and cannot be separated especially from pharmacy management problems; moreover in general from the overall lack of policy development and effec...

  20. Medicinsk forbedring: study drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Holm Sørensen, Camilla; Juul Asmussen, Melanie; Constantin, Liv; Haugtved, Claire Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates medical optimization regarding cognitive enhancement. Study drugs are performance-enhancing drugs that people use in terms of optimizing cognitive skills. The use of study drugs has turned out to have a beneficial effect when it comes to perform in stressful situations for example an examination. The purpose of our project is to analyze central arguments for and against the use of study drugs. We analyze two arguments for and three arguments that express a statem...

  1. NEW DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar Biresh K; Jain Devananda; Banerjee Angshu

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating an existing medicine into a new drug delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of efficacy, safety, and improved patient compliance. The need for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery systems. Today, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of multiple platform technologies for controlled release, delivery of large molecule...

  2. Drug: D06772 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06772 Crude, Drug Ginseng (JP16); Powdered ginseng (JP16); Ginseng (TN) Ginsenosid...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06772 Ginseng (JP16); Powdered ginseng (...d antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06772 *Ginseng; Powdered ginseng; Ginseng Drugs for... Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06772 *Ginseng; Powdered ginseng; Ginseng Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06772 Ginseng PubChem: 47208423 ...

  3. Drug: D06762 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry: 5100 Rubiaceae (madder family) Uncaria hook Major component: Rhyncophylline [CPD:C09236] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06762 Uncaria hook (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine ...in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06762 Uncaria hook Crude drugs [BR:br08305] D

  4. Drug: D06734 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available buckthorn family) Jujube seed Major component: Zizybeoside [CPD:C17564 C17565] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06734 Jujube seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) D06734 Jujube seed PubChem: 47208385 ...

  5. Drug: D06803 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotusine [CPD:C17567] Nelumbonaceae (lotus family) Nelumbo mature fruit Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06803 Nelumbo seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304...] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06803 Nelumbo seed Crude drugs

  6. Drug: D06715 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory family) Pharbitis seed Major component: Pharbitin Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06715 Pharbitis seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs... Purgative drugs D06715 Pharbitis seed; Pharbitis seed Crude drugs [B

  7. Drug: D06799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ajor component: Calcium carbonate [CPD:C08129], Calcium biphosphate [CPD:C13556] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06799 Longgu; Fossilized mammal bones Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mammals D06799 Longgu PubChem: 47208450 ...

  8. Drug: D06723 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chi...nese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06723... Burdock fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs... pungent in flavor and cool in property D06723 Burdock fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plan

  9. Drug: D06782 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Therapeutic category: 5100 Arecaceae (palm family) Areca seed Major component: Arecoline [CPD:C10129] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06782 Areca (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medici...ne in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for expelling parasites Anthelmintic drugs D06782 Areca; Areca Crude drugs

  10. Drug: D06765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ponent: Vanillyl alcohol [CPD:C06317] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and ...Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06765 Gastrodia tuber (JP16) ...Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06765 Gastrodia tuber; Tianma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Orchidaceae (orchid family) D06765 Gastrodia tuber PubChem: 47208416 ...

  11. Drug: D06741 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available :C17056] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06741 Plantago herb (JP16) Trad...itional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06741 Plantago... herb; Plantago herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D06741 Plantago herb PubChem: 47208392 ...

  12. Drug: D06794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (lardizabala family) Akebia stem Major component: Akeboside [CPD:C17546 C17547 C17548] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...an [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06794 Akebia stem; Akebiae caulis Crude drugs

  13. Viewdata drug information service

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Hospital drug information pharmacists have set up a viewdata drug information service (VADIS) which can be accessed through the telephone system. It may not be an essential service for all doctors yet, but it is a new way of receiving drug information together with unbiased therapeutic comments based on available research data.

  14. Writing Drug Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    The paper juxtaposes the cultural mediation of experience through drugs with that performed with text. As a sample of the currently radically changing relations between professional and lay knowledge in the field of drug interventions, the website of a Copenhagen institution for young drug users...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ...

  17. Introduction to concept of personal drugs, essential drug list and awareness of cost of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Indla; Thangam Chinnathambi; Regina Roy; Alice Kuruvilla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate medical students acquire knowledge about use of drugs during teaching sessions related to prescription of drugs. Appropriate selection of drugs from the available list of numerous formulations requires skill. This can be imparted using the concept of personal drugs (P-drugs). Knowledge of the price of drugs is important consideration in selection of drug. This paper describes method of introducing medical student to the concept of P-drugs, essential drug list (ED lis...

  18. Detect adverse drug reactions for drug Pioglitazone

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yihui; Aickelin, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose a novel method to successfully detect the ADRs using feature matrix and feature selection. A feature matrix, which characterizes the medical events before patients take drugs or after patients take drugs, is created from THIN database. The feature selection method of Student's t-test is used to detect the significant features from thousands of medical events. The significant ADRs, which are corresponding to significant features, are detected. Experiments are performed...

  19. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bone cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Medicaid Drug Rebate Program Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Product Data for Drugs in the Medicaid Drug Rebate Program. The rebate drug product data file contains the active drugs that have been reported by participating...

  3. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Related Topics » Medical Consequences Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Drug addiction is a brain ... and lung disease can all be affected by drug abuse. Some of these effects occur when drugs are ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and ... Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use ...

  5. Drug: D06751 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06751 Crude, Drug Senna leaf (JP16); Powdered senna leaf (JP16); Senna (TN) Kaempf... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06751 Senna leaf (JP16); Powdered

  6. Drug: D06686 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06686 Crude, Drug Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16); Corydal...ude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06686 Corydalis tuber (JP16); Powdered corydalis tuber (JP16) Tr

  7. Drug: D04360 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04360 Crude, Drug Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium herb (JP16); Geranium (T...mulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04360 Geranium herb (JP16); Powdered geranium her

  8. Drug: D06716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06716 Crude, Drug Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16); Gentian (TN) Gentiopicr...tions 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06716 Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16) Crude d

  9. Drug: D06680 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06680 Crude, Drug Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16); Powdered sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16...rude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06680 Sweet hydrangea leaf (JP16); Powdered sweet hydrangea lea

  10. Drug: D08765 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 4300 ATC code: V09BA03 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  11. Drug: D08766 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08766 Sodium phytate hydrate - technetium (99mTc)

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug abuse ...

  14. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer, including drugs for basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical ... the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Drugs Approved for Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for penile cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drugs Approved for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Kaposi sarcoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Drug: D09127 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D09127 Scrophularia root; Ningpo figwort root Crude dr

  1. Drugs Approved for Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for vulvar cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Drug: D06709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Lycium mature fruit Major component: Betaine [CPD:C00719] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D06709 Lycium fruit Crude drugs

  4. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drug: D09520 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nensis carapace; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs... for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Ying D09520 A

  6. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction have been linked with ... treatment stop or reduce their drug use and related risk behaviors, including drug injection and unsafe sexual ...

  9. Serious drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J

    1993-10-01

    Of the many varieties of drug interactions, which occur when the disposition or actions of one drug are changed by another, only a few are serious or potentially fatal. A representative outline of some of these illustrates the problem. Precipitant drugs are those which produce the interaction, and object drugs are those whose effects are changed. The interactions which are usually significant are those which alter the metabolism, involve renal excretion, or change the effects of the object drug, especially when the object drug has a low therapeutic index (cardiovascular drugs, anticoagulants, drugs acting on the brain, hypoglycemic drugs, hormones, and cytotoxic drugs). Warfarin toxicity, for example, is produced by aspirin, phenylbutazone, and azapropazone. The dosage requirements of warfarin are reduced by chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, erythromycin and some of the other macrolides, metronidazole and other imidazoles, tetracyclines, amiodarone, cimetidine (but not ranitidine), and fibrates. Potassium-depleting drugs can potentiate the action of digoxin, and the elimination of digoxin can be reduced by amiodarone, propafenone, quinidine, and verapamil. Combined oral contraceptives can lose effectiveness through the interaction of carbamazepine, griseofulvin, phenytoin, or rifampicin, which increase estrogen metabolism. In addition, broad-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin or tetracyclines also reduce contraceptive effectiveness by altering gut absorption. Even a single drink of an alcoholic beverage may be dangerous to people taking antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, or lithium. Antihistamines suffer inhibited metabolism in the liver if taken in conjunction with the antifungal imidazoles and some of the macrolide antibiotics. Cardiotoxicity of antihistamines is also enhanced by drugs with similar cardiotoxic effects. Lithium potentiation is enhanced by the new serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and lithium

  10. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  11. Drug: D06739 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06739 Crude, Drug Peony root (JP16); Powdered peony root (JP16); Peony root (TN) P...10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06739 Peony root (JP16); Powdered peony root (JP...ood D06739 *Peony root; Powdered peony root; Peony root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06739 *Peony root; Powdered...16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for replenishing bl

  12. Drug: D06744 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06744 Crude, Drug Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16); Ginger (TN) Zingiberene [...de drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06744 Ginger (JP16); Powdered ginger (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...property D06744 *Ginger; Powdered ginger; Ginger Stomachic and antidiarrheal drug...s Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06744 *Ginger; Powdered ginger; Ginger Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Zingiberaceae (ginger family) D06744 Ginger PubChem: 47208395 ...

  13. Drug: D06759 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06759 Crude, Drug Alisma rhizome (JP16); Powdered alisma rhizome (JP16); Alisma rh...ine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06759 Alisma rhizome (JP16); Powdered alis... drugs D06759 Alisma rhizome; Powdered alisma rhizome; Alisma rhizome Crude drugs

  14. Drug: D06788 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06788 Crude, Drug Moutan bark (JP16); Powdered moutan bark (JP16); Mudanpi (TN) Pa...ormulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06788 Moutan bark (JP16); Powdered...lood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06788 Moutan bark; Powdered moutan bark; Mudanpi Crude drugs [BR:br083

  15. Drug: D06679 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06679 Crude, Drug Gambir (JP16); Powdered gambir (JP16); Gamibir (TN) (+)-Catechin...edicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06679 Gambir (JP16); Powdered gambir (...nd expectorants D06679 Gambir; Powdered gambir; Gamibir Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06679 *Gambir; Powdered

  16. Drug: D06760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Chikusetsusaponin [CPD:C17539 C17540 C17543 C17544 C17545] Therapeutic category of drugs i...n Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06760 Panax rhizome (JP16); Powdered panax rhizome (JP16) Crude drugs [

  17. Drug: D06725 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e [CPD:C05315] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06725 Calumba (JP16); Pow...dered calumba (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Menispermaceae (moonseed family) D06725 Calumba PubChem: 47208376 ...

  18. Drug: D06777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent: Imperatorin [CPD:C09269] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06777 Glehnia root (JP16) Crude dru...gs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06777 Glehnia root PubChem: 47208428 ...

  19. Drug: D06691 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available or component: Prunellin Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06691 Prunella s... clearing heat D06691 Prunella spike; Prunella spike Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dic

  20. Drug: D04388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available monene [CPD:C06078] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04388 Bitter orange peel (JP16) Crude drugs

  1. Drug: D06773 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onicerin [CPD:C17557] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06773 Lonicera lea...gs for clearing heat D06773 Lonicera leaf and stem Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot

  2. GWAS and drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  3. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingole Rajesh.Kundlikrao

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha) is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These ...

  4. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira; Melinda Carmen Godinho Pereira; Diogo Telles-Correia

    2014-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as ...

  5. Radiopharmaceutical drug review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure proper radioactive drug use (such as quality, diagnostic improvement, and minimal radioactive exposure), the Food and Drug Administration evaluates new drugs with respect to safety, effectiveness, and accuracy and adequacy of the labeling. The IND or NDA process is used for this purpose. A brief description of the process, including the Chemical Classification System and the therapeutic potential classification, is presented as it applies to radiopharmaceuticals. Also, the status of the IND or NDA review of radiopharmaceuticals is given

  6. Drug-induced panniculitides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, G; Torti, S; D'Ospina, R M; Pezzini, C

    2014-04-01

    A substantial number of all panniculitides fails to recognize a specific etiology, and that is true also for a relatively frequent type of panniculitis, such as erythema nodosum (EN). Between the recognized causative factors of panniculitides, infectious, physical agents, autoimmune mechanisms and neoplastic disorders are well known. On the contrary, the role of drugs as inducers of panniculitides is marginally considered, and their report limited to anecdotal observations, often without due histopathological support. Since the clinical and histopathological features of drug-induced panniculitides are indistinguishable from those caused by other agents, the causative relationship may be demonstrated by the history of previous drug intake and by clinical improvement after drug discontinuation. We reviewed the currently reported descriptions of drug-induced panniculitis, including a few exemplificative original observations. EN results as the most frequently reported drug-induced panniculitis. Among the causative drugs of EN a variety of medications, with disparate, or even opposite, mechanisms of action are reported, thus limiting the understanding of the pathogenesis. Common causative drugs include oral contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiobiotics and leukotriene-modifying agents. Unfortunately, in several cases, the diagnosis of drug-induced EN is done on clinical findings alone. In those cases, the lack of histopathological support does not allow to define a precise clinicopathological correlation on etiologic grounds. Drug-induced lobular and mixed panniculitides, including eosinophilic panniculitis, are even more rarely described. Reported causative agents are glatiramer acetate, interferon beta and heparin (at sites of injections), and systemic steroids, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and BRAF with subcutaneous fat involvement at distance. In view of the recent introduction of new classes of drugs, attention should be paid to disclose their

  7. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  8. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  9. How to Misuse Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Edwards

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of us, during our training, are taught about the actions of drugs and their side-effects, but very few of us are taught how to misuse drugs. However, this is an art that seems to be acquired through practice in handling drugs, by various members of the medical and nursing professions, as well as by the general population. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a few of the ways in which drugs can be, and are, misused.

  10. Microwave Assisted Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microwave radiation is adopted for remote activation of pharmaceutical drug capsules inside the human body in order to release drugs at a pre-determined time and location. An array of controllable transmitting sources is used to produce a constructive interference at a certain...... focus point inside the body, where the drugs are then released from the specially designed capsules. An experimental setup for microwave activation has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. A design of sensitive receiving structures for integration with a drug...

  11. Metallomics in drug development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi Nhu Tam; Ostergaard, Jesper; Stürup, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for separation of free cisplatin from liposome-encapsulated cisplatin and protein-bound cisplatin was developed. A liposomal formulation of cisplatin based on PEGylated liposomes was used as model drug formulation...... to plasma constituents in plasma samples. It was demonstrated that this approach is suitable for studies of the stability of liposome formulations as leakage of active drug from the liposomes and subsequent binding to biomolecules in plasma can be monitored. This methodology has not been reported before...... and will improve characterization of liposomal drugs during drug development and in studies on kinetics....

  12. Drug-drug co-crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation and drug development.

  13. Drug: D06688 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06688 Crude, Drug Scutellaria root (JP16); Powdered scutellaria root (JP16); Scute...ude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06688 Scutellaria root (JP16); Powdered scutellaria root (JP16) Traditional Chin...ese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered...eal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; Scutellaria... root Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06688 *Scutellaria root; Powdered scutellaria root; S

  14. Drug: D06743 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06743 Crude, Drug Amomum seed (JP16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16); Amomum seed (TN...rneol [CPD:C01411] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06743 Amomum seed (JP...16); Powdered amomum seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Dr...ugs for resolving dampness D06743 Amomum seed; Powdered amomum seed; Amomum seed Crude drugs [BR:br

  15. Drug: D06909 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Antirheumatic drugs D0690...D06909 Crude, Drug Aralia rhizome (JP16); Dokkatsu Essential oil, Triterpenoid [CPD...data rhizome Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs an...d Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06909 Aralia rhizome (JP16)...9 Araliae cardatae rhizoma; Dokkatsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Araliaceae (ginseng family) D06909 Aralia rhizome PubChem: 51091251 ...

  16. Drug: D01728 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01728 Crude, Drug Gypsum (JP16); Gypsum fibrosum (TN) Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201],...ponent: Calcium sulfate [DR:D09201] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0172...8 Gypsum (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs... for clearing heat D01728 Gypsum; Calcium sulfate; Gypsum fibrosum Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D01728 Gypsum PubChem: 7848791 ...

  17. Drug: D06693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06693 Crude, Drug Pueraria root (JP16); Pueraria root (TN) Starch [CPD:C00369], Da...5100 Fabaceae (pea family) Pueraria root Major component: Puerarin [CPD:C10524] Therapeutic category of drug...s in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06693 Pueraria root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dr...ugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property D06693 Puer

  18. Drug: D06795 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs...D06795 Crude, Drug Saussurea root (JP16); Saussureae radix (TN) Costunolide [CPD:C0...jor component: Aplotaxene [CPD:C17535] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and... Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06795 Saussurea root (JP16) ... for regulating Qi D06795 Saussurea root; Saussureae radix Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) D06795 Saussurea root PubChem: 47208446 ...

  19. Drug: D06796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06796 Bitter cardamon (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs...D06796 Crude, Drug Bitter cardamon (JP16); Alpiniae fructus (TN) Nootkatone [CPD:C1...it Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... for replenishing Qi D06796 Bitter cardamon; Alpiniae fructus Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Mon

  20. Drug: D06714 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 06714 Cassia seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs...D06714 Crude, Drug Cassia seed (JP16); Cassia seed (TN) Emodin [CPD:C10343], Obtusi...jor component: Obtusifolin [CPD:C17039] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D... for clearing heat D06714 Cassia seed; Cassia seed Crude drugs [BR:br083

  1. Drug: D05431 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onent: l-Menthol [CPD:C00400] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese ...medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D05431 Mentha herb (JP16); Peppermint ...(NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs...nal use Drugs for external use D05431 *Peppermint; Peppermint Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D05431 Mentha herb PubChem: 17398300 ...

  2. Drug: D06906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ri, or other related species larval exuvia; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...n Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and cool in property ...D06906 Cicadae periostracum; Cicada slough; Zentai Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects D06906 Cicada larva exuvia PubChem: 51091248 ...

  3. Drug: D06755 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dehyde [CPD:C02576] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drug...s 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06755 Perilla herb (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pun...gent in flavor and warm in property D06755 Perilla herb; Perilla herb Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Lamiaceae (mint family) D06755 Perilla herb PubChem: 47208406 ...

  4. Clinical Weighting of Drug-Drug Interactions in Hospitalized Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Martinez-Hernández, Cynthia; Hernández-Constantino, Angel; Garcia-Cruz, Juan Carlos; Avalos-Mejia, Annia M; Sánchez-Hurtado, Luis A; Islas Perez, Valentin; Hansten, Philip D

    2016-04-01

    Adverse drug reactions impact on patient health, effectiveness of pharmacological therapy and increased health care costs. This investigation intended to detect the most critical drug-drug interactions in hospitalized elderly patients, weighting clinical risk. We conducted a cross-sectional study between January and April 2014; all patients 70 years or older, hospitalized for >24 hr and prescribed at least one medication were included in the study. Drug-drug interactions were estimated by combining Stockley's, Hansten and Tatro drug interactions. Drug-drug interactions were weighted using a risk-analysis method based on failure modes, effects and criticality analysis. We calculated a criticality index for each drug involved in the drug-drug interactions based on the severity of the interaction mechanism, the frequency the drug was involved in drug-drug interactions and the risk of drug-drug interactions in patients with impaired renal function. The average number of drugs consumed in the hospital was 6 ± 2.69, involving 160 active ingredients. The most frequent were as follows: Furosemide, followed by Enalapril. Of drug-drug interactions, 2% were classified as contraindicated, 14% advised against and 83% advised caution during the hospital stay. Thirty-four drug-drug interactions were assessed, of which 23 were pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions and 12 were pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (1 was both). The clinical risk calculated for each drug-drug interaction included heparins + non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or Digoxin + Calcium Gluconate, cases which are pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions with agonist effect and clinical risk of bleeding, one of the most common clinical risks in the hospital. An index of clinical risk for drug-drug interactions can be calculated based on severity by the interaction mechanism, the frequency that the drug is involved in drug-drug interactions and the risk of drug-drug interactions in an

  5. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  6. Drug: D06710 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06710 Crude, Drug Sophora root (JP16); Powdered sophora root (JP16); Sophora root ... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06710 Sophora root (JP16); Powdered...aring heat Drugs for clearing heat D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; S...ophora root Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06710 *Sophora root; Powdered sophora root; Sopho

  7. Drug: D06683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06683 Crude, Drug Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16); Fennel (TN) Anethole [CPD... drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06683 Fennel (JP16); Powdered fennel (JP16) Traditional ...Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06683 Fennel; Powde...red fennel; Fennel Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Apiaceae (carrot family) D06683 Fennel PubChem: 47208334 ...

  8. Drug: D03570 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03570 Crude, Drug Clove (JP16); Powdered clove (JP16); Clove (TN) Eugenol [CPD:C10...de drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03570 Clove (JP16); Powdered clove (JP16) Traditional Chinese Med...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D03570 Clove; Powdered

  9. Drug: D06767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Trigonelline [CPD:C01004] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japa...n [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... Drugs for pus discharge D06767 Benincasa seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) D06767 Benincasa seed PubChem: 47208418 ...

  10. Drug: D06896 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory: 5100 Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family) Trichosanthes seed; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs M...ajor component: Trichosanic acid [CPD:C08364] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06896 Trichosanthis semen; Karonin Crude drugs [BR:br0830

  11. Drug: D06717 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available afflower petal Major component: Carthamin [CPD:C16941] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs...xternal use Drugs for external use D06717 *Safflower; Safflower Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Asteraceae (daisy family) D06717 Safflower PubChem: 47208368 ...

  12. Taking Current Antiretroviral Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... INHIBITORS INTEGRASE INHIBITORS 1. NUCLEOSIDE AND NUCLEOTIDE ANALOG REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS (NUKES) DRUG DAILY PILLS (ADULTS) HOW TO TAKE & ... Don't combine with d4T. 2. NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS** (NNRTIs or NON-NUKES) DRUG DAILY PILLS (Adults)* ...

  13. Drug signs and teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a new school, puberty, or going through their parents' divorce. To ease pain and anxiety. Teens may use drugs to deal with problems with family, friends, school, mental health, or self-esteem. TALKING WITH YOUR TEEN ABOUT DRUGS It is ...

  14. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  15. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  16. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  17. [Drug-induced dyschromatopsias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdriel, G; Manent, P J

    1982-01-01

    Drug-induced dyschromatopsias are defined as functional or objective alterations of color sense following drug treatment. Drug induced chromatopsias are characterized by a perception of white surfaces as colored and occur following modifications of normally transparent structures or alterations of the chorioretina or higher centers. Digitalic intoxication is responsible for incorrect perception of yellow or blue; the retinal origin of the disorder is confirmed by electroretinograms and histologic modifications in the photoreceptor synapses. Santonin in doses exceeding 1 cg is associated with various color misperceptions due to injury to a peripheral neuron or problems of rhodopsin formation. Some sulfas and antibiotics may cause misperception of yellow, and the anticonvulsant drug Tridione may cause an almost complete disappearance of some colors. Chromotopsias of central origin due to direct action on cerebral neurons are rare but may follow use of phenacetine or atropine. Drug induced dyschromatopsias are more common and may be the initial symptoms of various kinds of drug intoxication. Various simple and reliable tests enable the practicing clinician to detect such disorders at an early stage. Synthetic antimalarial drugs derived from chloroquine and used in longterm treatment of rheumatism or during antimalarial prophylaxis, indomethacine, and the phenotiazins may cause dyschromatopsias due to retinal intoxication. Oral contraceptives diminish the chromatic perception in 20% of cases according to 1 author, and often cause deficits of blue-yellow perception. Disulfiram, certain antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, nystatin, isoniazide, and other drugs may cause dyschromatopsias due to alterations in the optical fibers. Ethambutol is the most harmful to color perception; its effects are usually but not always reversible on discontinuation of the drug. Systematic tests of color perception should be administered prior to and during treatment with any drug known to

  18. Drug: D06689 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06689 Crude, Drug Phellodendron bark (JP16); Powdered phellodendron bark (JP16); P... drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06689 Phellodendron bark (JP16); Powdered phellodendron bark (JP16)...g heat Drugs for clearing heat D06689 *Phellodendron bark; Powdered phellodendron bark; Phellodendron bark S...tomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D06689 *Phellodendron bark; Powdered phel...lodendron bark; Phellodendron bark Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D06689 *Phellodendron bark; Powdered

  19. Drug: D06731 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06731 Crude, Drug Gardenia fruit (JP16); Powdered gardenia fruit (JP16); Gerenia f...ormulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06731 Gardenia fruit (JP16); Powdered gardenia ...r clearing heat D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Dr...ugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Drugs for external ...use Drugs for external use D06731 *Gardenia fruit; Powdered gardenia fruit; Gerenia fruit Crude drugs [BR:br

  20. Drug: D00092 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00092 Crude, Drug Coptis rhizome (JP16); Powdered coptis rhizome (JP16); Coptis rh...rugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D00092 Coptis rhizome (JP16); Powdered... for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D00092 *Coptis rhizome; Powdered copti...s rhizome; Coptis rhizome Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D00092 *Coptis rhizome; Powdered... coptis rhizome; Coptis rhizome Drugs for external use Drugs for external use D00092 *Coptis rhizome; Powdered

  1. Drug: D06727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06727 Bupleurum root; Bupleurum root Crude drugs [BR:br083...D06727 Crude, Drug Bupleurum root (JP16); Bupleurum root (TN) Saikosaponins [CPD:C0...um root Major component: Saikosaponin [CPD:C08975 C08976] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06727 Bupleurum root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr

  2. Drug: D06787 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06787 Crude, Drug Saposhnikovia root (JP16); Fangfeng (TN) Fraxidin [CPD:C17479], ... (carrot family) Saposhnikovia root Major component: Fraxidin [CPD:C17479] Therapeutic category of drugs in ...Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06787 Saposhnikovia root (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dr...ugs Diaphoretic drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06787 Sapo

  3. Drug: D05525 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available antain family) Plantago mature seed (dried) Major component: Aucubin [CPD:C09771] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D05525 Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (AT...Plantago seed (JP16/USP) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs... D05525 Plantago seed; Ispaghula; Plantago seed Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Plantaginaceae (plantain family) D05525 Plantago seed PubChem: 17398302 ...

  4. Drug: D06786 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt: Cylindrin [CPD:C17534] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese med...icine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06786 Imperat...a rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Other drugs Hemostatic drugs... D06786 Imperata rhizome; Imperatae rhizoma Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06786 Imperata rhizome PubChem: 47208437 ...

  5. Drug: D06738 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mponent: Kaempferol [CPD:C05903] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chine...se medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06738 Tribulus fruit (JP16) Tradit...ional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs... D06738 Tribulus fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Zygophyllaceae (creosote-bush family) D06738 Tribulus fruit PubChem: 47208389 ...

  6. Drug: D06793 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mp fruit Major component: Palmitic acid [CPD:C00249] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Purgative drugs Purgative drugs... D06793 Hemp fruit Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Cannabaceae (hop family) D06793 Hemp fruit PubChem: 47208444 ...

  7. Drug: D06800 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06800 Crude, Drug Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16); Genti...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06800 Japanese gentian (JP16); Powdered japanese gentian (JP16) Traditional Chinese Med...icine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06800 Japanese gentian; Powdered japan

  8. Drug: D06730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06730 Crude, Drug Smilax rhizome (JP16); Powdered smilax rhizome (JP16); Smilax rh...s and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06730 Smilax rhizome (JP16); Powdered...r clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D06730 Smilax rhizome; Powdered smilax rh

  9. Drug: D06763 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06763 Crude, Drug Polyporus sclerotium (JP16); Powdered polyporus sclerotium (JP16...510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06763 Polyporus sclerotium (JP16); Powdered pol...iuretic drugs D06763 Polyporus sclerotium; Powdered polyporus sclerotium; Chuling Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Fungi Basidiomycetes D06763 Polyporus sclerotium PubChem: 47208414 ...

  10. Drug: D06735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06735 Crude, Drug Dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Powdered dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Dio...gs 5100 Crude drugs D06735 Dioscorea rhizome (JP16); Powdered dioscorea rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06735 Dioscorea rhizome; Powdered

  11. Drug: D04385 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04385 Crude, Drug Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16); Swertia (TN) ...nts D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered swertia herb (JP16) 5 Crude drugs and Ch...inese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D04385 Swertia herb (JP16); Powdered

  12. Drug: D03374 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03374 Crude, Drug Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powdered capsicum (JP16); Capsicum (TN) Cap...5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D03374 Capsicum (JP16/USP); Powdered

  13. Drug: D06903 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available heaceae (tea family) Tea leaf Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese ...medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06903 Theae folium PubChem: 51091245 ...

  14. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssed aconite root See [DR:D06784] (Fibrous root) Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07152 Processed aconite root PubChem: 51091491 ...

  15. Drug: D06910 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hordeum vulgare seed Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06910 Malt (JP16) PubChem: 51091252 ...

  16. Drug: D07153 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amily) Cinchona bark Major component: Quinine [CPD:C06526] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07153 Cinchona bark PubChem: 51091492 ...

  17. Drug: D06892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs for replenishing Yi...ng D06892 *Asini corii collas; Ass-hide glue; Donkey-hide glue; Akyo; Gelatin Drugs for blood Drugs for repl...dae Equus asinus hide glue; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Dru

  18. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Drug: D04674 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs for clearing heat D0...4674 *Forsythia fruit; Forsythia fruit Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D04674 *Forsythia fru

  20. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  1. Drug: D06740 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for replenishing Qi D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Dru...gs for external use Drugs for external use D06740 *Cnidium monnieri fruit Crude dru

  2. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Off-Label Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Off-label Drug Use What is off-label drug use? In the United States new drugs are ... unapproved use of a drug. Is off-label drug use legal? The off-label use of FDA- ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  6. Benzylpiperazine: "A messy drug".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D P; Deruiter, J; Bhattacharya, D; Ahuja, M; Bhattacharya, S; Clark, C R; Suppiramaniam, V; Dhanasekaran, M

    2016-07-01

    Designer drugs are synthetic structural analogues/congeners of controlled substances with slightly modified chemical structures intended to mimic the pharmacological effects of known drugs of abuse so as to evade drug classification. Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a piperazine derivative, elevates synaptic dopamine and serotonin levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to the well-known drug of abuse, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Furthermore, BZP augments the release of norepinephrine by inhibiting presynaptic autoreceptors, therefore, BZP is a "messy drug" due to its multifaceted regulation of synaptic monoamine neurotransmitters. Initially, pharmaceutical companies used BZP as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of various disease states, but due to its contraindications and abuse potential it was withdrawn from the market. BZP imparts predominately sympathomimetic effects accompanied by serious cardiovascular implications. Addictive properties of BZP include behavioral sensitization, cross sensitization, conditioned place preference and repeated self-administration. Additional testing of piperazine derived drugs is needed due to a scarcity of toxicological data and widely abuse worldwide. PMID:27207154

  7. Anti-Microtubule Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Stefan; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drugs that target microtubules (MTs), many of them natural products, have long been important tools in the MT field. Indeed, tubulin (Tb) was discovered, in part, as the protein binding partner of colchicine. Several anti-MT drug classes also have important medical uses, notably colchicine, which is used to treat gout, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and pericarditis, and the vinca alkaloids and taxanes, which are used to treat cancer. Anti-MT drugs have in common that they bind specifically to Tb in the dimer, MT or some other form. However, their effects on polymerization dynamics and on the human body differ markedly. Here we briefly review the most-studied molecules, and comment on their uses in basic research and medicine. Our focus is on practical applications of different anti-MT drugs in the laboratory, and key points that users should be aware of when designing experiments. We also touch on interesting unsolved problems, particularly in the area of medical applications. In our opinion, the mechanism by which any MT drug cures or treats any disease is still unsolved, despite decades of research. Solving this problem for particular drug-disease combinations might open new uses for old drugs, or provide insights into novel routes for treatment. PMID:27193863

  8. Teratogenic drugs and their drug interactions with hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, M R; Li, L; Shon, J; Bashaw, E D; Kim, M-J

    2016-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry-Drug Interaction Studies, recommends that a potential human teratogen needs to be studied in vivo for effects on contraceptive steroids.(1) This article highlights the need to evaluate the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between drugs with teratogenic potential and hormonal contraceptives (HCs) during drug development. It also addresses the FDA's effort of communicating DDI findings in product labels to mitigate the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:27090193

  9. [Antidepressant drugs and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellantuono, Cesario; Migliarese, Giovanni; Maggioni, Francesca; Imperadore, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The post-partum period, as well as pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and/or affective disorders. Postnatal depression, frequently in co-morbidity with anxiety symptoms, is recognised as the most frequent form of maternal morbidity after delivery, with a prevalence rate estimated between 5% to 15%. Among antidepressant drugs, the SSRIs are considered the drugs of choice in the treatment of post-partum affective disorders, particularly in the major depression. It is, thus, crucial from a clinical standpoint to establish, in the newborn whose mother needs to be treated with an SSRI, the safety profile of these drugs during breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding, on the other hand, both for the nursing mother and the infant, are in fact very well documented. Unfortunately, all antidepressant drugs, including SSRIs, cross into breast milk and the milk-to-plasma ratio, a measure proposed to establish the amount of drug transferred to maternal milk, does not seem to be a reliable parameter to predict the safety of these drugs. From the available literature, however, it seems that among SSRIs, paroxetina and sertralina offer the best safety profile, as these drugs has never been associated with unsafe reports in suckling infants. Despite these reassuring but preliminary data, more studies are needed to better assess the safety of the antidepressant drugs in the infants exposed during breastfeeding. As general rule, it is important to recommend if the mother wishes to breastfeed her infant while taking an antidepressant, that the baby should be closely monitored in order to detect, as soon as possible, any unwanted drug-related side effect. PMID:17345878

  10. Drug-drug co-crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder Singh Sekhon

    2012-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are most conveniently developed and delivered orally as solid dosage forms that contain a defined crystalline form of an API. Co-crystal is a crystalline entity formed by two different or more molecular entities where the intermolecular interactions are weak forces like hydrogen bonding and pi-pi stacking. Co-crystals are an enabling technology that is used in new or existing drug delivery systems by majority of pharmaceutical companies in formulation ...

  11. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick J. Ginty; Martin J. Whitaker; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Howdle, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2) has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number...

  12. Drug Use in Gyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2015-01-01

    Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures for the fre......Taking some of the most significant academic works into consideration this chapter describes how the scholarly interest in drug use in gyms rose from studies of competitive bodybuilding to studies of larger segments of the gym population. The challenge of establishing reliable figures...... of the significant political campaigns and strategies to regulate and counter drug use in gyms....

  13. Drugs in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén, Lena

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the fate and effect of some drugs have been examined in horses. Studies have also been performed to explore some factors which may affect the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of drugs in horses. Investigations on the drug metabolising enzyme cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in the intestines of horses showed high gene expression and metabolic activity in the proximal parts of the intestines. The results indicate that CYP3A in the intestines of horse plays a major role in the...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  16. Drug: D04486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04486 Drug Ibandronate sodium hydrate (JAN); Ibandronate sodium (USAN); Ibandronate sodium mono ... 900(2224) Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  17. Drug: D00939 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00939 Drug Alendronate sodium hydrate (JP16); Alendronate sodium (USAN); Binosto (TN); Fosamax ... 900(2224) Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  18. Drug: D03234 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03234 Drug Sodium risedronate hydrate (JP16); Sodium risedronate hemipentahydrate; Actonel (TN) ... 900(2224) Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  19. Drug: D00249 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00249 Drug Calcitonin (salmon) (JP16); Calcitonin salmon (USAN/INN); Salmon calcitonin; Calcima ... ) Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  20. Drug: D00937 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00937 Drug Dibasic calcium phosphate hydrate (JP16); Calcium phosphate, dihydrate, dibasic (USP ... rapeutic category: 3219 ATC code: A12AA01 map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  1. Drug: D01301 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01301 Drug Metenolone enanthate (JP16); Methenolone enanthate (USAN); Primobolan depot (TN) C27 ... :K08557] hsa05200(367) Pathways in cancer map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:b ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) Becenum ( ...

  3. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) Becenum ( ...

  4. No more free drug samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chimonas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Susan Chimonas and Jerome Kassirer argue that giving out "free" drug samples is not effective in improving drug access for the indigent, does not promote rational drug use, and raises the cost of care.

  5. No more free drug samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Chimonas; Kassirer, Jerome P.

    2009-01-01

    Susan Chimonas and Jerome Kassirer argue that giving out “free” drug samples is not effective in improving drug access for the indigent, does not promote rational drug use, and raises the cost of care.

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  7. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  8. Drug: D10239 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10239 Crude, Drug Hop strobile (non-JP); Luppuli strobilus Humulus lupulus [TAX:34...86] Same as: E00846 Cannabaceae (hop family) Hop mature strobile; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Crude drugs

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical ...

  10. Drug: D09125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rt Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Drugs for resolving dam...705] Pogostemon cablin [TAX:28511] Same as: E00188 Lamiaceae (mint family) Pogostemon cablin above ground pa

  11. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  12. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  13. Drug: D06801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ly) Alpinia Officinarum Rhizome Major component: Cineole [CPD:C09844] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for warming the interior Drugs for warming the interior D06801 Alpinia offcin

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter ... research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug abuse and HIV and ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trends Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ...

  18. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Pancreatic Cancer Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) Afinitor (Everolimus) ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis ( ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  20. Drug: D06748 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06748 Crude, Drug Cnidium rhizome (JP16); Powdered cnidium rhizome (JP16); Cnidii ...6748 Cnidium rhizome (JP16); Powdered cnidium rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br083...04] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06748 *Cnidium rhizome; Powdered cnidium rh...izome; Cnidii rhizoma Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for pus discharge D06748 *Cnidium rhizome; Powdered

  1. Drug: D09184 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regula...D09184 Crude, Drug Areca pericarp (non-JP); Areca fruit peel; Arecae pericarpium Al...amily) Areca catechu or Areca dicksonii fruit peel; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional...ting Qi D09184 Areca peel; Betal palm peel Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Arecaceae (palm family) D09184 Areca fruit peel PubChem: 96025864 ...

  2. Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, Hiasindh Ashmi; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health burden throughout the world. Resistance to the antimalarial drugs has increased the mortality and morbidity rate that is achieved so far through the malaria control program. Monitoring the drug resistance to the available antimalarial drugs helps to implement effective drug policy, through the in vivo efficacy studies, in vitro drug susceptibility tests and detection of molecular markers. It is important to understand the mechanism of the antimalarial drugs, a...

  3. Drug: D06706 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Major component: Naringin [CPD:C09789] Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs... and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D...gs for pus discharge D06706 *Immature orange; Kijitsu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) D06706 Immature orange PubChem: 47208357 ...

  4. Drug: D06778 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ategory: 5100 Araceae (arum family) Pinellia tuber Major component: Homogentisic acid [CPD:C00544] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06778 Pinellia tuber (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...llia tuber; Pineliae tuber Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Araceae (arum family) D06778 Pinellia tuber PubChem: 47208429 ...

  5. Drug: D06911 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available herapeutic category: 5100 Liliaceae (lily family) Lilium lancifolium bulb (steamed) Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06911 Lilium bulb (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [... bulbus; Lily bulb; Byakugo Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Liliaceae (lily family) D06911 Lilium bulb PubChem: 51091253 ...

  6. Drug: D06705 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eeper family) Catalpa fruit Major component: Catalposide [CPD:C09775] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs... 5100 Crude drugs D06705 Catalpa fruit (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family) D06705 Catalpa fruit PubChem: 47208356 ...

  7. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov Medicare forms Advance directives & long-term care Electronic prescribing Electronic Health Records (EHRs) Download claims with Medicare’s Blue ... or needed a prescription drug and this created waste and unnecessary additional costs for people with Medicare ...

  8. Strontium-90 in drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugs of different composition were analyzed for their content of Sr-90. Contents were found to correspond approximately to the proportion of dried plant material in these drugs. The drugs which were bought in 1978 contained material from plants harvested in 1977 and before. Contamination thus has to be ascribed to fallout Sr since the Grohnde nuclear power plant did not operate in 1977. For this reason, it can also be assumed that contamination of the preparations is due only to the use of fallout-contaminated plant material, not that of extracts and essential oils in the course of production. At present, the total Sr-90 activity found in the individual preparations is so low that, apart from the pharmacological action of the drugs, a single administration of a complete annual dose would not mean a health risk. (orig.)

  9. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  10. Parents who use drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Tim; Bernays, Sarah; Houmøller, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Parents who use drugs parent in a context of heightened concern regarding the damaging effects of parental drug use on child welfare and family life. Yet there is little research exploring how parents who use drugs account for such damage and its limitation. We draw here upon analyses of audio......-recorded depth qualitative interviews, conducted in south-east England between 2008 and 2009, with 29 parents who use drugs. Our approach to thematic analysis treated accounts as co-produced and socially situated. An over-arching theme of accounts was 'damage limitation'. Most damage limitation work centred on......' parenting. Accounts of damage acceptance highlight a theme of 'recovery'. We find that the interview accounts operate in response to a regulative norm of 'good parenting' in which one strives to deflect damaged identity through narratives of damage qualification and to seek understanding and acceptance...

  11. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & ... Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ...

  12. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sourav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available While antiretroviral drugs, those approved for clinical use and others under evaluation, attempt in lowering viral load and boost the host immune system, antiretroviral drug resistance acts as a major impediment in the management of human immune deficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection. Antiretroviral drug resistance testing has become an important tool in the therapeutic management protocol of HIV-1 infection. The reliability and clinical utilities of genotypic and phenotypic assays have been demonstrated. Understanding of complexities of interpretation of genotyping assay, along with updating of lists of mutation and algorithms, and determination of clinically relevant cut-offs for phenotypic assays are of paramount importance. The assay results are to be interpreted and applied by experienced HIV practitioners, after taking into consideration the clinical profile of the patient. This review sums up the methods of assay currently available for measuring resistance to antiretroviral drugs and outlines the clinical utility and limitations of these assays.

  13. Medicare Drug Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As part of its effort to provide additional information, increase transparency, and address the affordability of prescription drugs, CMS is releasing a new online...

  14. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ormorph, Roxanol. Street names include dreamer, first line, god's drug, M, miss emma, mister blue, monkey, morf, ... who are still using. Exercise and eat healthy foods . Taking care of your body helps it heal ...

  15. Thrombocytopenia - drug induced

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the condition is called drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Heparin, a blood thinner, is the most common cause ... bleeding Bleeding when you brush your teeth Easy bruising Pinpoint red spots on the skin ( petechiae )

  16. Substance use -- prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get through daily life. Addiction can lead to tolerance. Tolerance means you need more and more of the ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Prescription Drug Abuse Browse ...

  17. Vitiligo, drug induced (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this person's face have resulted from drug-induced vitiligo. Loss of melanin, the primary skin pigment, occasionally ... is the case with this individual. The typical vitiligo lesion is flat (macular) and depigmented, but maintains ...

  18. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  19. Analysis of Street Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stuart H.; Bhatt, Sudhir

    1972-01-01

    A study of the content of street drugs available to a college campus and a community is presented. Emphasis is given to the adulterants and substitutions encountered in the illicit preparations. (Author)

  20. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  1. Drug-induced pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Maertin, Sandrina; Scheiber, Jonas; Ritter, Christoph A; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia

    2012-04-01

    Drugs are thought to be a rare cause for acute pancreatitis; however 525 different drugs are listed in the World Health Organization (WHO) database suspected to cause acute pancreatitis as a side effect. Many of them are widely used to treat highly prevalent diseases. The true incidence is not entirely clear since only few systematic population based studies exist. The majority of the available data are derived from case reports or case control studies. Furthermore, the causality for many of these drugs remains elusive and for only 31 of these 525 dugs a definite causality was established. Definite proof for causality is defined by the WHO classification if symptoms reoccur upon rechallenge.In the actual algorithm the diagnosis is confirmed if no other cause of acute pancreatitis can be detected, and the patient is taking one of the suspected drugs. PMID:22314811

  2. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substances Act DEA Museum and Visitors Center Doing Business with DEA Drug Disposal Employee Assistance Program Extortion Scam Alert For Victims of Crime How do I...? National Clandestine Laboratory Register Registration ...

  3. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  4. Oral Diabetes Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as the older, generic drugs, like metformin and glipizide, which cost only about $4 to $35 per ... Metformin and Metformin Sustained Release alone or with glipizide or glimepiride • Glipizide and Glipizide Sustained Release alone ...

  5. Drug Development Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Care Our Research Our Research Approach Drug Development Pipeline Clinical Trials CF Patient Registry Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics (CFFT) Therapeutics Development Network North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference For Researchers ...

  6. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advertising: Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Prescription Drug Advertisements Give Us Feedback Resources for You Report a ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  7. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  8. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  9. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm Drug abuse first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid 1. Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. ...

  10. Drugs in breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, Neil; Hotham, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Most commonly used drugs are relatively safe for breastfed babies. The dose received via milk is generally small and much less than the known safe doses of the same drug given directly to neonates and infants. Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant. Discussion with the mother about the possibility of either negative product information or ill-informed advice from others will reduce the confusion and anxiety that may be generated. Good resources about medicines and breastfeeding are available and include state-based medicines information services. PMID:26648652

  11. Drug Therapy in Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Khalili, M

    1985-01-01

    The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of...

  12. The Contemporary Drug Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Mølvig, Jacob; Oberman, Froukje Lisa; Pedersen, Stefan Parsbæk; Blank, Elias; Svanholm, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project will at first introduce the reader to a historical account of concepts such as capitalism, the three stages of liberalism, several essential regulation acts and their connection to terms such as: drugs, addiction, free will and freedom. All to build an understanding of how these philosophical concepts are related to the contemporary drug issue. Further on, the theories and ideas developed by the philosopher Paul-Michel Foucault, regarding the relationship betw...

  13. Drug abuse in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Reardon CL; Creado S

    2014-01-01

    Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines t...

  14. Drug interactions with grapefruit

    OpenAIRE

    Bojanić Vladmila V.; Bojanić Novica Z.; Bojanić Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. The concentration of many orally given medications may be affected by grapefruit or grapefruit juice consumption. It may result in numerous harmful effects. Interaction of grapefruit with drugs. Taking only one cup of juice may induce interactions with different drugs even during the period of a few days. The effect is induced by suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall. The Latin name of grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, is quite opposite to the e...

  15. Drug: D06790 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06790 Crude, Drug Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyster shell (JP16); Oyster shell ...cine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06790 Oyster shell (JP16); Powdered oyste...r shell (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Sedative drugs D06790 Oyster shell; Powder...ed oyster shell; Oyster shell Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Mollusks D06790 Oyster shell PubChem: 47208441 ...

  16. Drug: D04365 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04365 Crude, Drug Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF); ...s D04365 Glycyrrhiza (JP16); Powdered glycyrrhiza (JP16); Licorice (NF) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japa...n [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs Stomachic and antidiarrheal drugs D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdere...ishing Qi D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for pus discharge Drugs for... pus discharge D04365 *Glycyrrhiza; Licorice; Powdered glycyrrhiza; Glycyrrhiza Drugs for external use Drugs

  17. Drug: D06770 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06770 Crude, Drug Eucommia bark (JP16) Eucommiol [CPD:C17878], Geniposidic acid [C...de [CPD:C09781], (Pinoresinole diglucoside | Eucominndol), Harpagide acetate, Ulmoside, Liridendrin Eucommia...ommia family) Eucommia bark (dried) Major component: Gutta-percha Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude dr...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...6770 Eucommia bark (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Dr

  18. Drug: D06775 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06775 Crude, Drug Ophiopogon tuber (JP16); Ophiopogonis tuber (TN) Ophiopogonin A ...ugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06775 Ophiopogon tube...r (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for replenishing Ying Drugs fo...r replenishing Ying D06775 *Ophiopogon tuber; Ophiopogonis tuber Drugs for dampness Cough suppressants and expectorants D06775... Monocot plants Ruscaceae (lily-of-the-valley family) D06775 Ophiopogon tuber PubChem: 47208426 ...

  19. Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program started in 1966 and conducted epidemiologic research to quantify the potential adverse effects of prescription drugs, utilizing in-hospital monitoring.

  20. Drug abuse in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with "advances" in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  1. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. PMID:25471045

  2. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers and polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery in tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Sumit

    Tissues and organs in vivo are structured in three dimensional (3-D) ordered assemblies to maintain their metabolic functions. In the case of an injury, certain tissues lack the regenerative abilities without an external supportive environment. In order to regenerate the natural in vivo environment post-injury, there is a need to design three-dimensional (3-D) tissue engineered constructs of appropriate dimensions along with strategies that can deliver growth factors or drugs at a controlled rate from such constructs. This thesis focuses on the applications of hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) nanoscale layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multilayers for time controlled drug delivery, fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers, and engineering 3-D cellular constructs. Axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after spinal cord injury is often disorganized and random. To support linear axonal growth into spinal cord lesion sites, certain growth factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), needs to be delivered at a controlled rate from an array of uniaxial channels patterned in a scaffold. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that H-bonded LbL assembled degradable thin films prepared over agarose hydrogel, whereby the protein was loaded separately from the agarose fabrication, provided sustained release of protein under physiological conditions for more than four weeks. Further, patterned agarose scaffolds implanted at the site of a spinal cord injury forms a reactive cell layer of leptomeningeal fibroblasts in and around the scaffold. This limits the ability of axons to reinnervate the spinal cord. To address this challenge, we demonstrate the time controlled release of an anti-mitotic agent from agarose hydrdgel to control the growth of the reactive cell layer of fibroblasts. Challenges in tissue engineering can also be addressed using gene therapy approaches. Certain growth factors in the body are known to inhibit

  3. Extracting drug-enzyme relation from literature as evidence for drug drug interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Heng-Yi; Du, Jingcheng; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Li, Lang; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background Information about drug–drug interactions (DDIs) is crucial for computational applications such as pharmacovigilance and drug repurposing. However, existing sources of DDIs have the problems of low coverage, low accuracy and low agreement. One common type of DDIs is related to the mechanism of drug metabolism: a DDI relation may be caused by different interactions (e.g., substrate, inhibit) between drugs and enzymes in the drug metabolism process. Thus, information from drug enzyme ...

  4. Definition and classification of drug addiction and drug misuse issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Dragan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author points out conceptual and terminological inconsistency of drug vocabulary and influence of value and moralistic elements. Most illustrative example for this represents term narcomany, which is still widely used by domestic authors to refer to drug use, in spite of its obvious insufficiency and impreciseness. Similar case is with terms toxicomany, habituation and addiction. Drug classification issue has been also analyzed in totality of viewing of drug use as a social and individual phenomenon. Author emphasizes that optimal strategy of drug control have to aim to differentiated approach to specific drugs, but also points out to unjustified referring to any drug as "soft" or harmless.

  5. Youth, drugs, and biopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Jose Sanches Vergara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we tackle the issue of youth and drugs as something linked to biopower and biopolitics, both concepts developed by Michael Foucault. Youth and drugs are taken and analyzed in situations involving the management of crime linked to the risks and deviations from the law, abuse and dependence. The youth; irreverent, courageous, healthy, idealistic, and that wanted to change the world for the better as we have seen in the past, is now strongly related to violence, dangerous activities, moral and social risks, drug addiction, criminality, and others negative images. To deal with these young people, tolerance and small punishments of yore are not enough anymore. The young people emerge as a segment of the population subject to various actions and programs. The drugs now are seen as matters of security and public health. There is a shifting and repositioning in the discourse about the young - from minor, drugged, and criminal to lawbreaker, user and drug addict. The change is subtle, but represents a modulation in the devices of social control. Beyond the consent of the young to get rid of drugs, there is a search for the creation of a wide area of monitoring of their behavior through the activation of community protection networks. The belief that the young are more impressionable and vulnerable, and that action on the cause of the problem or risk reduction are the most efficient ways of management, taking responsibility away from personal and family sphere and transferring it to the State, contributes to the increasing control of young people nowadays.

  6. Recent New Drug Approvals. Part 1: Drugs with Pediatric Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Chasity M.; Chhim, Rebecca F.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    This two-part review provides information about drugs that have been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration and focuses on drugs approved with pediatric indications or approved in adults with active pediatric studies. Information was obtained from the product labeling and selected published studies. Part 1 reviews recently approved drugs with labeled pediatric indications, and Part 2 will review recent drug approvals in adults that have potential use in pediatrics and have acti...

  7. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: Implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan S Dsouza

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  8. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades...

  9. Drug resistance in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Simon L; Sundar, Shyam; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; combination therapy, monitoring of therapy, and improved diagnostics could play an essential role in this strategy. PMID:16418526

  10. Drug development and immunotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SugiY; IzumM

    2002-01-01

    Immunotoxicity of drugs has to be evaluated same as other kinds of toxicities,since the functions of the immune system are vital to human survival,consisting of the protection of the body from invading pathogens and to provide immune surveillance against arising tumor cells.A given drug's effect on the immune system can be classified as (1)immuno-suppression/activation.(2)antigenicity and hypersensitivity,(3)autoimmunity.The guidance of immumotoxicity has highlighted on immuno-suppression in Harmonizing Congress among EC,USA and Japan.In this paper,the strategy and methods to evaluate immunotoxicity,mainly immuno-suppression,of the drugs will be show.complexity and variety of immuno-systems make assessment of immumotoxicity complex.The testing in rats to assess immune function is thought to be the first choice for immunotoxicity evaluation in a drug development,and then other suitable testing should be added depending on the mature of drugs.

  11. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Timshina, Dependra K; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), viz., phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins. PMID:21220873

  12. Drug hypersensitivity syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Kumari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS is an adverse drug reaction commonly associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, viz., phenytoin (PHT, carbamazepine (CBZ, phenobarbital (PB, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, gold derivatives, cyclosporine, captopril, diltiazem, terbinafine, azathioprine and allopurinol. Diagnosis of DHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic or collagen vascular disorders. The risk for developing hypersensitivity within 60 days of the first or second prescription in new users of PHT or CBZ was estimated to be 2.3-4.5 per 10,000 and 1-4.1 per 10,000, respectively. The syndrome is defined by the fever, skin rash, lymphadenopathy and internal organ involvement within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis and myositis. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Cross-reactivity among PHT, CBZ and PB is as high as 70%-80%. Management mainly includes immediate withdrawal of the culprit drug, symptomatic treatment and systemic steroids or immunoglobulins.

  13. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as the interactions and adverse reactions that may occur. Methods: A MEDLINE search on anglo-saxonic literature was conducted, from 1993 until 2011, using the key-words: HIV, AIDS, psychosis, depression, anxiety, secondary mania, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, HAART. Results: We found 100 articles, of which 66 were included and 34 excluded. The articles that showed no specific data on the use of psychotropic drugs in HIV patients were excluded. Discussion: Pharmachologic interactions may occur by occupation of the same metabolic pathways. Further research is needed with indications for best practices. Psychotherapeutic interventions should be considered. Conclusion: The choice of the therapeutic intervention, namely when considering psychotropic drugs with the lowest number of interactions and adverse effects is crucial in order to achieve therapeutic success in the treatment of HIV infected patients.

  14. Magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wiedmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women. Treatment by intravenous or oral administration of chemotherapy agents results in serious and often treatment-limiting side effects. Delivery of drugs directly to the lung by inhalation of an aerosol holds the promise of achieving a higher concentration in the lung with lower blood levels. To further enhance the selective lung deposition, it may be possible to target deposition by using external magnetic fields to direct the delivery of drug coupled to magnetic particles. Moreover, alternating magnetic fields can be used to induce particle heating, which in turn controls the drug release rate with the appropriate thermal sensitive material.With this goal, superparamagetic nanoparticles (SPNP were prepared and characterized, and enhanced magnetic deposition was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. SPNPs were also incorporated into a lipid-based/SPNP aerosol formulation, and drug release was shown to be controlled by thermal activation. Because of the inherent imaging potential of SPNPs, this use of nanotechnology offers the possibility of coupling the diagnosis of lung cancer to drug release, which perhaps will ultimately provide the “magic bullet” that Paul Ehrlich originally sought.

  15. Drug: D06042 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06042 Drug Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99m... drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D06042 Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaaceti...2 Human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid technetium (99mTc) injection (JAN); Technetium Tc

  16. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic and brand names. This page also lists common drug combinations used in lung ...

  17. Neurocognitive Predictors of Drug Relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Marhe (Reshmi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide, about 35 million people, that is 0.8% of the world’s adult population, use heroin and/or cocaine and more than 10-13% of these drug users are or will become drug dependent (UNODC, World Drug Report, 2012). Drug dependency is characterized as a chronic relapsing disorder (Leshn

  18. Drug: D06752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06752 Crude, Drug Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea...D06752 Atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16); Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese M...edicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06752 *Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powdered...Atractylodes lancea rhizome; Powdered atractylodes lancea rhizome; Atractylodis l

  19. Drug: D05189 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Meditec (TN) TcO4. Na 185.8757 185.8936 D05189.gif Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V...09FX01 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radio...active drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D05189 Sodium pertechnetate

  20. Drug: D08758 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08758 Technetium (99mTc) N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan PubChem: 96025441 ...

  1. Drug: D06339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06339 Drug Xenon Xe 133 (JAN/USP/INN); Xenon (133Xe); Xenon Xe 133 (TN) Xe 132.9059 131.293 D06339.gif Radi...gory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  2. Drug: D08764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D08764 Technetium (99mTc) hydroxymethylene diphosphonate PubChem: 96025447 ...

  3. Drug: D06754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06754 Crude, Drug Sappan wood (JP16) Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C09920], alpha-Phellandr...apan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06754 Sappan wood Crude dr...5 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] Traditional Chinese Medicine in J

  4. Drug: D08757 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Neurolite (TN) C12H21N2O5S2. Tc. 433.9956 436.3417 Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs

  5. Drug: D08767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) Therapeutic category: 4300 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japa...n [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs... 4300 Radioactive drugs D08767 Benzoylmercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine - mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine technetium (99mTc) mixt PubChem: 96025450 ...

  6. Breakthrough Drugs and Turtle Soup

    OpenAIRE

    Chabner, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) category of Breakthrough Therapy drugs was established in 2012, fostered by collaboration between legislators, researchers, industry representatives, and cancer research advocates. This category allows the FDA to designate certain lifesaving drugs for expedited review, and it has been successful in speeding the approval of several new drugs.

  7. Drug: D06696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (laurel family) Lindera root Major component: Linderol [CPD:C01766] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs... Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06696 Lindera root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Ot

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ...

  9. Drug-Path: a database for drug-induced pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hui; Qiu, Chengxiang; Cui, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Some databases for drug-associated pathways have been built and are publicly available. However, the pathways curated in most of these databases are drug-action or drug-metabolism pathways. In recent years, high-throughput technologies such as microarray and RNA-sequencing have produced lots of drug-induced gene expression profiles. Interestingly, drug-induced gene expression profile frequently show distinct patterns, indicating that drugs normally induce the activation or repression of distinct pathways. Therefore, these pathways contribute to study the mechanisms of drugs and drug-repurposing. Here, we present Drug-Path, a database of drug-induced pathways, which was generated by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis for drug-induced upregulated genes and downregulated genes based on drug-induced gene expression datasets in Connectivity Map. Drug-Path provides user-friendly interfaces to retrieve, visualize and download the drug-induced pathway data in the database. In addition, the genes deregulated by a given drug are highlighted in the pathways. All data were organized using SQLite. The web site was implemented using Django, a Python web framework. Finally, we believe that this database will be useful for related researches. PMID:26130661

  10. Hybrid nanostructured drug carrier with tunable and controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here a transformative approach to synthesize a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier that exhibits the characteristics of controlled drug release. The synthesis of the nanohybrid architecture involved two steps. The first step involved direct crystallization of biocompatible copolymer along the long axis of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by the second step of attachment of drug molecule to the polymer via hydrogen bonding. The extraordinary inorganic–organic hybrid architecture exhibited high drug loading ability and is physically stable even under extreme conditions of acidic media and ultrasonic irradiation. The temperature and pH sensitive characteristics of the hybrid drug carrier and high drug loading ability merit its consideration as a promising carrier and utilization of the fundamental aspects used for synthesis of other promising drug carriers. The higher drug release response during the application of ultrasonic frequency is ascribed to a cavitation-type process in which the acoustic bubbles nucleate and collapse releasing the drug. Furthermore, the study underscores the potential of uniquely combining CNTs and biopolymers for drug delivery. - Graphical abstract: Block-copolymer crystallized on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nanohybrid drug carrier synthesized by attaching doxorubicin (DOX) to polymer crystallized CNTs. Crystallized polymer on CNTs provide mechanical stability. Triggered release of DOX. Highlights: ► The novel synthesis of a hybrid nanostructured drug carrier is described. ► The drug carrier exhibits high drug loading ability and is physically stable. ► The high drug release is ascribed to a cavitation-type process.

  11. Drug: D06719 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06719 Crude, Drug Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16); Xianghu...], (+)-Camphor [CPD:C00808] Cyperus rotundus [TAX:512623] Same as: E00091 Therapeutic category: 5100 Cyperaceae (sedge family) Cyperu...10 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06719 Cyperus rhizome (JP16); Powdered cyperus rhizome (JP16) Traditional C...hinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for Qi Drugs for regulating Qi D06719 Cyperus... rhizome; Powdered cyperus rhizome; Xianghu Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Cyperaceae (sedge family) D06719 Cyperus rhizome PubChem: 47208370 ...

  12. Drug: D06749 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06749 Crude, Drug Nuphar rhizome (JP16); Nuphar rhizome (TN) Nupharidine [CPD:C174...63], Nupharamine [CPD:C17464], Deoxynupharidine [CPD:C09945], Tannin, Nuphamine, Anhydronuphamine, Dehydrode...amily) Nuphar rhizome Major component: Nupharidine [CPD:C17463] Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude dr...ugs D06749 Nuphar rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr

  13. Drug: D01032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01032 Crude, Drug Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16); Agar (TN) Agarose [CPD:C01...100 Gelidiaceae Gelidium amansii mucous (freeze dry) Major component: Agarose [CPD:C01399] Therapeutic category of dr...ugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude dr...ugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01032 Agar (JP16/NF); Powdered agar (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D01032 Agar PubChem: 7848095 ...

  14. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

  15. Drug delivery goes supercritical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Ginty

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In the field of drug delivery, the ability to control the size, morphology, and release of drug particles is fundamental to good targeting, but is often hampered by harsh processing conditions or inadequate methods; likewise for the processing of polymeric controlled-release systems. However, the use of supercritical fluids such as supercritical CO2 (scCO2 has provided a ‘clean’ and effective alternative to traditional methods of drug and polymer processing. In particular, scCO2 has a number of unique properties that make it possible to process both bioactive molecules and amorphous polymers without using toxic organic solvents or elevated temperatures. Here, we review the positive impact that supercritical fluids have had on the micronization, encapsulation, and impregnation of molecules of interest to both the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  16. Drugs prescribed for self poisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, L F; Highley, M S

    1985-01-01

    Of 230 adults admitted for self poisoning over two months, 153 (67%) had previously been taking a total of 309 prescribed drugs. Of these patients, 119 (78%) had been given psychotropic drugs (usually benzodiazepines), 81 (53%) obtained them on repeat prescription, and 47 (31%) had been prescribed multiple psychotropic drugs, often in seemingly illogical combinations. The use of these drugs increased progressively with age and most patients took the same drugs in overdosage as they had been p...

  17. Drug: D06699 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06699 Crude, Drug Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16); Val... hypnotics and sedatives N05CM09 Valerian radix D06699 Japanese valerian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian ... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06699 Japanese val...erian (JP16); Powdered japanese valerian (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0

  18. Drug: D06703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06703 Crude, Drug Platycodon root (JP16); Powdered platycodon root (JP16); Platyco...510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06703 Platycodon root (JP16); Powdered platycodon root (JP16) Traditional ...essants and expectorants D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Drugs for pus di...scharge Drugs for pus discharge D06703 *Platycodon root; Powdered platycodon root; Platycodon root Crude dru

  19. Drug: D06720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06720 Crude, Drug Magnolia bark (JP16); Powdered magnolia bark (JP16); Magnolia ba...drugs D06720 Magnolia bark (JP16); Powdered magnolia bark (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:b...r08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Drugs for resolving dampness D06720 *Magnolia bark; Powdered magnolia... bark; Magnolia bark Cough suppressants and expectorants D06720 *Magnolia bark; Powdered

  20. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    OpenAIRE

    Loknath Ghoshal; Mausumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an "over the counter" drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a distinctive drug induced reaction pa...

  1. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) are topically administered medicaments in the form of patches that deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. It works very simply in which drug is applied inside the patch and it is worn on skin for long period of time. By this constant concentration of drug remain in blood for long time. Polymer matrix, drug, permeation enhancers are the main components of TDDS; polymers includes Zein, Shellac (as a natural) to syntheti...

  2. Drug: D01030 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01030 Crude, Drug Saffron (JP16); Saffron (TN) Crocin [CPD:C08589], Picrocrocin [C...003 Therapeutic category: 5100 Iridaceae (Iris family) Saffron chapiter Major com...dicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D01030 Saffron (JP16) Crude drugs [BR:br...08305] Monocot plants Iridaceae (iris family) D01030 Saffron PubChem: 7848093 ...

  3. Drug: D06050 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kit (TN) map04976 Bile secretion Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radio...active drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radioactive drugs D...trofosmin 99mTc-complex Radioactive agent Therapeutic category: 4300 ATC code: V09GA02 Component of Myoview ...D06050 Drug Technetium Tc 99m tetrofosmin (USP); Technetium (99mTc) tetrofosmin; Te

  4. Drug: D06895 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06895 Crude, Drug Aluminum silicate hydrate with silicon dioxide (JP16); Hydrated ... for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Dr...Same as: E00192 Clay mineral comprised of natural hydrated aluminium silicate and silicon dioxide; Standards...ugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06895 Talcum crystallinum; Kadinum; Kasseki Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Others Minerals D06895 Hydrated halloysite PubChem: 51091237 ...

  5. Drug: D06737 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lanaceae (nightshade family) Lycium bark Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for clearing heat Drugs...D06737 Crude, Drug Lycium bark (JP16) Kukoamine B [CPD:C17616], Calcium oxalate [CP... for clearing heat D06737 Lycium bark Crude drugs [BR:br...D:C17478], Starch [CPD:C00369] Lycium chinense [TAX:112883], Lycium barbarum [TAX:112863] Same as: E00108 So

  6. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ekincioğlu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alteration...

  7. Drug Testing in Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse tes...

  8. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2), epirubicin (MCF-7EPI), paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2), or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT). During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does occur at the threshold dose, the magnitude of resistance

  9. Role of drug transporters and drug accumulation in the temporal acquisition of drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veitch Zachary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthracyclines and taxanes are commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer. However, tumor resistance to these drugs often develops, possibly due to overexpression of drug transporters. It remains unclear whether drug resistance in vitro occurs at clinically relevant doses of chemotherapy drugs and whether both the onset and magnitude of drug resistance can be temporally and causally correlated with the enhanced expression and activity of specific drug transporters. To address these issues, MCF-7 cells were selected for survival in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (MCF-7DOX-2, epirubicin (MCF-7EPI, paclitaxel (MCF-7TAX-2, or docetaxel (MCF-7TXT. During selection cells were assessed for drug sensitivity, drug uptake, and the expression of various drug transporters. Results In all cases, resistance was only achieved when selection reached a specific threshold dose, which was well within the clinical range. A reduction in drug uptake was temporally correlated with the acquisition of drug resistance for all cell lines, but further increases in drug resistance at doses above threshold were unrelated to changes in cellular drug uptake. Elevated expression of one or more drug transporters was seen at or above the threshold dose, but the identity, number, and temporal pattern of drug transporter induction varied with the drug used as selection agent. The pan drug transporter inhibitor cyclosporin A was able to partially or completely restore drug accumulation in the drug-resistant cell lines, but had only partial to no effect on drug sensitivity. The inability of cyclosporin A to restore drug sensitivity suggests the presence of additional mechanisms of drug resistance. Conclusion This study indicates that drug resistance is achieved in breast tumour cells only upon exposure to concentrations of drug at or above a specific selection dose. While changes in drug accumulation and the expression of drug transporters does

  10. Metrology for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter; Klein, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    In various recently published studies, it is argued that there are underestimated risks with infusion technology, i.e., adverse incidents believed to be caused by inadequate administration of the drugs. This is particularly the case for applications involving very low-flow rates, i.e., metrological infrastructure for low-flow rates. Technical challenges such as these were the reason a European research project "Metrology for Drug Delivery" was started in 2011. In this special issue of Biomedical Engineering, the results of that project are discussed. PMID:25879307

  11. The other drug lords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V

    1993-01-01

    To gain an understanding of how hard it will be to control skyrocketing health care costs in the United States, consider one small part of the health care system: the pharmaceutical industry. Every time Congress threatens to crack down on drug costs or reduce government support for the industry, the pharmaceutical firms crank out PAC contributions and deploy their lobbyists. The upshot: drug companies get to charge what they want while holding onto millions of dollars' worth of government giveaways, including tax breaks and generous patent protection. PMID:8500946

  12. Thoughts on Drug Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兴宁

    2013-01-01

    Through the book“The economics of Public Issues”,in chapter 6,the author discussed why the government could not easily get spectacular success in the il egal commodity such as sex,booze,and drugs in economic way.In normal market, according to the law of demand,when the price of good is rising,the consumed amount wil decrease.However,the government has executed a lot of policies to reduce supply of drugs, but the consequence is not as good as they expected. Economics can help to find the answer to the phenomenon and improve the government's decision.

  13. Drug Therapy in Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalili

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of treatment of acute diarrhea in infants.

  14. Drugging Membrane Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Flynn, Aaron D

    2016-07-11

    The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets. PMID:26863923

  15. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  16. Kinetically Controlled Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xin E.; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Hedstrom, Lizbeth

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium brevicompactum produces the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases (IMPDHs). IMPDH catalyzes the conversion of IMP to XMP via a covalent enzyme intermediate, E-XMP*; MPA inhibits by trapping E...... of resistance is not apparent. Here, we show that, unlike MPA-sensitive IMPDHs, formation of E-XMP* is rate-limiting for both PbIMPDH-A and PbIMPDH-B. Therefore, MPA resistance derives from the failure to accumulate the drug-sensitive intermediate....

  17. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  18. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health. PMID:23842669

  19. Drugs causing fixed drug eruptions: Confirmed by provocation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug reactions ore very frequently seen by dermatologists in day to day practice. Fixed drug eruption though usually not fatal, can cause enough cosmetic embarrassment if present on the exposed part due to recurrence of the reaction on the previously affected site and residual hyperpigmeniation. 40 patients of fixed drug eruption were subjected to oral provocation test with all possible drug to find out the exact causative drug(s. Co-trimoxazole was the most common cause of the fixed reaction (21. Other drug found to cause reaction include oxyphenbutazone(9. Metamezole(3, tetracycline hydrocholoride (3 and pi roxicam (1. Lips were most commonly involved (14. Other frequently involved sites were genitals (6, arms (5, obdomen (4, hand(4, foce (4 and leg (3. To avoid false incrimination of the drugs, provocation test is the only reliable method to confirm the causative drug.

  20. Clustering drug-drug interaction networks with energy model layouts: community analysis and drug repurposing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, Lucreţia; Sbârcea, Laura; Topîrceanu, Alexandru; Iovanovici, Alexandru; Kurunczi, Ludovic; Bogdan, Paul; Udrescu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing drug-drug interactions may unravel previously unknown drug action patterns, leading to the development of new drug discovery tools. We present a new approach to analyzing drug-drug interaction networks, based on clustering and topological community detection techniques that are specific to complex network science. Our methodology uncovers functional drug categories along with the intricate relationships between them. Using modularity-based and energy-model layout community detection algorithms, we link the network clusters to 9 relevant pharmacological properties. Out of the 1141 drugs from the DrugBank 4.1 database, our extensive literature survey and cross-checking with other databases such as Drugs.com, RxList, and DrugBank 4.3 confirm the predicted properties for 85% of the drugs. As such, we argue that network analysis offers a high-level grasp on a wide area of pharmacological aspects, indicating possible unaccounted interactions and missing pharmacological properties that can lead to drug repositioning for the 15% drugs which seem to be inconsistent with the predicted property. Also, by using network centralities, we can rank drugs according to their interaction potential for both simple and complex multi-pathology therapies. Moreover, our clustering approach can be extended for applications such as analyzing drug-target interactions or phenotyping patients in personalized medicine applications. PMID:27599720

  1. Isoniazid-induced alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K. B.; Kumar, V.; Vishvkarma, S.; R Shandily

    2011-01-01

    Isoniazid is a safe and very effective antituberculosis drug. Antimitotic agents routinely cause alopecia. Drug-induced alopecia is usually reversible upon withdrawal of the drug. Isoniazid, thiacetazone and ethionamide are the antituberculosis drugs which have been associated with alopecia. Isoniazid-induced alopecia was observed in one case and confirmed by the finding that hair growth resumed when drug removed from the regimen.

  2. Designer drugs: the evolving science of drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, L A; DuBose, R F

    1998-07-01

    Drug discovery and design are fundamental to drug development. Until recently, most drugs were discovered through random screening or developed through molecular modification. New technologies are revolutionizing this phase of drug development. Rational drug design, using powerful computers and computational chemistry and employing X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship analysis, is creating highly specific, biologically active molecules by virtual reality modeling. Sophisticated screening technologies are eliminating all but the most active lead compounds. These new technologies promise more efficacious, safe, and cost-effective medications, while minimizing drug development time and maximizing profits. PMID:10185235

  3. Want Drugs? Use Python

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotka, Michał; Papadatos, George; Davies, Mark; Dedman, Nathan; Hersey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    We describe how Python can be leveraged to streamline the curation, modelling and dissemination of drug discovery data as well as the development of innovative, freely available tools for the related scientific community. We look at various examples, such as chemistry toolkits, machine-learning applications and web frameworks and show how Python can glue it all together to create efficient data science pipelines.

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring and drug-drug interactions involving antiretroviral drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffito, M.; Acosta, E.; Burger, D.M.; Fletcher, C.V.; Flexner, C.; Garaffo, R.; Gatti, G.; Kurowski, M.; Perno, C.F.; Peytavin, G.; Regazzi, M.; Back, D.

    2005-01-01

    The consensus of current international guidelines for the treatment of HIV infection is that data on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and protease inhibitors (Pls) provide a framework for the implementation of TDM in certain defined scenar

  5. Drug Education in Tune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Vietnam-era folk musician John Prine's song "Sam Stone" as an example of heroin-related musical lyricism. Notes the potential use of this and other songs as a teaching method in drug education programs. Notes that many researchers believe heroin addiction is a disease of biological irregularity encoded in the genes fueled by abuse of the…

  6. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  7. [Drug use and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. PMID:25956300

  8. Drug interactions with grapefruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Vladmila V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The concentration of many orally given medications may be affected by grapefruit or grapefruit juice consumption. It may result in numerous harmful effects. Interaction of grapefruit with drugs. Taking only one cup of juice may induce interactions with different drugs even during the period of a few days. The effect is induced by suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4 in the intestinal wall. The Latin name of grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, is quite opposite to the effects which could be induced by taking grapefruit and some medications at the same time. It is necessary to avoid taking grapefruit with the drugs whose pharmacokinetics could be altered by the active principles found in that fruit. Discussion. The coloured grapefruit contains less furanocoumarins, but there is no difference in induction and intensity of pharmacokinetic interaction with drugs related to its colour. Other citrus fruits (orange, lemon do not have such effects, but some other fruits (pomegranate, stella fruit, banpeiyu, hassaku, takaoka-buntan and kinkan exert inhibitory effects on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme.

  9. Antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, R G; Shear, N H

    1998-01-01

    The antiepileptic drug hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is an adverse drug reaction associated with the aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), and primidone. The syndrome is defined by the triad of fever, skin rash, and internal organ involvement. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides, dapsone, minocycline, terbinafine, azathioprine, and allopurinol. Diagnosis of AHS may be difficult because of the variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities and manifestations and because the syndrome may mimic infectious, neoplastic, or collagen vascular disorders. The incidence is approximately 1 in 3,000 exposures. AHS starts with fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy, within the first 2-8 weeks after initiation of therapy. Internal manifestations include, among others, agranulocytosis, hepatitis, nephritis, and myostitis. AHS is associated with a relative excess of reactive oxidative metabolites of the AED. Insufficient detoxification may lead to cell death or contribute to the formation of antigen that triggers an immune reaction. Crossreactivity among PHT, CBZ, and PB is as high as 70-80%. PMID:9798755

  10. Drug development and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  11. Drugs Used in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on drugs used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first.…

  12. Drug-resistant malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, John E

    2005-01-01

    In the past 21 years, a modest increase in the range of antimalarial drugs approved for clinical use has been complemented by a more impressive expansion in the analysis and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to these agents. Such resistance is a major factor in the increasing difficulty in controlling malaria, and important developments during this period are recounted here.

  13. Pharmacology of seizure drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubová, Hana

    Vol.2. Oxford : Academic Press, 2009 - (Schwartzkroin, P.), s. 780-786 ISBN 978-0-12-373688-8 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk ME08045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : seizure drug * epileptic seizure * postnataly development Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  14. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are common in later life. The Most Common Types of Drug and Substance Abuse Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications Abuse Among ... older population than in younger people. But, other types of substance abuse, such as inappropriate use of prescription and over- ...

  15. Drug-induced uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    London, Nikolas JS; Garg, Sunir J; Moorthy, Ramana S; Cunningham, Emmett T

    2013-01-01

    A number of medications have been associated with uveitis. This review highlights both well-established and recently reported systemic, topical, intraocular, and vaccine-associated causes of drug-induced uveitis, and assigns a quantitative score to each medication based upon criteria originally described by Naranjo and associates.

  16. Drugs in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottram, David

    2012-01-01

    Drugs may be used by athletes for a number of reasons, including performance enhancement. The role of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is vital to ensure a winning performance has been achieved by fair means. Substances and methods that are included on the WADA Prohibited List are described. The procedures for testing banned substances are…

  17. Prevention and Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…

  18. Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the epidemic of prescription drug overdose, especially in women, and what can be done about it.  Created: 7/2/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  19. Women and Drug Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Presents a feminist perspective which offers a social structural framework for examining women's problematic behavior in traditional gender roles. Examines implications for treatment of women with drug dependence problems including developing the helping agent's awareness of the pervasiveness of sexism and its potentially negative effects.…

  20. Antiepileptic drugs in neuroprotection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pitkanen, A.; Kubová, Hana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2004), s. 777-798. ISSN 1465-6566 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF6474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : antiepileptic drugs * anticonvulsant * epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Drug-induced renal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane Shahrbaf, Fatemeh; Assadi, Farahnak

    2015-01-01

    Drug-induced nephrotoxicity are more common among infants and young children and in certain clinical situations such as underlying renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Drugs can cause acute renal injury, intrarenal obstruction, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and acid-base and fluid electrolytes disorders. Certain drugs can cause alteration in intraglomerular hemodynamics, inflammatory changes in renal tubular cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI), tubulointerstitial disease and renal scarring. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity tends to occur more frequently in patients with intravascular volume depletion, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and sepsis. Therefore, early detection of drugs adverse effects is important to prevent progression to end-stage renal disease. Preventive measures requires knowledge of mechanisms of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, understanding patients and drug-related risk factors coupled with therapeutic intervention by correcting risk factors, assessing baseline renal function before initiation of therapy, adjusting the drug dosage and avoiding use of nephrotoxic drug combinations. PMID:26468475

  2. Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Hiasindh Ashmi; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health burden throughout the world. Resistance to the antimalarial drugs has increased the mortality and morbidity rate that is achieved so far through the malaria control program. Monitoring the drug resistance to the available antimalarial drugs helps to implement effective drug policy, through the in vivo efficacy studies, in vitro drug susceptibility tests and detection of molecular markers. It is important to understand the mechanism of the antimalarial drugs, as it is one of the key factors in the emergence and spread of drug resistance. This review summarizes the commonly used antimalarial drugs, their mechanism of action and the genetic markers validated so far for the detection of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:26998432

  3. Drug Information in Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, Tina M.

    2009-01-01

    Published drug information is widely available for terrestrial conditions. However, information on dosing, administration, drug interactions, stability, and side effects is scant as it relates to use in Space Medicine. Multinational crews on board the International Space Station present additional challenges for drug information because medication nomenclature, information available for the drug as well as the intended use for the drug is not standard across countries. This presentation will look at unique needs for drug information and how the information is managed in Space Medicine. A review was conducted of the drug information requests submitted to the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy by Space Medicine practitioners, astronaut crewmembers and researchers. The information requested was defined and cataloged. A list of references used was maintained. The wide range of information was identified. Due to the information needs for the medications in the on-board medical kits, the Drug Monograph Project was created. A standard method for answering specific drug information questions was generated and maintained by the Johnson Space Center Pharmacy. The Drug Monograph Project will be presented. Topic-centered requests, including multinational drug information, drug-induced adverse reactions, and medication events due to the environment will be highlighted. Information management of the drug information will be explained. Future considerations for drug information needs will be outlined.

  4. Monitoring drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buclin, Thierry; Gotta, Verena; Fuchs, Aline; Widmer, Nicolas; Aronson, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Drug development has improved over recent decades, with refinements in analytical techniques, population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling and simulation, and new biomarkers of efficacy and tolerability. Yet this progress has not yielded improvements in individualization of treatment and monitoring, owing to various obstacles: monitoring is complex and demanding, many monitoring procedures have been instituted without critical assessment of the underlying evidence and rationale, controlled clinical trials are sparse, monitoring procedures are poorly validated and both drug manufacturers and regulatory authorities take insufficient account of the importance of monitoring. Drug concentration and effect data should be increasingly collected, analyzed, aggregated and disseminated in forms suitable for prescribers, along with efficient monitoring tools and evidence-based recommendations regarding their best use. PK-PD observations should be collected for both novel and established critical drugs and applied to observational data, in order to establish whether monitoring would be suitable. Methods for aggregating PK-PD data in systematic reviews should be devised. Observational and intervention studies to evaluate monitoring procedures are needed. Miniaturized monitoring tests for delivery at the point of care should be developed and harnessed to closed-loop regulated drug delivery systems. Intelligent devices would enable unprecedented precision in the application of critical treatments, i.e. those with life-saving efficacy, narrow therapeutic margins and high interpatient variability. Pharmaceutical companies, regulatory agencies and academic clinical pharmacologists share the responsibility of leading such developments, in order to ensure that patients obtain the greatest benefit and suffer the least harm from their medicines. PMID:22360377

  5. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance. PMID:6110574

  6. Drug: D06798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06798 Crude, Drug Coix seed (JP16); Coix extract; Powdered coix seed (JP16); Coici...hinese medicine formulations D06798 Coix seed (JP16); Powdered coix seed (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine...06798 Coix seed (JP16); Powdered coix seed (JP16) 59 Other crude drugs and Chines... in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for dampness Diuretic drugs D06798 Coix seed; Coix extract; Powde...red coix seed; Coicis semen Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Monocot plants Poaceae (grass family) D06798 Coix seed PubChem: 47208449 ...

  7. Drug: D06779 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ypeucedanin [CPD:C09282], Xanthotoxin [CPD:C01864], Marmesin [CPD:C09276], Scopoletin [CPD:C01752], Anhydrob...:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D0...c drugs Diaphoretic drugs pungent in flavor and warm in property D06779 Angelica dahurica root; Angelica dah...alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C11391], delta3-Carene [CPD:C09839], alpha-Terpinene [CPD:C09898], Terpinolene [CPD:...C06075], 4-Vinylguaiacol [CPD:C17883], Isoelemicin [CPD:C16975], beta-Elemicin [CPD:C10451], Car

  8. Scaffold Repurposing of Old Drugs Towards New Cancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Wu, Jianlei; Gao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Zhou, Jia

    2016-01-01

    As commented by the Nobelist James Black that "The most fruitful basis of the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug", drug repurposing represents an attractive drug discovery strategy. Despite the success of several repurposed drugs on the market, the ultimate therapeutic potential of a large number of non-cancer drugs is hindered during their repositioning due to various issues including the limited efficacy and intellectual property. With the increasing knowledge about the pharmacological properties and newly identified targets, the scaffolds of the old drugs emerge as a great treasure-trove towards new cancer drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the development of novel small molecules for cancer therapy by scaffold repurposing with highlighted examples. The relevant strategies, advantages, challenges and future research directions associated with this approach are also discussed. PMID:26881709

  9. Transporters and drug-drug interactions: important determinants of drug disposition and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jörg; Müller, Fabian; Fromm, Martin F

    2013-07-01

    Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics. Available data on the impact of nutrition on transport processes as well as genotype-dependent, transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions will be discussed. We will also present and discuss data on the variable extent to which information on the impact of transporters on drug disposition is included in summaries of product characteristics of selected countries (SPCs). Further work is required regarding a better understanding of the role of the drug metabolism-drug transport interplay for drug-drug interactions and on the extrapolation of in vitro findings to the in vivo (human) situation. PMID:23686349

  10. Drug development in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Emma L; Passmore, Anthony P

    2013-11-01

    Dementia is a progressive, irreversible decline in cognition that, by definition, impacts on a patient's pre-existing level of functioning. The clinical syndrome of dementia has several aetiologies of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common. Drug development in AD is based on evolving pathophysiological theory. Disease modifying approaches include the targeting of amyloid processing, aggregation of tau, insulin signalling, neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter dysfunction, with efforts thus far yielding abandoned hopes and ongoing promise. Reflecting its dominance on the pathophysiological stage the amyloid cascade is central to many of the emerging drug therapies. The long preclinical phase of the disease requires robust biomarker means of identifying those at risk if timely intervention is to be possible. PMID:23707728

  11. Rhythmomimetic drug delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, M Carme; Siegel, Ronald A; Yao, Lingxing

    2015-01-01

    We present modeling, analysis and numerical simulation of a prototype glucose driven drug delivery device based on chemomechanical interactions and volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels. The device consists of two fluid compartments, an external cell (I) mimicking the physiological environment, and a closed chamber (II), separated by a hydrogel membrane. Cell I, which is held at constant pH and ionic strength, provides a constant supply of glucose to cell II, and also serves as clearance station for reaction products. Cell II contains the drug to be delivered to the body, an enzyme that catalyzes conversion of glucose into hydrogen ions, and a piece of marble to remove excess hydrogen ions that would otherwise overwhelm the system. When the membrane is swollen, glucose flux into Cell II is high, leading to rapid production of hydrogen ions. However, the hydrogen ions are not immediately released to Cell I but react, instead, with the negatively charged carboxyl groups of the membrane, which collaps...

  12. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  13. Drug: D10244 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABETES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS...ode: A10BD03 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABO

  14. Drug: D06970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  15. Drug: D07477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PLAIN A03BA Belladonna alkaloids, tertiary amines A03BA01 Atropine D07477 Atropine oxide (INN) USP drug clas...DRUGS FOR FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS A03B BELLADONNA AND DERIVATIVES,

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Methamphetamine increases brain viral load and activates natural killer cells in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. Am. ...

  18. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs Proton Pump Inhibitors (for gastroesophageal reflux disease) Beta-Blockers (for high blood pressure and heart disease) Drugs ... theorized — and evidence mounted from subsequent studies — that beta-blockers (such as propranolol and metoprolol) would be effective ...

  19. Drug: D00399 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alcium channel blocking drugs map07048 Antimigraines map00982 Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450 Anatomical T...te D00399 Valproic acid (USP) Antimigraine Agents Prophylactic Valproic acid D003

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link Between HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse ... Web site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborators Thanks to ...

  1. Drug: D04478 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04478 Drug Hydroxypropylcellulose (JP16); Hydroxypropyl cellulose (NF); Lacrisert (TN) Protecta ... aid [emulsifying agent]; Pharmaceutic aid [tablet coating ... agent] USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Ophtha ...

  2. Drug: D07012 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formula...4] Formulas Formulas for Qi Sedative formulas D07012 Chotosan PubChem: 51091354 ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  4. Drug: D02192 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02192 Drug Saccharin sodium hydrate (JP16); Saccharin sodium (USP); Sodium saccharin dihydrate; ... n hsa04973(80834+83756) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption ... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301 ...

  5. Drug: D00025 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00025 Drug Sucrose (JP16/NF); White soft sugar (JP16); Sugar, compressible (NF); Sugar, confect ... n hsa04973(80834+83756) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption ... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301 ...

  6. Drug: D05183 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05183 Drug Ulinastatin (JP16); Miraclid (TN) Protease inhibitor Therapeutic category: 3999 tryp ... sa04974(1504+5644+5645+5646) Protein digestion and absorption ... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301 ...

  7. Drug: D04000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04000 Drug Enlimomab (USAN/INN) Anti-inflammatory; Monoclonal antibody CD54 (ICAM-1) [HSA:3383] ... toxicity hsa04670(3383) Leukocyte transendothelial migration ... Target-based classification of drugs [BR:br08310] ...

  8. Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Part D Prescription Drug Benefit Manual (PDBM) is user guide to Part D Prescription Drug Program. It includes information on general provisions, benefits,...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  10. Drug: D07008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [DR:D06772] Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  11. Drug: D06928 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicine...s 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06928 Kakkontokasenkyushi

  12. Drug: D06964 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pancreatitis Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  13. Drug: D07033 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medi...cines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  14. Drug: D07053 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ... States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug abuse. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ...

  17. Drug: D04997 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 275.7286 D04997.gif Antihypertensive USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Alpha-adrene...D04997 Drug Methyldopate hydrochloride (USP); Aldomet (TN) C12H17NO4. HCl 275.0924

  18. Drug: D03238 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nts 234 Antacids 2343 Aluminum-containing agents D03238 Hydrotalcite (JAN/INN) Anat...07038 Antiulcer drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 23 Digestive organ age

  19. Drug: D06764 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06764 Crude, Drug Citrus unshiu peel (JP16); Powdered citrus unshiu peel (non-JP);... peel Major component: Hesperidin [CPD:C09755] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drug

  20. Drug: D06732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06732 Crude, Drug Cornus fruit (JP16); Powdered cornus fruit (non-JP); Corni fruct...r component: Loganin [CPD:C01433] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeutic

  1. Drug: D06711 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06711 Crude, Drug Schizonepeta spike (JP16); Powdered schizonepeta spike (non-JP);...mponent: (+)-Menthone [CPD:C11390] Powdered product: Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drugs Therapeuti

  2. Drug: D00956 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00956 Drug Nandrolone phenylpropionate (JAN); Nandrolone phenpropionate (USP); Durabolin (TN) C ... en receptor agonist [HSA:367] [KO:K08557] map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classi ...

  3. Drug: D07720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07720 Drug Clodronic acid disodium salt; Disodium clodronate; Clodronate disodium; Bonefos (TN) ... .gif Calcium regulating ATC code: M05BA02 map07047 Osteoporosis ... drugs Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classi ...

  4. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  5. Drug: D07000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese me...nal Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Diaphoretic formulas Diaphoretic dformula

  6. Drug: D02402 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP); Thallous chloride Tl 201 (TN) Tl. Cl 235.9397 239.8363 D02402.gif Diagnostic aid [radiopaque medium]; Radio...8301] 4 Agents affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  7. Drug: D02259 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 259.gif Antineoplastic; Diagnostic aid [thyroid function determination]; Radioactive agent [DS:H00032] Thera... affecting cellular function 43 Radioactive drugs 430 Radioactive drugs 4300 Radio

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug abuse and HIV. ...

  9. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  10. Drug: D00289 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tagonists Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 24 Hormones...drug classification [BR:br08302] Hormonal Agents, Stimulant/Replacement/Modifying (Sex Hormones/Modifiers) A

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drugs, which can alter judgment and inhibition and lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. ... Drug and alcohol intoxication affect judgment and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at ...

  12. Drug: D10234 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10234 Crude, Drug Agarwood (non-JP); Aquilariae resinatum lignum Essential oil, Benzylacetone, ... aria sinensis, Aquilaria filaria duramen deposited black ... resin; Standards for non-pharmacopoeial crude drug ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction ...

  14. Drug: D03270 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03270 Drug Calcium polystyrene sulfonate (JP16); Argamate (TN) Therapeutic category: 2190 ATC c ... ode: V03AE01 Calcium salt of sulfonated styrene polymer ... Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301 ...

  15. Drug: D10295 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10295 Mixture, Drug Mometasone furoate - formoterol fumarate mixt; Dulera (TN) (Mo... drugs, excl. anticholinergics R03AK09 Formoterol and mometasone D10295 Mometasone furoate - formoterol fumarate mixt PubChem: 163312326 ...

  16. Drug: D07044 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulat...ions 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  17. Drug: D06930 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pharyngodynia Therapeutic category: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine... formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  18. Drug: D06985 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tegory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicine...s 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D06985 Shosaikoto extract (J

  19. Drug: D06954 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gory: 5200 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulatio...ns 52 Traditional Chinese medicines 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicine

  20. Drug: D07010 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 52 Traditional Chinese medicine...s 520 Traditional Chinese medicines 5200 Traditional Chinese medicines D07010 Jizusoippo Traditional Chin