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Sample records for antimicrobiana pronares informe

  1. Actividad antimicrobiana de Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bella Cruz, Alexandre; Bella Cruz, Rosana Cé; Kanegusuku, Márcia; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Niero, Rivaldo

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluó la posible actividad antimicrobiana del extracto metanólico crudo (CE), de algunas fracciones, tales como hexano, acetato de etilo y butanol, así como de cuatro compuestos puros obtenidos de raíces de Rubus imperialis. Las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC) fueron determinadas usando el método de la dilución en agar. Los experimentos demostraron que el extracto y algunas fracciones exhibieron acción antimicrobiana, particularmente contra las bacterias Gram-po...

  2. Resistencia antimicrobiana en Hospitales nor-occidentales de Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Karen; Espinoza, Meylin; Mejía, Yaoli; Zambrana, Luis Enrrique; Silva, Erasmo; Rojas, Jency; Gadea, Walter; Chavarria, Sergio; Hernandez, Mario; Ramirez, María Mercedes; Membreño, Juana María; Lara, María Eugenia; Saenz, J. E.; Valle, S.; Torrez, A.

    2007-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha observado un incremento de la incidencia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana entre patógenos que causan infecciones intra-hospitalarias principalmente y también en la comunidad. La Resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema global de salud pública, promovido básicamente por el uso y abuso de los antibióticos. El fenómeno de la Resistencia antimicrobiana es un área prioritaria de investigación del Centro de investigación de enfermedades infecciosas y como parte de sus act...

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de Leonorus sibiricus L.

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    Nilsa S.Y. Wadt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie vegetal Leonurus sibiricus L. (Lamiaceae é utilizada pela população brasileira para os mais diversos fins, principalmente como anti-inflamatória. No presente trabalho é estudada a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcodico a 70% liofilizado (extrato bruto de Leonurus sibiricus L.O extrato foi testado frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans e Aspergillus niger, pela determinação da concentração minima inibitória, atraves do método de diluicão em tubos. O extrato bruto de Leonurus sibiricus L. inibiu o crescimento de Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  4. Microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of informally traded milk in Cruz das Almas county, Bahia Qualidade microbiológica e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana do leite in natura comercializado em Cruz das Almas, Bahia

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    Norma Suely Evangelista Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from raw milk obtained from 25 food stores in Cruz das Almas, Bahia were evaluated. The analysis included counts of mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, Staphylococcus spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms (at 35ºC and 45ºC, and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. The average count for mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, and coliforms at 35°C and 45°C were 1.6 x 109 CFU.mL-1, 9.6 x 104 CFU.mL-1, 3.8 x 108 CFU. mL-1, 4.0 x 105 MPN.mL-1 and 3.8 x 105 MPN.mL-1, respectively. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus was found in 44% of the samples (mean value of 7.3 x 105 CFU.mL-1, and E. coli was present in 76% of them. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. E. coli showed resistance (57.9% to tetracycline, to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (10.5%, and cephalotin (5.3%, while coagulase-positive Staphylococcus strains were resistant to amicacin (18% and vancomicin (18%. The raw milk besides to present poor microbiological quality, becoming a health risk of the consumers, it may contribute to the dissemination of resistant bacteria to various antimicrobial agents. Para a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura, bem como a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas, foram analisados 25 estabelecimentos comerciais em Cruz das Almas, Ba. Para isso realizou-se a quantificação de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos e psicrotróficos aeróbios, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, coliformes (35ºC e 45ºC e presença de Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. A contagem média de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos foi de 1,6 x 109 UFC.mL-1, psicrotróficos 9,6 x 104 UFC. mL-1, bolores e leveduras 3,8 x 108 UFC.mL-1, coliformes a 35°C 4 x 105 NMP.mL-1 e a 45°C 3,8 x 105 NMP.mL-1

  5. Actividad antimicrobiana de Verbesina encelioides Antimicrobial activity of Verbesina encelioides

    OpenAIRE

    M.S Toribio; D.S Oriani; Fernández, J G; Skliar, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. (Compuestas) es una especie ampliamente distribuida en la Argentina, que se conoce vulgarmente con el nombre de «girasolcito» o «mirasolcito del campo», debido a que presenta flores amarillas en capítulos terminales pedunculados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de esta especie frente a bacterias Gram positivas, Gram negativas y Candida albicans. Se utilizaron concentraciones crecientes del extracto vegetal par...

  6. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández; Senovio Avellaneda Saucedo; Armando Cuéllar Cuéllar; Beatriz Romeu Álvarez; Daysi Lugo Moya

    2009-01-01

    Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae) y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae). En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos prep...

  7. Atividade Antimicrobiana da Uncaria Tomentosa (Willd D. C.

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    Diego Silva e Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Uncaria tomentosa (Willd D. C. (unha de gato é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular, originária da Amazônia. Possui atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, antimutagênica e antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de U. tomentosa, seco e hidroalcoólico, obtido comercialmente, utilizando-se 12 cepas de microrganismos (6 Gram-positvas e 6 Gramnegativas. Os testes antimicrobianos foram realizados em ágar BHI pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Também foram determinadas a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Microbicida Mínima (CMM. Os testes demonstraram que os extratos inibiram o crescimento de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gramnegativas, sendo o extrato hidroalcoólico mais eficiente que o extrato seco. Conclui-se que o extrato de U. tomentosa possui atividade antimicrobiana podendo ser utilizado como uma alternativa terapêutica de baixo custo.

  8. Actividad antimicrobiana de Verbesina encelioides Antimicrobial activity of Verbesina encelioides

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    M.S Toribio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Verbesina encelioides (Cav. Benth. & Hook. (Compuestas es una especie ampliamente distribuida en la Argentina, que se conoce vulgarmente con el nombre de «girasolcito» o «mirasolcito del campo», debido a que presenta flores amarillas en capítulos terminales pedunculados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de esta especie frente a bacterias Gram positivas, Gram negativas y Candida albicans. Se utilizaron concentraciones crecientes del extracto vegetal para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM mediante el método de dilución en caldo y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM. Para la determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana, fueron utilizados los siguientes microorganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, Candida albicans. Los resultados obtenidos, bajo nuestras condiciones de trabajo, demuestran que el extracto metanólico de los capítulos de Verbesina encelioides presenta actividad antimicrobiana más notoria sobre microorganismos Gram positivos y Candida albicans que contra bacterias Gram negativas, no mostrando actividad contra Citrobacter freundii.Verbesina encelioides (Cav. Benth. & Hook. (Compositae is a species broadly distributed in Argentina commonly known as «girasolcito» or «mirasolcito del campo» because it presents yellow flowers in pedunculate terminal heads. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of this species against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. Increasing concentrations of the vegetable extract were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by means of dilution in culture broth method, and the minimum bactericide concentration (MBC. To determine the antimicrobial activity, the following microorganisms were used

  9. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

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    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae. En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos preparados con las raíces de ambas plantas. A estos extractos, se les determinó el rendimiento de sólidos solubles totales y se les realizó el análisis fitoquímico general. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó frente a 25 cultivos bacterianos, dos cepas de hongos filamentosos y 13 cepas de siete especies de levaduras del género Candida. En ambas plantas, los extractos etanólicos tuvieron mayor actividad que los acuosos. Los extractos etanólicos de estas especies vegetales afectaron el crecimiento de siete cepas bacterianas, lo cual correspondió al 28 % de los cultivos evaluados. Esta actividad fue bacteriostática y bactericida para los dos extractos, a los que se les determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitoria (CMI y Bactericida (CMB frente a los cultivos sensibles. Solo se detectó actividad antifúngica por el extracto de W. indica sobre la cepa de C. utilis. La acción sobre bacterias enteropatógenas in vitro valida el uso de estas plantas en medicina tradicional y reafirma la necesidad de estudios toxicológicos para asegurar la inocuidad de su uso.

  10. Avaliação in vitro das propriedades antimicrobianas de vasopressores

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    Habib Bostan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: os medicamentos administrados como perfusão intravenosa podem ser contaminados durante as várias etapas de produção ou preparação. No entanto, estudos sobre os efeitos antibacterianos de vasopressores são muito raros. Este estudo investiga a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro das formas de vasopressores usados clinicamente. Materiais e métodos: atividades antimicrobianas in vitro de substâncias vasopressoras de diferentes concentrações foram investigadas com o uso da técnica de microdiluição. Os microrganismos empregados no teste foram: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ATCC 911, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 43251, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus 702 Roma, Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae RSKK 251. Os ensaios antibacterianos foram feitos em caldo de cultura Mueller-Hinton (pH 7,3 e os ensaios antifúngicos em solução tampão de base nitrogenada para levedura (pH 7,0. Resultados: duas preparações diferentes de dopamina mostraram atividade antimicrobiana. Nenhuma outra substância do estudo mostrou qualquer atividade antimicrobiana. Conclusões: em nossa opinião, os efeitos antibacterianos da dopamina podem ser vantajosos para inibir a propagação de contaminação bacteriana durante a preparação das soluções para perfusão. Contudo, salientamos a importância do seguimento rigoroso das diretrizes de esterilização dos equipamentos e de assepsia durante todos os procedimentos feitos em unidades de terapia intensiva.

  11. Acción antimicrobiana in vitro de distintas medicaciones sobre Enterococcus faecalis y Actinomyces israelii

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Varo, L.; Pumarola Suñé, José; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo: Se comparó in vitro la acción antimicrobiana de diversas medicaciones intraconducto frente a Enterococcus faecalis y Actinomyces israelii. Material y métodos: para evaluar las zonas de inhibición microbiana se utilizó el test de difusión en agar frente a diversas pastas, incluyendo una pasta con base de metronidazol (Grinazole ®), una pasta con base de dexametasona, tiretrocina, polimixana y neomicina (Septomixine forte ®) y otra de hidróxido de calciio (Calcipulpe ®) y paroclorofen...

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana de compostos fenólicos do Líquen heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Emerson Peter da Silva; Silva, Nicácio Henrique da; Gusmão, Norma Buarque; Ribeiro, Sheyla M.; Honda, Neli Kika; Pereira, Eugênia Cristina Gonçalves

    2002-01-01

    Ensaios de atividade antimicrobiana com extratos orgânicos de Heterodermia leucomela (L.) Poelt, procedente de região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil (caatinga), revelaram ação destes contra bactérias Gram positivas, notadamente Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus subtilis. Tais microrganismos foram submetidos a ensaios de biocromatografia, onde foi possível indicar a atranorina e zeorina, substâncias identificadas por técnicas cromatográficas e espectroscópicas, como princípios ativos da espéc...

  13. Análise da atividade antimicrobiana das folhas de Davilla elliptica St.-Hil. (Dilleniaceae)

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    Marília Luz Soares; Keila de Góes Louly Bustamante; Adda Daniela Lima Figueiredo; Fabiana Cristina Pimenta; Tatiana de Souza Fiuza; Maria Teresa Freitas Bara; Leonice Manrique Faustino Tresvenzol; José Realino de Paula

    2009-01-01

    Davilla elliptica St.-Hil. (Dilleniaceae) é um arbusto, usado popularmente como adstringente, tônico, sedativo, diurético, no tratamento de hemorróidas, hérnia e em aplicações tópicas como anti-séptico na limpeza de ferimentos. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos brutos das folhas de D. elliptica coletadas em Alexânia e Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. Os extratos etanólicos brutos foram obtidos, por maceração a frio, a partir das folhas desse...

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias lácticas de embutidos curados frente a Listeria monocytogenes

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    Prado C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cepas de bactérias lácticas recuperadas de 336 colônias isoladas e selecionadas foram submetidas ao teste de atividade antimicrobiana direta, que identificou as produtoras de substâncias antimicrobianas capazes de inibir in vitro o desenvolvimento de duas cepas indicadoras de Listeria monocytogenes. As 108 cepas que inibiram diretamente pelo menos uma das cepas indicadoras receberam a denominação DTEI e foram selecionadas para o teste de atividade antimicrobiana indireta contra as mesmas cepas de L. monocytogenes, assim como frente a outras cepas de bactérias lácticas de origens diversas. Essa atividade inibidora indireta foi avaliada por meio de sobrenadantes isentos de células, esterilizados por meio de microfiltração, eliminando-se os principais compostos responsáveis por ela, como por exemplo os ácidos orgânicos e o peróxido de hidrogênio, mediante o ajuste do pH e a liofilização dos sobrenadantes. Oito cepas de bactérias lácticas apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana indireta frente a pelo menos um dos microrganismos indicadores utilizados, sugerindo terem produzido substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas. Três destas cepas foram caracterizadas e identificadas como pertencentes ao gênero Lactobacillus sp.

  15. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  16. Resistência antimicrobiana em Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isolados de carcaças de frango

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    Ana Claudia F. Borges de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o isolamento e analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de Enterococcus de carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas comercializadas no Distrito Federal, detectando genes de resistência antimicrobiana e identificando as espécies Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium por reação polimerase em cadeia. Foram analisadas 100 carcaças de frangos, das quais foram isoladas 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp., sendo 42% de E. faecalis e 2% de E. faecium. O teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana demonstrou que todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um antimicrobiano, dos quais 90,47% das cepas de E. faecalis, 100% das cepas de E. Faecium e 82,14% dos Enterococcus spp. apresentaram resistência à Tetraciclina; 80,95% das cepas de E. faecalis e 35,71% das cepas de Enterococcus spp. foram resistentes à Eritromicina; 39,28% dos Enterococcus spp. e 23,80% dos E. faecalis à Ciprofloxacina e 28,57% dos E. faecalis apresentaram resistência ao Cloranfenicol. Foram detectados os genes de resistência antimicrobiana erm(B, vanC-1, aph(3'-llla, ant(6-la, vanB, vanA, aac(6'-le-aph(2''-la, erm(A e tet(M - este último mais frequente. Estes resultados sugerem sérios problemas para a Saúde Pública, uma vez que esses microrganismos podem possuir a capacidade de transmitir genes de resistência antimicrobiana para outros microrganismos presentes na microbiota intestinal de humanos e animais, podendo inviabilizar o uso destas drogas para tratamentos clínicos.

  17. CONSTITUYENTES NO POLARES DE LA CORTEZA DE Esenbeckia alata Y ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA

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    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanonaaislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina,la amida pellitonina y sitosterol.La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR, UV, RMN 1H y 13C y EM.Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana del extracto de éter de petróleo de E. alata, de algunas fracciones de ésta, y del lignano obtenido, presentando resultados significativos frente algunas cepas bacterianas Gram positivas y Gram negativas.

  18. Avaliação in vitro das características antimicrobianas de sugamadex

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    Volkan Hanci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: os medicamentos administrados por via intravenosa podem ser contaminados durante as várias fases de produção ou preparação. Sugamadex é uma gama-ciclodextrina modificada. Embora muitas pesquisas sobre os efeitos antibacterianos de uma variedade de ciclodextrinas estejam disponíveis, não há estudos dos efeitos antibacterianos de sugamadex. Este estudo investigou a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de sugamadex. Materiais e métodos: a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de sugamadex foi investigada pelo método de microdiluição em meio de cultura. O pH da solução de ensaio foi determinado com o uso de um medidor de pH. Os microrganismos-teste analisados incluíram Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Na segunda fase do estudo, 100 mg/mL de sugamadex (50 μg foram contaminados com microrganismos-teste (50 μg, incluindo S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. fecalis ATCC 29212, E. coli ATCC 25922 e P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, incubados por 24 horas e, em seguida, a produção bacteriana foi avaliada. Resultados: o pH das soluções da análise variaram entre 7,25 e 6,97. Com o uso do método de microdiluição, sugamadex não apresentou efeito antibacteriano contra S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli e P. aeruginosa em qualquer concentração. Na segunda fase do estudo, a produção bacteriana foi observada após 24 horas em 100 mg/mL de sugamadex contaminados com os microrganismos-teste S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.

  19. Análise da ação antimicrobiana de cremes dentais infantis do mercado brasileiro

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    Maria Laiz Moreira de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de cremes dentais infantis do mercado brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo laboratorial realizado em uma universidade de Fortaleza/CE, em 2014, utilizou 12 placas de Petri com meios de cultura Muller Hinton para Streptococcus mutans e Agar Sabouraud para Candida albicans, nas quais poços contendo quantidades iguais de cremes dentais (Tandy®, Colgate Barbie®, Oral B Stages®, Bitufo Ben 10®, Even Mônica®, Boni Looney Tunes® com flúor, Malvatrikids Baby®, Condor Tigor®, Even Baby®, Bitufo Cocoricó® e Sanifil Fase 1® sem flúor foram semeados e incubados com Streotococcus mutans em jarra de anaerobiose, ambos em estufa bacteriológica a 37°C, por 48 horas. Após esse período, analisou-se a formação ou não de halos de inibição, que representa a ação antimicrobiana. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos dos cremes dentais fluoretados e não fluoretados apresentaram diferenças discretas de medidas de halos de inibição entre si, mas os fluoretados mostraram atividade antimicrobiana contra as cepas avaliadas. Malvatrikids Baby®, Even Baby® e Sanifil Fase 1® não mostraram atividade contra Streptococcus mutans e somente o Sanifil Fase 1® não apresentou contra Candida albicans. Conclusão: Todos os cremes dentais fluoretados avaliados e dois sem flúor (Condor Tigor® e Bitufo Cocoricó® apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra as cepas avaliadas.

  20. Actividad antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa y sus metabolitos frente a Escherichia coli y Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    Liliana Serna Cock

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Antimicrobial activity of Weissella confuse and its metabolites against Escherichia coli and  Klebsiella pneumoniaeResumen: Con el fin evaluar el campo de aplicación potencial de una bacteria ácido láctica y de sus metabolitos, se realizó la cinética de la actividad antimicrobiana de W. confusa y de sus  metabolitos contra E. coli, y K. pneumoniae, dos patógenos causantes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. La producción de W. confusa se realizó por fermentación discontinua en sustrato comercial MRS. Se realizaron tres fermentaciones durante 6 horas, sin aireación, agitación continúa 33°C y 100 rpm. Cada hora de fermentación se separaron tres sustancias biológicas, W. confusa con sus metabolitos (W+W10b, células de W. confusa libres de metabolitos (W y metabolito (W10b y se midió la actividad antimicrobiana contra los patógenos E. coli, y K. pneumoniae. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre tratamientos y tiempo de fermentación. Para E. coli el tratamiento W presentó la mayor actividad antimicrobiana, la cual se obtuvo entre la cuarta y sexta hora de fermentación (2.45 cm de diámetro promedio de inhibición. Para K. pneumoniae, los tratamientos W y W+W10b presentaron actividad antimicrobiana entre la cuarta y quinta hora de fermentación, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos. W. confusa y el metabolito W10b demostraron poseer capacidad antimicrobiana contra E. coli y K. pneumoniae, lo cual sugiere que W. confusa y W10b podrían utilizarse como alternativa de bioconservación o bioprotección de alimentos frescos y procesados, para alimentación humana y animal; y podría convertirse en una alternativa al uso de antibióticos para enfermedades causadas por E. coli y K. pneumoniae.Palabras clave: bioconservación, alimentos, enfermedades, aplicaciones biotecnológicas.Summary: The kinetic of antimicrobial activity ofWeissella confusa

  1. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) e Mentha x villosa (Huds.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Correia Freitas; Rhuanna Rackel de Sá Azevedo; Larissa Isabela Oliveira Souza; Thiago José Matos Rocha; Aldenir Feitosa dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour.) e Mentha x villosa (Huds). A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia ...

  2. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

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    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  3. Actividad antimicrobiana y examen fitoquímico preliminar de siete angiospermas y una muestra de propóleo

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    Sanabria Galindo, Antonio; Cárdenas, Luz Adriana; Parroquiano, Mary Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Mediante la Concentración Crítica (C.C.) se determinó la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos etanólicos de Chromolaena odorata, Mangifera indica, Sida rhombifolia, Equisetum bogotense, Thymus vulgaris, Musa paradisiaca, Phytolacca bogotensis y una muestra de propóleo frente a dos bacterias Gram(+), tres Gram(-), una levadura y tres hongos filamentosos.  Se encontró que el propóleo, C. odorata y E. bogotense tienen una potente actividad frente a las bacterias Gram(+) (C.C. entre 10 y 175...

  4. Bioprospecção de atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae)

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    T. M. Souza; J. A. SEVERI; V. Y.A. SILVA; Santos, E.; Pietro, R. C. L. R.

    2009-01-01

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a classe de metabólitos secundários responsável pela atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos da casca de Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville (Leguminosae-Mimosoidae), planta amplamente utilizada medicinalmente pela população. Foram obtidos extratos da casca utilizando etanol 50%, etanol 70%, acetona:água...

  5. Evidenciadores de biofilme em prótese total: avaliação clínica e antimicrobiana

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    Silva Cláudia Helena Lovato da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a capacidade em corar, a facilidade de remoção e a ação antimicrobiana de evidenciadores de biofilme dental em prótese total. A capacidade em corar foi avaliada por método visual aplicando-se evidenciadores sobre a superfície interna da prótese total superior. Após fotografia, as próteses coradas foram escovadas (escova e dentifrício específicos para prótese total e novamente fotografadas. Os diapositivos foram projetados em folhas de papel (aumento de 10 X; as áreas total e corada das próteses contornadas com grafite, recortadas e pesadas, para obtenção, em porcentagem, dos resultados da facilidade de remoção. A ação antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar e os resultados obtidos pela medida dos aros e halos de inibição formados. A melhor capacidade em corar foi apresentada pelo azul de metileno (0,05%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresceína sódica (1%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. Eosina (1%, fluoresceína sódica (1% e eritrosina (5% apresentaram a maior facilidade de remoção. Não apresentaram ação antimicrobiana eosina (1%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresceína sódica (1%, proflavina (0,3%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. As soluções que apresentaram maior capacidade de corar, facilidade de remoção e ausência de ação antimicrobiana, requisitos necessários para auxiliar estudos que avaliam métodos de higiene e de orientação aos pacientes, foram eosina (1%, vermelho neutro (1% e eritrosina (5%.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) leaves extract Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato das folhas de Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae)

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    Guilherme Ferreira de Oliveira; Niege Araçari Jacometti Cardoso Furtado; Ademar Alves da Silva Filho; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins; Jairo Kenupp Bastos; Wilson Roberto Cunha; Márcio Luís Andrade e Silva

    2007-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini leaves extract, known as "jambolão", was evaluated. The crude hydroalcoholic extract was active against Candida krusei (inhibition zone of 14.7 ± 0.3 mm and MIC = 70 µg/mL), and against multi-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato das folhas de Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae), conhecido como "jambolão", foi avaliada. O extrato hidroalcoólico mostrou atividade c...

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato bruto de Açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) em isolados clínicos

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    Alves, Maria José; Pimentel, Maria Helena; Baía, Lilia; Soares, Rafaela; Santos, Claudia; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de açaí (Euterpe Oleracea Mart.) em isolados clínicos com elevados perfis de resistência a diferentes antimicrobianos provenientes do Centro Hospitalar de Trás – os – Montes e Alto Douro – Unidade de Vila Real. A concentração mínima inibitória (CMI) foi determinada utilizando o ensaio colorimétrico rápido que utiliza o corante cloreto de p-iodonitrotetrazólio (INT) após já ter sido efetuado ...

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana dos frutos de Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera Antimicrobial activity of Syagrus oleracea and Mauritia vinifera fruits

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    C. S. SILVEIRA; C.M. Pessanha; M.C.S. Lourenço; I. Neves Junior; F.S. Menezes; M.A.C. Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    As espécies pertencentes à família Palmae são muito interessantes do ponto de vista químico e farmacológico. Neste trabalho, foram estudados os frutos de duas espécies da família Palmae, Syagrus oleracea e Mauritia vinifera. Essas palmeiras foram escolhidas por serem espécies brasileiras, abundantes em nosso país, utilizadas popularmente no tratamento de algumas doenças e ainda pouco estudadas. Foram realizados ensaios farmacológicos para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos...

  9. Análise fitoquímica e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de diferentes tipos de extratos de Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae

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    Paulo Augusto Oliveira VENTURA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major L. é uma planta oriunda do continente europeu, utilizada para fins medicinais. Apresenta atividade hematopoiética, atividade no tratamento de leucemias, carcinomas e contra vírus, bem como atividade antiparasitária, diurética, hepatoprotetora e anti-inflamatória. O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil fitoquímico dos extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico das folhas de Plantago major L., como também a ação antimicrobiana frente a bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. Os resultados obtidos na análise fitoquímica demonstraram a presença de taninos, saponinas, alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos e glicosídeos. A análise antimicrobiana mostrou que os extratos etanólico e hidroalcoólico de Plantago major L. possuem ação antimicrobiana frente ao Staphylococcus aureus, por meio da atuação de metabólitos bioativos com ação antimicrobiana, tais como taninos e flavonoides, o que torna Plantago major L. um possível candidato à obtenção de um novo fitoterápico.

  10. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  11. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de regiones endémicas de la Enfermedad de Carrión en EL Perú

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    Giovanna Mendoza-Mujica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana de Senecio heterotrichius DC. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of Senecio heterotrichius DC.

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    Leandro Nicolodi Francescato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é relatada a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos diclorometânico e etanólico, obtidos por maceração das partes aéreas de S. heterotrichius pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, frente a patógenos bacterianos e fúngicos. O extrato diclorometânico evidenciou boa atividade inibitória frente a Candida krusei (CIM de 0,25 mg/mL e moderada atividade frente a Staphylococcus aureus (CIM de 2,5 mg/mL. O extrato etanólico mostrou-se inativo frente aos microrganismos testados. Também foi isolado o constituinte majoritário do extrato diclorometânico, cuja análise espectroscópica indicou tratar-se de um sesquiterpeno, identificado como germacreno D.This work describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of CH2Cl2 and EtOH extracts obtained by the maceration of the aerial parts of Senecio heterotrichius DC. against bacterial and fungal pathogens by broth microdilution method. The CH2Cl2 extract showed the best activity against Candida krusei (MIC 0.25 mg/mL and a moderate activity against Staphyllococcus aureus (MIC 2.5 mg/mL. The EtOH extract was inactive against the tested microorganisms. Besides, one of the main constituents of CH2Cl2 extract was isolated, and its spectroscopic analysis indicated the presence of a sesquiterpene identified as germacrene D.

  13. Resistência antimicrobiana associada em isolados clínicos de Enterococcus spp

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    Cláudia Castelo Branco Artiaga Kobayashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento da prevalência de isolados de enterococos em hospitais, particularmente Enterococcus resistente à vancomicina (VRE, é importante por causa da limitada terapia antimicrobiana efetiva para o tratamento de infecções enterocócicas. MÉTODOS: O presente trabalho apresentou uma investigação retrospectiva de dados de suscetibilidade in vitro quantitativa para uma variedade de antimicrobianos frente aos isolados de Enterococcus spp. e avaliação da associação de resistência entre os agentes antimicrobianos apontados como escolha para o tratamento de infecções causadas por VRE, através do cálculo do risco relativo. RESULTADOS: Dos 156 isolados de enterococos, 40 (25,6% foram resistentes a três ou mais antimicrobianos, incluindo 7,7% (n = 12/156 resistentes à vancomicina. A associação de resistência elevada foi mais pronunciada entre os isolados de VREs com antimicrobianos alternativos e primários para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estes patógenos, incluindo ampicilina (100%, RR = 7,2, estreptomicina (90,9%, RR = 4,9, rifampicina (91,7%, RR = 3,1 e linezolida (50%, RR = 11,5, apesar da alta taxa de suscetibilidade a esta droga (94,9%. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência associada significativa aos antimicrobianos de primeira escolha e alternativos, usados no tratamento de infecções graves por cepas com o fenótipo VRE e que requerem um regime terapêutico combinado, evidencia alternativas terapêuticas ainda mais limitadas na instituição analisada.

  14. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp aislada de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano

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    Adriana Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar la información disponible sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella spp de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en América Latina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales realizados en América Latina entre los años 2003 y 2014 en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS. Se excluyeron estudios realizados como parte de estudio de brotes o casos de infecciones en humanos. Tres revisores de forma independiente participaron en la selección de estudios. Además, se realizó la evaluación de calidad a los estudios incluidos. Resultados. Un total de 25 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Brasil, México, Colombia, Argentina y Venezuela. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp se obtuvieron principalmente de alimentos de origen avícola, porcino y vacuno, siendo Salmonella typhimurium y Salmonella enteritidis los serotipos que se aislaron con mayor frecuencia (17 y 11 estudios, respectivamente. En 23 de los estudios, Salmonella spp fue resistente a más de un antibiótico, incluyendo ácido nalidíxico, estreptomicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas. Conclusiones. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp obtenidos de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en los países analizados presentan con frecuencia resistencia a múltiples antibióticos. Es importante que más países en América Latina realicen y publiquen estudios sobre la resistencia de Salmonella spp para establecer y monitorear estrategias de control adecuadas.

  15. Atividade Antinociceptiva e Antimicrobiana da Casca do Caule de Psidium Cattleyanum Sabine

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    F.Q. ALVARENDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, conhecida como “araçá”, é espécie nativa do Bioma Cerrado brasileiro comumente utilizado, segundo levantamento etnobotânico, como planta medicinal para tratar várias doenças tais como: patologias hepáticas, gástricas, lesões teciduais incluindo processos dolorosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a triagem fitoquímica com propósito exploratório, investigar a atividade analgésica e antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule de Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (ECPCS para apoiar o uso dessa espécie como planta medicinal. Para isso, foram obtidos extratos e frações com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e isobutanol avaliando-se o perfil fitoquímico para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie. Investigou-se a atividade analgésica pelo teste de contorções abdominais em camundongos induzidas pelo ácido acético (0,6%. A Concentração Inibitória Mínina (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM foram avaliadas através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo contra micro-organismos da microbiota oral. A triagem fitoquímica identificou a presença de taninos, saponinas, flavonoides e terpenos e/ou esteroides. O ECPCS exibiu atividade analgésica periférica nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O EAC (extrato acetato de casca o EDC (extrato diclorometânico de casca desempenharam melhor ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano de Estafilococos oralis com CIM 100 e 150 respectivamente. O ECPCS desempenhou ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano. Os resultados dos estudos experimentais comprovaram a presença de compostos secundários tais como, taninos e flavonoides, o que, provavelmente, pode ser associado à atividade analgésica e ao efeito inibitório sobre os micro-organismos testados com o ECPCS, o que justifica o uso medicinal planta.

  16. Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus spp. isolados de cães com pioderma superficial

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    Ana Paula da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas 154 amostras de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia Veterinária do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, com o objetivo de determinar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e avaliar a presença de multirresistência. Após isolamento e identificação, as cepas foram submetidas ao teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, cujos resultados evidenciaram menores percentuais de resistência à associação amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico (1,9%, cefadroxil (1,9%, cefalexina (1,9% e vancomicina (0,6%. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram frente à amoxicilina (60,4% e penicilina G (60,4%. A multirresistência foi detectada em 23,4% e a resistência à meticilina em 5,8% das amostras. Pode-se concluir que os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. apresentam elevada suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no tratamento dos piodermas superficiais em cães atendidos no HVU-UFSM, como a cefalexina e a amoxicilina associada ao ácido clavulânico, confirmando a eleição desses fármacos para o tratamento de cães com esta afecção. A suscetibilidade diminuída das cepas frente às fluoroquinolonas, também recomendadas pela literatura para o tratamento de pioderma, permite sugerir que estes fármacos não devem mais ser considerados na seleção empírica. A identificação de Staphylococcus spp. multirresistentes na população canina estudada justifica análises bacteriológicas periódicas e regionais de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial, a fim de minimizar a seleção de bactérias resistentes, possíveis falhas terapêuticas e também motiva a antimicrobianoterapia prudente.

  17. Estudio del efecto de una película antimicrobiana en la vida útil del queso Costeño

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    Margarita Rosa Arteaga Márquez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una película antimicrobiana en la vida útil del queso Costeño elaborado a diferentes concentraciones de cloruro de sodio (2,5 % p/p sin cubrimiento de película; 2,5 y 3,0 % p/p cubierto con película antimicrobiana, almacenado (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 días a temperaturas de 12 ± 1 ºC y 28 ± 2 ºC. El principio activo fue nisina (16 mg/100 mL de solución. Se realizaron análisis químicos (pH, acidez titulable, materia grasa y humedad, microbiológicos (recuentos de coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus coagulasa positiva, detección de Salmonella y recuento de mohos y levaduras y sensoriales (pruebas de ordenación por atributos y de escala hedónica. Los resultados mostraron que para los quesos almacenados a 12 ± 1 ºC, no hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas en el comportamiento del pH, y para la acidez se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas los días 15, 20, 25 y 30. Respecto al contenido de cloruro de sodio se obtuvo mayor pérdida de humedad y aumento en el contenido de materia grasa con diferencias estadísticas significativas los días 30 y 5 para los quesos almacenados a 12 ± 1 ºC y 28 ± 2 ºC, respectivamente. La temperatura a 12 ± 1 ºC fue el factor más influyente en la conservación del queso. Los tratamientos con cubrimiento de película fueron aceptados sensorialmente durante los 30 días de estudio y hubo diferencia respecto al sabor los días 20 al 30. El tratamiento control presentó crecimiento visible de mohos y levaduras el día 15. La película antimicrobiana ejerció un efecto inhibitorio sobre Staphyloccocus aureus coagulasa positiva en los quesos.

  18. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

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    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  19. Susceptibilidad in vitro de Arcobacter butzleri a seis drogas antimicrobianas In vitro susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri to six antimicrobial drugs

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    L. Otth

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad de 50 cepas de A. butzleri mediante el método del E-test. Ninguna cepa fue resistente a gentamicina y tetraciclina, pero, hubo cepas resistentes a eritromicina (2% y ciprofloxacina (2%. Además, el 90 y el 98% de las cepas fueron resistentes a ampicilina y cloramfenicol respectivamente. Solamente dos de las 45 cepas ampicilina-resistentes fueron productoras de ß-lactamasa. Palabras clave: Arcobacter butzleri, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, bacterias emergentes, E-test, ß-lactamasaThe susceptibility patterns of 50 A. butzleri strains to six antimicrobial agents were determined using the E-test method. No strain was found to be resistant to gentamicin and tetracycline, but two different strains (2% were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Ninety and 98% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, respectively. Only two of the 45 ampicillin resistant strains were able to produce ß-lactamase.

  20. Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos hidroetanólicos de limoncillo (Cymbopogon citratus y cúrcuma (Curcuma longa

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    Ana Silvia Falco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de plantas se han convertido en potenciales alternativas tanto para la industria de medicamentos como para la alimentaria debido a la actividad antioxidante de los compuestos naturales y al desarrollo de multirresistencia por parte de los microorganismos a los conservantes y antibióticos de uso común. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en evaluar la capacidad antimicrobiana de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de limoncillo y cúrcuma frente a Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces sake y Aspergillus oryzae. El extracto de cúrcuma presentó elevada actividad bactericida y antifúngica a concentraciones de 3,11 y 5,65 mg ácido gálico/mL extracto.

  1. Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos hidroetanólicos de limoncillo (Cymbopogon citratus y cúrcuma (Curcuma longa

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    Ana Silvia Falco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de plantas se han convertido en potenciales alternativas tanto para la industria de medicamentos como para la alimentaria debido a la actividad antioxidante de los compuestos naturales y al desarrollo de multirresistencia por parte de los microorganismos a los conservantes y antibióticos de uso común. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en evaluar la capacidad antimicrobiana de los extractos hidroalcohólicos de limoncillo y cúrcuma frente a Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces sake y Aspergillus oryzae. El extracto de cúrcuma presentó elevada actividad bactericida y antifúngica a concentraciones de 3,11 y 5,65 mg ácido gálico/mL extracto.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae leaves extract Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato das folhas de Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae

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    Guilherme Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini leaves extract, known as "jambolão", was evaluated. The crude hydroalcoholic extract was active against Candida krusei (inhibition zone of 14.7 ± 0.3 mm and MIC = 70 µg/mL, and against multi-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato das folhas de Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae, conhecido como "jambolão", foi avaliada. O extrato hidroalcoólico mostrou atividade contra Candida krusei (halo de inibição de 14.7 ± 0.3 mm e CIM = 70 µg/mL e cepas multiresistentes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de própolis de Apis mellifera obtidas em três regiões do Brasil

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    Fernandes Júnior Ary

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As propriedades biológicas da própolis de Apis mellifera são amplamente relatadas sendo comuns variações nas mesmas em função da região onde foram produzidas. A ação antimicrobiana de própolis obtidas em três regiões do Brasil (Botucatu-SP, Mossoró-RN e Urubici-SC foi investigada sobre linhagens isoladas de infecções clínicas humanas (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans. Foram preparados extratos alcoólicos de própolis (EAP e determinada a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM seguida do cálculo da CIM90%. A própolis de Botucatu foi a mais eficiente sobre S. aureus (0,3%v/v, Enterococcus sp (1,1%v/v e C. albicans (2,1% v/v. Para E. coli, a própolis eficiente foi de Urubici (7,0%v/v e para P. aeruginosa a de Mossoró (5,3%v/v. Os resultados mostram maior sensibilidade das bactérias Gram positivas e levedura em relação às Gram negativas. É possível concluir que, para os microrganismos testados e amostras de própolis testadas, há diferenças na atividade antimicrobiana em função do local de produção e que isso se explica pela diferença de composição química da própolis.

  4. Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la melanina purificada, a partir de la tinta de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

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    Marco Vega Petkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.

  5. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana das partes aéreas (folhas e caules e raízes de Richardia brasiliensis Gomez (Rubiaceae

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    Adda Daniela Lima Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Richardia brasiliensis é uma planta utilizada popularmente como expectorante, emética, diaforética, vermífuga e para o tratamento de hemorróidas. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar a ação antimicrobiana do extrato bruto das partes aéreas e raízes de R. brasiliensis. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir do material botânico dessecado e pulverizado. O pó das partes aéreas e raízes foram submetidos à triagem fitoquímica. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada contra bactérias Gram-positivas esporuladas e não esporuladas, Gramnegativas e a levedura Candida albicans através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima por diluição em ágar empregando-se o inoculador de Steers. A triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de esteróides, triterpenóides, cumarinas, resinas, alcalóides e flavonóides. A CIM do extrato das partes aéreas variou de 0,37 a 0,74 mg/mL e das raízes de 0,74 a 11,9 mg/ mL. Concluiu-se que tanto o extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas quanto das raízes apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. CIM. Plantas medicinais.

  6. Profilaxia antimicrobiana na cirurgia bariátrica Antibiotic prophylaxis in bariatric surgery

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    Álvaro Antonio Bandeira Ferraz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da incidência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico com três diferentes esquemas antimicrobianos. MÉTODO: No período de Janeiro de 1999 a Dezembro de 2004 foram realizadas 716 cirurgias para o tratamento da Obesidade mórbida, seguindo a técnica proposta por Fobi/Capella. Foram estudados comparativamente três grupos de pacientes: Grupo I - (185 em que foi realizada a profilaxia antimicrobiana com ampicilina/sulbactam, na dose de 3g em duas doses; Grupo II (280 em que a profilaxia foi com ceftriaxona na dose de 1g (dose única; e Grupo III (251 em que a profilaxia foi com ertapenem, na dose de 1 g (dose única. RESULTADOS: O resultado do presente estudo demonstra taxas de infecção do sítio cirúrgico de 3,78% no grupo de profilaxia com ampicilina-sulbactam, 6,81% no grupo de profilaxia com ceftriaxona e de 1,99% no grupo de ertapenem. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o uso da associação ampicilina/sulbactam ou ceftriaxona com relação à incidência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico. No entanto, quando comparados os resultados do Grupo II (Ceftriaxona com o Grupo III (Ertapenem, houve uma diferença estatisticamente sisgnificante. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização do ertapenem, de maneira profilática, no tratamento cirúrgico da obesidade mórbida, determinou taxas de infecção do sítio cirúrgico estatisticamente inferiores ao grupo de ceftriaxona e similar ao de ampicilina-sulbactam.BACKGROUND:To analyze the results of the incidence of wound infection under 3 different antibiotics regiments. METHODS: Between January, 1999 and December, 2004, 716 bariatric surgeries had been performed using the technique proposed by Fobi/Capella. Three groups of patients had been compared, according to the antibiotic prophylaxys regimen: Group I: (n=185 ampicillin/sulbactam, 3g in two doses; Group II (n=280: ceftriaxone, 1g (single dose; and Group III: (n=251 ertapenem, 1 g (single dose. RESULTS

  7. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

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    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  8. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

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    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  9. Actividad antimicrobiana de los subproductos generados por la reacción del ozono con los microorganismos

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    Irán Fernández-Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad germicida del ozono está ampliamente reconocida, la cual está dada por su elevado poder oxidante y su rápida velocidad de reacción con diferentes moléculas biológicas. Se conocen estudios acerca de la cinética de inactivación que sigue el ozono sobre los microorganismos. Sin embargo, aunque se sabe que el ozono genera compuestos (subproductos al reaccionar con los microorganismos, no existen estudios sobre el posible efecto que presentan estos subproductos en el proceso de inactivación sobre aquellos microorganismos que aún permanecen viables en el medio. Luego, la información que se obtenga alrededor de este efecto puede ampliar el conocimiento sobre las dosis de ozono a aplicar en los procesos de desinfección de aguas y el mejor funcionamiento en las plantas de tratamiento. El presente trabajo evaluó los efectos oxidantes de los subproductos generados de la reacción del ozono con los microorganismos, sobre dos especies microbianas: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Salmonella enterica var. thyphimurium ATCC 12048, en cuanto a viabilidad y su efecto sobre algunos componentes de la membrana plasmática. Se realizó un estudio cinético a bajas concentraciones de ozono y se determinó la actividad antimicrobiana de los subproductos de reacción. Además, se evaluó la variación de los niveles de peroxidación lipídica de los ácidos grasos insaturados presentes en la membrana plasmática. Los resultados de las cinéticas de inactivación mostraron dos constantes cinéticas para ambos microorganismos. Esto está relacionado fundamentalmente con el agotamiento del ozono disuelto desde los primeros instantes y a la actividad antimicrobiana mostrada por los subproductos de reacción, al generar muerte celular aun cuando no se detecta ozono disuelto. El ozono afectó la permeabilidad de la membrana de los microorganismos y se observó un aumento en las concentraciones de sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico debido a

  10. Perfil fitoquímico e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae frente a microrganismos bucais

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    N.A.D.E.O. CARTAXO-FURTADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato etanólico da casca do caule de Syzygium cumini(L. Skeels frente a microrganismos bucais. O perfil fitoquímico do extrato foi traçado através da determinação espectrofotométrica quantitativa para verificar o teor de taninos, flavonóides, saponinas e polifenóis. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada através da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM, por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, utilizando-se as seguintes linhagens de microrganismos: Streptococcus mutans (25175, Streptococcus oralis (10557 e Candida albicans (10231. Uma quantidade apreciável de fitocontituintes foi observada, especialmente de taninos (100,58 ± 1,81. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana inibindo o crescimento das linhagens em estudo, destacando-se essa atividade sobre o crescimento de C. albicans (CIM=250 µg/mL. Já as CIMs para Streptococcus foram baixas. Diante dos resultados expostos, pode-se concluir que o perfil fitoquímico foi traçado e que, dentre os microrganismos testados, o extrato etanólico da casca de S. cumini apresentou forte potencial de inibição sobre o crescimento de C. albicans e fraca inibição frente aos Streptococcus testados. Este estudo sugere que mais pesquisas devem ser realizadas dando continuidade à bioprospecção, por meio de análises experimentais com essa espécie vegetal, objetivando, no futuro, que essa planta possa ser utilizada clinicamente para tratar candidose bucal.

  11. Investigação das atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no bioma caatinga

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    Fábio Rogério Santos Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O bioma caatinga é um bioma brasileiro predominante e único no Nordeste do Brasil. Esse bioma abriga uma impressionante biodiversidade florística com espécies ricas em moléculas bioativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies vegetais arbóreas ocorrentes na caatinga. Nos ensaios de atividade antioxidante dos extratos etanólicos da casca do caule das espécies Leucaena leucocephala e Cnidoscolus quercifolius foram avaliados o teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante pelos métodos de captura dos radicais livres DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. A atividade antimicrobiana desses extratos foi avaliada frente às espécies bacterianas Enterococcus faecales (ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619 e Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, através do ensaio de difusão em poço e determinação de Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM.   Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados na espécie L. leucocephala exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, resultado não observado na espécie C. quercifolius.  Foi observado existir uma correlação direta entre a quantidade de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante das espécies testadas. Nenhuma das espécies apresentou atividade antimicrobiana significativa.

  12. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

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    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos de plantas do bioma caatinga em isolados de Escherichia coli de suínos

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    A.W.C FERNANDES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A suinocultura é uma atividade pecuária bem consolidada no Brasil. Por outro lado a colibacilose neonatal, cujo patógeno é Escherichia coli, pode diminuir a produtividade nas granjas e causar prejuízos aos produtores. O tratamento baseia-se na utilização de drogas antimicrobianas. Todavia, o uso indiscriminado dessas substâncias tem levado a seleção de cepas resistentes. Diante disso, a busca por alternativas terapêuticas, como as plantas medicinais, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco extratos etanólicos de plantas do bioma caatinga: Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem A.C. Smith, Encholirium spectabile Mart., Hymenaea courbaril L, Neoglaziovia variegata Mez e Selaginella convoluta Spring frente a 43 isolados de Eschericha coli coletados de suínos. Para o teste de sensibilidade in vitro foi realizada a técnica da Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM pelo método da microdiluição em microplaca. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana nas seguintes médias 138,75 175,28, 128,36, 127,71 e 129,33 μg/mL, respectivamente. Essa atividade antibacteriana pode estar relacionada a ação de metabólitos secundários presentes nos extratos dessas plantas. Dessa forma, nosso estudo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento de infecções, como a colibacilose neonatal em suíno, bem como para o conhecimento acerca das plantas medicinais da Caatinga.

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga

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    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers Avaliação in vitro da atividade antimicrobiana de cimentos endodônticos

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    Daniela Cristina Miyagak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the endodontic sealers: N-Rickert, Sealapex, AH Plus, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and portland cement. The Agar diffusion method was used in plates previously inoculated with the following microorganisms: C. albicans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli. The diameters of microbial inhibition zones were measured after 24 hours of incubation in kiln at 37°C. According to the methodology used, it was possible to conclude that only the sealers AH Plus and N-Rickert presented antimicrobial activity against C. albicans, S. aureus, and E. coli; no antimicrobial activity in MTA, Sealapex and portland cement was observed. N-Rickert presented the largest inhibition zones varying from 8 to 18 mm, and the microorganism E. faecalis was resistant against all sealers tested.O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade antimicrobiana dos cimentos obturadores de canal: N-Rickert, Sealapex, AH Plus e também do Agregado Trióxido Mineral (MTA e Cimento de Portland. O método utilizado foi a difusão em Ágar, em placas previamente inoculadas com os seguintes microorganismos: C. albicans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli. A leitura do diâmetro do halo de inibição do crescimento microbiano foi realizada, após 24 horas de incubação, em estufa a 37°C. De acordo com a metodologia empregada, foi possível concluir que: somente os cimentos obturadores AH Plus e N-Rickert apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra C. albicans, S. aureus e E. coli; não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana no cimento de Portland, MTA e Sealapex. O cimento N-Rickert apresentou halos de inibição maiores variando de 8 a 18 mm. O microorganismo E. faecalis foi resistente contra todos os cimentos testados.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira; Margareth de Fátima Melo Diniz; EDELTRUDES O. LIMA

    2008-01-01

    Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas planta...

  17. Biotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de Pasteurella multocida subespecie multocida aisladas de pulmones de cerdos de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Moredo, Fabiana; Vigo, Germán; Leotta, Gerardo Aníbal

    2008-01-01

    Se estudiaron 37 aislamientos de Pasteurella multocida subespecie multocida obtenidas entre los años 2004-2007, a partir de pulmones de cerdos de la provincia de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico de neumonía, con el objeto de determinar sus biotipos y la sensibilidad antimicrobiana frente a ampicilina, florfenicol, estreptomicina, enrofloxacina, tetraciclina y fosfomicina, utilizándose el método de difusión en agar. Los biotipos se determinaron en función a la fermentación de arabinosa, dulcitol,...

  18. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth. Antioxidant and anti-microbial activity from Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth.

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Deborah Q.; Edlaine R. Costa; Daniela S. Alviano; Alviano, Celuta S.; Ricardo M. Kuster; Fábio S. Menezes

    2006-01-01

    A espécie Calceolaria chelidonioides (Scrophulariaceae), até então inédita nas citações científicas, foi estudada sob o ponto de vista farmacológico buscando-se identificar possíveis atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante em metodologia in vitro. As partes aéreas dessa espécie demonstraram atividade antioxidante em modelo usando o radical livre DPPH. As flores de C. chelidonioides mostraram grande potencial antibacteriano frente à bactéria Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina MRSA,...

  19. Resistencia antimicrobiana en aislados de "Escherichia coli" de conejos tratados por vía oral con diferentes pautas de doxiciclina

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Landaeta, Alberto Enrique

    2011-01-01

    La resistencia a antimicrobianos constituye actualmente un problema de gran impacto en Salud Pública. El excesivo uso de antimicrobianos en medicina humana y veterinaria y en agricultura ha originado un incremento continuo de fracasos en la terapia antimicrobiana debido al aumento y diversidad de microorganismos resistentes. La evaluación del riesgo del desarrollo de resistencias cobra especial interés cuando se utilizan pautas de administración por vía oral en animales de abasto, por cuan...

  20. Conhecimento popular e atividade antimicrobiana de Cydonia oblonga Miller (Rosaceae Popular knowledge and antimicrobial activity of Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae

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    F.G. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Cydonia oblonga Mill. (Rosaceae, Marmeleiro, é proveniente do Cáucaso e se difundiu pela Europa e países mediterrâneos, sendo introduzida no Brasil já em 1532. Algumas propriedades medicinais são atribuídas à C. oblonga determinando seu uso pela população. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se conhecer os diversos usos do marmeleiro em São João do Paraíso, assim como estudar a atividade antimicrobiana desta planta. O estudo etnobotânico foi realizado por meio de entrevistas aplicadas aos produtores do marmeleiro. Os ensaios de atividade antimicrobiana foram realizados por meio do método de difusão em placas, com discos embebidos nas concentrações de 100, 200 e 400 mg/mL do decocto do fruto e do extrato bruto das folhas de C. oblonga, testadas em seis bactérias. O estudo etnobotânico revelou que o marmelo utilizado no combate à diarréia, vômito e hipertensão, é também usado como cicatrizante e antisséptico. Quanto ao estudo antimicrobiano, somente o extrato bruto das folhas inibiu parcialmente o crescimento de Streptococcus agalactiae. Concluiu-se por meio deste trabalho que o decocto do marmelo é utilizado pela população na medicina tradicional e que extrato bruto das folhas afetou o crescimento de S. agalactiae.The species Cydonia oblonga Mill., quince, originated from the Caucasus region, spreading over Europe and Mediterranean countries, and was introduced in Brazil already in 1532. Some medicinal properties are attributed to C. oblonga, determining its use by the population. In this context, the present study aimed to learn the several uses of quince in São João do Paraíso, as well as to study the antimicrobial activity of this plant. The ethnobotanical study was carried out by means of interviews applied to quince farmers. Antimicrobial activity assays were performed according to the diffusion method in dishes with disks embedded at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL fruit decoction and crude

  1. Características de la resistencia antimicrobiana de una colección clínica de Strptococcus pyogenes

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    Rodríguez Romeo S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pyogenes con el fin de estimar la prevalencia de los fenotipos de resistencia a los macrólidos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal, en 1999, en el que se evaluaron 100 cepas de S. pyogenes, aislados en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, en el lapso comprendido entre 1992 y 1998, procedentes de niños con faringoamigdalitis, conservadas en congelación en el laboratorio de bacteriología hasta su procesamiento. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a algunos beta-lactámicos, macrólidos y clindamicina. La resistencia a eritromicina se probó por medio de la prueba de difusión de doble disco. Se calcularon medidas de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a los beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 16% fueron resistentes a los macrólidos, y todas correspondieron al fenotipo M. CONCLUSIONES: Es conveniente realizar periódicamente pruebas de escrutinio para conocer los posibles cambios en los patrones de sensibilidad estreptocócica.

  2. Patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislados clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de la comunidad

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    Estrella Alvarez Varela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia antimicrobiana de 695 aislamientos clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus procedentes de infecciones de las vías respiratorias superiores, lesiones en piel, secreciones de heridas, exudados conjuntivales, óticos y sistema genitourinario de pacientes atendidos en consulta externa de cinco hospitales pediátricos, ubicados en diferentes ciudades y regiones de Cuba durante el período enero de 2002 a diciembre de 2004. Los datos fueron obtenidos por el Sistema DIRAMIC y procesados por el sistema de programas para la confección de Mapas Microbianos, versión 6.0. Los antibióticos probados fueron: penicilina G, oxacilina, cefazolina, gentamicina, amicacina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, ciprofloxacina y sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim. Los aislados fueron clasificados sobre la base de su resistencia a la oxacilina. De ellos, 118 (17,0 % fueron resistentes al fármaco (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina resistente, SAMR y 577 (83,0 % sensibles (Staphylococcus aureus meticilina sensible, SAMS. Se observó un incremento significativo de las cepas SAMR en el período y de la resistencia dentro de este grupo al resto de los antibióticos probados, aunque más del 50 % de los aislados conservan la susceptibilidad a macrólidos, aminoglucósidos y quinolonas. Por su parte, los porcentajes de resistencia de las cepas sensibles fueron bajos y muy similares en los tres años para la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados, con excepción de eritromicina y ciprofloxacina, para los que se observaron incrementos en el año 2004. Los resultados revelaron que en Cuba los Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a oxacilina aún no son un problema. Pero la aparición de este germen en la comunidad en una frecuencia cercana al 20 %, hace necesario mantener la vigilancia de este fenómeno, lo cual permitirá tomar a tiempo las medidas pertinentes para evitar sus consecuencias negativas.

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de Struthanthus vulgaris (erva-de-passarinho Antimicrobial activity of Struthantus vulgaris (erva-de-passarinho

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    O.M.C. Vieira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas do gênero Struthanthus são conhecidas como ervas-de-passarinho e parasitam pomares no Brasil, principalmente os de laranjeiras e goiabeiras. Na medicina popular são usadas nas afecções das vias respiratórias. O extrato hidroetanólico a 70% de folhas frescas de Struthanthus vulgaris apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra amostras bacterianas Gram positiva e Gram negativa. Este extrato não apresentou, nas condições testadas, atividade contra fungos. As amostras bacterianas mais sensíveis ao extrato foram Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778, Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228 e P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, usando o método de difusão em agar. As frações obtidas, pela partição líquido-líquido do extrato hidroetanólico a 70%, com solventes de polaridades crescentes (clorofórmio, acetato de etila, n-butanol e água, apresentaram diferentes atividades inibitórias. A fração que apresentou a maior atividade contra bactéria Gram positiva (B. cereus e Gram negativa (P. aeruginosa foi aquela obtida com n-butanol. Nessa fração foram detectados flavonóides, taninos condensados (proantocianidinas e saponinas.Struthantus vulgaris (mistletoe is one of the most common hemiparasite species in Brazil. It occurs as a parasite of orchards, mainly in orange and guava trees. Some authors mention Struthantus use in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases treatment. Fresh leaves concentrated hydroalcoholic extract showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial samples. In tested conditions, these extracts did not show activity against fungi. The more susceptible bacterial samples to fresh leaves hydroalcoholic extract were Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778, Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. The method used for assessment of antimicrobial activity was agar

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae Antimicrobial activity of Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae

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    Jaciana S. Aguiar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro, é conhecida popularmente como erva cidreira e utilizada na medicina popular como analgésica, febrífuga, antiinflamatória, antigripal e nas afecções hepáticas. Extratos brutos foram preparados a partir de plantas cultivadas, de modo padronizado, em horta medicinal do Laboratório de Fitoterapia da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA para a verificação da atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para os extratos que exibiram melhores atividades. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os extratos clorofórmico, acetônico e etanólico da raiz foram ativos frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans e Monilia sitophila e os extratos hexânicos, etanólicos e metanólicos das folhas inibiram S. aureus, M. luteus, B. subtilis, M. smegmatis e M. sitophila. A menor concentração inibitória (CIM = 31,2 µg/mL, foi obtida para o extrato clorofórmico da raiz frente a B. subtilis e M. luteus.Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae, commonly known as "erva cidreira", is widely distributed throughout Brazil and is used in folk medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cold remedy, as well as to reduce fevers and treat hepatic afflictions. Crude extracts of L. alba were prepared from plants cultivated in the medicinal garden of the Laboratório de Fitoterapia of the Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, using standard techniques to test their in vitro antibacterial activity using the paper disk-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for those extracts demonstrating the highest activity. The results demonstrated that the chloroform, acetone and ethanol extracts of root material were

  5. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

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    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones by metal complexation Atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas por complexação com metais

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    Adriano Brandelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2 and its acyl-derivatives (3-8 were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl derivatives 3-8. Susceptibility tests for antimicrobial activity showed that 2 and its acyl derivatives were effective on inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus, but not Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexation often caused decrease of biological activity. Nickel complex of 2 was the most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, showing MIC values ranging from 375 to 1400 mg/ml. Metal chelates may be useful tools for the understanding of the antimicrobial mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones on these bacteria.O efeito da complexação com metais sobre a atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas foi investigado. Complexos contendo níquel, cromo, ferro, cobre e cobalto da 5-amino-8-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona (2 e seus acil-derivados (3-8 foram sintetizados e caracterizados e sua atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada. Dados de espectroscopia de infravermelho indicaram que as naftoquinonas coordenam os metais através dos átomos de oxigênio e nitrogênio para 2 e através de átomos de oxigênio, quando os ligantes são os acil-derivados 3-8. Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana demonstraram que 2 e seus derivados foram efetivos na inibição do crescimento de bactérias patogênicas como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis e Bacillus cereus, mas não apresentaram efeito contra bactérias Gram-negativas. A complexação de metais geralmente causou diminuição da

  7. Antimicrobial activity of fractions of red propolis from Alagoas, Brazil Atividade antimicrobiana de frações da própolis vermelha de Alagoas, Brasil

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    Denise Wanderlei Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The red propolis is a new type of propolis founded in Brazil with large biological action. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract and fractions of hexane, chloroform and acetanolica of propolis from the apiary of the state of Alagoas. The microbial strains used were: Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The ethanolic extract showed activity against Gram-positive strains (100%, Gram-negative (62.5% and fungi (100% with efficiency against 76.9% of all the analyzed strains. The hexanic fraction showed efficiency against 76.9% as observed with the ethanolic extract, though the chloroform fraction showed activity against 92.3% of the strains analyzed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the only resistant species. The ethyl acetate was the fraction that showed the best antimicrobial activity with efficiency against 100% of all strains analized. Excellent results were observed to Candida albicans mainly with ethyl acetate fraction with the value of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC similar to those observed to Gram-positives bacteria. We concluded that the partitions of red propolis showed excellent antimicrobial activity mainly against Gram-positive microorganisms and Candida albicans. Furthermore, we observed the ethyl acetate fraction stood out as a promissory biotechnological product. A própolis vermelha, como é conhecida popularmente, é uma própolis recentemente encontrada no Brasil e tem potente ação biológica. O presente trabalho avaliou a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico e das frações hexânica, clorofórmica e acetanólica da própolis proveniente de apiário do estado de Alagoas. As linhagens microbianas utilizadas foram: Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus

  8. Avaliação antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e possível interação farmacológica in vitro

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    Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica de plantas medicinais tem sido o alvo de intensa investigação científica, constituindo uma importante fonte de novos produtos biologicamente ativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana interativa, in vitro, de seis extratos vegetais, sendo eles: cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, favela [Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Müll. Arg. Pax & Hoffm L.], fedegoso (Heliotropium indicum L. e quixaba [Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Humb. ex Roem. & Schult. TD Penn.], através do método de difusão em disco, frente às cepas padrão American Type Culture Collection (ATCC: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Os resultados revelaram que dentre os extratos testados 50% deles apresentaram atividade frente à cepa de S. aureus ATCC 25923. Os extratos ativos foram cajueiro, barbatimão e aroeira. Os demais extratos não apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas em estudo. Quando se avaliou a ação interativa entre os extratos ativos, observou-se interferência antagônica, constatada pela redução dos diâmetros dos halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano nas associações com os extratos de cajueiro/barbatimão, cajueiro/aroeira e barbatimão/aroeira. De modo que, o uso concomitante extratos vegetais merece um olhar muito cuidadoso pela possibilidade de ocorrer interferências entre eles, reduzindo a potência da atividade antimicrobiana, em relação a sua potência quando utilizados isoladamente.Palavras-chave: Plantas medicinais. Atividade antimicrobiana. Extratos vegetais. Interação. ABSTRACTInteractive study of the antimicrobial activity of plant extractsThe biological activity of medicinal plants has been the subject of intensive scientific research and is an important source of new biologically active products. The aim of this

  9. Utilidad del sistema VITEK en la identificación y determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de bacterias aisladas de ecosistemas dulceacuícolas

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    Beatriz Romeu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década se han desarrollado sistemas automatizados y semiautomatizados que permiten obtener resultados rápidos (2-7 h comparado con el tiempo que habitualmente demoran los métodos tradicionales. El sistema automatizado VITEK se emplea para la identificación y el estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de bacterias clínicamente significativas aisladas de procesos infecciosos u otras fuentes como alimentos y agua. En el presente estudio se evaluó la utilidad de este sistema para la identificación de 92 aislamientos bacterianos provenientes de ecosistemas dulceacuícolas contaminados de la Ciudad de La Habana, en los cuales también se enfrentaron e 15 antibióticos para determinar su respuesta frente a ellos. Los resultados obtenidos con el sistema VITEK se compararon con los obtenidos con el sistema API20E, en el caso de la identificación.El 100 % de los aislamientos fueron identificados hasta el nivel de especie con el sistema VITEK. Del total, el 94 % (87 cepas correspondieron con la especie Escherichia coli, el 5 % (4 cepas con la especie Citrobacter freundii y el 1 % (1 cepa con Lec. adecarboxy. El empleo de las tarjetas GNS-147 para bacilos Gram negativos permitió que cada cepa se enfrentara a 15 antibióticos de manera simultánea. El tiempo promedio para obtener resultados de sensibilidad antimicrobiana fue de 5 h. El uso del sistema automatizado VITEK permitió la obtención de resultados de forma temprana que contribuyeron a la caracterización integral de estos aislados ambientales.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids and steroids isolated from two Chromolaena species Atividade antimicrobiana de flavonóides e esteróides isolados de duas espécies de Chromolaena

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    Silvia Helena Taleb-Contini

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts (dichloromethanic and ethanolic and some compounds (8 flavonoids and 5 steroids isolated from Chromolaena squalida (leaves and stems and Chromolaena hirsuta (leaves and flowers have been evaluated against 22 strains of microorganisms including bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative and yeasts. All crude extracts, flavonoids and steroids evaluated have been shown actives, mainly against Gram-positive bacteria.Os extratos diclorometânicos e etanólicos de folhas e caule de Chromolaena squalida e de folhas e flores de Chromolaena hirsuta foram avaliados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana. Oito flavonóides e cinco esteróides foram desafiados frente a 22 cepas indicadoras, incluindo bactérias (Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas e leveduras. Todos os extratos brutos, flavonóides e esteróides ensaiados mostraram atividade antimicrobiana, principalmente frente a bactérias Gram-positivas.

  11. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of each component in Grossman’s sealer Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de cada um dos componentes do cimento de Grossman

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    Ricardo Novak Savioli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Grossman’s sealer and its components was evaluated on 13 different strains using the double layer well-diffusion method. Results revealed that Grossman’s sealer presented antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. Among the components of the cement, sodium tetraborate presented the greatest antimicrobial activity, both in type and diameter of the halo and ring of inhibition. Sealer powder, rosin, and eugenol presented similar activity, with no effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Among these, only eugenol had an effect on E. coli. Zinc oxide was only active against S. sobrinus and E. coli. Barium sulfate and bismuth subcarbonate did not show any antimicrobial effect.Os autores estudaram a atividade antimicrobiana do cimento de Grossman e de seus componentes sobre 13 diferentes cepas pelo método de difusão de poço em camada dupla. Os resultados revelaram que o cimento de Grossman apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as cepas utilizadas. Dos componentes do cimento, o tetraborato de sódio foi o que apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana, tanto por tipo como por tamanho do halo e aro de inibição. O pó do cimento, o breu e o eugenol apresentaram atividades semelhantes, sendo que eles não tiveram ação sobre P. aeruginosa e C. albicans e, dos três componentes, somente o eugenol teve ação sobre E coli. O óxido de zinco somente teve ação sobre S. sobrinus e E. coli. O sulfato de bário e o subcarbonato de bismuto não tiveram nenhuma ação antimicrobiana.

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos da raiz, caule e folhas de Croton pulegioides Baill. (Zabelê

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    L.G. Arrais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso popular de plantas medicinais continua sendo de grande interesse para a população, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento, nos quais o acesso à medicina alopática ainda é muito restrito. Assim, além de sua importância na medicina tradicional, o conhecimento das plantas pode fornecer para a indústria farmacêutica, direta ou indiretamente, princípios ativos de interesse terapêutico. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos secos de Croton pulegioides Baill. obtidos a partir da raiz, do caule e das folhas nas concentrações de 25, 50 e 100mg/mL utilizando o método de difusão em Agar (técnica de poços frente a cinco cepas Gram-positivas, três cepas de fungos e três cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Na execução do estudo foi utilizado o antibiótico Gentamicina (100µg/mL no teste com bactérias, e Cetoconazol (300µg/mL para as Candidas verificando-se, ao mesmo tempo, a ausência de atividade para o diluente DMSO 20% em água. Na observação dos resultados evidenciaram-se halos de inibição indicando atividade dos extratos metanólicos da raiz, caule e folhas, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente Bacillus subtilis AM 04; dos extratos metanólicos da raiz e do caule, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente Staphylococcus aureus AM 103 (ATCC 6538; e do extrato metanólico do caule, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente S. epidermidis AM 235. Por outro lado, todos os extratos foram inativos nas concentrações avaliadas frente às bactérias Gram-negativas utilizadas no estudo (Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM 206, Escherichia coli AM 1050 e Klebsiella pneumoniae AM 410. Referente à atividade sobre fungos, os extratos metanólicos da raiz e do caule inibiram, nas três concentrações avaliadas, o crescimento de Candida tropicalis AM 1181 e C. albicans AM 1140, enquanto o extrato das folhas, inibiu o crescimento de C. tropicalis AM 1181 nas concentra

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil

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    T.R.O. Machado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

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    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  15. Características de la resistencia antimicrobiana de una colección clínica de Strptococcus pyogenes Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes clinical strains

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    Romeo S. Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pyogenes con el fin de estimar la prevalencia de los fenotipos de resistencia a los macrólidos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal, en 1999, en el que se evaluaron 100 cepas de S. pyogenes, aislados en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, en el lapso comprendido entre 1992 y 1998, procedentes de niños con faringoamigdalitis, conservadas en congelación en el laboratorio de bacteriología hasta su procesamiento. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a algunos beta-lactámicos, macrólidos y clindamicina. La resistencia a eritromicina se probó por medio de la prueba de difusión de doble disco. Se calcularon medidas de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a los beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 16% fueron resistentes a los macrólidos, y todas correspondieron al fenotipo M. CONCLUSIONES: Es conveniente realizar periódicamente pruebas de escrutinio para conocer los posibles cambios en los patrones de sensibilidad estreptocócica.OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of recent isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and to evaluate the prevalence of macrolide-resistant phenotypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study at Mexico Children's Hospital "Federico Gomez", to analyze one hundred strains of S. pyogenes isolated from 1992 to 1998, in children with uncomplicated pharyngotonsillitis. Strains were frozen at the bacteriology lab until they were analyzed. Strains were tested for susceptibility against some beta-lactams, macrolides and clindamycin. Double-disk testing was carried out to evaluate erythromycin-resistant phenotypes. Data are presented using central tendency measures. RESULTS: All tested strains were not resistant to beta-lactams and clindamycin; 16% of the strains were resistant to macrolides and all of them belonged to phenotype M. CONCLUSIONS

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana da Uncaria tomentosa sobre patógenos da cavidade bucal humana

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    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta medicinal usada por vários séculos pela população peruana como alternativa de tratamento para diversas doenças. Muitos microrganismos que usualmente não habitam a cavidade bucal humana podem se tornar agentes etiológicos de doenças sob certas condições. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações de Uncaria tomentosa sobre diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados de cavidades bucais humanas. Uncaria tomentosa micropulverizada foi testada in vitro para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM em isolados microbianos selecionados. Cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae e

  17. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e anatomia foliar e caulinar de Citrus limettioides Tanaka (Rutaceae

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    Larissa Teodoro Alves Lopes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus limettioides (Rutaceae é utilizada popularmente para tratamento da sinusite, e também como antitérmica e hipotensora. Este trabalho teve como objetivos: identificar os constituintes dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos de C. limettioides; avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais da folha e da casca dos frutos e realizar o estudo anatômico da folha e caule jovem. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger modificado e analisados por CG-EM. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada utilizando o método de microdiluição em caldo frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. Para o estudo anatômico foram realizados cortes histológicos a mão livre e as secções foram coradas com azul de Alcian/ safranina, reagente de Steinmetz, lugol e analisados em microscopia de luz. O linalol foi o componente majoritário no óleo essencial das folhas (36,88 a 45,15% e o limoneno no óleo da casca dos frutos (70,60 a 75,18%. O óleo essencial das folhas apresentou CIM de 2000 µg/mL frente às bactérias e nenhuma atividade frente aos fungos. O óleo essencial da casca dos frutos não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana. A folha é hipoestomática, predominando os estômatos anomocíticos; o mesofilo é dorsiventral com parênquima paliçádico bisseriado e parênquima lacunoso com 11 camadas de células. Cavidades secretoras foram observadas no mesofilo da folha, no pecíolo e no caule, enquanto cristais prismáticos foram identificados em todas as estruturas da folha e do caule. Os dados obtidos no estudo microscópico podem auxiliar na identificação taxonômica desta planta e na avaliação da autenticidade da droga vegetal.

  18. Free radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties of extracts of wild mushrooms Atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e propriedades antimicrobianas de extratos de cogumelos selvagens

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    V.O. Oyetayo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of extracts obtained from four wild mushrooms, Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE, Termitomyces robustus (TRE, Lentinus subnudus (LSE and Lenzites species (LZE collected in Nigeria were investigated. LSE and LZE displayed good scavenging activity against 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferrous ion radicals at concentration of 2 mg/mL. However, TRE and TCE exhibited better superoxide anion scavenging effect at 2 mg/mL. All extracts (TCE, TRE, LSE and LZE had comparable scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals as butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT used as control. Moreover, extracts from the wild mushrooms were able to inhibit the growth of all indicator organisms at concentrations between 12.5 mg/mL to 100 mg/mL. LSE and LZE, however, showed better antimicrobial effect on the indicator organisms. The results suggest that extracts obtained from the four wild mushrooms may serve as sources of new bioactive compounds with effective antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.Foram investigadas as propriedades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas de extratos obtidos de quatro cogumelos selvagens da Nigéria: Termitomyces clypeatus (TCE, Termitomyces robustus (TRE, Lentinus subnudus (LSE and Lenzites species (LZE. LSE e LZE, na concentração de 2 mg/ml, apresentaram boa atividade sequestrante contra 2,2'-difenil-b-picrilhidrazil (DPPH• e radicais ferrosos. Entretanto, TER e TCE a 2 mg/ml apresentaram melhor efeito sequestrador de anions superóxido .Todos os extratos apresentaram feito semelhante de seqüestro de radicais hidroxila como BHT usado como controle. Além disso, todos os extratos dos cogumelos selvagens, na concentração de 12,5 mg/ml até 100 mg/ml, foram capazes de inibir a multiplicação de todos os microrganismos indicadores testados, mas LSE e LZE apresentaram efeito antimicrobiano mais intenso. Os resultados sugerem que os extratos obtidos dos quatro cogumelos selvagens podem ser fontes de novos

  19. Purificación parcial y caracterización de una sustancia antimicrobiana producida por Alteromonas sp. de origen marino

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    Jorge León

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Un miembro del género Alteromonas sp. (cepa N22.C, aislado del neuston marino y productor de sustancias que inhiben el crecimiento de ictiopatógenos fue caracterizado fenotípicamente mediante pruebas morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas convencionales. Para determinar la naturaleza quí- mica de la sustancia inhibitoria, extractos crudos de sobrenadantes de cultivos fueron precipitados con concentraciones crecientes de Sulfato de Amonio hasta el 70% y filtrados a través de columnas de Sephadex G-25. Ensayos con Dodecil Sulfato de Sodio-electroforesis en Geles de Poliacrilamida (SDS– PAGE revelaron que la sustancia antimicrobiana es un compuesto proteináceo con una masa molecular de aproximadamente 34000 Da, que carece de residuos de azúcares asociados. Otros ensayos realizados con extractos crudos y fracciones semipurificadas de la cepa de Alteromonas sp. N22.C mostraron un amplio espectro de actividad antibiótica contra cepas de bacterias patógenas de peces, moluscos y crustáceos.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcólicos de espécies da coleção de plantas medicinais CPQBA/UNICAMP

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    M.C.T. Duarte

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos obtidos a partir de 45 espécies da Coleção de Germoplasmas do CPQBA foram estudados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana. As espécies que apresentaram forte inibição (Concentração Mínima Inibitória até 0,5 mg/mL para os respectivos microrganismos foram: Achillea millefolium (0,5, Mikania laevigata (0,04, Solidago chilensis (0,1, Piper marginatum (0,2 para Staphylococcus aureus; Aloysia gratissima (0,1, P. marginatum (0,2, M. laevigata (0,09 para Bacillus subtilis e Mentha pullegium (0,3, Mikania glomerata (0,1, M. laevigata (0,04, Stachytarpeta cayenensis (0,2 e Bacharis dracunculifolia (0,5 para Streptococcus faecium. De acordo com os resultados, ressaltamos a espécie M. laevigata por apresentar inibição contra três das bactérias estudadas, em concentrações similares a do cloranfenicol, padrão de referência utilizado.

  1. Fracionamento do extrato diclorometânico de Senecio desiderabilis Vellozo e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana Fractionation of dichlorometane extract from Senecio desiderabilis Vellozo and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity

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    Régis A. N. Deuschle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de uma fração sesquiterpênica, obtida a partir do extrato CH2Cl2 de Senecio desiderabilis Vellozo (Asteraceae, e do germacreno D, isolado a partir desta. A fração e o germacreno D foram obtidos mediante cromatografia em coluna e analisados por CG-EM e também por RMN, no caso da substância isolada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada frente a leveduras e bactérias pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, conforme preconizado pelo NCCLS, nos documentos M27-A2 para fungos leveduriformes, e M7-A4 para bactérias. A fração sesquiterpênica evidenciou moderada atividade antimicrobiana, enquanto que o germacreno D não inibiu o crescimento dos microrganismos testados.The present work describes the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of a sesquiterpene fraction obtained from CH2Cl2 extract of Senecio desiderabilis Vellozo (Asteraceae, and of germacrene D isolated from it. The sesquiterpene fraction and the isolated substance were obtained by column chromatography and analysed by GC-MS. Substance identification was carried out by NMR. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth microdilution method, as preconized by NCCLS in the documents M27-A for yeasts and M7-A4 for bacteria. The sesquiterpene fraction showed moderated antimicrobial activity, and germacrene D did not inhibit the tested microorganisms.

  2. Plantas e constituintes químicos empregados em Odontologia: revisão de estudos etnofarmacológicos e de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro em patógenos orais

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    D.R.P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos derivados de plantas podem representar estratégia promissora na odontologia. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar na literatura os estudos sobre o uso popular de plantas em afecções orais, bem como os estudos de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos vegetais e compostos isolados sobre patógenos orais, no período de 1996 a 2011. Quarenta e sete famílias botânicas foram referidas, com maior número de citações para Anacardiaceae, sendo Anacardium occidentale L., a espécie mais citada. O levantamento sobre estudos de avaliação antimicrobiana relacionou extratos de sessenta e seis espécies vegetais pertencentes a trinta e oito famílias botânicas, destacando-se Anacardiaceae, com pesquisas realizadas de forma predominante com as folhas, investigadas pelo método de difusão em ágar. Cinquenta e oito substâncias isoladas de plantas foram avaliadas, demonstrando que Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae representa a espécie vegetal com atividade antimicrobiana in vitro mais significativa, apresentando halo de inibição de 32,97 mm contra Staphylococcus aureus, microrganismo encontrado em infecções orais; enquanto ácido tetra iso-alfa isolada de Humulus lupulus L. (Canabinaceae apresentou maior halo de inibição para Streptococcus mutans (26,0 mm. Os resultados apresentados devem estimular o desenvolvimento dos estudos de validação na garantia do uso seguro e eficaz de espécies vegetais em odontologia.

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de derivados fenólicos do líquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd.) Laundron Antimicrobian activity of phenols actives from the liquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd.) Laundron

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    Emerson P. da Silva Falcão; Nicácio H. da Silva; Gusmão, Norma B.; Sheyla Mara Ribeiro; Eugênia C Pereira

    2004-01-01

    A atividade antimicrobiana de extratos brutos de Ramalina sorediosa foi detectada pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. Dois metabólitos liquênicos de natureza fenólica foram identificados por meio de técnicas biocromatográficas. Uma dessas substâncias foi identificada por meio de cromatografia em camada delgada como sendo o ácido úsnico. A segunda substância, que se encontra presente em maior concentração em relação aos demais constituintes nos extratos, trata-se do ácido homossequicáico...

  4. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de Salmonella spp. aisladas del beneficio porcino en Colombia / Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from pork carcasses on Colombia

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    Paula M. Bermúdez D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando 30 patrones diferentes de multiresistencia; el más común fue Ampicilina, Amoxicilina, Cloranfenicol, Florfenicol y Tetraciclina en el 16,77% (n=26 de las cepas. Tetraciclina y Florfenicol fueron los antimicrobianos menos efectivos en el 94,84% (n=147 y 47,74% (n=74 de cepas resistentes, respectivamente. Discusión: se deben consolidar los sistemas de monitoreo, y de vigilancia y control de las resistencias antimicrobianas para prevenir, con un enfoque de cadena productiva, la diseminación de cepas multiresistentes en alimentos de origen animal, como parte integral del sistema de gestión de inocuidad de los alimentos en Colombia. - Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando

  5. Composição e atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia, citronela e palmarosa Composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove, citronella and palmarosa essential oils

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    R. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a ação antioxidante, ação antimicrobiana e a composição dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus e palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii. A ação antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método de DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila, e a ação antimicrobiana determinada pelo método da microdiluição definindo-se a concentração inibitória mínima para os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens. A composição química dos óleos foi determinada por CG-DIC e a identificação dos compostos voláteis por CG-EM, em ambos os casos, utilizando uma coluna capilar DB-5. O óleo de cravo-da-índia apresentou uma forte atividade antioxidante e ação antimicrobiana moderada a forte, sendo o eugenol o componente majoritário do óleo de cravo-da-índia (83,7%. Por outro lado, as amostras de citronela e palmarosa apresentaram fraca ação antioxidante, porém a ação antimicrobiana foi moderada a forte.Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as the chemical composition of essential oils of clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii were studied. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and the antimicrobial activity determined by the microdilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentration was defined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens. The chemical composition of oils was determined by GC-FID and volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, using a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. Clove essential oil showed very high antioxidant activity and moderate to high antimicrobial activity, and eugenol was its major compound (83.7%. On the other hand, citronella and palmarosa samples presented low

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

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    Marcelo Dal Pozzo; Julio Viégas; Deise Flores Santurio; Luana Rossatto; Isaura Helena Soares; Sydney Hartz Alves; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs) de Origanum vulgare (orégano), Thymus vulgaris (tomilho), Lippia graveolens (lípia), Zingiber officinale (gengibre), Salvia officinalis (sálvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim) e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão), bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e a concentração bacteri...

  7. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different trademarks mouthwashes with and without alcohol against different organisms: in vitro study = Efetividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas comerciais de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool sobre diversos microrganismos: estudo in vitro

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    Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi de avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool. Metodologia: Usaram-se no estudo o Periogard®, o CEPACOL®, Plax Classic® e o ORAL-B®, anti-séptico sem álcool. Para a realização desse estudo foram utilizadas 40 placas de Petri com meio de cultura de Ágar Sangue para os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Para a mensuração dos halos de inibição,...

  8. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

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    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana do oleorresina de copaíba (Copaifera reticulata frente a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva isolados de casos de otite em cães

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    Rosangela E. Ziech

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial antimicrobiano do oleorresina de Copaifera reticulata Ducke em isolados de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP provenientes de casos de otite externa em cães. O método de microdiluição em caldo foi utilizado para determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM de oleorresina de copaíba. Em adição, foi determinado o perfil de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos dos isolados de SCP pelo método de difusão em ágar. Oito classes de antimicrobianos foram usadas para o cálculo de multirresistência antimicrobiana. A determinação da composição química do oleorresina de copaíba foi realizada por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (GC/MS, sendo que β-cariofileno, β-bisaboleno e (E-α-bergamoteno foram os compostos majoritários. O oleorresina de copaíba demonstrou CIM90 de 0,164mg/mL e CBM90 de 1,31mg/mL. A multirresistência foi verificada em 27% das cepas testadas. Os resultados sugerem que o oleorresina de copaíba exerceu atividade bacteriostática e bactericida mesmo em cepas multirresistentes de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva.

  10. Evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos orgánicos crudos de las esponjas Myrmekioderma rea (De Lubenfels, 1934, Cribrochalina infundibulum (Shmidt, 1870, Bemna cribaria (Alcolado y Gotera, 1986 y Xestospongia proxima (Duchassaing...

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    Newmark Umbreit Federico

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de metanol-diclorometano de las esponjas marinas Myrmekioderma rea, Biemna cribaria, Cribrochalina infundibulum y Xestospongia proxima, del Caribe colombiano, fueron evaluados respecto a su actividad antimicrobiana y antifúngica, por medio del método de difusión en placa. El extracto obtenido a partir de la esponja X. proxima, mostró actividad significativa frente a los microorganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis y Candida albicans, destacándose la fuerte actividad de este extracto para el control del hongo Candida albicans y por eso, se recomienda para estudios químicos y farmacológicos. Por primera vez, se registra actividad antimicrobiana de este extracto para el control de Streptococcus faecalis; ausencia de actividad antibacteriana y actividad antifúngica en las otras especies examinadas (M. rea, B. cribaria, C. infundibulum y actividad
    estimuladora sobre el crecimiento de las bacterias  taphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus faecalis por los
    extractos de las especies M. rea y C. infundibulum. En este sentido, C. infundibulum también promovió débilmente el crecimiento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, de igual forma sucedió con el extracto de B. cribaria frente a Staphylococcus aureus. La producción de mucus parece indicar la presencia de
    sustancias activas en los extractos de las esponjas X. proxima y M. rea.

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

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    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  12. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three Miconia species Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos brutos de três espécies de Miconia

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    Andréa Carla Celotto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of nine crude extracts of three Miconia species (M. albicans, M. rubiginosa and M. stenostachya was tested against eleven selected microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans. The results of the test showed that three extracts had some antimicrobial activity by well diffusion method. The ethanol extracts of Miconia albicans and Miconia rubiginosa were the most active.A atividade antimicrobiana de nove extratos de três espécies de Miconia (M. albicans, M. rubiginosa e M. stenostachya foi avaliada frente a onze microrganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus agalactiae e Candida albicans. Três destes extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão de poço. Os extratos etanólicos de Miconia albicans e Miconia rubiginosa foram os mais ativos.

  13. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

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    José Portilla C

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    tratamento e os grupos controle (p=1. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação riboflavina 0,1% e luz ultravioleta 365 nm de comprimento de onda não demonstrou atividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus oxacilina sensível.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos orais

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    Marcele A. Ferreira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, against oral pathogens is reported. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs for inhibiting the microorganisms growth were determined using the broth microdilution method from the CLSI M7-A7 protocol. Chlorhexidine was used as the positive control. The ethanol crude extract of the aerial parts of A. sellowiana exhibited activity against the microorganisms tested in this work; however, the activity decreased after partition with n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate. Among the tested fractions, the n-hexane fraction was found to be the most effective against the evaluated oral pathogens. GC-MS analysis of this latter fraction revealed that fatty acids esters, steroids, and aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons are its major constituents. These compounds may be responsible for the activity of the n-hexane fraction, but other chemical constituents of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic fraction may potentialize their activities in the crude extract.A atividade antimicrobiana de Aegiphila sellowiana Cham., Lamiaceae, contra patógenos da cavidade bucal foi avaliada empregando-se o método de microdiluição em caldo, segundo o protocolo CLSI M7-A7, utilizando-se clorexidina como controle positivo. O extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas de A. sellowiana, obtido por maceração, exibiu atividade contra os microrganismos testados neste trabalho, entretanto, os valores de CIM (concentração inibitória mínima aumentaram após a partição com n-hexano, diclorometano e acetato de etila. Entre as frações testadas, a fração n-hexânica foi a mais efetiva contra os patógenos bucais avaliados, com valores de CIM entre 140 e 350 µg/mL-1. Dados obtidos por CG-EM revelaram que ésteres de ácidos graxos, esteróides e hidrocarbonetos sesquiterpênicos alifáticos são os constituintes majoritários desta fração. Embora esses compostos possam ser os

  16. ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA IN VITRO DO LÁTEX DO AVELOZ (Euphorbia tirucalli L., PINHÃO BRAVO (Jatropha mollissima L. E PINHÃO ROXO (Jatropha gossypiifolia L. SOBRE MICRORGANISMOS PATOGÊNICOS.

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    Francisco Angelo Gurgel da Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Por milênios, o Homem tem explorado a flora como recurso terapêutico. Muitas das espécies medicinais utilizadas possuem fitoquímicos com potencial aplicação no controle do crescimento microbiano. A resistência microbiana crescente representa um sério risco à Saúde Coletiva, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de projetos que visem a prospecção e/ou o desenvolvimento de novas drogas antimicrobianas. Na Caatinga da Região do Seridó do RN são encontradas as plantas medicinais Jatropha mollissima (Pohl Baill (Pinhão-bravo, a Jatropha gossypiifolia L (Pinhão-roxo e Euphorbia tirucalli L (Aveloz, pertencentes à Família Euphorbiaceae, na qual estão presentes fitoquímicos antimicrobianos. O presente projeto objetivou caracterizar a ação antibacteriana do látex destas espécies vegetais contra os patógenos Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi e Listeria monocytogenes. Duplicatas de Placas de Petri contendo ágar Mueller-Hinton foram semeadas em superfície com culturas padronizadas de cada microrganismo. Foram perfurados poços de 10 mm de diâmetro nos quais se inoculou 100 µL das diluições dos látex testados. As placas foram incubadas a 35±2oC/24 h. Os halos de inibição quando existentes foram medidos e registrados. L. monocytogenes apresentou a maior sensibilidade ao látex de J. mollissima; S. aureus foi inibido por J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia, sendo mais sensível no primeiro caso. S. typhi e S. typhimurium apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição (J. gossypiifolia, sendo S. typhi mais sensível ao látex de J. gossypiifolia e S. typhimurium ao de J. mollissima. E. tirucalli não apresentou atividade inibitória. Padrões de sazonalidade parecem influenciar a capacidade inibitória do látex. Recomendamos que sejam efetuados estudos mais detalhados acerca das propriedades antimicrobianas do látex de J. mollissima e J. gossypiifolia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: atividade antimicrobiana, Jatropha

  17. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

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    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  18. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues Estudo preliminar da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson, rotundifolona e seus análogos

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    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.Os óleos essenciais apresentam atividade antimicrobiana contra uma variedade de bactérias e fungos, incluindo espécies resistentes a antibióticos e antimicóticos. Neste contexto, este trabalho objetiva a avaliação da atividade de antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de Mentha x villosa Hudson (hortelã-da-folha-miúda - seu componente majoritário (rotundifolona e quatro análogos sintéticos da rotundifolona (epóxi-limoneno epóxi-pulegona, epóxi-carvona e (+-pulegona frente a cepas padrão de Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 e uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus meticilina - resistente

  19. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activitiy of extracts from Gochnatia polymorpha (Less ssp floccosa

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    Maria Élida A. Stefanello

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, espécie empregada na medicina popular contra doenças respiratórias. Folhas, cascas do tronco e ramos foram extraídos com hexano, diclorometano e etanol, sucessivamente, sendo obtidos os respectivos extratos brutos. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar utilizando-se bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. A avaliação da citotoxicidade foi realizada empregando-se o ensaio de letalidade contra Artemia salina. Nenhum dos extratos mostrou atividade citotóxica. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram uma fraca atividade antimicrobiana frente a algumas cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto o extrato em diclorometano dos ramos e o extrato em etanol das cascas foram ativos contra Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus e S. epidermidis. A maior atividade antimicrobiana foi observada para o extrato em diclorometano das cascas, que inibiu o crescimento de Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis e Candida albicans. Esta atividade parece estar relacionada à presença de diterpenos no extrato. Nenhum dos extratos estudados (a 5,0 mg/mL mostrou atividade frente a cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial dessa planta como fonte de compostos antibacterianos e justificam, parcialmente, seu uso popular.The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, a medicinal plant used against respiratory diseases, were evaluated. Successive petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of dried leaves, trunk bark and stems were used in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and tested against 22 strains of microorganisms (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by the well-diffusion agar method. None of the extracts

  20. Xanthium strumarium L. antimicrobial activity and carboxyatractyloside analysis through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry Atividade antimicrobiana e análise de carboxiatractilosideo por espectrometria de massas com ionização por electrospray de Xanthium strumarium L

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    R. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens, as well as to investigate the presence of the toxic compound carboxyatractyloside in different plant parts. S. aureus and C. perfringens were more sensitive to non-polar than to polar fractions, and there was no difference between extracts for the remaining bacteria. All extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against the evaluated microorganisms. Carboxyatractyloside was found in cotyledons and seeds but not in adult leaves and burrs. Thus, only Xanthium strumarium leaves in adult stage can be used for medicinal purposes.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de folhas de Xanthium strumarium L. sobre os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens, bem como verificar a presença do composto tóxico carboxiatractilosideo em diferentes partes da planta. As bactérias S. aureus e C. perfringens foram mais sensíveis às frações não polares do que as polares, sendo que para as outras bactérias não foi verificada diferença entre os extratos. Todos os extratos apresentaram uma forte ação antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos avaliados. O carboxiatractilosideo foi encontrado nos cotilédones e nas sementes da planta, entretanto, não foi encontrado nas folhas em estádio adulto e na carapaça espinhosa que envolve a semente. Portanto, somente as folhas de Xanthium strumarium na fase adulta podem ser utilizadas para o uso medicinal.

  1. Avaliação, in vitro, da atividade antimicrobiana de três cimentos endodônticos = In vitro analysis of antimicrobial activity of three endodontic sealers

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    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro, a atividade antimicrobiana dos cimentos endodônticos AH Plus (A, Endofill (E e Sealer 26 (S, imediatamente após a manipulação, em contatos com culturas isoladas de E. faecalis (EF, P. aeruginosa (PA, S. aureus (SA e C. albicans (CA. Para tanto, foram confeccionados 9 corpos de prova de cada um dos materiais a partir de discos de papel filtro com 5 mm de diâmetro. Oito destes, 2 para cada microrganismo, foram colocados sobre placas de Petri, contendo meio de cultura Brain Hart Infusion-Agar (BHI-A inoculado. O último foi colocado sobre uma placa com meio de cultura estéril (controle de esterilidade. Uma placa com BHI-A não inoculado serviu de controle negativo. As placas foram levadas a estufa bacteriológica e 48 horas após realizou-se a medida dos halos de inibição de crescimento microbiano com auxilio de paquímetro digital. Para o grupo do A, E e S, respectivamente, a média dos halos, em milímetros, foi de: 0,70, 3,13 e 1,79 para EF; 1,08, 3,40 e 3,01 para PA; 0,72, 3,16 e 4,03 para SA; 1,32, 2,59 e 1,40 para CA. O controle negativo e o controle de esterilidade dos materiais evidenciaram ausência de crescimento microbiano. Conclui-se que todos os cimentos testados apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana em contato com as culturas estudadas, sendo que para EF, PA e CA a ordem crescente do diâmetro do halo de inibição foi: A, S e E. Para SA a ordem crescente foi: A, E e S

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus against foodborne pathogens/ Atividade antimicrobiana de Lactobacillus acidophilus, contra microrganismos patogênicos veiculados por alimentos

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    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro Gómez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of a commercial probiotic culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus (La5, was tested against two foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antagonistic effect of the probiotic culture in vitro was performed by applying both Multilayer Agar Plate and Agar Well Diffusion methods. The results indicated that the inhibitory substance present on 72 hours culture broth supernatant was extracellular and diffusible. The incubation period of the lactic acid bacteria on MRS Broth, at 37ºC in aerobic conditions, for the highest lactic acid production (1,08 g/% was 72 hours, which gave a minimum pH value of the supernatant (3,90 and the best inhibition results by the Well Diffusion Agar Assay, showing inhibition zone diameters of 14,75mm and 15,0mm for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The inhibitor compound was not sensitive to proteolytic enzyme and freezing, but was totally inactivated when the supernatant was neutralized with NaOH 1 N solution. The results suggest that the inhibitory activity was due to the lactic acid concentration and the low pH of the probiotic culture broth.Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de uma cultura probiótica comercial, o Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, frente ao crescimento de dois microrganismos patogênicos veiculados por alimentos, Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus. O antagonismo da cultura probiótica in vitro foi avaliado utilizando tanto a Metodologia de Multicamadas quanto a de Difusão em Ágar. Os resultados demonstraram que a substância inibidora presente no sobrenadante é extracelular e difusível. O período de incubação da bactéria lática em caldo MRS, a 37ºC em condições de aerobiose, onde se obteve a maior produção de ácido lático (1,08 g/% foi 72 horas, o qual demonstrou o menor valor de pH do sobrenadante (3,90, e os melhores resultados de inibição pelo método de difusão em ágar, com halos de inibição de 14,75mm e 15,0mm de di

  3. Evaluación preliminar de toxicidad, genotoxicidad y actividad antimicrobiana de Sida rhombifolia L. Preliminary evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L. toxicity, genotoxicity and antimicrobial activity

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    Brugés Keile

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La actual predisposición a consumir productos naturales y, en muchas regiones, la difícil disponibilidad y accesibilidad a los medicamentos han llevado a las poblaciones del mundo a buscar otras alternativas para aliviar sus dolencias. Una de las más difundidas ha sido el regreso a la medicina ancestral, lo cual ha provocado un aumento en el consumo de fitoterapéuticos. En Colombia, el uso de los fitomedicamentos está muy extendido y, dentro de ellos, en esta investigación se  seleccionó la planta Sida rhombifolia L. a la cual se le realizó la evaluación de la toxicidad de extractos y fracciones utilizando como organismos de prueba Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuata y Artemia salina. La actividad biológica fue evaluada mediante la prueba de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y la genotoxicidad con el ensayo Cometa. Los ensayos de toxicidad aguda con los organismos de prueba muestran que los extractos acuosos son prácticamente no tóxicos (CL50 >1000 ppm, lo cual sugiere que su uso en forma de infusión es seguro. Los extractos etanólicos y las fracciones de acetato de etilo y cloroformo presentaron actividad antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa que puede ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios (terpenoides, flavonoides que están presentes en esta especie. Los extractos etanólicos presentaron una importante actividad genotóxica sobre los linfocitos en el ensayo Cometa, siendo el extracto etanólico de raíces el que presenta mayor genotoxicidad (CL50 35 ppm. Es importante señalar que el extracto acuoso de hojas presenta una baja genotoxicidad (CL50 900 ppm, lo cual es relevante si se toma en consideración que es la parte de la planta tradicionalmente utilizada por las comunidades indígenas ubicadas en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The current tendency to consume more natural products and difficult availability of and access to medicines in many regions has led the world’s population to seek

  4. Resistência antimicrobiana associada em isolados clínicos de Enterococcus spp Associated antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. clinical isolates

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    Cláudia Castelo Branco Artiaga Kobayashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento da prevalência de isolados de enterococos em hospitais, particularmente Enterococcus resistente à vancomicina (VRE, é importante por causa da limitada terapia antimicrobiana efetiva para o tratamento de infecções enterocócicas. MÉTODOS: O presente trabalho apresentou uma investigação retrospectiva de dados de suscetibilidade in vitro quantitativa para uma variedade de antimicrobianos frente aos isolados de Enterococcus spp. e avaliação da associação de resistência entre os agentes antimicrobianos apontados como escolha para o tratamento de infecções causadas por VRE, através do cálculo do risco relativo. RESULTADOS: Dos 156 isolados de enterococos, 40 (25,6% foram resistentes a três ou mais antimicrobianos, incluindo 7,7% (n = 12/156 resistentes à vancomicina. A associação de resistência elevada foi mais pronunciada entre os isolados de VREs com antimicrobianos alternativos e primários para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estes patógenos, incluindo ampicilina (100%, RR = 7,2, estreptomicina (90,9%, RR = 4,9, rifampicina (91,7%, RR = 3,1 e linezolida (50%, RR = 11,5, apesar da alta taxa de suscetibilidade a esta droga (94,9%. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência associada significativa aos antimicrobianos de primeira escolha e alternativos, usados no tratamento de infecções graves por cepas com o fenótipo VRE e que requerem um regime terapêutico combinado, evidencia alternativas terapêuticas ainda mais limitadas na instituição analisada.INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of enterococci strains in hospitals, particularly among isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, poses important problems because of the limited effect of antimicrobial therapy for enterococcal infections. METHODS: This work presents a retrospective investigation of quantitative in vitro susceptibility data for the range of antimicrobials against Enterococcus spp. isolates and evaluation of the association of

  5. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  6. Estudo in vitro da ação antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas contra Enterococcus faecalis In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar o potencial terapêutico das plantas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos da aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, da aroeira-do-sertão (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., da ameixa-do-mato (Ximenia americana L., da quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.] e do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 2,5%, contra o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado teste de difusão em ágar, pelo método do poço, utilizando-se como controle positivo a clorexidina a 0,12%. Os microrganismos foram semeados em caldo BHI e incubados a 37ºC por 24 horas. Posteriormente, as suspensões microbianas foram semeadas em placas Petri, com ágar Mueller Hinton, sendo confeccionados seis poços equidistantes. As placas foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente por 2 horas, para ocorrer a pré-difusão das substâncias, e incubadas a 37ºC por 48 horas. Foram feitas as análises e medições dos halos de inibição em triplicata e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente (teste de análise de variância [ANOVA]. RESULTADOS: A quixabeira apresentou os menores halos de inibição (teste t, p INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the therapeutic benefits of plants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, aroeira (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., Olacaceae (Ximenia americana L., quixaba (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 2.5% against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METHODS: The agar diffusion test was performed and 0.12% chlorhexidine was applied as positive control. The microorganisms were allowed to grow in a brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. Subsequently, the microbial suspensions were seeded on Petri dishes

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria extract as assessed by linear regression compared with commercial mouthrinses Eficácia antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria avaliada por regressão linear comparada com anti-sépticos bucais comerciais

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    Adriana Bugno

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe extract against some oral microorganisms was compared with the antimicrobial activity of five commercial mouthrinses in order to evaluate the potential of the plant extract to be incorporated into formulas for improving or creating antiseptic activity. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of plant extracts and commercial products were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using a linear regression method to evaluate the microbial reduction obtained in function of the exposure time, considering as effectiveness a 99.999% reduction in count of standardized microbial populations within 60 seconds. The results showed that the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe extract was similar to that of commercial products, and its incorporation into a mouthrinse could be an alternative for improving the antimicrobial efficacy of the oral product.A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe contra algumas bactérias da microbiota bucal foi comparada com a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco anti-sépticos comerciais, a fim de avaliar o potencial do extrato vegetal de ser incorporado em formulações com a finalidade de melhorar ou conferir atividade anti-séptica. A eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato vegetal e produtos comerciais foi avaliada frente a Streptococcus mutans,Enterococcus faecalis,Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans, utilizando o método de regressão linear para avaliar a redução microbiana obtida em função do tempo de exposição, considerando como eficácia a redução de 99,999% na contagem de população microbiana padronizada em 60 segundos. Os resultados demonstraram que a eficácia antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe foi similar a de produtos comerciais e que sua incorporação em anti-sépticos bucais pode ser uma

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

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    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais em bactérias patogênicas de origem alimentar Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against sessile and planktonic pathogens of food source

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    C. Valeriano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar e quantificar os constituintes e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum e Origanum majorana contra cepas de Escherichia coli enteropatogênica, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes e Enterobacter sakazaki. A obtenção dos óleos essenciais foi realizada a partir de folhas secas, empregando-se a técnica de hidrodestilação e utilizando-se a aparelho de Clevenger modificado. A atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. Observou-se que os óleos essenciais inibiram o crescimento bacteriano, mas a efetividade foi variada. Entre os óleos essenciais testados, M. piperita apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana para E. coli, (8.106 UA mL-1 quando comparada as demais bactérias, atividade moderada para Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Enterobacter sakazakii (1.706 e 3.200 UA mL-1 respectivamente e baixa atividade para Listeria monocytogenes (106,67 UA mL-1. Já óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana frente a E. coli (9.386 UA mL-1 e atividade moderada frente a Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Listeria monocytogenes (2.773 UA mL-1 para ambas. Ocimum basilicum apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana frente E. coli e Enterobacter sakazakii (6.826 e 8.106 UA mL-1 respectivamente, moderada atividade frente a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (1.600 UA mL-1 e não apresentou atividade frente a Listeria monocytogenes.Origanum majorana também foi testado neste estudo e apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana frente E. coli (5.973 UA mL-1, atividade moderada para Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Enterobacter sakazakii (1.706 e 2.346 UA mL-1 , respectivamente e não apresentou atividade para Listeria monocytogenes.ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to identify and quantify the constituents, and to evaluate the

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil

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    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. O principal componente do óleo essencial obtido a partir de folhas da planta submetidas ao processo de hidrodestilação foi o linalol (80 a 95% m/m. O óleo essencial mostrou atividade antimicrobiana para todos os microrganismos testados, com exceção de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial sobre as bactérias testadas foi observada sobre Xanthomonas campestris (33,0 mm e a menor sobre Yersinia enterocolitica (10,5 mm. Para a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, observou-se que todos os microrganismos apresentaram-se susceptíveis ao óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. A variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-positivas foi de 1,00 mg.mL-1 (Streptococcus mutans a 1,75 mg.mL-1 (Staphylococcus epidermidis. Já a variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-negativas foi de 0,625 mg.mL-1 (Citrobacter freundii a 2,50 mg.mL-1 (Shigella flexneri. Os resultados obtidos na determinação da atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial demonstram que o percentual antioxidante aumenta proporcionalmente à concentração de óleo essencial adicionado, atingindo o valor máximo de 97,49% de atividade antioxidante para a concentração de 50000 μg.mL-1.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the Ho-Sho essential oil. The major component of the essential oil obtained from the leaves submitted to hydro-distillation was linalool (80-95 wt%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity for all tested microorganisms, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher antimicrobial activities over the tested bacterium were observed for Xanthomonas campestris (33.0 mm, and lower activities were obtained for Yersinia enterocolitica (10.5 mm. For the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC, it was observed that all microorganisms presented susceptibility to the Ho

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel

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    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC and kernel (FA extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644

  12. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

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    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  14. Antibiotic activity of the extract of Punica granatum Linn. over bovine strains of Staphylococcus aureus Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Punica granatum Linn. em linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus de origem bovina

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    Maria A. R. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Human and veterinary medicines have not been so well succeeded in order to achieving their goals concerning the treatment of infections for long term caused by Staphylococcus aureus linked to resistance development against antibiotic agents. The antibiotic activity of the Punica granatum Linn. fresh fruit pericarp extract was evaluated by the agar diffusion method on 38 S. aureus strains, isolated from apparently healthy lactating cows in farms situated in counties of the semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba, Brazil to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Twenty-two of the thirty-eight strains are penicillin-resistant (PRSA. The extract of P. granatum presented potential antibiotic action over all the assayed strains, forming 10 to 36 mm diameter inhibition zones. This paper's results claim the effectiveness of the extract of P. granatum as a potential antibacterial agent on S. aureus, and display the significance of evaluating new substances with antimicrobial potential, which can contribute to alternative therapeutics for veterinary and medicine.A medicina humana e veterinária tem falhado no tratamento de infecções em longo prazo causadas por Staphylococcus aureus associadas ao desenvolvimento de resistência a agentes antimicrobianos. A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato da casca do fruto de Punica granatum Linn. foi avaliada sobre 38 linhagens de S. aureus de origem bovina para a determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Das 38 linhagens ensaiadas, 22 são resistentes à penicilina.(PRSA. O extrato de P. granatum apresentou potencial ação antimicrobiana sobre todas as linhagens ensaiadas formando halos de inibição variando de 10 a 36 mm de diâmetro. Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a eficácia do extrato de P. granatum como potencial agente antibacteriano sobre S. aureus e demonstram a importância de se avaliar novas substâncias com potencial antimicrobiano, o que pode contribuir para a

  15. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de duas espécies de Rutaceae do Nordeste Brasileiro Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of two Rutaceae species from the Brazilian Northeast

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    Cinara V. da Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o aumento da resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos disponíveis, tornou-se imprescindível a busca por novos fármacos ou protótipos. Os metabólitos secundários produzidos por alguns vegetais como cumarinas, alcaloides e terpenoides podem apresentar várias atividades biológicas, dentre elas, atividade antibiótiotica. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco, das diferentes partes de duas espécies pertencentes à família Rutaceae coletadas na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. e Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., bem como do alcaloide diidroqueleritrina, isolado do extrato metanólico de Z. stelligerum frente a cepas padrão de microrganismos e isolados clínicos. Os resultados apresentados indicam que o extrato da raiz da espécie Z. stelligerum e o alcaloide extraído desta apresentaram propriedades antimicrobianas contra as cepas Gram positivas e leveduras. A E. coli foi a única cepa Gram negativa que se mostrou sensível ao extrato e ao alcaloide.With the increase in bacterial resistance to available antibiotics, it became imperative to search for new drugs or prototypes. The secondary metabolites produced by some plants as coumarins, alkaloids and terpenoids have several biological activities, among them, antibiotic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity in vitro by the disk diffusion method, from different parts of two species belonging to the family Rutaceae, collected in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: Spiranthera odoratissima A. St Hil. and Zanthoxylum stelligerum Turcz., and the alkaloid dihydrochelerythrine, isolated from the methanolic extract of Z. stelligerum front of standard strains of microorganisms and clinical isolates. The results indicate that the extract from the roots of Z. stelligerum and the alkaloid had antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and

  16. Evaluation of Origanum vulgare essential oil as antimicrobial agent in sausage Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare em linguiça

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    Cassiano Busatta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reports antimicrobial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare essential oil against several bacteria in sausage. The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for 9 selected aerobic heterotrofic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of distinct concentrations of the essential oil on the basis of the highest MIC found was tested in a food system comprised of fresh sausage. Batch food samples were also inoculated with Escherichia coli with a fixed concentration and the time course of the product was evaluated with respect to the action of the different concentrations of essential oil. Sensory analysis were conducted, and results showed that the addition of oregano essential oil to sausage may be a promising route as bacteriostatic effect was verified for oil concentrations lower than the MIC.O presente trabalho reporta resultados referentes à testes de atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de orégano (Origanum vulgare contra várias bactérias em lingüiça. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para 9 bactérias aeróbicas heterotróficas. Com base no maior valor encontrado da CIM, testou-se a atividade antimicrobiana para distintas concentrações do óleo essencial in lingüiça fresca. Amostras do sistema alimentar escolhido foram inoculadas com Escherichia coli numa determinada concentração e a evolução temporal do produto concernente ao crescimento microbiano foi monitorada avaliando-se o efeito das diferentes concentrações de óleos essencial aplicadas ao produto inoculado. Os resultados das análises microbiológica e sensorial mostraram que a adição do óleo essencial de orégano a linguiça fresca coloca-se como promissora tendo em vista os efeitos bacteriostáticos observados em baixas concentrações do óleo essencial, inferiores a CIM.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and investigation of the molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes in dairy products A resistência antimicrobiana e investigação de epidemiologia molecular de Listeria monocytogenes em produtos lácteos

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    Fernanda De Nes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous microorganism in nature and is responsible for listeriosis, an infectious disease caused by consumption of contaminated food. METHODS: Molecular characterization was performed on 19 strains of Listeria monocytogenes (serovars 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b and 4c, isolated from dairy products in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The molecular techniques applied were random amplification of polymorphic DNA and restriction enzyme analysis. In addition to the molecular analysis, the antimicrobial resistance profile was determined. RESULTS: The strains studied showed a low degree of diversity. In relation to the antimicrobial resistance profile of those microorganisms from the samples analyzed, all of them were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested. CONCLUSIONS: The molecular techniques that were used presented good discriminatory power for the strains studied. Furthermore, all of the samples that were analyzed were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested.INTRODUÇÃO: Listeria monocytogenes é um microrganismo que se encontra disseminado na natureza, sendo responsável por causar listeriose, uma doença infecciosa causada pelo consumo de alimentos contaminados. MÉTODOS: A análise molecular de 19 linhagens de Listeria monocytogenes, sorovares 1/2a, 1/2b, 4b, 4c, isoladas de produtos lácteos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As técnicas moleculares aplicadas foram: Amplificação Randômica do DNA Polimórfico e Análise por Enzimas de Restrição. Além da análise molecular foi realizado o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana. RESULTADOS: As linhagens estudadas mostraram baixo grau de diversidade, em relação ao perfil de resistência antimicrobiana desses microrganismos das amostras analisadas todas foram susceptíveis aos antimicrobianos testados. CONCLUSÕES: As técnicas moleculares estudadas apresentaram um bom poder de discriminação para as linhagens estudadas. Além disso, todas as amostras analisadas

  18. Atividades antimicrobiana e fototóxica de extratos de frutos e raízes de Physalis angulata L. Antimicrobial and phototoxic activities of Physalis angulata L (Solanaceae extracts, fruits and roots

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    Deise Cristina D.X.P. Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos e frações de frutos e raízes de Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae foram ensaiados para encontrar atividade antimicrobiana. Aplicando o método de difusão em agar, todas as amostras foram testadas contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. O extrato etanólico dos frutos apresentou atividade antibacteriana, a qual teve a atividade fototóxica estimada em cobaias quando expostas a luz ultravioleta, e não foram observados eritemas. Esses dados impulsionaram a pesquisar diferentes formas de obtenção de extratos da planta, com o objetivo de preparar formulações com atividade anti-séptica, que possam se apresentar mais eficazes e seguras, quando aplicadas no tratamento de doenças infecciosas.Extracts and fractions of Physalis angulata L. prepared from fruits and roots were assayed to find out antimicrobial activity. Using the agar diffusion method all samples were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. The ethanolic extract of the fruits displayed bacterial activity. Phototoxic property was estimated with guinea pigs when they were exposed to ultraviolet light, no erythemas were observed. These data encouraged us to look for different forms of extracts wich could be applied as a safe and effective antiseptic product.

  19. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from corneal ulcers of dogs Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de úlceras de córnea em cães

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    M.R. Prado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 clinical specimens were obtained from 19 dogs with corneal ulcer (16 unilateral and three bilateral for isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation of the isolated bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed in 100% of the samples (n=22. Staphylococcus intermedius was the predominant species (35.5%, followed by Corynebacterium xerosis (19.3%. Gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin had a high efficacy against all of the isolated bacteria. The results evidenced that 80.7% of the isolates were Gram positive cocci and Gram positive bacilli, and that those microorganisms were sensitive to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin.Utilizaram-se 22 amostras de material, obtidas de 19 cães com úlcera de córnea, sendo 16 unilaterais e três bilaterais, para isolamento e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano em 100% das amostras (n=22. A espécie predominante foi Staphylococcus intermedius (35,5% seguido de Corynebacterium xerosis (19,3%. Gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina apresentaram alta eficácia contra todas as bactérias isoladas. Os resultados evidenciam que 80,7% dos isolados foram cocos e bacilos Gram positivos e que estes microrganismos foram sensíveis à gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de folhas e ramos da Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the leaves and branches of Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate

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    Bruno De Biasi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Ilex paraguariensis foram utilizados seis microrganismos: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O método utilizado foi de difusão do disco. Foram adicionados em discos de papel filtro 10 µl de extratos hidro-alcoólicos das folhas e ramos coletados de dois ambientes distintos, com e sem exposição ao sol. As placas foram incubadas a 35- 37 ºC por 24 h. Os extratos inibiram levedura, bacilos gram-negativos e cocos gram-positivos, não mostrando atividade frente à Escherichia coli.For the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Ilex paraguariensis six microorganisms were used: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In disks of filter paper 10 µl of hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves and branches from two distinct environments were added, with and without sun exposure. The extracts have inhibited levedura, gram-negative bacillus and gram-positive cocos, with no activity to Escherichia coli.

  1. Avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico frente aos antibióticos de uso sistêmico

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    Bárbara Trindade Di Santi

    Full Text Available ResumoIntroduçãoBactérias associadas ao insucesso do tratamento endodôntico são capazes de adquirir e expressar resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos comumente empregados para tratar infecções, o que torna necessário, em determinadas situações, a realização de testes laboratoriais para detectar a resistência ou a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana desses micro-organismos.Objetivoavaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das cepas de Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Actinomyces viscosus e Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico.Material e métodoCepas clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis (n=3, Enterococcus faecium (n=3, Actinomyces viscosus (n=3 e Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coletadas in vivo de canais radiculares com insucesso endodôntico, foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana por meio do método E-test em duplicata, utilizando os antibióticos: Amoxicilina (AC, Rifampicina (RI, Moxifloxacina (MX, Vancomicina (VA, Tetraciclina (TC, Ciprofloxacina (CI, Cloranfenicol (CL, Benzilpenicilina (PG, Amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico (XL, Doxiciclina (DC, Eritromicina (EM e Azitromicina (AZ.ResultadoTodas as cepas clínicas testadas foram suscetíveis aos antibióticos AC, XL, PG, DC, MX, TC e VA. Todos os isolados das espécies de S. aureus foram suscetíveis aos 12 antibióticos testados. As cepas de E. faecalis, E. faecium e A. viscosus mostraram padrão de suscetibilidade intermediário contra EM. Algumas cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium foram resistentes a AZ e RI.ConclusãoAs cepas clínicas isoladas dos canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico mostraram perfis diferentes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e nenhum isolado de E. faecalis e E. faeciumapresentou-se suscetível a AZ e EM.

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Anacardium occidentale Linn. em amostras multiresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn. against multi-drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jackeline G. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas medicinais com propriedades terapêuticas são de grande relevância em todo o mundo, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento. A planta Anacardium occidentale Linn. é largamente usada na medicina tradicional na nossa região, como antidiarréico, para amigdalite, bronquites, artrites, e antiiflamatório. No presente estudo avaliou-se a ação antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcóolico da casca do caule do cajueiro frente a amostras de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes e sensíveis à meticilina, obtidas a partir de pacientes internados do Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em meio sólido para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do extrato, e foi observada no total de 30 amostras, pela presença ou não do halo de inibição. Todas as amostras ensaiadas mostraram-se sensíveis à ação do extrato do cajueiro, com diâmetros dos halos de inibição variando de 10 a 20 mm, demonstrando grande eficácia do cajueiro. Assim, o uso desta planta na nossa região pode inferir uma alternativa terapêutica eficiente e de baixo custo, contra infecções bacterianas causadas por Staphylococcus aureus.Medicinal plants with therapeutical properties are of great significance in the whole world, especially in developing countries. Anacardium occidentale Linn. is a plant widely used in the traditional medicine in our region against diarrhea, tonsillitis, bronchitis, arthritis, and inflammation. In this paper, the antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the cashew tree stem was evaluated against samples of meticillin-resistant and meticillin-sensible Staphylococcus aureus, attained from patients interned at Hospital Universitário/Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the diffusion method in solid milieu to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract, and it was

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana da Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.: uma planta etnomedicinal contra patógenos causadores de infecções no ouvido Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.: an ethnomedicinal plant against pathogens causing ear infection

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    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Infecções de ouvido representam uma das doenças mais comuns do mundo. Diferentes agentes etiológicos são responsáveis por tais infecções. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano de extratos de folhas e da casca de Terminalia arjuna contra Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherchia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans - patógenos que causam infecções de ouvido e como esses extratos se comparam às medicações tópicas atualmente disponíveis. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Metanol, etanol, acetona, extratos aquosos (quentes e frios de folhas e casca da T. arjuna foram testados para avaliação de suas atividades antimicrobianas. RESULTADOS: Dos três solventes orgânicos avaliados, o extrato acetônico das folhas foi o que teve o melhor resultado contra S. aureus. O extrato orgânico da casca exibiu quase o mesmo grau de ação antimicrobiana entre todas as bactérias gram-negativas, exceto contra P. aeruginosa. Entretanto, o extrato aquoso da casca de T. arjuna exibiu boa atividade contra S. aureus. Nenhum dos extratos exibiu atividade antifúngica. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato orgânico obtido a partir da casca e folhas de T. arjuna pode ser usado para tratar infecções bacterianas de ouvido, especialmente aquelas causadas por S. aureus, que exibiu maiores zonas de inibição do que gotas herbáceas; entretanto, ainda necessitamos de estudos mais detalhados - como ensaios in vivo e avaliações de propriedades farmacocinéticas para avaliarmos sua utilidade terapêutica no tratamento de infecções de ouvido.Ear infection is one of the common diseases occurring throughout the world. Different etiological agents are responsible for ear infections. AIM: To assess the antimicrobial potential of Terminalia arjuna leaves and bark extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Escherchia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, pathogens causing ear infections and

  4. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

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    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. The genus Bacillus is a producer of these active compounds, and among them B. subtilis produces surfactin, the most potent biosurfactant known. These compounds can act as antibiotics, antivirals, antitumorals, immunomodulators and enzyme inhibitors. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactants obtained by cultivation of B. subtilis R14 was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacteria. During cultivation in defined medium, the surface tension of the medium was reduced from 54 mN/m in the beginning of the microbial growth to 30 mN/m after 20 hours. A crude surfactant concentration of 2.0 g/L was obtained after 40 hours of cultivation. A preliminary characterization suggested that two surfactants were produced. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds was carried out against 29 bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis (11 strains, Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 strains and Escherichia coli CI 18 (1 strain displayed a profile of well defined drug resistance. All strains were sensitive to the surfactants, in particular Enterococcus faecalis. The results demonstrated that lipopeptides have a broad spectrum of action, including antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles.Os lipopeptídeos representam uma classe de surfactantes microbiológicos com crescente interesse científico, terapêutico e biotecnológico. O gênero Bacillus é um dos maiores produtores destes compostos ativos. Dentre as espécies produtoras de biossurfactante, B. subtilis produz surfactina um dos mais conhecidos. Estes compostos atuam como antibióticos, antivirais, agente antitumorais, imunomoduladores e inibidores enzimáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de biossurfactantes, obtidos pelo cultivo de B. subtilis R

  5. Evaluación de la resistencia antimicrobiana en ganado bovino en Chile, utilizando E. coli como bacteria indicadora Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in cattle in Chile using E. coli as the indicator bacteria

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    B San Martín

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia antimicrobiana es un importante problema de salud pública que afecta a la mayoría de los países, teniendo un impacto negativo en control de las enfermedades bacterianas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS señala que existen evidencias que los animales de producción son un reservorio de bacterias resistentes y que deben hacerse esfuerzos entre médicos humanos y veterinarios para abordar este problema. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la resistencia antimicrobiana, utilizando E. coli como bacteria indicadora. Se aislaron de contenido cecal 50 cepas de E. coli en ganado de leche (Grupo I y 72 en ganado de carne (Grupo II. Se determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitorias frente a ocho antimicrobianos. Los mayores porcentajes de resistencia (86% se observaron en las cepas aisladas del Grupo I; en el grupo II no superó el 11%. Los mayores niveles de resistencia se presentaron frente a oxitetraciclina, enrofloxacino, ciprofloxacino y ceftiofur, en el Grupo I, y a sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, en el grupo II. Se observó un alto porcentaje de multirresistencia en las cepas del Grupo I, siendo el perfil enrofloxacino/ciprofloxacino/oxitetraciclina/ceftiofur el más observado (46%. Esta situación contrasta con el Grupo II, en donde menos del 3% de las cepas fueron multirresistentes. De los resultados obtenidos podemos concluir que el ganado de leche como el de carne de la Región Metropolitana no está ajeno a la problemática mundial de resistencia bacteriana, situación que también ha sido reportada en otras regiones del paísAntimicrobial resistance is an important worldwide public health problem having a negative impact on the struggle against bacterial diseases. The WHO indicates that there exists evidence that livestock are a reservoir for resistant bacteria and that medical physicians and veterinarians must work together on this problem. The aim of the present study was to monitor the antimicrobial

  6. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato de Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. extract

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    D.M Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversas espécies de Tabernaemontana têm sido estudadas devido a diversidade de alcalóides com atividade farmacológica. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato das cascas do caule de Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC.em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microrganismos causadores de diversas infecções. Os testes de susceptibilidade bacteriana foram realizados usando o método de Kirby Bauer, consistindo na difusão em disco do antibiótico em meio de cultivo Mueller Hinton. Os testes de inibição foram realizados com soluções do extrato bruto seco de T. catharinensis dissolvido em etanol 70% (v/v na concentração 1,0 mg mL-1, que aplicada nos discos de área 20 mm², apresentaram concentração de 0,005 mg mm-2. Como controle negativo, realizou-se ensaios com placas contendo P. aeruginosa, e discos com etanol 70% (v/v, e como controle positivo, discos com os antibióticos ceftriaxona sódica (0,25 mg mm-2 de área do disco, tetraciclina (0,005 mg mm-2 e cefalexina (0,005 mg mm-2. A solução do extrato na concentração de 0,005 mg mm-2 inibiu o Staphylococcus aureus, com diâmetro médio do halo de 0,6 cm. O halo de inibição para o Pseudomonas aeruginosa foi em média 1,2 cm. A tetraciclina, a cefalexina, e o controle negativo (etanol 70% v/v não demonstraram ação antimicrobiana. O halo de inibição usando ceftriaxona foi em média 2,2 cm para P. aeruginosa e 1,0 cm para Staphylococcus aureus.Several Tabernaemontana species have been studied due to their several alkaloids with pharmacological activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial action of the extract from stem barks of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microorganisms that cause several infections. Bacterial susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby-Bauer method, consisting in antibiotic disk

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana de derivados fenólicos do líquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd. Laundron Antimicrobian activity of phenols actives from the liquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd. Laundron

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    Emerson P. da Silva Falcão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de extratos brutos de Ramalina sorediosa foi detectada pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. Dois metabólitos liquênicos de natureza fenólica foram identificados por meio de técnicas biocromatográficas. Uma dessas substâncias foi identificada por meio de cromatografia em camada delgada como sendo o ácido úsnico. A segunda substância, que se encontra presente em maior concentração em relação aos demais constituintes nos extratos, trata-se do ácido homossequicáico. As análises em cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE revelaram ainda a presença do ácido salazínico. Os dados obtidos tornam possível atribuir a atividade antibiótica observada nesta espécie a uma provável associação sinérgica destas substâncias.The antimicrobian activity of crude extracts from Ramalina sorediosa was detected by the diffusion disc-paper method. Two phenolic compounds from the lichen considered active were detected by using biochromathograhyc technique. Two of those compounds were identified through thin layer chromatographic technique (TLC as been usnic acid and the second one, wich is present in higher concentration when compared with the other substances, was the homosekikaik acid. The TLC and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC assays still detected the salazanic acid presence. The obtained data make it possible to attribute the antibiotic activity of this species to a synergic association of those two substances.

  8. Evaluación de la Actividad Antimicrobiana de Extractos de Propóleos de la Huasteca Potosina (México Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Huasteca Potosina Propolis

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    María L Carrillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos etanólicos y acuosos de propóleos recolectados en la Huasteca Potosina, en México. Se usaron cepas de microorganismos Gram negativos: Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi y Klebsiella pneumoniae ; y microorganismos Gram positivos: Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis y Streptococcus agalactiae . La concentración mínima bactericida (CMB de cada extracto se determinó con el método de dilución en tubo. La CMB del extracto etanólico fue 0.93 mg mL -1 para las Gram positivas y 7.5 mg mL -1 para las Gram negativas; en el extracto acuoso fue 20 mg mL -1 para Gram positivas y 30 mg mL -1 para Gram negativas. Los extractos etanólicos del propóleo tienen una actividad antibacteriana significativamente mayor que los extractos acuosos, y esta actividad depende de su procedencia y de la especie bacteriana evaluada.The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of propolis in the Huasteca Potosina, in Mexico was evaluated. Strains of Gram negative: Escherichia coli , Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Gram positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus agalactiae, were used. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of each extract was determined by the tube dilution method. The ethanol extract was significantly more inhibitory than the aqueous (p = 0.05. The ethanol extract CMB was 0.93 mg mL-1 for Gram-positive and 7.5 mg mL-1 for Gram negative, in the aqueous extract was 20 mg mL-1 for Gram-positive and 30 mg mL-1 for Gram negative. The ethanol extracts have higher antibacterial activity compared with aqueous extracts, and antibacterial activity depends on its origin and on the bacterial species evaluated.

  9. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

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    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  10. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil Composição e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas usadas no Brasil

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    Adilson Sartoratto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella cholerasuis. Aloysia triphylla and O. basilicum presented moderate inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus while only A. tryphila and M. piperita were able to control the yeast Candida albicans. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majoritary compounds.Óleos essenciais foram obtidos a partir das partes aéreas de Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum e O. basilicum através de arraste de vapor em sistema tipo Clevenger. Os óleos foram avaliados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias e contra a levedura Candida albicans pelo método de bioautografia. A concentração mínima inibitória dos óleos com atividade positiva foi em seguida determinada pelo método da microdiluição. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos óleos essenciais estudados foram efetivos contra Enterococcus faecium e Salmonella cholerasuis. A.triphylla e O. basilicum apresentaram inibição moderada contra Staphylococcus aureus enquanto apenas A. tryphila e M. piperita foram capazes de inibir a levedura Candida albicans. Os óleos foram analisados quimicamente por técnicas de CG e CG-EM de modo a determinar os compostos majoritários presentes.

  11. Bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and their decontamination with antimicrobial solutions Taxa de sobrevivência bacteriana em escovas dentais e sua descontaminação com soluções antimicrobianas

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    Sandra Sato

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes after brushing and the efficacy of their decontamination by spraying antimicrobial solutions. Thirty subjects were instructed to spray the solutions on toothbrush bristles after brushing. Each volunteer tested three sprays, one solution per week; the sprays were labeled spray 1 (cetylpyridinium chloride - CPC - and basic formulation, 2 (basic formulation only and 3 (control - sterile tap water. At the end of each week, the brushes were collected and sonicated in Letheen Broth®; the suspensions were ten-fold diluted and the dilutions were plated on various culture media. Anaerobic bacteria, evaluated by colony count of black pigment producing organisms on Ask medium, were recovered from 83.3% of the samples, Streptococci from 80% and aerobic Gram-negative bacilli from 46.7% of them in the control tests. There was a significant decrease in toothbrush contamination with antimicrobial sprays 1 and 2, the first showing the greatest decrease on bacterial counts.O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência bacteriana em escovas dentais após a escovação e a eficácia na sua descontaminação pelo borrifamento de soluções antimicrobianas. Trinta indivíduos foram instruídos a borrifar as soluções nas cerdas das escovas após a escovação. Cada voluntário testou três sprays, uma solução por semana; os sprays foram rotulados spray 1 (cloreto de cetilpiridínio - CCP - e formulação básica, 2 (formulação básica apenas e 3 (controle - água de torneira esterilizada. Ao final de cada semana, as escovas eram recolhidas e introduzidas no caldo Letheen®, submetidas a ultra-som, à diluição decimal seriada e as suspensões semeadas em vários meios de cultura. As bactérias anaeróbias, avaliadas pela contagem de colônias de microrganismos produtores de pigmento negro no meio Ask, foram recuperadas em 83,3% das amostras, estreptococos em 80

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana de méis de cinco espécies de abelhas brasileiras sem ferrão Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees

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    Manuela Dória Mercês

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de méis produzidos por Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula e Plebeia sp. foi investigada. O teste de difusão em poço demonstrou que todos os méis tem ação antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, mas somente as amostras produzidas por M. quadrifasciata anthidioides e F. doederleinei inibiram o crescimento de Escherichia coli. No ensaio de determinação da concentração inibitória mínima, os méis de M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei e T. angustula foram mais ativos que os de Plebeia sp. frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Os micro-organismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans foram resistentes a todos os méis em ambos ensaios. Os méis foram mais efetivos contra as bactérias do que frente a uma solução de açúcar, sugerindo que o mecanismo de inibição do crescimento bacteriano não está somente relacionado ao efeito osmótico. Os resultados obtidos podem explicar o uso medicinal desses méis em doenças bacterianas.The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition

  13. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

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    Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do rizoma em pó, dos pigmentos curcuminóides e dos óleos e dos essenciais da Curcuma longa L. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the ground rhizome, curcuminoid pigments and essential oil of Curcuma longa L.

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    Lúcia Péret-Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da cúrcuma em pó, da curcumina disponível no comércio, dos pigmentos curcuminóides purificados e dos óleos essenciais da cúrcuma. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos teores de pigmentos curcuminóides por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O óleo essencial foi também analisado quanto à densidade, índice de refração e perfil das substâncias voláteis por cromatografia gasosa e detector de ionização de chamas. A atividade antimicrobiana in vitro foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar com discos de papel estéreis, impregnados com os extratos, sendo os diâmetros dos halos de inibição medidos com paquímetro. Os extratos etanólicos da cúrcuma, da curcumina comercial, e dos pigmentos curcumina e desmetoxicurcumina não inibiram o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella choleraesuis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, e Candida albicans. Apenas o extrato etanólico da bisdesmetoxicurcumina apresentou atividade antimicrobiana em relação ao B. subtilis. O óleo essencial da cúrcuma apresentou atividade antimicrobiana para o B. subtilis, S. choleraesuis, E. coli, A. niger e S. cerevisiae, sendo que essa atividade aumentou em função do aumento da concentração. Os halos de inibição, obtidos com o óleo essencial, foram significativos, quando comparados aos respectivos antibióticos tradicionais, cloranfenicol e anfotericina, indicando ser o óleo essencial da cúrcuma um agente antimicrobiano em potencial.The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ground turmeric, commercially available curcumin, purified curcuminoid pigments and turmeric essential oils. The samples were analyzed for the levels of curcuminoid pigments by high performance liquid chromatography. The essential oil was also analyzed for density, refractive index and profile of volatile

  15. Síntese, toxicidade frente a Artemia salina Leach e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de 1,2,4-oxadiazóis-3,5-difenilclorados - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v27i2.1452

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    Silvio Luiz Machado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os oxadiazóis 3,5-bis-(fenil-1,2,4-oxadiazol (3a e 3-(4-clorofenil-5-fenil-1,2,4-oxadiazol (3b, já descritos na literatura, e, os 1,2,4-oxadiazóis-3,5-fenilclorados inéditos 3c-e, foram sintetizados pela reação de bezamidoximas com um cloreto de ácido apropriado, seguido da ciclização do intermediário O-acilíco resultante. Os compostos obtidos foram caracterizados com base nas análises dos dados espectroscópicos de IV, EM e RMN (uni- e bidimensionais. Os compostos 3a-e foram submetidos a bioensaios para avaliação de atividade antimicrobiana e, de toxicidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach

  16. Antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas on cariogenic bacteria evaluated using the linear regression method Atividade antimicrobiana de quatro formulações diferentes de géis dentais em bactérias cariogênicas avaliada pelo método de regressão linear

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    Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas was evaluated on three microorganisms associated with cariogenesis: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces viscosus. The preliminary antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed using an agar diffusion method. In addition, the formulas were challenged using each microorganism with subsequent determinations of survivors at time intervals of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The decimal reduction time (D-value calculated from the obtained curves (logCFU/mL vs. time was employed for the antimicrobial activity comparison of the formulas. The selected method for survivor enumeration was validated according to official compendia. Results revealed intense bactericidal activity, even at 1:2 dilution, on S. mutans and L. casei. The data concerning A. viscosus showed the absence of microbial reduction in the challenge employing diluted formulas at the selected time interval. The obtained D-values were 0.21, 2.08, 1.93 and 5.79 minutes for formulas 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After comparing the obtained results, formula 1 can be considered to have the highest bactericidal activity.A atividade antimicrobiana de quatro diferentes fórmulas de gel dental foi avaliada empregando três microrganismos associados à cariogênese: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei e Actinomyces viscosus. A avaliação preliminar foi efetuada utilizando método por difusão em ágar. Além disso, as fórmulas foram desafiadas empregando cada microrganismo e as determinações relativas aos sobreviventes foram efetuadas após 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos do desafio. O tempo de redução decimal (valor-D foi calculado por meio das curvas obtidas (UFC/mL x tempo, objetivando a comparação da atividade antimicrobiana entre as fórmulas. O método selecionado para a enumeração dos sobreviventes foi validado de acordo com compêndio oficial. Os resultados revelaram intensa atividade antimicrobiana

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana "in vitro" de compostos a base de hidróxido de cálcio e tergentol em diferentes concentrações sobre bactérias orais Antimicrobial activity "in vitro" of calcium hydroxide and tergentol on different concentrations in oral bactéria

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    Eduardo José Guerra Seabra; Isabela Pinheiro Cavalcanti Lima; Sérgio Valmor Barbosa; Kenio Costa de Lima

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Este estudo realizado no departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte foi idealizado com propósito de pesquisar a ação "in vitro" de soluções a base de Ca(OH)2 e tergentol frente a bactérias colonizadoras da cavidade bucal e cariogênicas visando contribuir para o estudo sobre os agentes químicos para controle do biofilme dental. MÉTODOS: Testou-se através de discos de antibiograma e ação em bactérias formadoras de biofilme a ação antimicrobiana de algu...

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de erva-cidreira e manjericão frente a bactérias de carnes bovinas
    Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cidreira-herb and basil against bacteria from bovine meat

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    G. G. SANTOS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais extraídos de Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown e Ocimum basilicum frente a microrganismos isolados de carnes bovinas. Os óleos foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e caracterizados quanto à composição por cromatografi a gasosa. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima dos óleos (CBM foram determinadas pelo método de microplacas utilizando concentrações de óleos entre 0,39 e 25μg/mL. Foram utilizadas suspensões de diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. na concentração de 0,5x104 UFC/mL. O óleo de Lippia alba N.E. Brown apresentou maior efi ciência como agente bacteriostático e bactericida frente às diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. isoladas de carnes bovinas do que o óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum (cultivar “Maria Bonita”, o qual foi mais efetivo frente às cepas de Escherichia coli. Além disto, os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana em concentrações muito menores do que as obtidas por outros pesquisadores.

  19. Síntese e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente Synthesis and determination of antimicrobial activity of 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives against MRSA

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    Andrea Masunari

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O elevado nível de resistência que cepas de Staphylococcus aureus vêm apresentando aos antibióticos atualmente disponíveis caracteriza-se como grave problema em âmbito mundial e com consequências que beiram à fatalidade. Com a atenção voltada para este fenômeno, quatorze derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos foram sintetizados e testados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana frente a cepas padrão (ATCC 25923 e multi-resistente (3SP/R33 de Staphylococcus aureus. Todos os compostos testados apresentaram excelente atividade bacteriostática e, alguns entre eles, atividade bactericida. A 5-nitro-2-tiofilideno-4-acetilbenzidrazida se mostrou como o composto mais ativo com concentração inibitória equivalente a 0,14 mg/mL. A partir dos resultados obtidos evidenciou-se o forte potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos como possível alternativa para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos com atividade antimicrobiana.Infection diseases caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have been an increasing problem worldwide presenting significant morbidity and mortality rates. Thus, fourteen benzoic acid [(5-nitro-thiophen-2-yl-methylene]-hydrazides were designed, synthesized and tested against standard (ATCC 25923 and multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. All compounds exhibited significant bacteriostatic activity and, in such cases, also bactericidal activity, especially the p-COCH3 derivative with MIC = 0.14 mg/mL. The results have demonstrated the potential of synthesized compounds as alternative to the development of selective antimicrobial agents.

  20. Investigação das atividades alelopática e antimicrobiana de Mikania laevigata (Asteraceae obtida de cultivos hidropônico e tradicional Investigation of the allelopathic and antimicrobial activities of Mikania laevigata (Asteraceae obtained in hydroponic and traditional cultivars

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    Leopoldo Baratto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os extratos etanólicos de folhas de guaco (Mikania laevigata cultivado tradicionalmente no solo ou por hidroponia foram avaliados quanto às atividades alelopática e antimicrobiana. Para a atividade alelopática foi utilizado o ensaio de inibição da germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa, enquanto que para a atividade antimicrobiana utilizouse a técnica de difusão em disco. Observou-se um notável efeito alelopático dos extratos de ambos os cultivos, em especial do extrato etanólico do guaco tradicional, que mesmo na menor concentração testada inibiu completamente a germinação das sementes. Nenhum dos extratos etanólicos do guaco apresentou atividade antibacteriana significativa para as linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium.The ethanolic extract of "guaco" (Mikania laevigata traditionally cultivated in the soil or in a hydroponic system were tested for allelopathic and antimicrobial activities. Allelopathic activity was evaluated by the inhibition of germination assay using lettuce seeds, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. A notable allelopathic effect was observed for both extracts, although a more expressive activity of traditional "guaco" was verified, since the inhibition of seeds germination was 100% even in the lower concentration. None ethanolic extract of "guaco" presented significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium.

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of essential oils produced by Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Regina Ferronatto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.Essential oils obtained from the native plants Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, known also as "óleo de vassoura", are used in the perfumery industry, providing diverse perfumes with exotic aromas. Besides several studies about the biological activities of these species highlight the allelopathic

  2. Avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae

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    L.M. Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 e E. coli (ATCC 8739. A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS, foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda, não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35% de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1. Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and E. coli (ATCC 8739

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    ampicilina a um aminoglicosídeo além de outros, em segunda escolha, representados por cloranfenicol, eritromicina, tetraciclina e rifampicina. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de amostras de origem humana isoladas nas últimas quatro décadas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 68 cepas provenientes de casos clínicos humanos ocorridos em diferentes regiões do país no período de 1970-2008. A susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados foi determinada através dos critérios estabelecidos por Soussy pelo método de Kirby-Bauer e a concentração mínima inibitória realizada através do E-Test. RESULTADOS: A amostragem constituiu-se de 68 cepas, isoladas principalmente de líquido cefalorraquidiano, e hemocultura no período, pertencentes ao Laboratório de Zoonoses Bacterianas/LABZOO/Fiocruz. O sorovar L4b (60,3% foi o mais prevalente, seguido do sorovar 1/2a (20,6%, 1/2b (13,2% e aqueles mais raros representados por 1/2c, 3b e 4ab (5,9%. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis à ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, teicoplanina e vancomicina. Apenas uma cepa (1,5% apresentou resistência à rifampicina, enquanto duas (3% foram resistentes à associação de sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de o estudo ter demonstrado uma baixa prevalência de amostras resistentes aos antimicrobianos indicados na terapêutica da listeriose humana, o sistema de monitoramento do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana é de extrema importância para a orientação do tratamento adequado, principalmente nas infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos.

  4. Essential oil of Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity Óleo essencial de Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: composição química e atividade antimicrobiana

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    Mario Tsunezi Shimizu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithraea molleoides (Vell. (Anacardiaceae is a tree found in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. It is popularly used in the form of alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, arthritis, diseases of the digestive system and as diuretic, tranquilizer, haemostatic and tonic agent. The objectives of this study were the extraction of the essential oil of the mature fruit, leaves and aerial parts of the plant and quantification of the yield thereof; the identification and quantification of the principal components of the essential oil and the determination of its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast. The essential oil yield of the mature fruits was 1.0% but essential oil was not detected in leaves and flowery branches. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the mature fruits detected the presence of limonene (89.89%, alpha-pinene (3.48%, beta-pinene (2.63%, alpha-terpineol (1.27%, myrcene (0.64%, sabinene hydrate (0.54%, 4-terpineol (0.28%, camphene (0.22% and delta-3-carene (0.13%. The essential oil was active against just a few of the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast tested and did not present antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria.Lithraea molleoides(Vell. (Anacardiaceae é uma árvore encontrada no Brasil, Paraguai, Bolívia, Uruguai, Argentina e Chile. É popularmente usada na forma de extrato alcoólico, decocção e infusão para o tratamento de tosse, bronquite, artrite, doenças do sistema digestivo, como diurético, tranqüilizante, hemostático e tônico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi a extração do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros, folhas e outras partes aéreas da planta e o rendimento do mesmo; a identificação e quantificação dos principais componentes e a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana. O rendimento do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros foi de 1%, entretanto, não foi encontrado

  5. Tendencia del perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos de sangre en un hospital oncológico (1998-2003 Trend of antimicrobial drug-susceptibility of blood isolates at an oncological center (1998-2003

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    Patricia Cornejo-Juárez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la frecuencia de la resistencia en microrganismos aislados en cultivos de sangre en pacientes de un hospital oncológico de tercer nivel. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De enero de 1998 a diciembre de 2003, en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología se desarrolló un estudio retrospectivo en el cual se obtuvieron cepas de cultivos de sangre que fueron incluidas y procesadas por sistema Bactec y Microscan, para determinar identificación y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Se determinó la tendencia anual de la resistencia de cada organismo especificado a los diferentes antibióticos. Se obtuvo la diferencia porcentual (incremento o decremento comparando la frecuencia de resistencia al inicio y al final del estudio. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 2 071 cultivos positivos. Se recuperaron Gram negativos en 59.7% de las muestras, Gram positivos en 35.7% y levaduras en 4.6%. Escherichia coli fue el principal germen identificado (18.6%, seguido de S. epidermidis (12.7% y Klebsiella spp (9%. Durante el periodo de estudio la sensibilidad se mantuvo estable y por arriba de 88% (excepto para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La sensibilidad de ciprofloxacina para E. coli se encontró alrededor de 50%. Amikacina presentó mayor sensibilidad que gentamicina. Staphylococcus aureus presentó una sensibilidad a oxacilina de 96% y a vancomicina de 100%. S.epidermidis de 14% a oxacilina y de 98.6% a vancomicina. No se encontraron cepas de enterococo resistente a vancomicina. Todas las cepas de S. pneumoniae fueron sensibles a penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: Se considera que los patrones de resistencia encontrados en este hospital son el resultado del control en el uso de antimicrobianos, del programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales y de la utilización de terapia combinada en todos los pacientes con bacteremia.OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of antimicrobial resistance organisms isolated in blood cultures from patients detected in a tertiary level of care, teaching

  6. Quantificação de metabólitos secundários e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante de algumas plantas selecionadas do Cerrado de Mato Grosso

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    G.A. LIMA NETO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Extratos etanólicos de Luehea paniculata, Anadenanthera colubrina, Cariniana rubra, Hancornia speciosa, Qualea grandiflora, Kielmeyera coriaceae e Palicourea rigida, coletadas no Cerrado de Mato Grosso foram submetidos à análise fitoquímica preliminar para identificação das principais classes de metabolitos secundários e à quantificação do teor de compostos fenólicos totais, flavonoides e cumarinas. O estudo também descreve a atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e a toxicidade preliminar frente a larvas de Artemia salina. Os extratos de C. rubra e Q. grandiflora foram os mais ativos contra as cepas fúngicas de C. neoformans (CIM 3,91 µg/mL, C. krusei(CIM 15,63 µg/mL, C. parapsilosis (CIM 31,25 µg/mL e C. albicans (CIM 62,5 µg/mL, ambos com os mesmos resultados para estes microrganismos. Em relação às cepas bacterianas a mais sensível foi S. aureus com CIM de 250 µg/mL para todos os extratos testados. Luhea paniculata e Q. grandiflora foram as espécies vegetais mais ativas contra E. coli (CIM 500 e 250 µg/mL, respectivamente e E. faecalis (CIM 250 e 500 µg/mL, respectivamente. No teste do DPPH, merece destaque as espécies K. coriaceae (Ca (IC50 = 0,72 ± 0,51 μg /mL, K. coriaceae (Fo (IC50 = 1,34 ± 0,53 μg /mL, H. speciosa (Fo(IC50 = 1,03 ± 0,52 μg /mL, Q. grandiflora (Fo (IC50 = 1,31 ± 0,19 μg /mL e P. rigida (Fo (IC50 = 1,39 ± 0,53 μg /mL. Com exceção de L. paniculata(Fo, que apresentou IC50 de 14,40 ± 0,34 μg /mL e teor de flavonoides de 295,5 mg/g, todas as espécies que tiverem significativa atividade no teste do DPPH, também apresentaram teor de flavonoides semelhante ao padrão, ou seja, H. speciosa (Fo (280,5 mg/g, Q. grandiflora(Fo (260,5 mg/g, K. coriaceae (Ca (250,5 mg/g, K. coriaceae (Fo (235,5 mg/g. Quanto à determinação de fenóis totais e cumarinas os resultados foram inferiores quando comparados aos padrões.

  7. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity Avaliação de bactérias láticas de carne bovina embalada a vácuo quanto à atividade antimicrobiana

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    Roseane B. P. Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB from vacuum packaged beef and to investigate their antagonist activity. LAB mean counts of 5.19 log cfu/cm² were obtained from five samples of vacuum packaged beef. Two hundred isolates were selected and screened for the inhibitory effect on five ATCC reference Lactobacillus strains. Thirty six isolates showed activity in the agar spot test against at least two of the indicator strains. However, only six cell free supernatants (CFS from these isolates exhibited activity against the indicator strains using the well-diffusion test and conditions that eliminated the effects of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus was the most sensitive indicator tested, whereas L. plantarum and L. fermentum were the most resistant ones. Identification by MIDI system indicated that these LAB isolates were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus casei GC subgroup A. The antagonistic factors produced by most of these LAB against L. acidophilus were resistant to heat treatment (100ºC for 10 min and stable over a wide pH range (4.0 to 9.0. These data suggest that these isolates could be used as promising hurdles aiming increased safety and extended shelf life of meat products.Este trabalho teve como objetivo isolar bactérias ácido láticas (BAL de carne bovina embalada a vácuo e investigar sua atividade antimicrobiana. Uma média de 5,19 log ufc/cm² BAL foi obtida de cinco amostras. Duzentos isolados foram selecionados e o efeito inibitório sobre cinco cepas ATCC referência de Lactobacillus foi pesquisado. Trinta e seis isolados apresentaram atividade inibitória pelo teste 'agar spot' de pelo menos duas das cepas indicadoras. Sobrenadantes isentos de células (SIC destes isolados foram obtidos. Apenas seis SIC apresentaram atividade contra as cepas indicadoras usando o método de difusão em po

  8. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Rio de Janeiro Fatores de virulência e resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina no Rio de Janeiro

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    Shana M.O. Coelho

    2009-05-01

    920 pb em 71% dos isolados. O teste de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelou que 42% dos S. aureus foram sensíveis a todos os antibióticos testados. Foram observados sete diferentes padrões de resistência. Os resultados indicaram que 47% e 25% dos isolados foram resistentes à penicilina e oxacilina, respectivamente. Todos os isolados resistentes à oxacilina foram positivos para o gene mecA.

  9. Action of lactoferrin on the multiplication of Lactobacillus casei in vitro and in Minas fresh cheeseAtividade antimicrobiana; Atividade biológica; Queijo; Probióticos; Produtos lácteos.

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    Lina Casale Aragon-Alegro

    2012-02-01

    realizadas as análises de composição centesimal. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata e os dados obtidos foram analisados utilizando-se ANOVA e teste de Tukey a 5% de significância. Nos ensaios in vitro a multiplicação de L. casei foi estimulada pela presença da lactoferrina na concentração de 2 mg/mL. Entretanto, esta atividade não foi observada no queijo, mesmo quando a concentração de 4 mg/g de lactoferrina foi utilizada. A população de microrganismos psicrotróficos presentes nos queijos adicionados de lactoferrina não diferiram das populações observadas para os queijos controle (P>0,05, demostrando que não houve atividade antimicrobiana nos produtos. Estudos futuros devem ser conduzidos para avaliar os efeitos antimicrobianos da lactoferrina em alimentos, pois são muitas as variáveis que afetam a atividade desta proteína quando comparados aos resultados obtidos in vitro.

  10. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Origanum vulgare L. (oregano, Lamiaceae, essential oil has a variety of biological properties and its antimicrobial activity has received a renewed interest for use in food conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of O. vulgare essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil kept at room temperature and exposed to different heating temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C during 1 hour was evaluated by observing antimicrobial effectiveness at absolute concentration and determining MIC values by the solid medium diffusion procedure. The essential oil chemical composition analysis was performed by GC-MS. O. vulgare essential oil showed interesting antimicrobial activity on all assayed microbial strains (Candida albicans, C.krusei, C. tropicalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcencens, noted by large growth inhibition zones (30-42 mm. Heating treatment showed no significant interference (p O óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae (orégano apresenta variadas propriedades biológicas, de modo que seu potencial antimicrobiano tem despertado interesse para uso na conservação de alimentos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a interferência de diferentes tratamentos térmicos (60, 80, 100 e 120 °C/1 hora sobre a efetividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de O. vulgare. A efetividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial exposto aos diferentes tratamentos térmicos foi avaliada através da observação de sua atividade antimicrobiana em concentração absoluta e através da determinação da sua CIM utilizando-se a técnica de difusão em meio sólido. O estudo da composição do óleo essencial foi realizado através de GC-MS. O óleo essencial apresentou intensa atividade antimicrobiana sobre todas as amostras microbianas ensaiadas

  11. Biossurfactantes: propriedades anticorrosivas, antibiofilmes e antimicrobianas

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    Lívia Vieira de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of biofilms in the food industry, new products are being developed to enhance the efficiency of cleaning food-contact surfaces. Biosurfactants could be an alternative to synthetic products. The major advantages of biosurfactants over synthetic detergents are their low toxicity and highly biodegradable nature. Biosurfactants may also exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anticorrosive activity concomitantly. In this review, we emphasize the potential application of biosurfactants as surface coating agents to prevent corrosion and decrease planktonic and sessile microbial growth.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of different gutta-percha points and calcium hydroxide pastes Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de diferentes composições de cones de guta-percha e pastas de hidróxido de cálci

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    Juliane Maria Guerreiro Tanomaru

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different trademarks and compositions of gutta-percha points and calcium hydroxide pastes used in endodontic therapy. The evaluated material consisted of gutta-percha points containing calcium hydroxide (RoekoTM, gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine (RoekoTM, two convencional gutta-percha points (Endo PointsTM and RoekoTM and two calcium hydroxide pastes (CalenTM and Calen/PMCC TM. Antimicrobial tests included five species of microorganisms: Escherichia coli (ATCC10538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC12228, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853, and Micrococcus luteus (ATCC9341. The Agar difusion method was employed. The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion and then incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The triphenyltetrazolium chloride gel was added for optimization and the zones of inhibition were measured. Statistical evaluation was carried out using analysis of variance and Tukey Test. The obtained results showed that all microbial species used in the study were inhibited by the gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine and by the calcium hydroxide pastes (CalenTM and Calen/PMCC TM, with similar results (p > 0.05. No antimicrobial activity was observed for the other groups. It was concluded that the gutta-percha points containing chlorhexidine presented antimicrobial activity, whereas the gutta-percha points containing calcium hydroxide did not.O objetivo deste estudo foi a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas e composições de cones de guta-percha e pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio utilizados em endodontia. Os materiais avaliados foram: cones de guta-percha contendo hidróxido de cálcio (RoekoTM, cones de guta-percha contendo clorexidina (RoekoTM, duas marcas de cones de guta-percha (Endo PointsTM e RoekoTM e duas pastas à base de hidróxido de cálcio (CalenTM e Calen/PMCC TM. Os

  13. Synergistic and antimicrobial properties of commercial turmeric (Curcuma longa essential oil against pathogenic bacteria Propriedades antimicrobianas e sinergísticas de óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa contra bactérias patogênicas

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    Sara Albino Antunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of turmeric (Curcuma longa, widely used in food industry as a colorant, among other functions. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of turmeric essential oil against pathogenic bacteria and to study the influence of the addition of ascorbic acid on the prevention of polyphenols oxidation. The commercial turmeric essential oil alone did not show bactericidal activity against the microorganisms studied, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium, but when combined with ascorbic acid, it showed significant antibacterial activity. The highest antimicrobial activity of turmeric essential oil against Salmonella typhimurium was 15.0 ± 1.41 mm at the concentration of 2.30 mg.mL-1 of essential oil and 2.0 mg.mL-1 of ascorbic acid. With regard to Listeria monocytogenes, the largest zone of inhibition (13.7 ± 0.58 mm was obtained at the same concentrations. The essential oil showed antioxidant activity of EC50 = 2094.172 µg.mL-1 for the DPPH radical scavenging method and 29% under the concentration of 1.667 mg.mL-1 for the β-carotene bleaching method.Vários estudos têm demonstrado as propriedades antimicrobianas e antioxidantes da cúrcuma (Curcuma longa, a qual é amplamente utilizada na indústria de alimentos, entre outras funções, para colorir. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma contra bactérias patogênicas, além de estudar a influência do ácido ascórbico na prevenção da oxidação dos polifenóis. O óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma não apresentou atividade bactericida contra os micro-organismos estudados, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella typhimurium, mas, analisado com o ácido ascórbico, apresentou atividade antibacteriana considerável. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo contra Salmonella typhimurium foi

  14. Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extraído em diferentes intervalos de tempo Chemical composition and antimicrobial in vitro activity of the essential oil Eucalyptus cinerea F. Mull. ex Benth., Myrtaceae, extracted in different time intervals

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    J. Franco

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus cinerea é uma espécie aromática da família Myrtaceae, sendo utilizada como ornamental e que apresenta rendimento em óleo essencial considerável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi à avaliação da composição química e da atividade antimicrobiana deste óleo, e das frações coletadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo. A metodologia empregada para a extração do óleo essencial foi a hidrodestilação com arraste de vapor d'água, em aparelho de Clevenger. A análise da composição química foi procedida por CG/EM e para a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana foi utilizado o método de difusão em ágar frente aos microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6.538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8.739, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12.228 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9.027 e Candida albicans ATCC 10.231. O rendimento do óleo essencial foi de 6,07 % (v/m, do qual grande parte foi extraída na primeira hora de hidrodestilação. Também foi observada maior concentração de 1,8-cineol nas frações coletadas em quinze minutos e uma hora. Os principais componentes identificados no óleo essencial de E. cinerea por CG/EM foram: 1,8-cineol, a-pineno, limoneno e a-terpineol. A avaliação de atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em disco indicou qualitativamente o potencial antimicrobiano do óleo essencial da espécie em questão frente a bactérias Gram-positivas, bactérias Gram-negativas e levedura.Eucalyptus cinerea is used as an ornamental plant and shows good concentration of essential oil. The aim of this work is a chemical investigation and analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Eucalyptus cinerea collected at different time's interval. This oil was obtained by hydrodestilation in a Clevenger apparatus, the chemical ivestigation was perfoomed by GC/MS and the antimicrobial activity was assayed in vitro using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli

  15. Avaliação preliminar da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. obtido por extração com CO2 supercrítico Preliminary evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of "erva mate" (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. extract obtained by using supercritical CO2

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    G Carelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. (erva-mate é uma árvore pertencente à família Aquifoleaceae, nativa da região sul da América do Sul e de grande importância cultural e econômica para os três estados da região sul do Brasil. O presente trabalho determinou o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato de erva-mate obtido por fluido supercrítico, frente a alguns microrganismos. As folhas de Ilex paraguariensis foram coletadas na região norte do RS. O extrato bruto da planta desidratada foi obtido pelo método de extração com fluido supercrítico, utilizando dióxido de carbono (CO2 como solvente. Foi obtida a solução mãe desse extrato (100 mg mL-1 que a seguir foi diluído (50; 25; 12,5; 6,25 mg mL-1 para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana por meio da técnica de difusão do disco em ágar Müeller Hinton, sobre cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC 19606, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. As análises foram efetuadas em triplicata, utilizando como controle negativo disco estéril sem impregnação e como controle positivo discos de antibióticos comerciais variáveis de acordo com a espécie bacteriana. Após 16 a 24h de incubação a 35ºC os halos com significância foram medidos. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana frente a S. aureus (halos de inibição variaram entre 7 e 18 mm e para P. aeruginosa (halos entre 6 e 11 mm, ambos nas concentrações de 100 até 25 mg mL-1. O extrato obtido por extração em fluido supercrítico de Ilex paraguariensis apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente a S. aureus e P. aeruginosa.Ilex paraguariensis A. St. - Hil. ("erva mate" is a tree of the Aquifoliaceae family, native to the south region of South America and of great cultural and economic importance for the three states of the south region of Brazil. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial potential of "erva mate

  16. Estudo do perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249 Study of drugs susceptibility and molecular samples evaluation of Enterococcus spp isolated in hospitalized patients - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249

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    Celso Luis Cardoso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi investigado o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp, isoladas de urina, secreção purulenta, sangue e ferida cirúrgica de pacientes do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, estado do Paraná, no período entre 1998 e 2000. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto à susceptibilidade a drogas, tipificadas através de JB1-PCR e investigadas quanto à presença de gene Van A e Van B. Das 58 amostras, 98,3% foram classificadas como Enterococcus faecalis. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis à nitrofurantoína e vancomicina, 96,6% sensíveis à ampicilina, 32,8% foram resistentes à estreptomicina, 10,3% resistentes à gentamicina e ciprofloxacina e 6,9% resistentes a norfloxacina. Por meio do teste de CIM, para vancomicina, observou-se crescimento bacteriano até a concentração de 4μg/ml. Não foi detectada a presença de gene Van A e Van B. A amplificação por JB1-PCR proporcionou padrões de bandas com até 7 fragmentos sendo as amostras divididas em 6 grupos distintos. Não houve prevalência de algum padrão de bandeamento que denotasse a presença de um clone e não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre genótipo com resistência antimicrobiana.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalency of Enterococcus spp, isolated from different clinical materials. The strains were evaluated for drugs susceptibility, typing by JB1-PCR and screened to the presence of Van A and Van B gene. From the 58 strains, 98.3% were classified as Enterococcus faecalis. All strains were sensible to nitrofurantoin and vancomycin, 96.6% were sensible to ampicilin, 32.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 10.3% were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin and 6.9% were resistant to norfloxacin. Using CIM test to check vancomycin susceptibility was observed bacterial growth until 4μg/ml. The presence of Van A e Van B gene was not detected. The amplification by JB1-PCR provided band

  17. Aplicação de estudos de QSAR-2D em derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos com atividade antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus multi-resistente (MRSA 2D QSAR studies of 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Andrea Masunari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O avanço de estudos de QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships como método de modificação molecular racionalmente planejada vem se constituindo, nos últimos anos, em alternativa bastante viável para o desenvolvimento de ligantes candidatos potenciais a fármacos. Sendo assim, aliando a excelente aplicabilidade deste método com o fenômeno de multi-resistência bacteriana, realizou-se, neste trabalho, o estudo, em duas dimensões, das relações quantitativas entre a estrutura química e a potência antimicrobiana de 5-nitro-2-tiofilideno benzidrazidas substituídas, considerando faixa de hidrofobicidade ótima pré-determinada experimentalmente. A aplicação da Análise de Hansch/Fujita possibilitou a determinação da influência de descritores estruturais de caráter físico-químico sobre a referida atividade, indicando ser a hidrofobicidade a propriedade de maior impacto no desempenho da atividade biológica analisada. Evidenciou-se, a partir das correlações obtidas, o forte potencial de derivados 5-nitro-2-tiofilidênicos como possível alternativa para o desenvolvimento racional, em nível molecular, de novos fármacos com atividade antimicrobiana.With the constant advance of QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships studies as molecular modification methodology, a frequent application of this procedure in many science areas was observed. Besides, the rational ligand development for many diseases has been growing in recent years. Thus, in order to ally these medicinal chemistry advances with the necessity to combat the high incidence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, the purpose of this study was the 2D-QSAR study of p-substituted 5-nitro-2-thiophylidene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, considering hydrophobicity range experimentally determined. The statistical significant correlations obtained by Hansch/Fujita Analysis showed significant influence of

  18. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas da córnea e da conjuntiva à moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina e outras fluoroquinolonas

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    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2% to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4% to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1% and 103 (100% were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6% specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4% and 96 (93.2% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer e comparar a susceptibilidade in vitro de bactérias isoladas do olho à fluoroquinolonas, incluindo moxifloxacina e gatifloxacina. MÉTODOS: Um total de 154 bactérias isoladas de ceratites e conjuntivites foram submetidas a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana aos antibióticos usando o método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: Das 51 bactérias isoladas da córnea, 46 (90,2% foram sensíveis a ciprofloxacina, 45 (88,2% a ofloxacina e 41 (80,4% a lomefloxacina. Todas as bactérias isoladas da córnea foram sensíveis a moxifloxacina e a gatifloxacina. Das 103 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva 101 (98,1% e 103 (100% foram sensíveis a gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, respectivamente. Duas cepas de Streptococcus sp do grupo viridans mostraram-se resistentes à gatifloxacina. Um total de 82 (79,6% esp

  19. Colonização e resistência antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae isolado em nasofaringe de crianças com rinofaringite aguda Nasopharyngeal colonization and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children with acute rinofaringitis

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    Lêda Lúcia M. Ferreira

    2001-06-01

    ças com infecção respiratória alta podem ser usados na vigilância da resistência antimicrobiana numa determinada comunidade.OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence and risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization by, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in children with acute rhinopharyngitis. METHODS: we collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 400 children aged 3 months to 5 years and with clinical status of acute rhinopharyngitis from June 16, 1997 to May 20, 1998 at the outpatient clinics of two hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected pernasally using a calcium alginate swab and plated immediately after collection onto trypticose soy agar with 5% sheep blood and garamicin 5 mcg/ml. Penicillin susceptibility was determined by oxacillin 1 mcg disk screening test and the minimal inhibitory concentration by the E-test. RESULTS: Pneumococci were recovered from 139 children, indicating a colonization prevalence of 35%. The risk factors analyzed indicated that the colonization was more prevalent in children attending day-care centers, children with siblings younger than 5 years, and children with recent use of antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible strains was of 16 % (20 strains. All strains were intermediately resistant (0.1mcg/ ml < MIC < 1.0 mcg/ ml. Out of the penicillin intermediately resistant strains, 7 (37% showed intermediate resistance to cotrimoxazol and 2 (11% full resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. No strains were resistant to ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, clarithromicin, or chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: our findings indicate that the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with upper respiratory infections was of 34.8%. Children attending day-care centers and children with younger siblings showed higher levels of colonization The results of prevalence of bacterial resistance were similar to those

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese against indicator microorganisms

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    L.G. Guedes Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (PFour strains of Lactobacillus spp. and two strains of Lactococcus spp. were isolated from artisanal and industrial "coalho" cheese and tested for inhibitory activity. It was observed antagonistic activity of the lactic acid bacteria against themselves and other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens isolated from the same cheese samples, as well as against pathogenic strains from other sources. Significant difference (P<0.05 was observed among the antagonistic activities, except when lactic acid bacteria were used as indicator. From the tested bacteria, Lactobacillus spp. showed the strongest antagonistic activity.

  1. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana "in vitro" de compostos a base de hidróxido de cálcio e tergentol em diferentes concentrações sobre bactérias orais Antimicrobial activity "in vitro" of calcium hydroxide and tergentol on different concentrations in oral bactéria

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    Eduardo José Guerra Seabra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo realizado no departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte foi idealizado com propósito de pesquisar a ação "in vitro" de soluções a base de Ca(OH2 e tergentol frente a bactérias colonizadoras da cavidade bucal e cariogênicas visando contribuir para o estudo sobre os agentes químicos para controle do biofilme dental. MÉTODOS: Testou-se através de discos de antibiograma e ação em bactérias formadoras de biofilme a ação antimicrobiana de algumas soluções de Ca(OH2 e tergentol usando-se como padrão-ouro o digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis e do pós-teste de comparação múltipla de Dunn com valores de p sempre menores que 0,05. A clorexidina obteve melhores resultados em nível de ação antimicrobiana em relação às soluções a base de Ca(OH2 e tergentol. A diferença estatísta da ação da clorexidina frente às demais soluções e aos tipos bacterianos testados não foi significativa para a maiorias dos cruzamentos. CONCLUSÕES: O digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% foi o egente antimicrobiano mais efetivo neste estudo. As soluções a base de hidróxido de cálcio não apresentaram efetividade satisfatória em relação a clorexidina, principalmente em relação ao Streptococcus mutans. São necessários estudos mais aprofundados para se determinar o real potencial do HCT 20 como anti-séptico bucal.PURPOSES: This research desenvolved in Rio Grande do Norte Federal University, Department of Dentistry purpose evaluation "in vitro" Ca(OH2 and tergentol solutions action in oral cavity that first reside in and cariogenic microorganisms for dental biofilm chemical control increasing. METHODS: "In vitro" tests with antibiogram discs and biofilm formers bacteria antibiothic action from Ca(OH2 and tergentol solutions and the 0,12% clorhexydine digluconate as "gold-standard". RESULTS: The results were

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  4. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese Caracterização molecular e avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas enteropatogenicas de E. coli (EPEC, isoladas de queijo minas frescal

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    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    como objetivo isolar, avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e caracterizar molecularmente, através da Multiplex PCR, as cepas patogênicas de E. coli, isoladas de queijo Minas Frescal comercializado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Trinta amostras foram analisadas e cinco cepas de E. coli enteropatogênica (EPEC identificadas. A avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelou 40% de resistência à ampicilina e 40% de perfil de resistência intermediária à associação ampicilina-sulbactam. Tais resultados representam um alerta para as autoridades sanitárias, uma vez que este alimento é um produto de pronto consumo e, portanto, precisa ser inócuo para que a saúde da população não seja colocada em risco.

  5. Disinfection of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions with sodium hypochlorite steam: assessment of antimicrobial efficacy = Desinfecção de moldes de hidrocolóide irreversível com vapor de hipoclorito de sódio: avaliação da eficácia antimicrobiana

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    Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a eficácia antimicrobiana do vapor de hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% e 5,25% na desinfecção de moldes de hidrocolóide irreversível em Caixa Umidificadora e Caixa Nebulizadora. Metodologia: Utilizaram-se 80 moldes de hemiarcos de pacientes, distribuídos em 4 grupos experimentais de 20 amostras cada, com respectivos controles. Os moldes permaneceram 10 min em atmosfera de hipoclorito de sódio com 100% de umidade relativa. Após desinfecção, cada molde foi imerso em soro fisiológico sob vibração ultrassônica e a análise microbiológica dessa solução foi realizada pela contagem de colônias que cresceram em meio de cultura BHI-ágar após 24h em estufa incubadora a 37ºC. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste t de Wilcoxon. Resultados: Em todos os grupos observou-se maior número médio de colônias dos grupos controles em relação aos experimentais (P0,01. Conclusão: Hipoclorito de sódio 5,25% poderá ser utilizado para desinfecção nos métodos Caixa Umidificadora e Caixa Nebulizadora, no entanto, a concentração 2,5%, só será eficaz quando utilizada no método Caixa Nebulizadora

  6. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto e frações orgânicas obtidas a partir da casca do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis Cham, & Scthdl, (Rubiaceae

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    Ana Flávia Schvabe Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano do extrato bruto e frações obtidas das cascas do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis, Os ensaios antioxidantes indicaram alto potencial antioxidante, No ensaio de redução de fosfomolibdênio, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade antioxidante de 41,67% em relação ao padrão de ácido ascórbico e superou em 35,21% a atividade do padrão rutina, No ensaio de redução do DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, a fração acetato de etila apresentou um IC50 de 10,91 µg mL-1, valor próximo ao do ácido ascórbico (IC50 = 4,78 µg mL-1 e da rutina (IC50 = 6,62 µg mL-1, Pelo ensaio de TBA (acido tiobabitúrico o extrato bruto (IA = 71,48% e a fração hexano (IA = 47,85% apresentaram índices superiores ao controle de BHT (butil hidroxi tolueno (IA = 42,66, Através do ensaio de microdiluição em placas, foi observado que o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, cumarinas, esteroides e/ou triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos, taninos e aminogrupos.

  7. Composição química do óleo essencial e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil Chemical composition of the essential oil and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. leaves

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    B.A. Chaibub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil (manacá é utilizada popularmente como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas (chá das folhas para dores musculares, de estômago, de cabeça, e disfunções hepáticas (chá das raízes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial e a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das folhas de S. odoratissima contra bactérias Gram positivas e negativas, e Candida albicans. O extrato bruto das folhas foi obtido por maceração seguido de concentração em rotaevaporador e as frações por partição em coluna filtrante. O pó das folhas foi submetido à hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e o óleo essencial obtido foi analisado por CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método da diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram β-cariofileno (20,64%, γ-muuroleno (17,70%, biciclogermacreno (14,73%, e δ-cadineno (13,40%. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana de S. odoratissima, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus epidermidis (extrato etanólico bruto, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, C. albicans (fração hexano, CIM de 0,049 mg/mL, Bacillus cereus (diclorometano, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, Micrococcus roseus (fração acetato de etila, CIM 0,049 mg/mL, e M. roseus, Micrococus luteus, B. cereus e C. albicans (fração metanol, CIM de 0,391 mg/mL.Spiranthera odoratissima ("manacá" has been popularly used as a blood cleanser, for liver and kidney diseases (tea from the leaves, as well as for muscle and stomach pains, headache and liver disorders (tea from the roots. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of S. odoratissima leaves against Gram-positive and negative

  8. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from selected herbs cultivated in the South of Brazil against food spoilage and foodborne pathogens Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas selecionadas cultivadas no Sul do Brasil contra micro-organismos patogênicos e deteriorantes de alimentos

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    Sheila Mello da Silveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 10 selected plant essential oils obtained by steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was screened against 12 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. MIC and MBC were determined for the essential oils that presented the highest activity in the agar disc-diffusion test. The most active essential oils against the tested bacteria were, in descending order, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and laurel (Laurus nobilis. Except for S. Typhimurium, the tested bateria were inhibited at MIC values lower or equal to 0.62mg mL-1 by lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil. Yersinia enterocolitica presented the highest sensitivity to all essential oils tested (CMI≤0.62mg mL-1. There was a significant correlation (PA composição química de 10 óleos essenciais obtidos por destilação a vapor foi determinada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi detectada através do método de difusão em ágar frente a 12 espécies de bactérias de importância em alimentos. As CMI e CMB foram determinadas para os óleos essenciais que na difusão em ágar evidenciaram maior atividade. Os óleos essenciais que apresentaram maior atividade contra as bactérias testadas foram, em ordem decrescente, os de capim-limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, orégano (Origanum vulgare, folha de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e louro (Laurus nobilis. Com exceção de S. Typhimurium, o óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus apresentou valores de CMI e CMB iguais ou inferiores a 0,62mg mL-1 contra os micro-organismos testados. Yersinia enterocolitica foi o patógeno mais sensível frente a todos os óleos essenciais avaliados (CMI≤0,62mg mL-1. Foi detectada correlação significativa (P<0,05 entre os n

  10. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

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    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorr

  11. Antimicrobial efficacy assessment of multi-use solution to disinfect hydrophilic contact lens, in vitro Avaliação da ação antimicrobiana de soluções multiuso para desinfecção de lentes de contato hidrofílicas, in vitro

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    Aline Cristina Fioravanti Lui

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting solutions in hydrophilic contact lenses (CL. METHODS: Two multi-use solutions denominated solution A (0.001% polyquaternium-1 and 0.0005% myristamidopropyl dimethylamine and solution B (0.0001% polyaminopropyl biguanide were used. The solutions were tested in hydrophilic contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and the decrease in microorganisms growth after the hydrophilic contact lenses were cleaned with the respective solutions was verified. The manufacture's instructions were followed. RESULTS: A decrease of 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and a decrease 100% of Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed. CONCLUSION: The solutions decreased the amount of microorganisms tested.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da ação antimicrobiana das soluções multiuso para desinfecção de lentes de contato hidrofílicas. MÉTODOS: Duas soluções multiuso denominadas solução A (poliquaternário-1 a 0,001% e miristamidopropil dimetilamina a 0,0005% e solução B (poliaminopropil biguanida a 0,0001% foram testadas em lentes de contato hidrofílicas contaminadas com Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 e Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 para verificar a quantidade de redução do crescimento dos microrganismos após o enxágue com as soluções. Foram seguidas as instruções preconizadas pelos fabricantes. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 90% do crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans. Não houve crescimento de Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSÃO: As soluções testadas neste trabalho mostraram redução do número de

  12. Sinergismo entre óleos essenciais e drogas antimicrobianas sobre linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de casos clínicos humanos Synergism between essential oils and antimicrobial drugs against Staphylooccus aureus and Escherichia coli strains from human infections

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    Juliana A. A. Zago

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com plantas e utilização em terapias combinatórias têm sido estimulados. Verificou-se as possíveis interações entre óleos essenciais de plantas [canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae, capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae, hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae, gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. Myrtaceae e alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae] combinados a oito drogas antimicrobianas frente a doze linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e doze de Escherichia coli isoladas de humanos. Após determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM para os óleos pelo método da diluição foram realizados ensaios para verificação de sinergismo entre os óleos essenciais e os antimicrobianos pela metodologia de Kirby & Bauer. S. aureus foi mais suscetível às interações óleos e drogas, tendo o óleo de capim cidreira apresentado sinergismo com as oito drogas testadas, seguido pelo óleo de hortelã com sete drogas. Nos ensaios com E. coli, houve sinergismo apenas para os óleos de alecrim (três drogas e capim-cidreira (duas drogas. Não ocorreram casos de antagonismo e os resultados de sinergismo foram influenciados pelos microrganismos estudados.The studies with plants and combinatory therapy have been stimulated. The interactions between cinnamon (Cinnamomun zeylanicum Blume Lauraceae, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae, mint (Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Zingiberaceae, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. Myrtaceae and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae and eight antimicrobial drug was carried. It was made against twelve S. aureus and twelve E.coli strains isolated from human specimens. After minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values determination of essential oils by dilution agar method, the synergism assays were performed by Kirby and Bauer method. The S

  13. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  14. Theorizing Information for Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) (LRW)

  15. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders on the basis of their possession of reliable knowledge in technical as well as organizational domains. The informal leaders engaged in interpretation and brokering of information and knowledge, as well as in mediating strategic values and priorities on both formal and informal arenas. Informal...... leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study...... contributed to task structuring through sensemaking activities, while formal leaders focused on aspects such as clarifying output expectations, providing feedback, project structure, and diversity....

  16. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Informa...

  17. Information Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the components of information inquiry that are necessary to meet basic information and media literacy skills. Highlights include questioning; exploration; assimilation; inference; reflection; information environments, including school, workplace, and personal; information needs; information problems; and literacy and fluency. (LRW)

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  19. Growth and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from rumen fluid according to energy or nitrogen source Crescimento e atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-láticas do líquido ruminal de acordo com a fonte de energia ou de compostos nitrogenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Pena Carvalho de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    ureia. Incubações sucessivas foram conduzidas para seleção dos microrganismos em função das fontes energéticas e de compostos nitrogenados. O amido favoreceu o crescimento de bactérias ácido-láticas em comparação à celulose. A suplementação com proteína verdadeira (peptona de soja e caseína estimulou o crescimento dessas bactérias em comparação ao controle (sem suplementação com compostos nitrogenados. A adição de ureia não estimulou o crescimento de bactérias ácido-láticas. Nenhuma atividade antimicrobiana foi detectada a partir das colônias de bactérias ácido-láticas isoladas. Fontes de proteína verdadeira incrementam a competição entre bactérias fermentadoras de carboidratos estruturais e não-estruturais.

  20. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae Avalição da atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e fototóxica dos extratos e compostos isolados de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-12-01

    das raízes de S. cayennesis foi avaliada através de testes in vivo e in vitro. In vitro a atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo teste fotocolorimétrico do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidrazil (DPPH•. In vivo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, um modelo de célula eucariótica, foi utilizado tanto para avaliar a fototoxicidade quanto a capacidade antioxidante contra as espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS menadiona e peróxido de hidrogênio. O extrato, partições e os dois compostos majoritários isolados, verbascosídeo e ácido betulínico foram capazes de aumentar a sobrevivência e diminuir a peroxidação lipídica de S. cerevisiae contra EROS. Verbascosídeo apresentou atividade antimicrobiana moderada contra Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis e Staphylococcus aureus. O extrato etanólico e as partições testadas não apresentaram fototoxicidade, indicando que S. cayennensis é uma planta segura para o tratamento de lesões de pele e como possível ingrediente em cosméticos.

  1. Essential oil of Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: chemical and antimicrobial characterization Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L., Illicium verum Hook. f. e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume: caracterização química e antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Freire

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil. The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.Óleos essenciais de Origanum majorana L. (manjerona, Illicium verum Hook. f. (anis estrelado e Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (canela foram obtidos pela técnica de arraste a vapor d'água com aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Foram avaliadas as atividades antimicrobianas de cada um sobre as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e para os fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus, observando o crescimento e/ou inibição micelial, comparando-se estes com a placa-padrão (sem óleo. Os óleos essenciais foram analisados em cromat

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  3. Assessment of the efficiency of essential oils in the preservation of postharvest papaya in an antimicrobial packaging system Avaliação da eficiência de óleos essenciais na preservação pós-colheita de mamão mediante um sistema de embalagem antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Judith Perez Espitia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rot and damage caused by post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi affect fruit quality. Essential oils (EO are considered as an alternative to fungicides. Postharvest diseases of fruits may also be controlled by the bagging approach and the use of antimicrobial packaging. Based on the beneficial properties of EO and the concepts of bagging and antimicrobial packaging, this study aimed to develop sachets containing EO to be used as part of an antimicrobial packaging system. The activities of oregano, cinnamon and lemon grass EO were evaluated testing the sachets in vitro against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Fusarium semitectum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stolonifer. The effects of the sachets on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of post-harvest papaya were also evaluated. Both pure and sachet-incorporated EO showed antifungal activity in vitro against all tested fungi. For papaya, sachets containing cinnamon, oregano and lemon grass showed a significant reduction in the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mould, with the cinnamon sachet causing the greatest reduction in microorganisms at the end of the storage time. Physicochemical parameters of papaya, such as weight loss, colour, firmness, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio and pH were not significantly altered by the presence of EO sachets, thus not affecting the natural ripening process of the papaya.Podridão e danos pós-colheita causados por fungos fitopatogênicos afetam a qualidade das frutas. Óleos essenciais (OE têm sido considerados como uma alternativa ao uso de fungicidas. Uma alternativa para o controle de doenças pós-colheita dos frutos é a técnica de ensacamento. Portanto, baseado nas propriedades benéficas dos OE e no conceito de ensacamento, este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sachês incorporados com OE para serem usados como parte de um sistema de embalagem antimicrobiana. A atividade dos OE de

  4. Information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  5. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  6. Information Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya.Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article organizes information relations. The article explores the implicative, quantitative, qualitative, logical and situational information relations. The article introduces the concept of implicative and situational relations. Article clarifies the definition of information relations. The article describes examples of information relations. The article shows the difference between the information field and information space. The article uses the concept of Aristotle "logical square" to explain the logic of information relations. This work combines scientific fields of linguistics, philosophy, logic, computer science, artificial intelligence.

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  8. Informal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Monica; Olken, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal t...

  9. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  10. Information Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kiyam; Lin, SongLing

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wide usage of the concept of information, we have yet to develop a unified scientific definition. Inspired by Shannon's and Boltzmann's work, by investigating information's role in various working processes, we recognised that information's primary function is to direct working processes, and found that the probability of successfully achieving any working goal is related with the amount of corresponding information. Furthermore, we deduced that the relationship between informatio...

  11. Information Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  12. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  13. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  14. Information Forests

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Zhao; Dewan, Maneesh; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    We describe Information Forests, an approach to classification that generalizes Random Forests by replacing the splitting criterion of non-leaf nodes from a discriminative one -- based on the entropy of the label distribution -- to a generative one -- based on maximizing the information divergence between the class-conditional distributions in the resulting partitions. The basic idea consists of deferring classification until a measure of "classification confidence" is sufficiently high, and instead breaking down the data so as to maximize this measure. In an alternative interpretation, Information Forests attempt to partition the data into subsets that are "as informative as possible" for the purpose of the task, which is to classify the data. Classification confidence, or informative content of the subsets, is quantified by the Information Divergence. Our approach relates to active learning, semi-supervised learning, mixed generative/discriminative learning.

  15. Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Charles H; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul M B; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2010-01-01

    While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal information metric, based on length of shortest programs for either ordinary computations or reversible (dissipationless) computations. It turns out that these definitions are equivalent up to an additive logarithmic term. We show that the information distance is a universal cognitive similarity distance. We investigate the maximal correlation of the shortest programs involved, the maximal uncorrelation of programs (a generalization of the Slepian-Wolf theorem of classical information theory), and the density properties of the discrete metric spaces induced by the information distances. A related distance measures the amount of nonreversibility of a computation. Using the physical theory of reversible computation, we give...

  16. Informality Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; Rigolini, Jamele

    2008-01-01

    Despite large deregulation efforts, informal economic activity still represents a large share of GDP in many developing countries. In this paper we look at incentives to reduce informal activity when capitalists in the formal sector regulate entry. We consider a dual economy with a formal sector employing educated workers and an informal sector with unskilled workers. We show that high costs of education make labor migration and profits in the formal sector an increasing function of its size....

  17. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  18. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  19. Information evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Capet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep

  20. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cathay Pacific Airways Launches New Mobile Service Cathay Pacific Airways has recently launched a new mobile service that offers pas-sengers more convenience and better mobility by connecting them to useful travel information through their mobile devices.

  1. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ISSN print edition: 1672-1799 ISSN electronic edition: 1862-2844 Volume 51 (12 issues) will appear in 2008 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service China: sales@scichina.org North

  2. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ISSN print edition: 1006-9321 ISSN electronic edition: 1862-281X Volume 51 (12 issues) will appear in 2008 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service China

  3. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ISSN print edition:1672-1799 ISSN electronic edition:1862-2844 Volume 51 (12 issues) will appear in 2008 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact:Customer Service China:sales@scichina.

  4. Informational Balance

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Henrik Høeg

    2011-01-01

    The title of my talk is “Informational balance. Understanding Romance and Germanic Compounding in a lexico-typological perspective”. What I basically mean by informational balance is that semantic content is distributed systematically differently between nouns and verbs in the Romance and Germanic languages, and that this distribution is complementary. I shall explain that in detail in a minute, but first I shall introduce you to the problem, which I believe can be explained on the basis of t...

  5. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  6. UBS INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS

    2002-01-01

    As a supplement to the information published on 27.05.2002, we inform you that the works foreseen in the building 504 will begin July 1st. The alterations become necessary force us to suspend the contomat service for a duration of one month. From July 1st the services of counter will be offered in the building 500. We ask you to excuse us for this interruption and thank you for your understanding. Your UBS

  7. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex

  8. Informational matching

    OpenAIRE

    Rend??n, Silvio

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of matching heterogeneous agents in a Bayesian learning model. One agent gives a noisy signal to another agent, who is responsible for learning. If production has a strong informational component, a phase of cross-matching occurs, so that agents of low knowledge catch up with those of higher one. It is shown that: (i) a greater informational component in production makes cross-matching more likely; (ii) as the new technology is mastered, pr...

  9. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  10. Estudo da atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL dos clones de cajueiro-anão-precoce CCP-76 e CCP-09 em cinco estágios de maturação sobre microrganismos da cavidade bucal Study of the antibacterial activity of anacardic acids from the cashew Anacardium occidentale nut shell oil of the clone of cashew-midget-precocious CCP-76 and and CCP-09 in five stages of maturation on oral microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de A. LIMA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana dos ácidos anacárdicos do óleo da casca da castanha de caju (CNSL Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae foi estudada sobre os microrganismos da cavidade bucal Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 e Candida utilis. Os ácidos anacárdicos obtidos dos extratos etílicos do CNSL apresentaram atividade antibacteriana contra os microganismos citados, porém a maior atividade inibitória ocorreu sobre a bactéria Gram positiva Streptococcus mutans, considerada predominante na cárie dentária. As cáries dentárias são uma das mais freqüentes doenças infecciosas nos países em desenvolvimento. Os elementos que influenciam na cárie dentária incluem o estado nutricional, a ingestão de açúcar e a presença da microbiota cariogênica.The antimicrobial activity of the anacardic acids of the cashew nut shell oil Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae was studied on the oral microorganisms Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Candida utilis. The anacardic acids obtained from the ethyl extract of the cashew nut shell oil presented activity antibacterial against the mentioned microorganisms, but the most inhibitory activity occurred with the Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, which is known to be one of the main cause of tooth decay. The tooth decay is one of the most frequent infectious diseases in the countries in development. The elements that influence in the tooth decay include the nutritional state, the ingestion of sugar and the presence of the microflora cariogênica.

  11. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  12. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and fees: Tuition:4,000 yuan

  13. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ISSN print edition:1006-9283 ISSN electronic edition:1862-2763 Volume 50(12 issues)will appear in 2007 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service Chine:sales@ scichina.org North and South America: journals-ny @ springer.com Outside North and South America: subscriptions@springer.com Orders and inquiries:

  14. Aprendizaje informal

    OpenAIRE

    REBECA MEJÍA ARAUZ

    2005-01-01

    [ES]La conferencia “Aprendizaje Informal” fue impartida el 20 de junio de 2016 en el MediaLab Prado de Madrid en el contexto de las VI Jornadas eMadrid “Unbundling Education”. El objetivo de esta charla es contextualizar el concepto de aprendizaje informal y su relación con las tecnologías educativas.

  15. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a p

  16. Information week...

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    Here we are at the end of a series of public information meetings held in the Departments. We thank all those who came to find out about the subjects presented and to exchange ideas and opinions. All the positive feedback we have received shows how much you appreciate these meetings. And well, so do we!

  17. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex

  18. Working Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Annemaree; Somerville, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore the contribution that an information literacy approach to the empirical study of workplace learning can make to how people understand and conceptualise workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: Three cohorts of fire-fighters working in two regional locations in NSW, Australia were…

  19. Yesterday's Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Martin D.; Stout, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses access to Internet resources in school libraries, including the importance of evaluating content and appropriate use. The following online services that provide current factual information from legitimate resources are described: SIRS (Social Issues Resource Series), InfoTrac, EBSCO Host, SearchBank, and the Electric Library. (MES)

  20. Rehabilitating Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Fuhrman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In an early paper on logic, C.S. Peirce defined a concept of ‘information’ very different from the later conceptions which gave rise to ‘information science’, and indirectly to current problems such as an overload of ‘useless information’. A study of further developments in Peircean semiotics, and in related conceptual frameworks including the cybernetics of Bateson and the cybersemiotics of Brier, reveals deep relations between Peirce's concept of information and the irreducibly triadic nature of signs. Since all sciences, indeed all cognition and communication, are semiotic processes, the core semiotic principle implicit in the Peircean concept may clarify how our uses of language and other symbolic media can actually inform–and thus transform–the way we humans inhabit the biosphere.

  1. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    1. Questionnaire By Beijing Review and Chinajob.com Thanks for your close attention to our column. We very much appreciate your feedback, on which we depend to offer you the information you need and make this page valuable reading! 1. What are your usual channels for seeking jobs in China? 2. Do you prefer a full-time job or part-time job? 3. What is your preferred job: language teacher, professional in a company or manager?

  2. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Research on Lightning Monitoring System Based on the Geo-spatial Combined with the contemporary application of lightning monitoring, this paper aimed to analyze the structure, working principle, and functions of the Lightning Monitoring System based on the geo-spatial framework, which merged modern surveying and mapping of geographic information technologies, and also present the more ac- curate and more in-depth research about lightning disasters.

  3. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Capital Hotel Mid-Autumn Festival is a time for reunion with family and loved ones. Treat them to a special gift-Capital Hotel moon cakes. This year we present six types of moon cakes, including both traditional favorites and new specialties. Tasty delicacies in fine gift packing, Capital Hotel moon cakes are also an ideal choice for your business associates. For more information or orders, please contact us at 86-10-58159988 ext. 3401/3240.

  4. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Grand Hyatt Beijing Share irresistible moon cakes under the full moon of mid-autumn with friends and family. This year, savor traditional moon cakes prepared with the finest quality. Golden Moon Cake Hamper at 238 yuan consists of eight pieces made of red or white lotus paste, green tea and red been paste. Opening Hours: 7:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m. For more information, please call 010-85181234 ext. 6362

  5. Forbidden Information

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Leonid A.

    2002-01-01

    Goedel Incompleteness Theorem leaves open a way around it, vaguely perceived for a long time but not clearly identified. (Thus, Goedel believed informal arguments can answer any math question.) Closing this loophole does not seem obvious and involves Kolmogorov complexity. (This is unrelated to, well studied before, complexity quantifications of the usual Goedel effects.) I consider extensions U of the universal partial recursive predicate (or, say, Peano Arithmetic). I prove that any U eithe...

  6. Press Information

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper,H; Brianti; Picasso; Laporte,H

    1985-01-01

    Le DG H.Schopper, secondé par certains de ses directeurs, informe sur les travaux et projets au Cern. Prennent la parole: M.Heine, directeur de l'administration M.Brianti, directeur technique M.Picasso, directeur du projet LEP M.Henri Laporte, l'adjoint de M.Picasso et chef des travaux de genie civil de Genève

  7. Information bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. It consist of nine leaflets: (1) Role and responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority; (2) Principles of Good Regulation for the UJD; (3) Legislation; (4) Inspection and Assessment Activity of UJD in Nuclear Safety; (5) International relations and co-operation; (6) Regulation of radioactive waste management; (7) Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle; (8) Emergency planning and preparedness; (9) Public communications at the UJD

  8. Medizinbibliotheken: Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    [english] The focus of the current issue 3/2014 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2014 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Medical libraries: Information”. The authors in this issue are Michaele Adam (Bibliometrics 2.0 – Altmetrics in Medicine), Bruno Bauer (Open access cooperation in Austria: Open Access Network Austria and Austria – recent developments since 2012), Fabian Gail & Ulrich Korwitz (Market an...

  9. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  10. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  11. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    See more at www.chinajob.com Teaching Vacancies: Capital University of Economics & Business is looking for for eign teachers with teaching experience. Offer package: 4,000 yuan per month, free accommodation and airfare. For more information, please contact cuebwsb@ 263.net.cn and visit www.cueb.edu.cn Huijia Kindergarten Beijing is looking for kindergarten ESL teachers. Salary is 4,000-6,000 yuan per month. Contact: shin-ingcj1981 @ hotmail.com Website: www.hjkids.com

  12. Information Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    The objective of GRC CNIS/IE work is to build a plug-n-play infrastructure that provides the Grand Challenge Applications with a suite of tools for coupling codes together, numerical zooming between fidelity of codes and gaining deployment of these simulations onto the Information Power Grid. The GRC CNIS/IE work will streamline and improve this process by providing tighter integration of various tools through the use of object oriented design of component models and data objects and through the use of CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture).

  13. Information Sets and Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madasu Hanmandlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of image processing has made rapid strides because of enormous applications it has in different fields. This growth can also be attributed to the increasing use of fuzzy logic in all tasks of image processing as the fuzzy logic facilitates the representation of inherent uncertainty in the image information which can be local or global. For problems like enhancement global information is of interest whereas the local information is needed for the problems of edge detection, segmentation, and recognition. However we need both for the noise removal. The images are of varied types: Medical images (CT scans, MR, X-rays, ECG, etc., satellite images, natural scenes, videos, games, multimedia, biometrics, industrial, astronomical so on and so forth. The approaches to tackle different images have to be different. For example skin texture can’t represented by a colour model.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(5, pp.405-407, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1192

  14. From Information Capitalism to Information Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoFeng

    2005-01-01

    Information technology and information capital are both neutral in character and can serve socialism as well as capitalism. As Karst pointed out, the information society is culturally and institutionally diverse. If in their transformation into social morphology information technology and capital may both end in socialism as well as capitalism, then what is the essential distinction between information capitalism and information socialism?

  15. Fourism Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Steam Locomotive Tour Tiefa Coal Industry Group Corp. Ltd. is headquartered in Tieling City, Liaoning Province. At present, the group has 21 steam locomotives and all of them can still be operated. Since 2000, the group has held four steam iocomotive-themed tourist festivals, and has built a special website for steam locomotive tours, an exhibition hall and several special tourist railways, becoming China and the world’s only tourist attraction with operational steam locomotives. In recent years, the tourist attraction has received tourist groups from dozens of countries, including Britain, the United States, France, Japan and Australia, and many domestic tourists, being honored with a "floating steam locomotive museum." Visit http://www.steam-locomotive.cn/ for more information.

  16. Information findability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecker, Nora Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    A Systems Analysis Group has existed at Sandia National Laboratories since at least the mid-1950s. Much of the groups work output (reports, briefing documents, and other materials) has been retained, along with large numbers of related documents. Over time the collection has grown to hundreds of thousands of unstructured documents in many formats contained in one or more of several different shared drives or SharePoint sites, with perhaps five percent of the collection still existing in print format. This presents a challenge. How can the group effectively find, manage, and build on information contained somewhere within such a large set of unstructured documents? In response, a project was initiated to identify tools that would be able to meet this challenge. This report documents the results found and recommendations made as of August 2013.

  17. Information and information flow an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow. Syntactic information theory is concerned with the information contained in the very fact that some signal has a non-random structure. Semantic information theory is concerned with the meaning or information content of messages and the like. The theory of information flow is concerned with deriving some piece of information from another. The main part will take us to situation semantics as a foundation of modern approaches in information theory. We give a brief overview o

  18. Information Operators in Categorical Information Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Burgin

    2010-01-01

    The general theory of information (GTI) is a synthetic approach, which reveals the essence of information, organizing and encompassing all main directions in information theory. On the methodological level, it is formulated as system of principles explaining what information is and how to measure information. The goal of this paper is the further development of a mathematical stratum of the general theory of information based on category theory. Abstract categories allow us to construct flexi...

  19. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  20. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  1. Information distance: New developments

    OpenAIRE

    Vitányi, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In pattern recognition, learning, and data mining one obtains information from information-carrying objects. This involves an objective definition of the information in a single object, the information to go from one object to another object in a pair of objects, the information to go from one object to any other object in a multiple of objects, and the shared information between objects. This is called "information distance." We survey a selection of new developments in information distance.

  2. Classical and quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Marinescu, Dan C

    2011-01-01

    A new discipline, Quantum Information Science, has emerged in the last two decades of the twentieth century at the intersection of Physics, Mathematics, and Computer Science. Quantum Information Processing is an application of Quantum Information Science which covers the transformation, storage, and transmission of quantum information; it represents a revolutionary approach to information processing. This book covers topics in quantum computing, quantum information theory, and quantum error correction, three important areas of quantum information processing. Quantum information theory an

  3. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  4. Evolving Information Filtering for Personalized Information Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田范江; 李丛蓉; 王鼎兴

    2001-01-01

    Information filtering (IF) systems are important for personalized information service. However, most current IF systems suffer from low quality and long training time. In this paper, a refined evolving information filtering method is presented. This method describes user's information need from multi-aspects and improves filtering quality through a process like natural selection. Experimental result shows this method can shorten training time, improve filtering quality, and reduce the relevance between filtering results and training sequence.

  5. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  6. Game Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Spits Warnars

    2010-01-01

    In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations' performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will ...

  7. Computing handbook information systems and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Topi, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber

  8. Technology Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Transportation Technology Center (TTC) has been established at Sandia to address the transportation of nuclear waste and spent fuel. The Technology Information Center (TIC) acts as TTC's clearing house for nuclear material transportation information. TIC's activities are divided into three activities: public information, policy information, and technical information. Some of the uses of TIC's activities are briefly outlined

  9. Information as Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruchie, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the value of information-based services in today's global economy. The combination of information technology with library and information services at an international accounting and auditing firm is described; the Global Information Network is explained; and the importance of the appropriate use of information is discussed. (LRW)

  10. Rethinking Information Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Critiques the model of information literacy as a central purpose of librarianship. Reviews the appropriateness of the "learning methodology" of the information literacy model. Outlines the challenge of relating information literacy to workplace competencies. Proposes that information literacy be refocused away from information toward learning, and…

  11. Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system

  12. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  13. Personal Information Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah S

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of security organization is to establish a framework to identify security significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The (information) security infrastructure comprises entities, processes, and technology. All are participants in handling information, which is the item that needs to be protected. Privacy and security information technology is a critical and unmet need in the management of personal information. This paper proposes concepts and technologies for management of personal information. Two different types of information can be distinguished: personal information and nonpersonal information. Personal information can be either personal identifiable information (PII), or nonidentifiable information (NII). Security, policy, and technical requirements can be based on this distinction. At the conceptual level, PII is defined and formalized by propositions over infons (discrete pieces of information) that specify transformations in PII and NII. PII is ca...

  14. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  15. Towards Information Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu

    2010-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  16. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  17. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  18. Information about Musculoskeletal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAOS Orthopaedic Disclosure Program Position Statements Information Statements Ethics Resources Resolutions Patient, Public & Media Information OrthoInfo Patient Education Newsroom/Media Resources Find ...

  19. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  20. Too Much Information Sharing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    By using general information structures and precision criteria based on the dispersion of conditional expectations, we study how oligopolists’ information acquisition decisions may change the effects of information sharing on the consumer surplus. Sharing information about individual cost...... parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...... increases in the precision of the firms’ information. Interestingly, the latter effect may dominate the former effect....

  1. Aeronautical Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  2. HIRENASD analysis Information Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updated November 2, 2011 Contains summary information and analysis condition details for the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop Information plotted in this package is...

  3. Information for disasters, information disasters, and disastrous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sharon M; Perry, Helen N; McLaughlin, Brooke; McCurdy, Bronwen; Parrish, R Gibson

    2007-01-01

    Information is needed to support humanitarian responses in every phase of a disaster. Participants of a multilateral working group convened to examine how best to meet these information needs. Although information systems based on routine reporting of diseases are desirable because they have the potential to identify trends, these systems usually do not deliver on their promise due to inadequate organization and management to support them. To identify organizational and management characteristics likely to be associated with successful information systems in disaster settings, evaluations of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) programs in 12 participating countries were reviewed. Characteristics that were mentioned repeatedly in the evaluations as associated with success were grouped into nine categories: (1) human resources management and supervision; (2) political support; (3) strengthened laboratory capacity; (4) communication and feedback (through many mechanisms); (5) infrastructure and resources; (6) system design and capacity; (7) coordination and partnerships with stakeholders; (8) community input; and (9) evaluation. Selected characteristics and issues within each category are discussed. Based on the review of the IDSR evaluations and selected articles in the published literature, recommendations are provided for improving the short- and long-term organization and management of information systems in humanitarian responses associated with disasters. It is suggested that information systems that follow these recommendations are more likely to yield quality information and be sustainable even in disaster settings.

  4. Public transport information: Towards the information society

    OpenAIRE

    USTER, G

    2001-01-01

    Starting from the discrepancy between the assessment of information in French public transport systems and customer-users expectations, this article will demonstrate that new information and communication technologies (NITCS) can contribute to fill in specific gaps. Some potential areas for technological research will be explored. NITCS as such cannot solve all of the complexities of passenger information; hence some prerequisites will become necessary, such as exchanges between all the parti...

  5. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  6. Modelling of Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hausman, Halina

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses selected problems in methodology of designing comprehensive information systems. Main emphasis has been laid on modelling of information systems for companies. Presentation of bases for construction of models and description of their main types provides a basis allowing the author to draw conclusions concerning their application. Modelling of information systems is treated as one of stages in designing information systems.

  7. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  8. Design an Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Main object of this thesis is design information system for warehouse management for Fi & Ho Trading Company, which will be accessible through web. Warehouse will be based on portal technology and connected with E-shop. In this thesis will be described elements of information system, resources used for realization, processes coverage by information system and complex evaluation of this information system.

  9. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  10. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  11. Dialing Up Telecommunications Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Mary Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Describes how to find accurate, current information about telecommunications industries, products and services, rates and tariffs, and regulatory information using electronic information resources available from the private and public sectors. A sidebar article provides contact information for producers and service providers. (KRN)

  12. Poverty and Informal Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, François; Venkatesh, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    International audience Informal economic activity is a significant part of world production and distribution. This chapter reviews different core definitions (informal economic activities versus informal sector), different historical instances of "the" informal economy (in the Third World, under Communism and in contemporary Western cities), and different theoretical approaches (the dualist or development perspective, the legalist or neoliberal perspective, the structuralist or neomarxist ...

  13. Information Systems Security Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  14. Informational trends for organizations in information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies have always been very carefully managed money, raw materials, machines and human resources. Today, they recognize the growing importance of the fifth big resource: information. They have finally understood that the within the global market with increased competition, using modern methods for planning, coordination and control, a company can-not function without acknowledging information and communications technology progress.

  15. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone;

    to empower women making an informed consent. Information on Down syndrome is often confined and limitations of screenings tests rarely mentioned.  Understanding is better achieved by presenting the risk estimate as a numerical probability compared to a verbal explanation. Rates are better understood than...

  16. Intelligence, Information Technology, and Information Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philip H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the use of information technology for intelligence and information warfare in the context of national security and reviews the status of clandestine collection. Discusses hacking, human agent collection, signal interception, covert action, counterintelligence and security, and communications between intelligence producers and consumers…

  17. Handbook of information science

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Wolfgang G

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an

  18. Survey of information security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN ChangXiang; ZHANG HuangGuo; FENG DengGuo; CAO ZhenFu; HUANG JiWu

    2007-01-01

    The 21st century is the age of information when information becomes an important strategic resource. The information obtaining, processing and security guarantee capability are playing critical roles in comprehensive national power, and information security is related to the national security and social stability. Therefore, we should take measures to ensure the information security of our country. In recent years, momentous accomplishments have been obtained with the rapid development of jnformation security technology. There are extensive theories about information security and technology. However, due to the limitation of length, this article mainly focuses on the research and development of cryptology, trusted computing, security of network, and information hiding, etc.

  19. GAME INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spits Warnars

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon tocompete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. GameInformation System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieveorganizations’ performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with gameand how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun andentertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. TheChallenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with informationsystem all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the informationsystem itself but in difference’s view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do theirtransaction as a fun things.

  20. 78 FR 73819 - Information Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form AGENCY: Forest Service... extension with revision of a currently approved information collection, Financial Information Security... Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Information Security...

  1. Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...

  2. Health information seeking in the information society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM.

  3. Competing through Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that more money is spent annually on information technology, very few firms have found competitive advantage through the use of information technology. Information technology is seen as a backoffice function that is used for administrative functions and not as a key business enabler. Information technology will not only aid the business in surviving, but can be a strategic component to providing competitive advantage to the business, provided that the information technology f...

  4. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  5. Information Management and Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of information lifecycle management is to develop a cost‐effective strategy for maintaining information assets, balancing the cost of maintaining information against business value. This paper contributes to development of theoretical information value based on a classification scheme that does not consider operational factors (e.g., storage, access). It concentrates on valuing information in terms of its type, organizational level and the extent of its effects. An informatio...

  6. Information Theory over Multisets

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Shannon theory of information, we present the case of producing information in the form of multisets, and encoding information using multisets. We compute the entropy of a multiset information source by constructing an equientropic string source (with interdependent symbols), and we compare this with a string information source with independent symbols. We then study the encoder and channel part of the system, obtaining some results about multiset encoding length ...

  7. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2008-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  8. What constitutes information integrity?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Flowerday; R. von Solms

    2007-01-01

    This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information securit...

  9. Information Security Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis was to present different areas of information security controls based on the international information security standard ISO 27001. The thesis also describes the methods of risk analysis and how to establish, implement, maintain and improve information security system in organizations. Most of the material was collected from books and various online resources. Some information was taken also from the teaching materials of the information security course. ...

  10. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  11. Information and Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Menant

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We propose here to clarify some of the relations existing between information and meaning by showing how meaningful information can be generated by a system submitted to a constraint. We build up definitions and properties for meaningful information, a meaning generator system and the domain of efficiency of a meaning (to cover cases of meaningful information transmission). Basic notions of information processing are used.

  12. Information, learning and falsification

    OpenAIRE

    Balduzzi, David

    2011-01-01

    There are (at least) three approaches to quantifying information. The first, algorithmic information or Kolmogorov complexity, takes events as strings and, given a universal Turing machine, quantifies the information content of a string as the length of the shortest program producing it. The second, Shannon information, takes events as belonging to ensembles and quantifies the information resulting from observing the given event in terms of the number of alternate events that have been ruled ...

  13. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  14. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  15. Evolution of biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T D

    2000-07-15

    How do genetic systems gain information by evolutionary processes? Answering this question precisely requires a robust, quantitative measure of information. Fortunately, 50 years ago Claude Shannon defined information as a decrease in the uncertainty of a receiver. For molecular systems, uncertainty is closely related to entropy and hence has clear connections to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. These aspects of information theory have allowed the development of a straightforward and practical method of measuring information in genetic control systems. Here this method is used to observe information gain in the binding sites for an artificial 'protein' in a computer simulation of evolution. The simulation begins with zero information and, as in naturally occurring genetic systems, the information measured in the fully evolved binding sites is close to that needed to locate the sites in the genome. The transition is rapid, demonstrating that information gain can occur by punctuated equilibrium. PMID:10908337

  16. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  17. Wind energy information directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    Wind Energy Information has been prepared to provide researchers, designers, manufacturers, distributors, dealers, and users of wind energy conversion systems with easy access to technical information. This directory lists organizations and publications which have the main objective of promoting the use of wind energy conversion systems, some organizations that can respond to requests for information on wind energy or make referrals to other sources of information, and some publications that occasionally include information on wind energy. The bibliography contains references to information for both the neophyte and the expert.

  18. Information Fusion in Multimedia Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Kludas, Jana; Bruno, Eric; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    In retrieval, indexing and classification of multimedia data an efficient information fusion of the different modalities is essential for the system's overall performance. Since information fusion, its influence factors and performance improvement boundaries have been lively dis- cussed in the last years in different research communities, we will review their latest findings. They most importantly point out that exploiting the feature's and modality's dependencies will yield to maximal perfor...

  19. Atividade Antimicrobiana de Peptídeos Obtidos de Caseína Bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. H. KRÜGER

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    As proteínas de leite são precursoras de vários peptídeos biologicamente ativos. Estes, inativos dentro da seqüência da proteína original, podem ser liberados pela proteólise enzimática. Após a hidrólise, algumas proteínas apresentam atividade antibacteriana. Caseinofosfopeptídeos (CPP podem ser liberados in vivo na digestão normal da caseína ou formados in vitro pela hidrólise enzimática. O objetivo do trabalho foi a investigação do potencial de peptídeos obtidos pela hidrólise tríptica da caseína em inibir o crescimento de bactérias. Os peptídeos foram testados contra as bactérias Gram-positivas Listeria monocytogenes e Staphylococcus aureus e as bactérias Gram-negativas, Escherichia coli e Salmonella typhimurium. Foram testadas diferentes formas de produção de CPP. O peptídeo denominado CPP-A apresentou atividade bacteriostática contra Escherichia coli a 1 mg/mL e 0,2 mg/mL. O CPP-C inibiu o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Salmonella typhimurium em quase todas as concentrações testadas. A Listeria monocytogenes foi inibida por todos os peptídeos testados.

  20. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência à penicilina foi detectada em 15,5% das cepas e predominou em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade. Foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae em pacientes internados com doença invasiva, e a maioria dos sorotipos (82,6% e das cepas (90,2% está incluída na vacina polissacarídica 23-valente. As cifras para a vacina 7-valente, atualmente disponível (PN CRM7, são de 46,7% dos sorotipos e 63,6% das cepas, obtidos de crianças com até cinco anos de idade.

  1. Actividad antimicrobiana y antitumoral de la variabilina y sus enantiomeros aislados de ircinia felix

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmen; Gamboa Estrada, Marlen; Pinzón Orjuela, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo muestra un amplio espectro antimicrobiano para la variabilina y sus enantiomeros siendo activos contra los microorganismos Gram (+) Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus y Bacillus subtilis y los microorganismos Gram (-) Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter aerogenes y Escherichia coli. Los compuestos no mostraron actividad contra los hongos Aspergillus tamari, Aspergillus niger y Penicillium sp, en las concentraciones ensayadas. El efecto antitumoral en disco de zanahoria se ...

  2. Constituyentes no polares de la corteza de esenbeckia ahita y actividad antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García Beltrán

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available De la corteza de Esenbeckia alata (Rutaceae se aislaron cuatro compuestos identificados como: 5-hidroxi-2-metilcromanona aislado por primera vez en vegetales (en este trabajo se completan sus datos espectroscópicos, (--episesamina, la amida pellitonina y sitosterol. La elucidación estructural de estos compuestos se realizó mediante técnicas espectroscópicas (IR. UV. RMN 1H y 13C y EM.

  3. Ensayo de la actividad antimicrobiana de Pluchea carolinensis (salvia de playa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez

    2007-01-01

    de MIC fueron los más pequeños, de 0,1 mg/mL . Estos aislamientos clínicos poseen resistencia múltiple a antibióticos, por lo que los resultados indican que Pluchea carolinensis pudiera brindar una solución alternativa a la terapia con antibióticos, establecida en la medicina actual.

  4. Informal Information Sources and Information Seeking Behavior: Investigating the Causes and Factors Affecting Users’ Inclination towards Informal Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mokhtarpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Research within Library and Information Sciences bespeaks of the significant tendency of (expert and non-expert users towards informal information sources. Nevertheless, it seems that the literature have not dealt adequately with causes and factors affecting such tendency. The present paper provides a retrospect on some of the researches conducted with respect to the typology of information resources used by searchers. It further attempts to enunciate the most important reasons for users preference toward informal information sources. The author maintains that the very social nature of man, the principle of least effort, human sense of credulity, economic considerations as well as information overloads are among the most important reasons for using informal resources. Author maintains that the increasing tendency of users towards informal sources would in not too distant future result in user apathy towards such traditional information sources as book and library.

  5. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  6. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education / Safety Education Centers En Español Carbon Monoxide Information Center The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  8. General Information about Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  10. RCRA Facility Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the information it contains. You may wish to review the privacy policy of the external site as ... the information it contains. You may wish to review the privacy policy of the external site as ...

  12. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  13. Climate Change: Basic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here: EPA Home Climate Change Basic Information Climate Change: Basic Information On This Page Climate change ... We can make a difference How is the climate changing in the U.S.? Observations across the United ...

  14. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  15. Your Health Information Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to access your health information Right to an accounting of disclosures of your health information Right to ... Yes. You have a right to receive an "accounting of disclosures," which is a list of certain ...

  16. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  17. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CO alarms matter. Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO ... the information it contains. You may wish to review the privacy policy of the external site as ...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to this external site does not constitute an endorsement of the site or the information it contains ... to this external site does not constitute an endorsement of the site or the information it contains ...

  20. Evolution of biological information

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Thomas D.

    2000-01-01

    How do genetic systems gain information by evolutionary processes? Answering this question precisely requires a robust, quantitative measure of information. Fortunately, 50 years ago Claude Shannon defined information as a decrease in the uncertainty of a receiver. For molecular systems, uncertainty is closely related to entropy and hence has clear connections to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. These aspects of information theory have allowed the development of a straightforward and practic...

  1. Product Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Antonov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Product Information Management (PIM) is a field that deals with the product master data management and combines into one base the experience and the principles of data integration and data quality. Product Information Management merges the specific attributes of products across all channels in the supply chain. By unification, centralization and standardization of product information into one platform, quality and timely information with added value can be achieved. The goal of the theoretica...

  2. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  3. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  4. Information System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlák, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on design of the information system for the department of medical transport service, which is part of the hospital. This thesis describes the theoretical knowledge necessary for analysis and custom design, is also concerned with the analysis of the current state of processes and information system. Last but not least, based on the analysis and the requirements lays down suggestions for improvement of the information system and design of optimal information system, t...

  5. Theory of Information Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Dorje C.; Yan Tai Law

    2011-01-01

    In financial markets valuable information is rarely circulated homogeneously, because of time required for information to spread. However, advances in communication technology means that the 'lifetime' of important information is typically short. Hence, viewed as a tradable asset, information shares the characteristics of a perishable commodity: while it can be stored and transmitted freely, its worth diminishes rapidly in time. In view of recent developments where internet search engines and...

  6. Information Accumulation in Development

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We propose a model in which economic relations and institutions in advanced and less developed countires differ as these societies have access to different amounts of information. The lack of information in less developped economies makes it hard to evaluate the performance of managers, and leads to high "agency costs". Differencies in the amount of information have a variety of sources. As well as factors related to the informational infrastructure, we emphasize that societies accumulate inf...

  7. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  8. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  9. Perspectives on Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramage, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an insider's perspective on information in a wide range of disciplines, from quantum physics to library science. It reflects the diversity of understanding of information within these disciplines, but also brings clarity and coherence to the different perspectives through promoting information as a unifying concept.

  10. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new t

  11. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  12. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  13. The Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  14. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  15. What Is Information Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Janice C. (Ginny)

    2000-01-01

    Defines two meanings of information design: the overall process of developing a successful document; and the way the information is presented on the screen (layout, typography, color, and so forth). Discusses the future importance of both of these meanings of information design, in terms of design for the web and single-sources (planning…

  16. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  17. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  18. The information retrieval technology

    OpenAIRE

    Краліна, Ганна Сергіївна; Тупота, Евгеній Вікторович

    2009-01-01

    Information retrieval is the science of searching for documents, for information within documents and for metadata about documents, as well as that of searching relational databases and the World Wide Web. There is overlap in the usage of the terms data retrieval, document retrieval, information retrieval, and text retrieval, but each also has its own body of literature, theory, praxis and technologies

  19. Developing an Information Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of an information strategy is to highlight the extent to which a modern, complex organization depends on information, in all of its guises, and to consider how this strategic asset should be managed. This dependency has always been present and nowhere more so than in universities, whose very purpose is built around information and its…

  20. Evaluating Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  1. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  2. America's Rural Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  3. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and collec

  4. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  5. Government Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearstyne, Bruce W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Six articles discuss government information policy in context of technology and electronic records; policies on information resources management from OMB (Office of Management and Budget); state information resources, including Council of State Governments (CSG); state record laws and preservation of archival records; and management of electronic…

  6. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  7. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  8. Multisource Algorithmic Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Multisource information theory is well known in Shannon setting. It studies the possibilities of information transfer through a network with limited capacities. Similar questions could be studied for algorithmic information theory and provide a framework for several known results and interesting questions.

  9. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  10. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  11. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  12. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  13. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  14. Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  15. Quantum information and computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bub, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with theoretical developments in the subject of quantum information and quantum computation, and includes an overview of classical information and some relevant quantum mechanics. The discussion covers topics in quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum computation, and concludes by considering whether a perspective in terms of quantum information sheds new light on the conceptual problems of quantum mechanics.

  16. Information Interoperability Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasschuyt, E.

    2004-01-01

    Coalition-wide interoperability can be improved considerably by better harmonisation of all major information standardisation efforts within NATO. This notion is supported by the concept of dividing the NATO C3 information area into more or less independent “information interoperability domains”, co

  17. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  18. Shifting Boundaries in Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Anita

    1981-01-01

    Social interest in information as a shared resource is diminishing, while proprietary interest in information as a profitable resource increases. Technological advancement in information processing and services, considerations of cost recovery by public agencies, and opportunities for commercial profit are blurring distinctions between the public…

  19. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  20. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  1. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  2. Information systems project management

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, David

    2014-01-01

    Information Systems Project Management addresses project management in the context of information systems. It deals with general project management principles, with focus on the special characteristics of information systems. It is based on an earlier text, but shortened to focus on essential project management elements.This updated version presents various statistics indicating endemic problems in completing information system projects on time, within budget, at designed functionality. While successful completion of an information systems project is a challenge, there are some things that ca

  3. Information: A Conceptual Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lenski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a study of the concept of information. We first situate the concept of information within the context of other philosophical concepts. However, an analysis of the concept of knowledge turns out to be the key when clarifying the concept of information. Our investigations produce the ‘missing link’ for the “severely neglected connection between theories of information and theories of knowledge” (Capurro/Hjørland. The results presented here clarify what information is and have the potential to provide answers to several of Floridi’s “open problems in the philosophy of information”.

  4. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  5. Nuclear Information Democratization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear information (Nl) interests people for many reasons, with energy supply, safety, and security being at the top of the list. Democratizing nuclear information has its roots in the growth of a knowledge-based economy, the knowledge worker as a user of nuclear information, developments in information and communication technologies (ICT), and the impact of internet growth. Results of democratization are apparent in the process of information creation, in how nuclear information is distributed and accessed, and in the conditions for using the information found. The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) both reflects and contributes to these trends. Nuclear information falls under the overall umbrella of scientific and technical information (STI). It is highly specialized, but it follows general principles and trends of STI. The world of STI has its own culture and its own long-established rules of use and existence. These have brought us many inventions and improvements, introduced important technological changes, and made our lives and work much easier and more pleasurable. However, the world is constantly changing, and the traditional closed STI environment, including the world of nuclear information, is not keeping up with today’s changes. (author)

  6. Hydrologic Information Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System is intended to advance hydrologic science through better capacity to access and organize hydrologic information, as described by Tarboton et al. (2009), in this session. This development may help to create a new branch of hydrologic science, namely hydrologic information science, which is that branch of hydrologic science which deals with the organization, analysis and synthesis of hydrologic information. There are several parts of this body of information: time series data on water observations at point locations that describe the flow, level, and quality of water; GIS data that describe the watersheds, aquifers, streams, waterbodies, wells and other water features of the landscape; remote sensing data that measure distributed properties such as rainfall intensity and land surface temperature; climate grids that describe current and predict climate conditions, and information from hydrologic simulation models. Taken together, these various forms of information can be considered as a description of a set of hydrologic fields that are groups of variables distributed over a domain of time and space. The fundamental principles of hydrologic information science need to be formulated around the representation of hydrologic fields, and the interaction of one form of field with another. In particular, what is needed are insights as to how to define transformations of hydrologic fields which link information at different spatial scales, and which support interpolation of information simultaneously in space and time.

  7. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  8. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  9. Information Management: Enhancing Information Discovery and Information Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IBM Security Intelligence with Analytics of massive data provides exceptional threat and risk detection, combining deep security expertise with analytical insights on a massive scale. For forward-leaning organizations seeking advanced insight into security risks, the IBM solution -- Security Intelligence Platform for massive data -- provides a comprehensive, integrated approach that combines real-time correlation for continuous insight, custom analytics across massive structured and unstructured data, and forensic capabilities for irrefutable evidence. The combination can help you address advanced persistent threats, fraud and insider threats. The IBM solution is designed to widening the scope and scale of investigation, enabling analyzes of any kind of data in any format, such as DNS transactions or full packet capture data to find malicious activity hidden deep in the masses of an organization's data. IBMWatson Explorer provides a unified view displaying all of security relevant information in a portal-like UI. The information analytics system is built around AQL (Annotated query language), a declarative rule language with a familiar SQL-like syntax. AQL supports the paradigm describing data for data with an optional data governance catalogue for massive volumes of data supporting individual views in addition to the pre-defined Document view that holds the textual and label content. An underlying Role-Based Access Control that data protection rules are strictly enforced within the whole architecture. Security at the document, sub-document and record level is built intoWatson Explorer. When Watson Explorer security is implemented, users cannot see information that they would be prohibited from seeing if they were directly logged into the target system. (author)

  10. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  11. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  12. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  13. The Physics of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, F Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We review of the interface between (theoretical) physics and information for non-experts. The origin of information as related to the notion of entropy is described, first in the context of thermodynamics then in the context of statistical mechanics. A close examination of the foundations of statistical mechanics and the need to reconcile the probabilistic and deterministic views of the world leads us to a discussion of chaotic dynamics, where information plays a crucial role in quantifying predictability. We then discuss a variety of fundamental issues that emerge in defining information and how one must exercise care in discussing concepts such as order, disorder, and incomplete knowledge. We also discuss an alternative form of entropy and its possible relevance for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In the final part of the paper we discuss how quantum mechanics gives rise to the very different concept of quantum information. Entirely new possibilities for information storage and computation are possible due t...

  14. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  15. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  16. Information services directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Directory will facilitate dissemination of information. It is a reference document that lists the sources of program information available to the states, Indian Tribes, and the public. Chapter 1 describes current program information sources produced by OCRWM and by DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). Chapter 2 provides a directory of OCRWM and DOE technical information, and includes descriptions of computerized data bases and other resources. Chapter 3 is an index of OCRWM Headquarters and Project Office contacts, as well as state and Indian Tribe contacts. Chapter 4 enumerates Congressional Committees and Subcommittees that have jurisdiction over various components of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, and Chapter 5 lists DOE reading rooms, as well as information offices and the public libraries in affected states that are on one or more of OCRWM's mailing lists

  17. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... in organizations newcomers access to participate and negotiate meaning in practice becomes essential. Information seeking hereby plays a significant role in newcomers learning by establishing, developing, and maintaining a relationship to a given organizational practice. Through accessing textual, social...

  18. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  19. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  20. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  1. Holographic Dark Information Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Paul Gough

    2011-01-01

    Landauer’s principle and the Holographic principle are used to derive the holographic information energy contribution to the Universe. Information energy density has increased with star formation until sufficient to start accelerating the expansion of the universe. The resulting reduction in the rate of star formation due to the accelerated expansion may provide a feedback that limits the information energy density to a constant level. The characteristics of the universe’s holographic informa...

  2. Competitiveness through information

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA; Roxana SÂRBU; Elena CONDREA

    2013-01-01

    Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success...

  3. Information Flow Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Le Guernic, Gurvan

    2007-01-01

    Noninterference, which is an information flow property, is typically used as a baseline security policy to formalize confidentiality of secret information manipulated by a program. Noninterference verification mechanisms are usually based on static analyses and, to a lesser extent, on dynamic analyses. In contrast to those works, this paper proposes an information flow testing mechanism. This mechanism is sound from the point of view of noninterference. It is based on standard testing techniq...

  4. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  5. Information flow on trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mossel, Elchanan; Peres, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Consider a tree network $T$, where each edge acts as an independent copy of a given channel $M$, and information is propagated from the root. For which $T$ and $M$ does the configuration obtained at level $n$ of $T$ typically contain significant information on the root variable? This problem arose independently in biology, information theory and statistical physics. ¶ For all $b$, we construct a channel for which the variable at the root of the break $b$-ary tree is...

  6. Axioms for Information Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Alvim, Mário S.; Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; McIver, Annabelle; Morgan, Carroll; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Smith, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative information flow aims to assess and control the leakage of sensitive information by computer systems. A key insight in this area is that no single leakage measure is appropriate in all operational scenarios; as a result, many leakage measures have been proposed, with many different properties. To clarify this complex situation, this paper studies information leakage axiomatically, showing important dependencies among different axioms. It also establishes a completeness result abo...

  7. Fashion Information Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2002-01-01

    In the field of fashion industry, it is a bottleneck of how to control and apply the information in the procedure of fashion merchandising. By the aid of digital technology,a perfect and practical fashion information database could be established so that high- quality and efficient,low-cost and characteristic fashion merchandising system could be realized. The basic structure of fashion information database is discussed.

  8. Information technology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a re...

  9. Digital information management

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Digital libraries and digital information are exciting everyone. Accessing and using digital information needs to be understood in correct perspective. Many feel that digital libraries and Internet are enough and traditional libraries are no more required. The pros and cons in using digital information and appropriateness as well as limitations of the Internet are highlighted in this slide presentation to participants of the training programme.

  10. Information theory of firm

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2015-01-01

    The article formulates the information theory of firm, introduces the concept of firm as an operating system, which controls the firm’s operation by the means of the information resources processing, in an analogy with the operating system at a microprocessor in the computing devices, represents the director as an information processing element, describes the board of directors as the electronically-scanned electronically-steered phased array radar, considers the scientific problem of strateg...

  11. Learning from Paradigmatic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Paradigmatic information is information requiring knowledge of morphological identity across words. It consists of the phonological consequences of knowing that a morpheme must have a single phonological underlying form, even if it surfaces differently in different words. There are two basic forms of paradigmatic information. One is morphemic alternation: the surface realizations of a single morpheme in different morphological contexts (a context consists of the other morphemes used to form t...

  12. Intonation and information structure

    OpenAIRE

    Heusinger, Klaus von

    1999-01-01

    The concepts intonation and information structure refer to two components of grammar that are commonly assumed to be autonomous and independent of the canonical parts phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Both structures are closely related to each other: Intonational patterns express informational structuring, and a great part of the information structure is linguistically conveyed by intonation. Intonational patterns are not understood as a single structure, but as a complex of diffe...

  13. Design information verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides the bases to complete a Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) for a research reactor. The IAEA requirements for provision of design information for nuclear facility is described. The role of the provided information for the development of the safeguards approach and for planning of the IAEA's general inspection program for a specific facility is emphasized. Content and preparation of the IAEA DIQ by the State is presented

  14. Quantum information causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2013-05-24

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs. PMID:23745844

  15. Airports Geographic Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  16. EDIS Investigation Filing Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...

  17. Management information system

    CERN Document Server

    Halale, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Today Information System became one of the strategic recourses of an enterprise. Every business as well as business function is influenced by the information system. Information system has tremendously changed the rules of the game. The advent of computing as well as communication technology has overpowered the way business activities are carried out today. The information systems have offered number of advantages in data collection, processing, presentation, communication, storage, retrieval and search etc. On one had it is catering to the smaller needs of smaller business such as an account

  18. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  19. Executive information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitullo, M.; Winter, C.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based information handling system. The system has been designed and implemented for Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies to allow program managers easy access and tracking of certain types of reporting at various levels of management interaction, to simplify the handling of program-related data, and to streamline the preparation of reporting documents and responses to requests for information from the program. The EIS is especially useful in assisting DOE program managers in the routine dissemination of reports and information. The characteristics of each component of the EIS are discussed. A user's guide to the EIS is included in this report.

  20. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  1. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  2. Information science in toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, P.Y.; Wassom, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Toxicology is an exciting and rapidly expanding scientific discipline, and the volume of literature being generated is growing at an exponential rate. This ouput reflects the current information explosion in science and technology. Generally, this large-scale increase in information began around 1960, and consequently two President's Science Advisory Committees were appointed to focus attention on the issues of information generation, compilation, and dissemination and the application of advanced computer technology in information storage and retrieval. This national policy for information development is substantiated by the fact that today online interactive retrieval of scientific and technical databases is becoming a routine process in information acquisition. Although file dispersion and lack of quality control have been major problems, new approaches are continually being devised to resolve these problems. For example, the intellectual filter as a recognized segment of the scientific information utilization cycle has naturally evolved. This function is expanding and becoming critical to the decision-making process. Future challenges to those working to make toxicology information more readily available include assessing fugitive literature and negative testing results and converting these into a new information resource for toxicology. 23 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  3. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  4. Sustainability of scholarly information

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2015-01-01

    Professor Gobinda Chowdhury BSc Hons, MSc, PhD, FCLIP is Professor in Information Science at iSchool@northumbria, and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences at Northumbria University. Before joining Northumbria University he was a Professor and Director of the Centre for Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Technology Sydney, Australia. For over 25 years he has worked as an academic and researcher in information science in different parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. For the past few years he has been actively involved

  5. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2014-01-01

    The runaway growth of computer viruses and worms and the ongoing nuisance posed by malicious hackers and employees who exploit the security vulnerabilities of open network protocols make the tightness of an organization's security system an issue of prime importance. And information systems technology is advancing at a frenetic pace. Against this background, the challenges facing information security professionals are increasing rapidly.Information Security Management Handbook, Fourth Edition, Volume 2 is an essential reference for anyone involved in the security of information systems.

  6. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  7. Information management for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil B; Martin, Stephen A; Maypole, Jack; Andrews, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians are bombarded with information daily by social media, mainstream television news, e-mail, and print and online reports. They usually do not have much control over these information streams and thus are passive recipients, which means they get more noise than signal. Accessing, absorbing, organizing, storing, and retrieving useful medical information can improve patient care. The authors outline how to create a personalized stream of relevant information that can be scanned regularly and saved so that it is readily accessible. PMID:27505880

  8. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  9. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  10. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  11. Sensors as Information Transducers

    CERN Document Server

    zook, J David

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews the mechanisms by which sensors gather information from the physical world and transform it into the electronic signals that are used in today's information and control systems. It introduces a new methodology for describing sensing mechanisms based on the process of information flow and applies it to the broad spectrum of sensors, instruments and data input devices in current use. We identify four distinct elemental transduction processes: energy conversion, energy dispersion, energy modulation and modulation of a material property. We posit that these four mechanisms form a complete set for describing information transduction in sensing systems.

  12. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  13. Future of information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Baofu, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b

  14. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, the Information Security Management Handbook has served not only as an everyday reference for information security practitioners but also as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination. Now completely revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a complete understanding of all the items in it. This is a ...must have... book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a c

  15. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Information Security Management Handbook has served as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination and as a reference for information security practitioners. Now thoroughly revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a comprehensive understanding of all the items in it. This is a valuable book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a complete, up-to

  16. What is Information?

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Information is a precise concept that can be defined mathematically, but its relationship to what we call "knowledge" is not always made clear. Furthermore, the concepts "entropy" and "information", while deeply related, are distinct and must be used with care, something that is not always achieved in the literature. In this elementary introduction, the concepts of entropy and information are laid out one by one, explained intuitively, but defined rigorously. I argue that a proper understanding of information in terms of prediction is key to a number of disciplines beyond engineering, such as physics and biology.

  17. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-01-01

    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  18. DILEMA KEBERADAAN SEKTOR INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Sulistyo Rini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai sistem ekonomi alternatif, keberadaan sektor informal mengundang pro dan kontra. Peranannya yang signifikan sebagai katup pengaman ekonomi nasional belum diimbangi dengan proteksi atau perlindungan dari pemerintah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas peran sektor informal dalam mengatasi masalah sosial ekonomi masyarakat dan dilema yang dialami oleh sektor informal dalam menjalankan perannya tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat peran sektor informal pada bidang ketenagakerjaan dan penyerapan angka pengangguran. Sektor formal dianggap tidak mampu menyediakan kesempatan kerja untuk seluruh lapisan masyarakat, apalagi mereka yang ada pada posisi marjinal. Pada beberapa kasus-khususnya yang berhubungan dengan sektor informal perkotaan perlakuan dan kebijakan negara menjadi sangat diskriminatif karena seringkali berhadapan dengan kebijakan negara yang bahkan berakhir dengan kekerasan.  Perlindungan terhadap sektor informal salah satunya adalah pada pedagang kaki lima di Surakarta.  Kota ini menjadi contoh representatif dalam pengorganisasian kepentingan  pemerintah  dan pedagang kaki lima. Ini dapat menjadi inspirasi positif bagi penanganan sektor informal di tempat yang lain untuk memperluas lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial. As an alternative economic system, the existence of informal sector invites pros and cons. The significant role of informal sector as a safety valve of the national economy has not been matched by government with the protection or support The objective of this study is to discuss the role of the informal sector in addressing social and economic issues, and the dilemma faced by the informal sector in carrying out this role. The results of this study shows that there is an important role of the informal sector in the field of employment and unemployment absorption. The formal sector is not considered able to provide job opportunities to all levels of society

  19. We inform you, you inform us

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    Our September information meetings have ended and we thank the many people who came. This will allow us to start an extremely useful dialogue that we will continue with the survey announced at these meetings, which is now available. We invite all CERN staff members to reply to this questionnaire to enable us to have an accurate picture of your expectations and wishes with respect to the evolution of social and employment policies.

  20. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  1. Recent Developments in Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Tonta, Yaşar

    2005-01-01

    This presentation covers recent developments in information management outlining ubiquitous computing, ubiquitous access to information, personalization, portals, information architecture, open access, search mechanisms and institutional repositories.

  2. Reverse Coherent Information

    OpenAIRE

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    In this letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well known coherent information. This lead to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  3. Oceanography Information Sources 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard C.

    This booklet lists oceanography information sources in the first section under industries, laboratories and departments of oceanography, and other organizations which can provide free information and materials describing programs and activities. Publications listed in the second section include these educational materials: bibliographies, career…

  4. Medical Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  5. Searching informed game trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWell-known algorithms for the evaluation of the minimax function in game trees are alpha-beta and SSS*. An improved version of SSS* is SSS-2. All these algorithms don't use any heuristic information on the game tree. In this paper the use of heuristic information is introduced into the a

  6. Information Design: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Michael J.; Lisberg, Beth Conney

    2000-01-01

    Presents a 17-item annotated list of essential books on information design chosen by members of the InfoDesign e-mail list. Includes a 113-item unannotated bibliography of additional works, on topics of creativity and critical thinking; visual thinking; graphic design; infographics; information design; instructional design; interface design;…

  7. Reverse Coherent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  8. Web Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Web information retrieval is a research area of its own.While some questions are the same as in „classic“ information retrieval, there are new questions concerning characteristics of the Web,which are discussed. The second part of the article gives an overview of the research literature published within the last two years.

  9. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  10. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  11. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  12. The Rural Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  13. Management of Electronic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaks, Michael

    This paper discusses the management of library collections of electronic information resources within the classical theoretical framework of collection development and management. The first section provides an overview of electronic information resources, including bibliographic databases, electronic journals, journal aggregation services, and…

  14. The Politics of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn K.

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the political issues to be discussed at the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services which will focus on citizen control of the information flow in view of developing demands and technology. A desired political result of the conference is the creation of a citizens' lobby. (SW)

  15. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  16. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  17. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  18. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  19. Medical Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs and application security and transmission protocols are not consistently maintained. Health insurance needs and general financial opportunity has created an emerging market in medical identity theft. Medical offices have the perfect storm of information collection, personal, credit, banking, health, and insurance. Thieves have realized that medical facilities have as much economic value as banks and the security is much easier to crack. Mostly committed by insiders, medical identity theft is a well-hidden information crime. In spite of its covert nature, the catastrophic ramification to the victims is overt. This information crime involves stealing patients’ records to impersonate the patients in an effort of obtaining health care services or claiming Medicare on the patients’ behalf. Unlike financial identity theft, there is a lack of recourse for the victims to recover from damages. Medical identity theft undermines the quality of health care information systems and enervates the information security of electronic patient record.

  20. Right to Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2014-01-01

    In the last 20 years, there has been a massive growth in the number of national laws giving individuals the right to access information held by public bodies (right to information or RTI laws). The number of countries with such laws has grown from 19 mostly Western democracies i

  1. Enhanced Information Exclusion Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-01-01

    In Hall's reformulation of the uncertainty principle, the entropic uncertainty relation occupies a core position and provides the first nontrivial bound for the information exclusion principle. Based upon recent developments on the uncertainty relation, we present new bounds for the information exclusion relation using majorization theory and combinatoric techniques, which reveal further characteristic properties of the overlap matrix between the measurements.

  2. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  3. Visual informed consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, Rico; Witteveen, Loes

    2015-01-01

    The notion of visual informed consent (VIC) is developed in the context of capturing on film the clarification of the purpose of data collection, the use of information obtained, and the rights, risks and benefits of participation on the one hand, and the registration of the participant’s underst

  4. Information technology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a requirement for the strategic planning of top managers (the highest level of leadership having as a primary goal the easier access to important information, especially those that were classified as critical for success in business. Expert systems for example offered the possibility of linking information technology with other telecommunication channels which makes them possible to identify many problems. In this context, this paper will focus on presenting the great importance of information technology as a powerful tool to manage business problems precisely because information systems provide exceptional business value. Information Technology examines the reasons for the problems and offers solutions to manage and reduce them.

  5. Information in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeda, Tadashi A.

    The report stresses the fact that while there is unity in the continuum of medicine, information in health care is markedly different from information in medical education and research. This difference is described as an anomaly in that it appears to deviate in excess of normal variation from needs common to research and education. In substance,…

  6. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  8. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  9. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  10. Marketing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Maura

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…

  11. What is information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Marcello

    2016-03-13

    Molecular biology is based on two great discoveries: the first is that genes carry hereditary information in the form of linear sequences of nucleotides; the second is that in protein synthesis a sequence of nucleotides is translated into a sequence of amino acids, a process that amounts to a transfer of information from genes to proteins. These discoveries have shown that the information of genes and proteins is the specific linear order of their sequences. This is a clear definition of information and there is no doubt that it reflects an experimental reality. What is not clear, however, is the ontological status of information, and the result is that today we have two conflicting paradigms in biology. One is the 'chemical paradigm', the idea that 'life is chemistry', or, more precisely, that 'life is an extremely complex form of chemistry'. The other is the 'information paradigm', the view that chemistry is not enough, that 'life is chemistry plus information'. This implies that there is an ontological difference between information and chemistry, a difference which is often expressed by saying that information-based processes like heredity and natural selection simply do not exist in the world of chemistry. Against this conclusion, the supporters of the chemical paradigm have argued that the concept of information is only a linguistic metaphor, a word that summarizes the result of countless underlying chemical reactions. The supporters of the information paradigm insist that information is a real and fundamental component of the living world, but have not been able to prove this point. As a result, the chemical view has not been abandoned and the two paradigms both coexist today. Here, it is shown that a solution to the ontological problem of information does exist. It comes from the idea that life is artefact-making, that genes and proteins are molecular artefacts manufactured by molecular machines and that artefacts necessarily require sequences and coding

  12. Energy information directory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  13. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth......In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...

  14. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  15. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  16. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...... the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...... mechanisms influencing its value. Further, such a theory should explain information neglecting and avoidance, the utilisation of different kinds of information resources, the strategies used, and their efficiency. A general theory should formulate what the essential, non-trivial factors are, which can...

  17. Energy Information Directory 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquires to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information

  18. Controlling Quantum Information

    CERN Document Server

    Landahl, A J

    2002-01-01

    Quantum information science explores ways in which quantum physical laws can be harnessed to control the acquisition, transmission, protection, and processing of information. This field has seen explosive growth in the past several years from progress on both theoretical and experimental fronts. Essential to this endeavor are methods for controlling quantum information. In this thesis, I present three new approaches for controlling quantum information. First, I present a new protocol for continuously protecting unknown quantum states from noise. This protocol combines and expands ideas from the theories of quantum error correction and quantum feedback control. The result can outperform either approach by itself. I generalize this protocol to all known quantum stabilizer codes, and study its application to the three-qubit repetition code in detail via Monte Carlo simulations. Next, I present several new protocols for controlling quantum information that are fault-tolerant. These protocols require only local qu...

  19. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  20. Next generation information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limback, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Medina, Melanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Michelle E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  1. Next generation information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  2. Information Architecture the Design of Digital Information Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Information Architecture is about organizing and simplifying information, designing and integrating information spaces/systems, and creating ways for people to find and interact with information content. Its goal is to help people understand and manage information and make right decisions accordingly. In the ever-changing social, organizational and technological contexts, Information Architects not only design individual information spaces (e.g., individual websites, software applications, and mobile devices), but also tackle strategic aggregation and integration of multiple information spaces

  3. Medical Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather governmentregulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’sinformation yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolvingsecurity issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns.Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs and applicationsecurity and transmission protocols are not consistently maintained.Health insurance needs and general financial opportunity has created an emerging market in medicalidentity theft. Medical offices have the perfect storm of information collection, personal, credit, banking,health, and insurance. Thieves have realized that medical facilities have as much economic value asbanks and the security is much easier to crack. Mostly committed by insiders, medical identity theft is awell-hidden information crime. In spite of its covert nature, the catastrophic ramification to the victims isovert. This information crime involves stealing patients’ records to impersonate the patients in an effort ofobtaining health care services or claiming Medicare on the patients’ behalf. Unlike financial identity theft,there is a lack of recourse for the victims to recover from damages. Medical identity theft undermines thequality of health care information systems and enervates the information security of electronic patientrecord.

  4. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  5. Process Principle of Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张高锋; 任君

    2006-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionInformation structure is the organization modelof given and New information in the course ofinformation transmission.A discourse contains avariety of information and not all the informationlisted in the discourse is necessary and useful to us.When we decode a discourse,usually,we do not needto read every word in the discourse or text but skimor scan the discourse or text to search what we thinkis important or useful to us in the discourse as quicklyas possible.Ⅱ.Process Principles of Informati...

  6. Evolution of information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    that an evolutionary transformation of informational systems are preferable for small network organisations because of their need to adapt rapidly and easily to new business conditions. The IS will only be flexible if both human and technology are prepared and willing/proper configured. Changes are due to altered......This article offers a dynamic view of continuously changes in a specific informational system illustrated through a case study in a small network company. Central aspects of the evolutionary process will be identified and framed in relation to the informational system change. It will be argued...

  7. Reframing information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Resmini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from a

  8. Interviews with information receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories

  9. Electricity information 2012

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Electricity Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in the OECD electricity sector, including 2011 preliminary data. An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the world electricity developments in 2010 covering world electricity and heat production, input fuel mix, supply and consumption, and electricity imports and exports. A greater focus is given to the 34 OECD countries with more detailed information covering production, installed capacity, input energy

  10. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  11. Safeguards information challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Overall, the aim of this paper is to provide the background and the broader vision in which the various information related presentations and posters proposed by the Department find their place, exploring solutions to the challenges faced. At a time when the Agency is expected to be a reference for the assessment of nuclear proliferation threats, providing the international community with independent, impartial, timely and credible conclusions that no declared nuclear material is diverted to non-peaceful purposes and that no undeclared nuclear material or activities exist in States, it has to address major challenges with regard to information. Drawing credible conclusions assumes that all relevant information is accessible and put into relevant context. Because of the legal constraints under which it operates, the limitation of resources for collecting existing but difficult to reach details and simply because of the overwhelming quantity of the information needed to properly evaluate proliferation issues, the Agency has to continually improve the way it collects, processes and internally disseminates safeguards relevant information. Developing a coherent picture of a State's nuclear capability is a complex process based on many experts' assessments and fusion of information. The search for better, broader and deeper information through dedicated collection processes is an ongoing effort aimed at filling the gaps of such pictures. Implementing well selected information collection tools is a sine qua non to render effective the Agency's detection capabilities. Beyond collection, another prerequisite to ensuring that the available information is accessible to those who need to know is the establishment of a proper information system architecture and an efficient set of standard business processes. At the same time, that information must be sufficiently protected by appropriate security measures, particularly at a time when private hacking has become a

  12. Advanced information society (11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  13. Can randomization be informative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos A. B.; Campos, Thiago F.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Wechsler, Sergio

    2012-10-01

    In this paper the Pair of Siblings Paradox introduced by Pereira [1] is extended by considering more than two children and more than one child observed for gender. We follow the same lines of Wechsler et al. [2] that generalizes the three prisoners' dilemma, introduced by Gardner [3]. This paper's conjecture is that the Pair of Siblings and the Three Prisoners dilemma are dual paradoxes. Looking at possible likelihoods, the sure (randomized) selection for the former is non informative (informative), the opposite that holds for the latter. This situation is maintained for generalizations. Non informative likelihood here means that prior and posterior are equal.

  14. Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Stojmenovic, Ivan; Choi, Min; Xhafa, Fatos; FutureTech 2013

    2014-01-01

    Future technology information technology stands for all of continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience and HCI, security and trust computing and so on, for satisfying our ever-changing needs. In past twenty five years or so, Information Technology (IT) influenced and changed every aspect of our lives and our cultures. These proceedings foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization.

  15. Information Technology Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information technology service works out the choices concerning the information technology systems of general use in the laboratory: computers, network, peripherals, workstations, software. It intervenes at the same time in the definition of the procedures and equipment specific to the research groups. The entire data acquisition is centralized by the service. The personnel is sharing the following two large directions of activities: - management of information technology park (setup, configuration and maintenance of the materials and soft ensemble, training and assistance afforded to users); - participation in software projects either in elaboration of applications or in realization and maintenance of specific tools

  16. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Information Security Management Handbook continues its tradition of consistently communicating the fundamental concepts of security needed to be a true CISSP. In response to new developments, Volume 4 supplements the previous volumes with new information covering topics such as wireless, HIPAA, the latest hacker attacks and defenses, intrusion detection, and provides expanded coverage on security management issues and applications security. Even those that don't plan on sitting for the CISSP exam will find that this handbook is a great information security reference.The changes in the tech

  17. Overriding information issues. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  18. Overriding information issues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Vibeke

    1998-04-01

    The Nordic project on overriding information issues focus on why an information project, how to inform about a difficult subject in a modern society, how to provide advance information, how to inform when the accident has occurred and how to inform about NKS and projects. (au)

  19. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Business & Manufacturing Business Education Small ... Newsroom News Releases Videos Public Calendar FOIA CPSC Data Press Statements About CPSC Chairman Commissioners Contact Information ...

  20. Information security cost management

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavan, Ioana V

    2006-01-01

    While information security is an ever-present challenge for all types of organizations today, most focus on providing security without addressing the necessities of staff, time, or budget in a practical manner.Information Security Cost Management offers a pragmatic approach to implementing information security, taking budgetary and real-world constraints into consideration. By providing frameworks, step-by-step processes, and project management breakdowns, this book demonstrates how to design the best security strategy with the resources you have available. Organized into five sections, the book-Focuses on setting the right road map so that you can be most effective in your information security implementationsDiscusses cost-effective staffing, the single biggest expense to the security organizationPresents practical ways to build and manage the documentation that details strategy, provides resources for operating annual audits, and illustrates how to advertise accomplishments to senior management effectivelyI...

  1. Energy information directory 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are: (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory lists most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters.

  2. Enforcement Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — EIS is an automated management information system that tracks the FAA’s enforcement actions on a nationwide basis. EIS is the FAA’s primary database for tracking...

  3. Entropy and information

    CERN Document Server

    Volkenstein, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    The book "Entropy and Information" deals with the thermodynamical concept of entropy and its relationship to information theory. It is successful in explaining the universality of the term "Entropy" not only as a physical phenomenon, but reveals its existence also in other domains. E.g., Volkenstein discusses the "meaning" of entropy in a biological context and shows how entropy is related to artistic activities. Written by the renowned Russian bio-physicist Mikhail V. Volkenstein, this book on "Entropy and Information" surely serves as a timely introduction to understand entropy from a thermodynamic perspective and is definitely an inspiring and thought-provoking book that should be read by every physicist, information-theorist, biologist, and even artist.

  4. Physics from information

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-Weon

    2010-01-01

    This is an ongoing review on my conjecture that information processing at causal horizons is the key ingredient of all physics. Assuming that information is fundamental and the information propagates with finite velocity, one can find that main physical laws such as Newton's second law and Einstein equation simply describe the energy-information relation (dE=TdS) for matter or space time crossing a causal horizon with temperature T for observers. Quantum mechanics arises from ignorance of the observers about matter crossing the horizon, which explains why superluminal communication is impossible even with quantum entanglement. This approach also explains the origin of Jacobson's thermodynamic formalism of Einstein gravity and Verlinde's entropic gravity. When applied to a cosmic causal horizon, the conjecture reproduces the observed dark energy and demands the zero cosmological constant.

  5. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Mercury On this page: What is mercury? Emissions of ... Consumer products that traditionally contain mercury What is Mercury? Mercury is a naturally-occurring chemical element found ...

  6. Turbulence as Information

    CERN Document Server

    Goldburg, W I

    2016-01-01

    A message of any sort can be regarded as a source of information. Claude. E. Shannon showed in the last century that information ("what we don't already know") is equivalent to the entropy as defined in statistical mechanics. A string of experimental observations is like a succession of words; they both convey information and can be characterized by their entropy. For the fluid flow measurements and simulations to be discussed here (pipe and soap film flow, GOY model), the entropy depends on controllable parameters such as the Reynolds number. The information theory approach is applicable to measurements of any type including those governed by intractable equations or systems where the governing equations are not known. This contribution is dedicated to the memory of Leo Kadanoff, an inspiring teacher and one of the most important scientific leaders of the last half century.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chairman Commissioners Contact Information Agency Reports Legislative Affairs Job Opportunities Inspector General Safety Guides Safety Education Centers OnSafety Blog Neighborhood Safety Network Community Outreach ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitemap RSS E-mail Related Links: Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) ... not control this external site or its privacy policy and cannot attest to the accuracy of the ...

  9. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sleep Apnea Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder ...

  10. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  11. Afghanistan / Pakistan Information Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID Info is a dynamic, web-based information management application designed to organize, monitor, and store OAPA Missions’ implementation- and performance-level...

  12. PREFACE: Quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew; Ferry, David; Stoneham, Marshall

    2006-05-01

    Microelectronics and the classical information technologies transformed the physics of semiconductors. Photonics has given optical materials a new direction. Quantum information technologies, we believe, will have immense impact on condensed matter physics. The novel systems of quantum information processing need to be designed and made. Their behaviours must be manipulated in ways that are intrinsically quantal and generally nanoscale. Both in this special issue and in previous issues (see e.g., Spiller T P and Munro W J 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 V1-10) we see the emergence of new ideas that link the fundamentals of science to the pragmatism of market-led industry. We hope these papers will be followed by many others on quantum information processing in the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.

  13. Information science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings volume provides a snapshot of the latest issues encountered in technical convergence and convergences of security technology.  It explores how information science is core to most current research, industrial and commercial activities and consists of contributions covering topics including Ubiquitous Computing, Networks and Information Systems, Multimedia and Visualization, Middleware and Operating Systems, Security and Privacy, Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence, Software Engineering, and Web Technology.   The proceedings introduce the most recent information technology and ideas, applications and problems related to technology convergence, illustrated through case studies, and reviews converging existing security techniques.  Through this volume, readers will gain an understanding of the current state-of-the-art in information strategies and technologies of convergence security. The intended readership are researchers in academia, industry, and other research institutes focusing on ...

  14. Labor Informality: General Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Sandoval Betancour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main causes of labor informality in order to verify the validity of classical theories that explain unemployment in market economies and its relationship to informality. Methodologically, the project was based, in the empirical part, on international statistics, comparing the evolution of labor market structure in a combined sample of highly industrialized countries and other less industrialized ones. Empirical evidence supports the conclusion that the classical economic theory of Marxist origin is inefficient to explain the causes of unemployment in contemporary market economies, as well as it fails to satisfactorily explain informality. On the contrary, we conclude that the theory in question is more relevant to explain informality in centrally planned economies where this phenomenon has been present even more significantly than in free market economies.

  15. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  16. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  17. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  18. Audit Information Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID/OIG has initiated its new Audit Information Management System (AIMS) to track OIG's audit recommendations and USAID's management decisions. OIG's in-house...

  19. Information Engineering and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yan; International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011

    2012-01-01

    The International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2011 will be held on October 21-24, 2011, in Chongqing, China. It is organized by Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Nanyang Technological University, the University of Michigan, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, and sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The objective of IEA 2011 is to facilitate an exchange of information on best practices for the latest research advances in the area of information engineering and intelligence applications, which mainly includes computer science and engineering, informatics, communications and control, electrical engineering, information computing, business intelligence and management. IEA 2011 will provide a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges, social and economic issues, and to present and disc...

  20. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......The issue of informal development was discussed in details at the joint FIG Com 3 and UNECE/WPLA workshop in Sounio, Greece, March 2007. Emphasis was given to the scale of the problem in Southern and Eastern Europe and to means of legalising such informal urban development. This paper, instead......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...