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Sample records for antimicrobiana pronares informe

  1. Profilaxis antimicrobiana preoperatoria. Principios generales

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    Virginia Hernández Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:describir la importancia de la antibioticoterapia en la profilaxis perioperatoria de las infecciones quirúrgicas. Desarrollo:se realizó una revisión y análisis sobre los principios generales de la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria orientada a la descripción de sus indicaciones y a los principios para su uso, así como los principales criterios emitidos relacionados con su selección y evaluación en diferentes procederes quirúrgicos. Muchos autores refieren que la utilización adecuada y racional de la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria es un elemento básico de buena práctica médica y su concepción preventiva juega un papel importante en el campo de la cirugía. Las normas de la profilaxis antimicrobiana están establecidas de acuerdo con el tipo de cirugía a efectuar. La selección del fármaco a utilizar debe hacerse sobre la base de los datos locales de la microbiota y los perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana prevalentes. Conclusiones: la aplicación de una correcta profilaxis antimicrobiana quirúrgica disminuye la tasa de sepsis posoperatoria, la estadía y los costos hospitalarios, así como un menor número de estudios microbiológicos a realizar y reduce el riesgo de resistencia bacteriana e infecciones cruzadas.

  2. Profilaxis antimicrobiana preoperatoria. Principios generales

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Hernández Vargas; Diana Rodríguez Baños; Patricia Álvarez Cabrera

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo:describir la importancia de la antibioticoterapia en la profilaxis perioperatoria de las infecciones quirúrgicas. Desarrollo:se realizó una revisión y análisis sobre los principios generales de la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria orientada a la descripción de sus indicaciones y a los principios para su uso, así como los principales criterios emitidos relacionados con su selección y evaluación en diferentes procederes quirúrgicos. Muchos autores refieren que la ...

  3. Actividad antimicrobiana de Illicium verum Hook. f.

    OpenAIRE

    De, M.; De, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Mir??, M.A.; Anerjee, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Entre las diferentes especies de Illicium, Illicium verum Hook.f., conocido vulgarmente como an??s estrellado, posee potentes propiedades antimicrobianas. Los estudios qu??micos realizados indican que la mayor parte de esta actividad antimicrobiana se debe al anetol [1-metoxi-4-(1-propenil)-benceno] presente en el fruto desecado de esta planta. Ensayos de concentraci??n m??nima inhibitoria (CMI) con el anetol aislado, en comparaci??n con un patr??n de anetol, indicaron que es efec...

  4. Resistencia antimicrobiana en Hospitales nor-occidentales de Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Karen; Espinoza, Meylin; Mejía, Yaoli; Zambrana, Luis Enrrique; Silva, Erasmo; Rojas, Jency; Gadea, Walter; Chavarria, Sergio; Hernandez, Mario; Ramirez, María Mercedes; Membreño, Juana María; Lara, María Eugenia; Saenz, J. E.; Valle, S.; Torrez, A.

    2007-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha observado un incremento de la incidencia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana entre patógenos que causan infecciones intra-hospitalarias principalmente y también en la comunidad. La Resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema global de salud pública, promovido básicamente por el uso y abuso de los antibióticos. El fenómeno de la Resistencia antimicrobiana es un área prioritaria de investigación del Centro de investigación de enfermedades infecciosas y como parte de sus act...

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae, mecanismos de resistencia antimicrobiana

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    Amauri Noda Albelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El Streptococcus pneumoniae, principal agente causal de la neumonía comunitaria, líder en la etiología de la otitis media y la meningitis, en las últimas 3 décadas ha incrementado, de manera importante, su resistencia a los agentes terapéuticos más utilizados, como los betalactámicos, macrólidos, azálidos y fluroquinolonas. La versatilidad adaptativa del microorganismo le ha permitido crear mecanismos capaces de sobreponerse a cualquiera de estas agresiones terapéuticas con un grado variable de eficacia. Se realiza una revisión de los mecanismos más importantes implicados en la adquisición de resistencia antimicrobiana por S. pneumoniae, y se precisan algunos de los factores de riesgo implicados en infección por S. pneumoniae resistente.

  6. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de Calceolaria chelidonioides Humb. Bonpl. & Kunth.

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    Deborah Q. Falcão

    Full Text Available A espécie Calceolaria chelidonioides (Scrophulariaceae, até então inédita nas citações científicas, foi estudada sob o ponto de vista farmacológico buscando-se identificar possíveis atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante em metodologia in vitro. As partes aéreas dessa espécie demonstraram atividade antioxidante em modelo usando o radical livre DPPH. As flores de C. chelidonioides mostraram grande potencial antibacteriano frente à bactéria Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina MRSA, um dos principais responsáveis em casos de infecção hospitalar.

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana de Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae

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    Jaciana S. Aguiar

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown (Verbenaceae, amplamente distribuída em todo o território brasileiro, é conhecida popularmente como erva cidreira e utilizada na medicina popular como analgésica, febrífuga, antiinflamatória, antigripal e nas afecções hepáticas. Extratos brutos foram preparados a partir de plantas cultivadas, de modo padronizado, em horta medicinal do Laboratório de Fitoterapia da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária (IPA para a verificação da atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM foi determinada para os extratos que exibiram melhores atividades. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os extratos clorofórmico, acetônico e etanólico da raiz foram ativos frente a Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Candida albicans e Monilia sitophila e os extratos hexânicos, etanólicos e metanólicos das folhas inibiram S. aureus, M. luteus, B. subtilis, M. smegmatis e M. sitophila. A menor concentração inibitória (CIM = 31,2 µg/mL, foi obtida para o extrato clorofórmico da raiz frente a B. subtilis e M. luteus.

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de Struthanthus vulgaris (erva-de-passarinho

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    O.M.C. Vieira

    Full Text Available As plantas do gênero Struthanthus são conhecidas como ervas-de-passarinho e parasitam pomares no Brasil, principalmente os de laranjeiras e goiabeiras. Na medicina popular são usadas nas afecções das vias respiratórias. O extrato hidroetanólico a 70% de folhas frescas de Struthanthus vulgaris apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra amostras bacterianas Gram positiva e Gram negativa. Este extrato não apresentou, nas condições testadas, atividade contra fungos. As amostras bacterianas mais sensíveis ao extrato foram Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778, Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, S. epidermidis (ATCC 12228 e P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, usando o método de difusão em agar. As frações obtidas, pela partição líquido-líquido do extrato hidroetanólico a 70%, com solventes de polaridades crescentes (clorofórmio, acetato de etila, n-butanol e água, apresentaram diferentes atividades inibitórias. A fração que apresentou a maior atividade contra bactéria Gram positiva (B. cereus e Gram negativa (P. aeruginosa foi aquela obtida com n-butanol. Nessa fração foram detectados flavonóides, taninos condensados (proantocianidinas e saponinas.

  9. Profilaxis antimicrobiana previa a procedimientos dentales. Situación actual y nuevas perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Campos, LF; Ceballos-Hernández, H; Bobadilla-Aguirre, A

    2017-01-01

    Resumen La bacteremia secundaria a los procedimientos dentales puede dar origen a episodios de endocarditis infecciosa. La implementación de la profilaxis antimicrobiana tiene como finalidad aminorar la bacteremia transitoria reduciendo la posibilidad de desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa, por lo que es indispensable conocer qué antibióticos son de elección y en qué casos o situaciones administrarlos u omitirlos. Existen múltiples guías para aplicar profilaxis antimicrobiana, éstas difieren ...

  10. Profilaxis antimicrobiana previa a procedimientos dentales. Situación actual y nuevas perspectivas

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    Luis Fernando Rodríguez-Campos; Hilda Ceballos-Hernández; Alfredo Bobadilla-Aguirre

    2017-01-01

    La bacteremia secundaria a los procedimientos dentales puede dar origen a episodios de endocarditis infecciosa. La implementación de la profilaxis antimicrobiana tiene como finalidad aminorar la bacteremia transitoria reduciendo la posibilidad de desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa, por lo que es indispensable conocer qué antibióticos son de elección y en qué casos o situaciones administrarlos u omitirlos. Existen múltiples guías para aplicar profilaxis antimicrobiana, éstas difieren en sus r...

  11. Avaliação in vitro das propriedades antimicrobianas de vasopressores

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    Habib Bostan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: os medicamentos administrados como perfusão intravenosa podem ser contaminados durante as várias etapas de produção ou preparação. No entanto, estudos sobre os efeitos antibacterianos de vasopressores são muito raros. Este estudo investiga a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro das formas de vasopressores usados clinicamente. Materiais e métodos: atividades antimicrobianas in vitro de substâncias vasopressoras de diferentes concentrações foram investigadas com o uso da técnica de microdiluição. Os microrganismos empregados no teste foram: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ATCC 911, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 43251, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus 702 Roma, Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC607, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 e Saccharomyces cerevisiae RSKK 251. Os ensaios antibacterianos foram feitos em caldo de cultura Mueller-Hinton (pH 7,3 e os ensaios antifúngicos em solução tampão de base nitrogenada para levedura (pH 7,0. Resultados: duas preparações diferentes de dopamina mostraram atividade antimicrobiana. Nenhuma outra substância do estudo mostrou qualquer atividade antimicrobiana. Conclusões: em nossa opinião, os efeitos antibacterianos da dopamina podem ser vantajosos para inibir a propagação de contaminação bacteriana durante a preparação das soluções para perfusão. Contudo, salientamos a importância do seguimento rigoroso das diretrizes de esterilização dos equipamentos e de assepsia durante todos os procedimentos feitos em unidades de terapia intensiva.

  12. Profilaxis antimicrobiana previa a procedimientos dentales. Situación actual y nuevas perspectivas

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    Luis Fernando Rodríguez-Campos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available La bacteremia secundaria a los procedimientos dentales puede dar origen a episodios de endocarditis infecciosa. La implementación de la profilaxis antimicrobiana tiene como finalidad aminorar la bacteremia transitoria reduciendo la posibilidad de desarrollar endocarditis infecciosa, por lo que es indispensable conocer qué antibióticos son de elección y en qué casos o situaciones administrarlos u omitirlos. Existen múltiples guías para aplicar profilaxis antimicrobiana, éstas difieren en sus recomendaciones, a tal grado que pueden confundir al facultativo al momento de determinar si el paciente requiere antibiótico profiláctico y a elegir el antimicrobiano adecuado.   OBJETIVO: comparar las diferentes guías de profilaxis antimicrobiana y recomendaciones para converger en una recopilación única con las aportaciones destacadas de cada guía revisada; de la misma manera, exponer el régimen utilizado en nuestra institución por el servicio de estomatología.   CONCLUSIÓN: el estomatólogo se puede basar principalmente en las guías de la American Heart Association (AHA y el Centro Nacional de Excelencia Tecnológica en Salud (CENETEC para condiciones cardiacas que ameriten profilaxis antimicrobiana, y para pacientes con enfermedades sistémicas sobre la guía de la American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD y las recomendaciones de nuestra institución. La administración de profilaxis antimicrobiana se da por razones científicas consolidadas y por carácter de tipo médico-legal, en un futuro se espera establecer criterios para aumentar los métodos no antibióticos preventivos de endocarditis infecciosa y aminorar el uso de antimicrobianos, reduciendo el uso de antibiótico profiláctico, sin exponer al paciente a infecciones diseminadas y con mínimos efectos secundarios posibles.

  13. Profilaxis antimicrobiana de corta duración versus profilaxis antimicrobiana de larga duración en cirugía maxilofacial mayor limpia-contaminada: Un estudio de cohorte

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    Villanueva M, Julio; Araya C, Ignacio; Yanine M, Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: No existe consenso sobre la duración de la profilaxis antimicrobiana más adecuada (dosis única o múltiple) en cirugía maxilofacial limpia-contaminada. Objetivo: Determinar si en cirugía maxilofacial mayor limpia-contaminada el uso de profilaxis antimicrobiana de corta duración es efectivo comparado con una de larga duración en la prevención de la infección del sitio quirúrgico. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de cohorte en 527 pacientes. Se comparó la incidencia de infección del sit...

  14. Atividade Antimicrobiana de Extratos Etanólicos de Peperomia pellucida e Portulaca pilosa

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    LORENA PAULA MERCêS MENDES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional estão sendo cada vez mais estudadas por serem possíveis fontes de substâncias com atividades antimicrobianas. Dentre elas, destacando-se a Peperomia pellucida (erva-de-jabuti e a Portulaca pilosa (amor-crescido, utilizadas comumente na Amazônia. A P. pellucida é utilizada, popularmente, em casos de hemorragia, como curativo para feridas, dores abdominais, abscessos, acne, furúnculos, cólicas, problemas renais, hipertensão e colesterol, enquanto a P. pilosa é utilizada como hepato-protetor, antidiarreico, diurético, para queimaduras, erisipelas e ferimentos. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas a abordagem fitoquímica e a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro desses dois materiais vegetais. A prospecção fitoquímica revelou a presença de açúcares redutores, fenóis e taninos, esteroides e triterpenoides, glicosídios cardíacos e carotenoides no extrato etanólico seco (EES de P. pillosa, e a presença de proteínas e aminoácidos, fenóis e taninos, flavonoides, esteroides e triterpenoides, azulenos, carotenoides, depsídios e depsidonas no EES de P. pellucida. Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos brutos, foi empregado o método de disco difusão em ágar, nas concentrações de 500; 250; 125 e 62,5 μg/mL. Os extratos testados que apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana na avaliação preliminar foram submetidos à determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O extrato de P. pellucida possui atividade antimicrobiana frente a S. aureus e P. aeruginosa, e o de P. pilosa contra Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. Peperomia pellucida. Portulaca pilosa. Erva-de-jabuti. Amor-crescido. ABSTRACT Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Peperomia pellucida and Portulaca pilosa Plants used in traditional medicine are under increasing scrutiny as possible sources of substances with

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana do extrato alcoólico do fruto da Caesalpinia ferrea Mart

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    Tomaz, Klívio Loreno Raulino

    2010-01-01

    O tratamento usual da mastite bovina é realizado com administração de antimicrobianos, que muitas vezes, promovem a resistência bacteriana a esses compostos. Medicamentos fitoterápicos têm sido utilizados, porém nem todas essas opções apresentam comprovação científica acerca da eficácia de ação contra os agentes causadores da enfermidade. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato alcoólico do fruto da Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. frente a bactérias c...

  16. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana de la microbiota ambiental de las unidades de cuidados intensivos de un hospital peruano

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    José Díaz-Tello

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de detectar y determinar la sensibilidad antimicrobiana de bacilos Gram negativos y cocos Gram positivos aislados de la microbiota ambiental de los servicios de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI de Neonatología, de Pediatría y de la Unidad de trasplantes (renal, hepático y general en un hospital de Lima; se tomaron 80 muestras de superficies inanimadas usando hisopado húmedo. Se identificaron 61 cepas bacterianas que correspondieron a Staphylococcus epidermidis (46,0%, Alcaligenes sp. (21,3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16,4%, Acinetobacter sp. (13,1% Staphylococcus aureus (1,6% y Staphylococcus haemolyticcus (1,6%. Acinetobacter y Pseudomonas aeruginosa mostraron una elevada sensibilidad a los antibióticos evaluados, en contraste Alcaligenes sp. y Staphylococcus epidermidis presentaron la mayor resistencia antimicrobiana. Staphylococcus epidermidis y Alcaligenes sp. fueron las bacterias que presentaron mayor resistencia a los antibióticos y las que mayormente se aislaron. Se recomienda recurrir a métodos de asepsia y monitoreo sostenidos en las UCI.

  17. Estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana del fango termal de Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina

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    Juan A. Basualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la actividad antimicrobiana del fango termal (Complejo Termal Copahue, Argentina sobre microorganismos de la microbiota autóctona del hombre, agentes infecciosos de la comunidad, hospitalarios y cepas AT CC. Las cepas correspondieron a cocos Gram positivos, bacilos Gram negativos, levaduras y cepas AT CC. El fango se obtuvo de la Laguna Sulfurosa. La actividad inhibitoria se demostró utilizando fase líquida (FL mediante la prueba de difusión en agar y por estudios de cinética bactericida. Con la primera se observó halo inhibitorio frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Cándida albicans, no visualizándose inhibición para el resto de los microorganismos. El estudio dinámico a través del tiempo sobre S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermis y C. albicans demostró acción inhibitoria antes de las 6 hs de incubación, mientras que no se observó inhibición frente a los bacilos Gram negativos. Es el primer trabajo que demuestra la actividad antimicrobiana de la FL sobre las cepas ensayadas.

  18. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  19. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais

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    D.C. Michelin

    Full Text Available Especialmente nas últimas décadas, inúmeros esforços têm sido dirigidos para conferir às plantas seu real papel e valor na terapia. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos secos de Artemisia absinthium L. (losna, Mentha pulegium L. (poejo, Punica granatum L. (romã, Xanthosema violaceum Schott (taioba e Syzygium cuminii L. (jambolão. Para avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana foi realizado o teste de difusão em ágar, com 15 diferentes microrganismos, utilizando discos impregnados com as dispersões aquosas dos extratos vegetais. A Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM foi determinada para os extratos que apresentaram atividade inibitória. Os resultados mostraram que os extratos de X. violaceum e S. cuminii inibiram, respectivamente, 8 e 6 bactérias. Conclui-se que os extratos de X. violaceum e S. cuminii são capazes de inibir expressivamente o crescimento microbiano.

  20. Resistência antimicrobiana em Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isolados de carcaças de frango

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    Ana Claudia F. Borges de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o isolamento e analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de Enterococcus de carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas comercializadas no Distrito Federal, detectando genes de resistência antimicrobiana e identificando as espécies Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium por reação polimerase em cadeia. Foram analisadas 100 carcaças de frangos, das quais foram isoladas 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp., sendo 42% de E. faecalis e 2% de E. faecium. O teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana demonstrou que todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resistência a pelo menos um antimicrobiano, dos quais 90,47% das cepas de E. faecalis, 100% das cepas de E. Faecium e 82,14% dos Enterococcus spp. apresentaram resistência à Tetraciclina; 80,95% das cepas de E. faecalis e 35,71% das cepas de Enterococcus spp. foram resistentes à Eritromicina; 39,28% dos Enterococcus spp. e 23,80% dos E. faecalis à Ciprofloxacina e 28,57% dos E. faecalis apresentaram resistência ao Cloranfenicol. Foram detectados os genes de resistência antimicrobiana erm(B, vanC-1, aph(3'-llla, ant(6-la, vanB, vanA, aac(6'-le-aph(2''-la, erm(A e tet(M - este último mais frequente. Estes resultados sugerem sérios problemas para a Saúde Pública, uma vez que esses microrganismos podem possuir a capacidade de transmitir genes de resistência antimicrobiana para outros microrganismos presentes na microbiota intestinal de humanos e animais, podendo inviabilizar o uso destas drogas para tratamentos clínicos.

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de folhas e ramos da Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae

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    Bruno De Biasi

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Ilex paraguariensis foram utilizados seis microrganismos: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O método utilizado foi de difusão do disco. Foram adicionados em discos de papel filtro 10 µl de extratos hidro-alcoólicos das folhas e ramos coletados de dois ambientes distintos, com e sem exposição ao sol. As placas foram incubadas a 35- 37 ºC por 24 h. Os extratos inibiram levedura, bacilos gram-negativos e cocos gram-positivos, não mostrando atividade frente à Escherichia coli.

  2. Resistencia antimicrobiana e implicancias para el manejo de infecciones del tracto urinario

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    Luisa Durán, MD, DTMH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema global creciente, que también afecta a los agentes etiológicos comunes de las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU y puede implicar mayor morbimortalidad sin un tratamiento adecuado. Existen diferencias regionales en la resistencia y a nivel ambulatorio versus nosocomial que deben considerarse. Todo uso de antibióticos causa presión selectiva sobre el microbioma por eliminación de bacterias susceptibles y aumenta el riesgo de infecciones por bacterias resistentes. Se discuten los principales mecanismos de resistencia y los antimicrobianos afectados, además de sus implicancias terapéuticas en los distintos cuadros de ITU. Es fundamental evitar la exposición innecesaria a antibióticos, realizar un correcto diagnóstico, elegir y ajustar un adecuado tratamiento, entre otras medidas para enfrentar la resistencia antimicrobiana. Summary: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global problem, which also affects the common etiological agents of urinary tract infections (UTI and may involve increased morbidity and mortality without adequate treatment. There are regional differences in resistance and at the ambulatory versus nosocomial level that should be considered. Any use of antibiotics causes selective pressure on the microbiome by eliminating susceptible bacteria and increases the risk of infections by resistant bacteria. The main mechanisms of resistance and the affected antimicrobials are discussed, as well as their therapeutic implications in the different UTI cases. It is essential to avoid unnecessary exposure to antibiotics, make a correct diagnosis, choose and adjust an appropriate treatment, among other measures to face antimicrobial resistance. Palabras clave: Infecciones del tracto urinario, resistencia a antimicrobianos, tratamiento, Key words: Urinary tract infections, drug resistance, therapeutics

  3. Avaliação in vitro das características antimicrobianas de sugamadex

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    Volkan Hanci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: os medicamentos administrados por via intravenosa podem ser contaminados durante as várias fases de produção ou preparação. Sugamadex é uma gama-ciclodextrina modificada. Embora muitas pesquisas sobre os efeitos antibacterianos de uma variedade de ciclodextrinas estejam disponíveis, não há estudos dos efeitos antibacterianos de sugamadex. Este estudo investigou a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de sugamadex. Materiais e métodos: a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de sugamadex foi investigada pelo método de microdiluição em meio de cultura. O pH da solução de ensaio foi determinado com o uso de um medidor de pH. Os microrganismos-teste analisados incluíram Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus fecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Na segunda fase do estudo, 100 mg/mL de sugamadex (50 μg foram contaminados com microrganismos-teste (50 μg, incluindo S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. fecalis ATCC 29212, E. coli ATCC 25922 e P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, incubados por 24 horas e, em seguida, a produção bacteriana foi avaliada. Resultados: o pH das soluções da análise variaram entre 7,25 e 6,97. Com o uso do método de microdiluição, sugamadex não apresentou efeito antibacteriano contra S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli e P. aeruginosa em qualquer concentração. Na segunda fase do estudo, a produção bacteriana foi observada após 24 horas em 100 mg/mL de sugamadex contaminados com os microrganismos-teste S. aureus, E. fecalis, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.

  4. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa

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    Maria Élida A. Stefanello

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, espécie empregada na medicina popular contra doenças respiratórias. Folhas, cascas do tronco e ramos foram extraídos com hexano, diclorometano e etanol, sucessivamente, sendo obtidos os respectivos extratos brutos. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar utilizando-se bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. A avaliação da citotoxicidade foi realizada empregando-se o ensaio de letalidade contra Artemia salina. Nenhum dos extratos mostrou atividade citotóxica. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram uma fraca atividade antimicrobiana frente a algumas cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto o extrato em diclorometano dos ramos e o extrato em etanol das cascas foram ativos contra Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus e S. epidermidis. A maior atividade antimicrobiana foi observada para o extrato em diclorometano das cascas, que inibiu o crescimento de Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis e Candida albicans. Esta atividade parece estar relacionada à presença de diterpenos no extrato. Nenhum dos extratos estudados (a 5,0 mg/mL mostrou atividade frente a cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial dessa planta como fonte de compostos antibacterianos e justificam, parcialmente, seu uso popular.

  5. Análise da ação antimicrobiana de cremes dentais infantis do mercado brasileiro

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    Maria Laiz Moreira de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de cremes dentais infantis do mercado brasileiro. Métodos: Estudo laboratorial realizado em uma universidade de Fortaleza/CE, em 2014, utilizou 12 placas de Petri com meios de cultura Muller Hinton para Streptococcus mutans e Agar Sabouraud para Candida albicans, nas quais poços contendo quantidades iguais de cremes dentais (Tandy®, Colgate Barbie®, Oral B Stages®, Bitufo Ben 10®, Even Mônica®, Boni Looney Tunes® com flúor, Malvatrikids Baby®, Condor Tigor®, Even Baby®, Bitufo Cocoricó® e Sanifil Fase 1® sem flúor foram semeados e incubados com Streotococcus mutans em jarra de anaerobiose, ambos em estufa bacteriológica a 37°C, por 48 horas. Após esse período, analisou-se a formação ou não de halos de inibição, que representa a ação antimicrobiana. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos dos cremes dentais fluoretados e não fluoretados apresentaram diferenças discretas de medidas de halos de inibição entre si, mas os fluoretados mostraram atividade antimicrobiana contra as cepas avaliadas. Malvatrikids Baby®, Even Baby® e Sanifil Fase 1® não mostraram atividade contra Streptococcus mutans e somente o Sanifil Fase 1® não apresentou contra Candida albicans. Conclusão: Todos os cremes dentais fluoretados avaliados e dois sem flúor (Condor Tigor® e Bitufo Cocoricó® apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana contra as cepas avaliadas.

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi Antimicrobial activity of Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi

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    Cláudia Helena Degáspari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos aquoso e alcoólico obtidos de frutos da Schinus terebenthifolius ou aroeira-vermelha, diretamente ligados à quantidade de compostos fenólicos existentes nesses extratos. Pelos testes, verificou-se que o extrato alcoólico apresentou efeito inibitório sobre o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus, já o extrato aquoso não apresentou efeito inibitório sobre os crescimento dos microrganismos testados. O extrato alcoólico mostrou-se com quantidade significativa da flavona apigenina, além de ácido elágico, ao passo que no extrato aquoso foi observada a presença da flavanona naringina.This research analyzed the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts obtained from Schinus terebenthifolius fruits or aroeira-vermelha, directly linked to the amount of phenolics compouds existent in these extracts. The tests showed that the alcoholic extract presented an inibitory effect to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and the aqueous extract didn't present inibitory effect to the growth of the tested microorganisms. The alcoholic extract was shown with a significant amount of the flavone apigenin, besides ellagic acid and siringic acid, while in the aqueous extract was observed the flavanone naringine.

  7. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella, Shigella y Vibrio cholerae: Perú 1997-2002

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    Isabel Arias B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un problema de salud pública, en este caso se presentan los resultados de la resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella, Shigella y Vibrio cholerae entre los años 1997 y 2002 de las cepas confirmadas por el Instituto Nacional de Salud, procedentes de los laboratorios referenciales regionales de las diferentes direcciones de salud del Perú. La confirmación se realizó mediante bioquímica y serotipificación; para las pruebas de sensibilidad se utilizó el método de disco difusión. Se evaluaron un total de 542 cepas de Salmonella, 1034 de Shigella y 603 de Vibrio cholerae. La resistencia de Shigella frente a ampicilina muestra un promedio de 74,4% durante los 6 años; cloramfenicol con 65,9 %, cotrimoxazol con 72,2 %. En Salmonella se observa un promedio de 3,46 % para ampicilina; 2,83 % para cloranfenicol; en gentamicina 3,9 % y cotrimoxazol 1,1. V. Cholerae entre 1997 y 1999 mostraron promedios de resistencia de 19 % a cotrimoxazol, 12,1 % a tetraciclina y 10,2 % a ampicilina. A partir del año 2000, no se reportaron casos, por lo que se recibieron pocas cepas de esta especie. Se evidencia el problema de resistencia de Shigella frente a ampicilina, cloramfenicol y cotrimoxazol.

  8. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae e de seu extrato aquoso

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    G.M. Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana do alho (Allium sativum Liliaceae, in natura, e do extrato aquoso, frente à Candida albicans (Ca e a Estreptococos do grupo B (EGB. O alho in natura e os extratos aquosos 30% e 170%, foram submetidos à avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana usando os métodos de Difusão em Ágar pela técnica do disco e do poço. Os resultados mostraram que o alho, in natura, apresentou halo de inibição de 55,3 ± 2,6 milímetros (mm frente a Ca e de 27,1 ± 2,6 mm frente à EGB, enquanto o halo de inibição do miconazol foi de 24 ± 0,5 mm e o da Penicilina G de 29,8 ± 0,3 mm. O extrato aquoso de alho a 30% não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana frente à Ca e à EGB Já o extrato aquoso de alho a 170% apresentou halo de inibição frente a Ca, de 11,3 ± 0,7 mm na técnica do disco e de 14,5 ± 0,9 mm na técnica do poço, porém não inibiu o crescimento da EGB Conclui-se que o alho in natura apresentou melhor efeito inibitório frente às cepas de Ca e de EGB

  9. Evidenciadores de biofilme em prótese total: avaliação clínica e antimicrobiana

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    Silva Cláudia Helena Lovato da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a capacidade em corar, a facilidade de remoção e a ação antimicrobiana de evidenciadores de biofilme dental em prótese total. A capacidade em corar foi avaliada por método visual aplicando-se evidenciadores sobre a superfície interna da prótese total superior. Após fotografia, as próteses coradas foram escovadas (escova e dentifrício específicos para prótese total e novamente fotografadas. Os diapositivos foram projetados em folhas de papel (aumento de 10 X; as áreas total e corada das próteses contornadas com grafite, recortadas e pesadas, para obtenção, em porcentagem, dos resultados da facilidade de remoção. A ação antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar e os resultados obtidos pela medida dos aros e halos de inibição formados. A melhor capacidade em corar foi apresentada pelo azul de metileno (0,05%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresceína sódica (1%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. Eosina (1%, fluoresceína sódica (1% e eritrosina (5% apresentaram a maior facilidade de remoção. Não apresentaram ação antimicrobiana eosina (1%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresceína sódica (1%, proflavina (0,3%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. As soluções que apresentaram maior capacidade de corar, facilidade de remoção e ausência de ação antimicrobiana, requisitos necessários para auxiliar estudos que avaliam métodos de higiene e de orientação aos pacientes, foram eosina (1%, vermelho neutro (1% e eritrosina (5%.

  10. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Tinoco; M. R. Martins; J. Cruz-Morais

    2007-01-01

    O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva co...

  11. Vigilancia de los serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Haemophilus influenzae en Colombia, 1994-2002.

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    María Victoria Ovalle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad invasora causada por Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b, ha sido una de las mayores causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población infantil; afortunadamente, en algunos países con amplia cobertura de la vacuna conjugada esta situación ha cambiado. En 1994 se inició en el Grupo de Microbiología un programa de vigilancia de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y de los serotipos de aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae, remitidos por los hospitales y Laboratorios de Salud Pública del país como componente de los programas de vigilancia en red de infección respiratoria aguda y meningitis bacteriana aguda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae obtenidos de 1994 al 2002 y realizar un nuevo análisis sobre el impacto de la vacuna conjugada de H. influenzae, serotipo b, en Colombia. De 1994 a 2002 se han estudiado 683 aislamientos; 379 (55,5% de pacientes del género masculino; 370 (54,2% de menores de 1 año; 227 (33,2% de 1 a 5 años; 19 (2,8% de 6 a 14 años; 38 (5,6% de mayores de 14 años, y de 29 (4,2% no se tenía el dato de la edad; 493 (72,2% fueron recuperados de pacientes con meningitis, 181 (26,5% de neumonía y 9 (0,9% de otras enfermedades. El 85,1% de los aislamientos fueron H. influenzae, serotipo b, 12,9% no capsulares y 2,0% de otros serotipos (10 a, 1 d, 1 e y 2 f. Del total de aislamientos, 12% fueron productores de beta-lactamasa; 13,9%, resistentes a ampicilina; 12,7%, a trimetoprim sulfametoxazol (SXT; 5,4%, a cloranfenicol, y 1% a cefuroxima; todos fueron sensibles a ceftriaxona. Durante este período se observó un incremento en la resistencia de los aislamientos a SXT (5% al 13%, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,1. Con la vigilancia se pudo determinar una disminución significativa de los casos de meningitis en los menores de 1 año y en el

  12. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus sensible, con sensibilidad "BORDERLINE" y resistentes a la meticilina

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    Carlos Alberto Mendoza Ticona

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las susceptibilidad a diversos antibacterianos de tres categorías de S. aureus según su sensibilidad a la meticilina. Materiales y Métodos: Se aislaron 76 cepas de S. aureus que colonizaban pacientes y personal de salud de tres servicios del Hospital Honorio Delgado de Arequipa, de los cuales 36 fueron sensibles a meticilina (MSSA, 15 con susceptibilidad "borderline" (BORSA y 25 fueron resistentes a la meticilina (MRSA. Se les sometió a antibiograma a 14 antibacterianos. Resultados: El único antibiótico al cual todas los aislamientos fueron sensibles fue vancomicina. Los MRSA fueron resistentes a todos los b-lactámicos excepto imipenem que obtuvo 64% de susceptibilidad. Los BORSA mantuvieron un 80% de sensibilidad a cefalotina y un 100% al imipenem. Los antibióticos cefalotina, imipenem, ciprofloxacina, cotrimoxazol, rifampicina, eritromicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, lincomicina y gentamicina tuvieron sensibilidades variables (p<0.01 entre las tres categorías; una mayor proporción de MSSA fue sensible a estos antibióticos, luego los BORSA y finalmente los MRSA. Las cepas multi-resistentes fueron mucho más frecuentes en los MRSA que en los otros dos grupos (p <0.01. Conclusión: Existe en nuestro medio cepas de S. aureus con resistencia "borderline" a meticilina. Hay diferencias entre la sensibilidad a diversos antimicrobianos entre los tres grupos de S. aureus. Esta diferenciación podría beneficiar una terapia antimicrobiana más racional. Se debe aplicar en todo aislamiento de S. aureus las recomendaciones internacionales para la detección de meticilino resistencia.

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento de Acidovorax avenae subsp citrulli.

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    César Luis Siqueira Junior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de plantas medicinais tem sido pesquisada em diversas espécies no Brasil. A utilização de extratos vegetais como uma ferramenta para o controle de doenças de plantas se tornou uma prática útil na agricultura. No presente estudo, 7 extratos etanólicos de plantas foram testados quanto suas atividades antibacterianas. A ação antibacteriana foi avaliada através da inoculação de placas contendo meio Sacarose Peptona Agar (SPA, com a bactéria Acidovorax avenae, com  nove discos de papel contendo, um deles, o antimicrobianos comercial (ampicilina e os outros embebidos com 100 mL dos extratos etanólicos. As placas foram incubadas a 37 ºC por 48 horas, e a leitura de diâmetro halos de inibição foi feita. Os resultados demonstraram que os extratos testados foram ativos contra a bactéria com exceção dos extratos de mamona, e de abricó para os quais não foi detectada a inibição de crescimento bacteriano. Os extratos de tanchagem, pitomba e baquipari provocaram a inibição no crescimento bacteriano formando halos médios de 26, 26 e 23,3 mm, respectivamente. De maneira surpreendente, a mistura dos extratos de abricó e baquipari (1:1 causou um aumento na inibição do crescimento bacteriano, sugerindo o potencial de uso de extratos combinados contra patógenos de plantas.

  14. Resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp aislada de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano

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    Adriana Quesada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar la información disponible sobre la resistencia antimicrobiana de aislamientos de Salmonella spp de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en América Latina. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de estudios epidemiológicos observacionales realizados en América Latina entre los años 2003 y 2014 en las bases de datos PubMed y LILACS. Se excluyeron estudios realizados como parte de estudio de brotes o casos de infecciones en humanos. Tres revisores de forma independiente participaron en la selección de estudios. Además, se realizó la evaluación de calidad a los estudios incluidos. Resultados. Un total de 25 estudios cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Los estudios incluidos fueron realizados en Brasil, México, Colombia, Argentina y Venezuela. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp se obtuvieron principalmente de alimentos de origen avícola, porcino y vacuno, siendo Salmonella typhimurium y Salmonella enteritidis los serotipos que se aislaron con mayor frecuencia (17 y 11 estudios, respectivamente. En 23 de los estudios, Salmonella spp fue resistente a más de un antibiótico, incluyendo ácido nalidíxico, estreptomicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, ampicilina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, gentamicina, ciprofloxacina y cefalosporinas. Conclusiones. Los aislamientos de Salmonella spp obtenidos de alimentos de origen animal para consumo humano en los países analizados presentan con frecuencia resistencia a múltiples antibióticos. Es importante que más países en América Latina realicen y publiquen estudios sobre la resistencia de Salmonella spp para establecer y monitorear estrategias de control adecuadas.

  15. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum) en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, José Pedro

    2011-01-01

    El ajo (Allium sativum) ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro) la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  16. Observación de la actividad antimicrobiana del ajo (Allium sativum en el laboratorio de Educación Secundaria

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    José Pedro López Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ajo (Allium sativum ha sido utilizado desde tiempos inmemorables, tanto para uso culinario como por sus propiedades terapéuticas. En esta comunicación se ensaya (in vitro la propiedad antimicrobiana de este alimento frente a bacterias presentes en la superficie de la piel.

  17. Análise fitoquímica e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de diferentes tipos de extratos de Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae

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    Paulo Augusto Oliveira VENTURA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantago major L. é uma planta oriunda do continente europeu, utilizada para fins medicinais. Apresenta atividade hematopoiética, atividade no tratamento de leucemias, carcinomas e contra vírus, bem como atividade antiparasitária, diurética, hepatoprotetora e anti-inflamatória. O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil fitoquímico dos extratos aquoso, etanólico e hidroalcoólico das folhas de Plantago major L., como também a ação antimicrobiana frente a bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. Os resultados obtidos na análise fitoquímica demonstraram a presença de taninos, saponinas, alcaloides, flavonoides, terpenos e glicosídeos. A análise antimicrobiana mostrou que os extratos etanólico e hidroalcoólico de Plantago major L. possuem ação antimicrobiana frente ao Staphylococcus aureus, por meio da atuação de metabólitos bioativos com ação antimicrobiana, tais como taninos e flavonoides, o que torna Plantago major L. um possível candidato à obtenção de um novo fitoterápico.

  18. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de regiones endémicas de la Enfermedad de Carrión en EL Perú

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    Giovanna Mendoza-Mujica

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo

  19. Profilaxis antimicrobiana en Estomatología y su aplicación en periodoncia Antimicrobial prophylaxis in Dentistry and its applicatoin in Periodontics

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    Susana Aurora Macín-Cabrera

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la información publicada en los últimos años referente al uso apropiado de la profilaxis antimicrobiana (PA en la práctica estomatológica en general y en procedimientos periodontales en particular. Los datos presentados muestran el empleo actual de la PA, que se supedita a una serie de criterios, entre los cuales está el tipo de intervención quirúrgica o procedimiento odontológico, el nivel de riesgo de infección por individuo según la patología, edad y condición fisiológica, el sitio de la herida o de la escisión quirúrgica y si esta ocurre en una zona limpia o contaminada, así como la flora microbiana habitual y la susceptibilidad de los microorganismos a los antimicrobianos, todo lo cual determinará la posología adecuada para no generar resistencia bacteriana.The information published in the last years in relation to the appropriate use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP in dental practice, in general, and in periodontal procedures, in particular, is analyzed. The data presented show the current use of AP that is subject to a series of criteria, such as the type of operation or odontological procedure, the level of infection risk per individual according to pathology, age, physiological condition, the site of the wound or of the surgical excision and if it is in a clean or contaminated zone, as well as the habitual microbial flora and the susceptibility of the microorganisms to the antimicrobial agents. All this will determine the adequate posology not to generate bacterial resistance.

  20. Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus spp. isolados de cães com pioderma superficial

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    Ana Paula da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas 154 amostras de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia Veterinária do Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, com o objetivo de determinar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. e avaliar a presença de multirresistência. Após isolamento e identificação, as cepas foram submetidas ao teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos, cujos resultados evidenciaram menores percentuais de resistência à associação amoxicilina e ácido clavulânico (1,9%, cefadroxil (1,9%, cefalexina (1,9% e vancomicina (0,6%. Os maiores percentuais de resistência foram frente à amoxicilina (60,4% e penicilina G (60,4%. A multirresistência foi detectada em 23,4% e a resistência à meticilina em 5,8% das amostras. Pode-se concluir que os isolados de Staphylococcus spp. apresentam elevada suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos comumente utilizados no tratamento dos piodermas superficiais em cães atendidos no HVU-UFSM, como a cefalexina e a amoxicilina associada ao ácido clavulânico, confirmando a eleição desses fármacos para o tratamento de cães com esta afecção. A suscetibilidade diminuída das cepas frente às fluoroquinolonas, também recomendadas pela literatura para o tratamento de pioderma, permite sugerir que estes fármacos não devem mais ser considerados na seleção empírica. A identificação de Staphylococcus spp. multirresistentes na população canina estudada justifica análises bacteriológicas periódicas e regionais de lesões cutâneas de cães com pioderma superficial, a fim de minimizar a seleção de bactérias resistentes, possíveis falhas terapêuticas e também motiva a antimicrobianoterapia prudente.

  1. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium obtenidos de pacientes hospitalizados

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    Manuel Medell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente se considera a Enterococcus spp. como uno de los agentes de infección hospitalaria más importantes, siendo su resistencia a los antibióticos un problema importante en los centros de salud. Objetivos. Caracterizar la resistencia antimicrobiana en 50 cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de tipo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal en 50 aislamientos clínicos de estas especies microbianas. Se trabajó un aislamiento por paciente. La identificación y la sensibilidad a los antibióticos se realizaron por métodos automatizados y convencionales. El análisis fenotípico de los mecanismos de resistencia a glucopéptidos se hizo según las recomendaciones de la Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. Resultados. De 50 aislamientos, 30 (60,0 % y 20 (40,0 % pertenecían a las especies de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, respectivamente. La resistencia global expresada por este género fue de 38/50 (76,0 % para ampicilina; 33/50 (66,0 % para gentamicina de alto nivel; 34/50 (68,0 % para estreptomicina de alto nivel; 26/50 (52,0 % para ciprofloxacina; 4/50 (8,0 % para linezolid; 17/50 (34,0 % para teicoplanina; 25/50 (50,0 % para vancomicina; 31/50 (62,0 % para minociclina; 34/50 (68,0 % para tetraciclina y 9/50 (18,0 % para nitrofurantoina. Frente a los glucopéptidos, 25/50 (50,0 % y 10/50 (20,0 % de los aislamientos presentaron los mecanismos Van A y Van B, respectivamente. Conclusiones. Podemos concluir que la mayoría de las veces, las cepas aisladas en el Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras mostraron porcentajes de resistencia por encima de lo reportado en la literatura científica consultada. El alto porcentaje de cepas con resistencia a la vancomicina podría influir en la aparición de otros gérmenes Gram positivos con resistencia a este fármaco. Se reporta por

  2. Atividade Antinociceptiva e Antimicrobiana da Casca do Caule de Psidium Cattleyanum Sabine

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    F.Q. ALVARENDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, conhecida como “araçá”, é espécie nativa do Bioma Cerrado brasileiro comumente utilizado, segundo levantamento etnobotânico, como planta medicinal para tratar várias doenças tais como: patologias hepáticas, gástricas, lesões teciduais incluindo processos dolorosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a triagem fitoquímica com propósito exploratório, investigar a atividade analgésica e antimicrobiana do extrato hidroalcoólico da casca do caule de Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (ECPCS para apoiar o uso dessa espécie como planta medicinal. Para isso, foram obtidos extratos e frações com solventes orgânicos de polaridade crescente (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etila e isobutanol avaliando-se o perfil fitoquímico para determinar as principais classes de metabólitos secundários presentes na espécie. Investigou-se a atividade analgésica pelo teste de contorções abdominais em camundongos induzidas pelo ácido acético (0,6%. A Concentração Inibitória Mínina (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM foram avaliadas através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo contra micro-organismos da microbiota oral. A triagem fitoquímica identificou a presença de taninos, saponinas, flavonoides e terpenos e/ou esteroides. O ECPCS exibiu atividade analgésica periférica nas doses de 200 e 400 mg/kg. O EAC (extrato acetato de casca o EDC (extrato diclorometânico de casca desempenharam melhor ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano de Estafilococos oralis com CIM 100 e 150 respectivamente. O ECPCS desempenhou ação inibitória sobre o crescimento bacteriano. Os resultados dos estudos experimentais comprovaram a presença de compostos secundários tais como, taninos e flavonoides, o que, provavelmente, pode ser associado à atividade analgésica e ao efeito inibitório sobre os micro-organismos testados com o ECPCS, o que justifica o uso medicinal planta.

  3. Estudio del efecto de una película antimicrobiana en la vida útil del queso Costeño

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    Margarita Rosa Arteaga Márquez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una película antimicrobiana en la vida útil del queso Costeño elaborado a diferentes concentraciones de cloruro de sodio (2,5 % p/p sin cubrimiento de película; 2,5 y 3,0 % p/p cubierto con película antimicrobiana, almacenado (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 y 30 días a temperaturas de 12 ± 1 ºC y 28 ± 2 ºC. El principio activo fue nisina (16 mg/100 mL de solución. Se realizaron análisis químicos (pH, acidez titulable, materia grasa y humedad, microbiológicos (recuentos de coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus coagulasa positiva, detección de Salmonella y recuento de mohos y levaduras y sensoriales (pruebas de ordenación por atributos y de escala hedónica. Los resultados mostraron que para los quesos almacenados a 12 ± 1 ºC, no hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas en el comportamiento del pH, y para la acidez se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas los días 15, 20, 25 y 30. Respecto al contenido de cloruro de sodio se obtuvo mayor pérdida de humedad y aumento en el contenido de materia grasa con diferencias estadísticas significativas los días 30 y 5 para los quesos almacenados a 12 ± 1 ºC y 28 ± 2 ºC, respectivamente. La temperatura a 12 ± 1 ºC fue el factor más influyente en la conservación del queso. Los tratamientos con cubrimiento de película fueron aceptados sensorialmente durante los 30 días de estudio y hubo diferencia respecto al sabor los días 20 al 30. El tratamiento control presentó crecimiento visible de mohos y levaduras el día 15. La película antimicrobiana ejerció un efecto inhibitorio sobre Staphyloccocus aureus coagulasa positiva en los quesos.

  4. Actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial do Foeniculum vulgare Miller Antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare Miller essential oil

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    M. T. Tinoco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare é uma planta espontânea da região mediterrânea, pertencente à família Apiaceae. O seu óleo essencial, principalmente o dos frutos secos, é amplamente utilizado nas indústrias alimentar, farmacêutica, cosmética e perfumaria. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se avaliar a actividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial dos frutos verdes e das folhas da variedade de funcho doce colhido no Alentejo, na região de Évora, e relacionar essa actividade com a respectiva composição química. A extracção dos óleos essenciais foi efectuada por hidrodestilação e a sua análise foi feita por GC-FID e GC-MS. No óleo das folhas foram identificados como componentes maioritários os fenilpropanóides anetol, fenchona e estragol e o monoterpeno a-felandreno, enquanto que o óleo dos frutos apresentou como constituintes predominantes anetol e fenchona. A actividade antimicrobiana dos óleos foi avaliada face às estirpes Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces spp., Fusarium oxysporum e Penicillium sp.. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram actividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus, Saccharomyces spp. e Fusarium oxysporum.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare is a spontaneous plant of Mediterranean region that belongs to the Apiaceae family. Its essential oil is used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and perfume industries mainly that one obtained from dried seeds. The main goal of this work were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from fresh leaves and unripe seeds of sweet fennel, collected in Évora-Alentejo, in face of their chemical composition. The extraction of the essentials oils was made by hydrodistillation. Chemical analyses were carried out by GC-FID and GCMS. Phenylpropanoides anethole, fenchone, estragole and the monoterpene aphellandrene were the most abundant compounds of leaves essential oil. Seeds essential oil showed as main components

  5. Investigação das atividades alelopática e antimicrobiana de Mikania laevigata (Asteraceae obtida de cultivos hidropônico e tradicional

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    Leopoldo Baratto

    Full Text Available Os extratos etanólicos de folhas de guaco (Mikania laevigata cultivado tradicionalmente no solo ou por hidroponia foram avaliados quanto às atividades alelopática e antimicrobiana. Para a atividade alelopática foi utilizado o ensaio de inibição da germinação de sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa, enquanto que para a atividade antimicrobiana utilizouse a técnica de difusão em disco. Observou-se um notável efeito alelopático dos extratos de ambos os cultivos, em especial do extrato etanólico do guaco tradicional, que mesmo na menor concentração testada inibiu completamente a germinação das sementes. Nenhum dos extratos etanólicos do guaco apresentou atividade antibacteriana significativa para as linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium.

  6. Determinación de la actividad antimicrobiana de la melanina purificada, a partir de la tinta de Octopus mimus Gould, 1852(Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

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    Marco Vega Petkovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Los cefalópodos, constituyen importantes modelos biomédicos orientados a vertebrados, con potencial farmacológico. Estos animales poseen una glándula de tinta, que produce un líquido marrón o negro (tinta, con una elevada concentración de melanina, a la cual se le han atribuido propiedades antibacterianas. Con esta información, se busca determinar el efecto protector de la melanina de Octopus mimus, mediante la extracción y purificación de la tinta y posterior evaluación de su actividad antimicrobiana frente a dos cepas (Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli. Los resultados indican una actividad antimicrobiana moderada, en comparación con el antibiótico comercial (ampicilina 0,05 mg mL-1, y una concentración inhibitoria mínima diferencial entre ambas cepas bacterianas.

  7. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

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    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  8. Ação antimicrobiana de pastas obturadoras usadas em dentes decíduos = Antimicrobial action of root canal filling pastes used in deciduous teeth

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    Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou a ação antimicrobiana de pastas, uma à base de iodofórmio conhecida por Pasta Guedes-Pinto (PGP e outra modificada pela adição de digluconato de clorexidina (CHX a 2% em substituição ao paramonoclorofenol canforado da formulação original da PGP. Metodologia: A ação antimicrobiana das duas pastas foi testada contra Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus oralis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli e Bacillus subtilis. O método empregado foi o de Diluição em Meio Sólido, Difusão em Ágar. Dezoito placas de Petri com 20 mL de BHIA foram inoculados com 0,1 mL das suspensões microbianas. Discos de papel foram imersos nas soluções experimentais por 1 min e colocados sobre a superfície de BHIA em cada placa. As placas foram mantidas em temperatura ambiente por 1 h e então incubadas a 37ºC por 48 h. O diâmetro da inibição microbiana foi medida ao redor dos discos de papel. Os dados foram pelo teste U de Mann-Whitney (a=0,05. Resultados: A PGP teve ação bacteriostática contra todos os microrganismos e também bactericida exceto para Enterococcus faecalis e Bacillus subtilis. A CHX apresentou ação bacteriostática e bactericida contra todos os microrganismos. Não houve diferença estatística significante quanto à efetividade antimicrobiana entre as pastas avaliadas. Conclusão: Ambas as pastas apresentaram ação antimicrobiana contra quase todos os microrganismos encontrados em infecções endodônticas de dentes decíduos

  9. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana das partes aéreas (folhas e caules e raízes de Richardia brasiliensis Gomez (Rubiaceae

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    Adda Daniela Lima Figueiredo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Richardia brasiliensis é uma planta utilizada popularmente como expectorante, emética, diaforética, vermífuga e para o tratamento de hemorróidas. O presente estudo objetivou realizar a prospecção fitoquímica e avaliar a ação antimicrobiana do extrato bruto das partes aéreas e raízes de R. brasiliensis. O extrato etanólico bruto foi obtido a partir do material botânico dessecado e pulverizado. O pó das partes aéreas e raízes foram submetidos à triagem fitoquímica. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada contra bactérias Gram-positivas esporuladas e não esporuladas, Gramnegativas e a levedura Candida albicans através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima por diluição em ágar empregando-se o inoculador de Steers. A triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de esteróides, triterpenóides, cumarinas, resinas, alcalóides e flavonóides. A CIM do extrato das partes aéreas variou de 0,37 a 0,74 mg/mL e das raízes de 0,74 a 11,9 mg/ mL. Concluiu-se que tanto o extrato etanólico bruto das partes aéreas quanto das raízes apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana. Palavras-chave: Atividade antimicrobiana. CIM. Plantas medicinais.

  10. Resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos clínicos de Klebsiella spp. y producción de B-lactamasas de espectro extendido en hospitales de Cuba

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    Quiñones Pérez, Dianelys; Carmona Cartaya, Yenisel; Zayas Illas, Arnaldo; Abreu Capote, Miriam; Salazar Rodriguez, Daniel; García Giro, Sandra; Torres Tamayo, Dalia; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Valverde de Francisco, Aránzazu; del Campo Moreno, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: el género Klebsiella causa brotes hospitalarios, por cepas multidrogorresistentes en diferentes continentes y conlleva a un aumento en la morbimortalidad. Objetivos: identificar las especies de Klebsiella causantes de infecciones en hospitales cubanos, determinar la procedencia de los aislamientos según el servicio, y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, conocer la prevalencia de aislamientos productores de ß-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE), y tipos, así como la susceptibi...

  11. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds.

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    Rosangela Correia Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais com potencial terapêutico tem motivado a realização de estudos através de ensaios experimentais que visam fornecer informações úteis e de extrema importância. Assim o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante das espécies de Coleus amboinicus (Lour. e Mentha x villosa (Huds. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco, cepas bacterianas padronizadas Gram negativas Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 e ATCC 35218, cepas Gram positivas Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 e S. aureus ATCC 27853, assim como fungos padrões de Cryptococcus neoformans (pertencentes à coleção de microrganismos do CESMAC. Como controle positivo foi usado o imipenem e fluconazol e como controle negativo um disco com etanol absoluto. A determinação do potencial antioxidante foi realizada utilizando os métodos DPPH, FTC e determinação de compostos fenólicos. Os extratos etanólicos de C. amboinicus e M. x villosa apresentaram excelentes resultados tanto relacionado à atividade antimicrobiana quanto à antioxidante. Nossos resultados mostram a potencialidade das plantas analisadas na prevenção e no combate de doenças.

  12. ESTUDO DO EFEITO DA TERAPIA FOTODINÂMICA ANTIMICROBIANA SOBRE A VIABILIDADE DO BIOFILME PRODUZIDO POR Candida albicans

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    Ana Paula Pinto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A C. albicans é um fungo comensal e oportunista, que em casos de imunossupressão pode causar infecções e levar o indivíduo à morte. O biofilme produzido por C. albicans apresenta resistência a vários antifúngicos, pois é formado por uma matriz extracelular que dificulta a difusão dos fármacos. A Terapia Fotodinâmica Antimicrobiana (TFA é uma terapia que combina uma fonte de luz visível, um agente fotossensível (não tóxico e oxigênio. Esta interação promove a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO’s, que alteram a permeabilidade da membrana celular e podem levar à morte celular de microrganismos. Foi realizada a TFA em biofilmes produzidos por C. albicans em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. A fonte de luz utilizada foi um Light Emitting Diode (LED (630nm e o agente fotossenssível utilizado foi o Azul de Toluidina (AT. Os resultados demonstraram que tanto sobre a formação quanto sobre o biofilme produzido por C. albicans a TFA foi capaz de reduzir a viabilidade celular e alterar a morfologia, diminuindo a quantidade do número de células e de filamentos. Assim, a TFA demonstra ser uma potencial terapia antifúngica.

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos de plantas do bioma caatinga em isolados de Escherichia coli de suínos

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    A.W.C FERNANDES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A suinocultura é uma atividade pecuária bem consolidada no Brasil. Por outro lado a colibacilose neonatal, cujo patógeno é Escherichia coli, pode diminuir a produtividade nas granjas e causar prejuízos aos produtores. O tratamento baseia-se na utilização de drogas antimicrobianas. Todavia, o uso indiscriminado dessas substâncias tem levado a seleção de cepas resistentes. Diante disso, a busca por alternativas terapêuticas, como as plantas medicinais, tem se tornado cada vez mais comum. Dessa maneira, objetivou-se determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco extratos etanólicos de plantas do bioma caatinga: Amburana cearensis (Fr. Allem A.C. Smith, Encholirium spectabile Mart., Hymenaea courbaril L, Neoglaziovia variegata Mez e Selaginella convoluta Spring frente a 43 isolados de Eschericha coli coletados de suínos. Para o teste de sensibilidade in vitro foi realizada a técnica da Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM pelo método da microdiluição em microplaca. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana nas seguintes médias 138,75 175,28, 128,36, 127,71 e 129,33 μg/mL, respectivamente. Essa atividade antibacteriana pode estar relacionada a ação de metabólitos secundários presentes nos extratos dessas plantas. Dessa forma, nosso estudo pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de alternativas terapêuticas no tratamento de infecções, como a colibacilose neonatal em suíno, bem como para o conhecimento acerca das plantas medicinais da Caatinga.

  14. Vigilancia en red de los serotipos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Y Vibrio cholerae O1, 1997 - 1999

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    Nélida Muñoz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología del INS estableció un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país y el apoyo de la OPS, para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de enfermedad diarreica aguda. El objetivo fue conocer los serotipos y los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. y Vibrio cholerae O1. Los aislamientos fueron confirmados de acuerdo con los esquemas de identificación bioquímica y serológica estandarizados y la determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por la técnica de difusión de disco (Kirby-Bauer. De 1997 a 1999, participaron 22 LSP con el envio de 976 aislamientos, 96% de origen clínico y 4% de alimentos; 34% Salmonella spp., 23% Shigella spp. y 42% V. cholerae 01. La distribución por serotipo de Salmonella fue 39% S. Enteritidis, 27% S. Typhimurium, 9% grupo El, 5% S. Typhi y 20% otros serotipos; de los aislamientos de Shigella, 67% fueron S. grupo flexneriza, 30% S sonnei, 2% S. dysenteriae y 1% S. boydii. Para V. cholerae 01, 99% fue serotipo Ogawa. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana determinó que 56% de los aislamientos de Salmonella eran resistentes y 22% multirresistentes, con un patrón predominante de ampicilina, tetraciclina y trimetoprim-sulfa (SXT. De los aislamientos de Shigella, 97% fueron resistentes y 57% multirresistentes, con un patrón de ampicilina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol y SXT. No se observaron cambios en la susceptibilidad de V. cholerae O1. Este estudio enfatiza la importancia de continuar con el programa de vigilancia, para conocer la epidemiologia de la EDA en Colombia, darle un tratamiento óptimo a estas infecciones y poder diseñar programas para disminuir la diseminación de bacterias resistentes.

  15. Perfil fitoquímico e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana de Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae frente a microrganismos bucais

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    N.A.D.E.O. CARTAXO-FURTADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar o perfil fitoquímico e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato etanólico da casca do caule de Syzygium cumini(L. Skeels frente a microrganismos bucais. O perfil fitoquímico do extrato foi traçado através da determinação espectrofotométrica quantitativa para verificar o teor de taninos, flavonóides, saponinas e polifenóis. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada através da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM, por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, utilizando-se as seguintes linhagens de microrganismos: Streptococcus mutans (25175, Streptococcus oralis (10557 e Candida albicans (10231. Uma quantidade apreciável de fitocontituintes foi observada, especialmente de taninos (100,58 ± 1,81. Os extratos apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana inibindo o crescimento das linhagens em estudo, destacando-se essa atividade sobre o crescimento de C. albicans (CIM=250 µg/mL. Já as CIMs para Streptococcus foram baixas. Diante dos resultados expostos, pode-se concluir que o perfil fitoquímico foi traçado e que, dentre os microrganismos testados, o extrato etanólico da casca de S. cumini apresentou forte potencial de inibição sobre o crescimento de C. albicans e fraca inibição frente aos Streptococcus testados. Este estudo sugere que mais pesquisas devem ser realizadas dando continuidade à bioprospecção, por meio de análises experimentais com essa espécie vegetal, objetivando, no futuro, que essa planta possa ser utilizada clinicamente para tratar candidose bucal.

  16. Investigação das atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no bioma caatinga

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    Fábio Rogério Santos Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O bioma caatinga é um bioma brasileiro predominante e único no Nordeste do Brasil. Esse bioma abriga uma impressionante biodiversidade florística com espécies ricas em moléculas bioativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de duas espécies vegetais arbóreas ocorrentes na caatinga. Nos ensaios de atividade antioxidante dos extratos etanólicos da casca do caule das espécies Leucaena leucocephala e Cnidoscolus quercifolius foram avaliados o teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante pelos métodos de captura dos radicais livres DPPH (radical 1,1-diphenil-2-picrilhydrazil e ABTS (radical 2,2’azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid. A atividade antimicrobiana desses extratos foi avaliada frente às espécies bacterianas Enterococcus faecales (ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae (ATCC 49619 e Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, através do ensaio de difusão em poço e determinação de Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM.   Os teores de fenólicos totais encontrados na espécie L. leucocephala exibiram quantidades relevantes de polifenóis, resultado não observado na espécie C. quercifolius.  Foi observado existir uma correlação direta entre a quantidade de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante das espécies testadas. Nenhuma das espécies apresentou atividade antimicrobiana significativa.

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga

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    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.

  18. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

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    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  19. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

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    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.

  20. Descalonamento, adequação antimicrobiana e positividade de culturas em pacientes sépticos: estudo observacional

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    Rafael Barberena Moraes

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de descalonamento antibiótico em pacientes com diagnóstico de sepse grave ou choque séptico em hospital acadêmico, público e terciário, além da adequação antibiótica e da positividade de culturas. Métodos: Foram analisadas prevalência de descalonamento, adequação antibiótica e positividade de culturas entre portadores de sepse grave e choque séptico, entre abril e dezembro de 2013, em uma unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário terciário. Resultados: Entre os 224 pacientes incluídos, o descalonamento era possível em 29,4% dos casos (66 pacientes, mas foi implementado em 19,6% deles (44 pacientes. Entre os pacientes que receberam descalonamento, metade foi por estreitamento de espectro antimicrobiano. A mortalidade foi de 56,3%, não havendo diferença entre pacientes com ou sem descalonamento (56,8% versus 56,1%; p = 0,999, assim como no tempo de internação. Terapia antimicrobiana empírica foi adequada em 89% dos casos. Houve isolamento de germe em 30% de todas as culturas e em 26,3% das hemoculturas. Conclusão: A taxa de adequação antibiótica empírica foi alta, refletindo ativa política institucional de monitorização do perfil epidemiológico e protocolos institucionais de uso de antimicrobianos. No entanto, o descalonamento antimicrobiano poderia ter sido maior do que o registrado. O descalonamento não impactou mortalidade.

  1. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA WITH ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST PATHOGENIC AGENT CAUSING OF BOVINE MASTITIS BACTERIAS ACIDO LACTICAS CON ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA PATÓGENOS CAUSANTES DE MASTITIS BOVINA OUT BACTÉRIAS LÁTICAS COM ATIVIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA CONTRA OUT PATÓGENOS DA MASTITE BOVINA

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    LILIANA SERNA C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat bovine mastitis, produces antibiotic residues in milk and decreased quality of dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria have been proposed as an alternative to avoid the use of antibiotics. This paper reports the antimicrobial activity against pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis, of 4 lactic acid strains isolated from cattle in a state of acidosis ruminal. It also evaluated the specific growth rate (m and antimicrobial activity of one of the strains, using two concentrations of carbon source (20 and 60 gl-1 in the commercial substrate MRS. The strains were biochemically identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermen-tum and Weissella confusa. Weissella confusa showed the best antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens responsible of bovine mastitis. When has been used 60 gl-1 of total sugars in the fermentation substrate, was obtained diameter of inhibition of 31 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and 36 mm for Streptococcus agalactiae. The antimicrobial activity of Weissella confusa is superior antimicrobial activity reported by many other lactic acid bacteria, therefore Weissella confusa could potentially be used to prevent bovine mastitis.El uso de antibióticos para el tratamiento de mastitis bovina, genera residuos de antibióticos en la leche y disminuye la calidad de los subproductos lácteos. Las bacterias ácido lácticas se han propuesto como una alternativa para evitar el uso de antibióticos. En este artículo se reporta la actividad antimicrobiana contra patógenos productores de mastitis bovina, de 4 cepas acido lácticas aisladas de bovinos en estado de acidosis ruminal. Se evaluó además la velocidad especifica de crecimiento (m y la actividad antimicrobiana de una de las cepas, utilizando dos concentraciones de fuente de carbono (20 y 60 gl-1 en el sustrato comercial MRS. Las cepas se identificaron bioquímicamente como Lactobacillus acidophilus

  2. Metabolitos secundarios, letalidad y actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos de tres corales y tres moluscos marinos de Sucre, Venezuela

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    Gabriel Ordaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A los extractos crudos de los octocorales Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. y Pseudopterogorgia acerosa y de los moluscos Pteria colymbus, Phylonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, se les realizaron pruebas químicas, las cuales evidenciaron en todos ellos, la presencia de metabolitos secundarios como alcaloides, esteroles insaturados y triterpenos pentacíclicos. Sólo se detectaron sesquiterpenlactonas, saponinas, taninos, glicósidos cianogénicos y glicósidos cardiotónicos en algunos de los extractos de los octocorales, lo cual sugiere que la biosíntesis de estos metabolitos es propia de este grupo de organismos. Asimismo, se evaluó la actividad letal y antimicrobiana de los extractos de los octocorales y moluscos. En el bioensayo de letalidad, todos los extractos resultaron letales frente al crustáceo Artemia salina (CL50Secondary metabolites, lethality and antimicrobial activity of extracts from three corals and three marine mollusks from Sucre, Venezuela. The study of biochemical activity of extracts obtained from marine organisms is gaining interest as some have proved to have efficient health or industrial applications. To evaluate lethality and antimicrobial activities, some chemical tests were performed on crude extracts of the octocorals Eunicea sp., Muricea sp. and Pseudopterogorgia acerosa and the mollusks Pteria colymbus, Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons, collected in Venezuelan waters. The presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, unsaturated sterols and pentacyclic triterpenes in all invertebrates, was evidenced. Additionally, sesquiterpenlactones, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides were also detected in some octocoral extracts, suggesting that biosynthesis of these metabolites is typical in this group. From the lethality bioassays, all extracts resulted lethal to Artemia salina (LC50<1.000μg/ml with an increased of lethal activity with exposition time. P. pomum extract showed the highest

  3. Antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones by metal complexation Atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas por complexação com metais

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    Adriano Brandelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metal complexation on the antimicrobial activity of 1,4-naphthoquinones was investigated. Nickel-, chromium-, iron-, copper-, and cobalt-containing metal chelates of 5-amino-8-hydroxy-1,4-naphtoquinone (2 and its acyl-derivatives (3-8 were synthesized and characterized, and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated. Data from infrared spectroscopy indicate that naphthoquinones coordinate through oxygen and nitrogen atoms for 2, and through oxygen atoms when ligands were acyl derivatives 3-8. Susceptibility tests for antimicrobial activity showed that 2 and its acyl derivatives were effective on inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Bacillus cereus, but not Gram-negative bacteria. The metal complexation often caused decrease of biological activity. Nickel complex of 2 was the most effective against Gram-positive bacteria, showing MIC values ranging from 375 to 1400 mg/ml. Metal chelates may be useful tools for the understanding of the antimicrobial mechanism of 1,4-naphthoquinones on these bacteria.O efeito da complexação com metais sobre a atividade antimicrobiana de 1,4-naftoquinonas foi investigado. Complexos contendo níquel, cromo, ferro, cobre e cobalto da 5-amino-8-hidroxi-1,4-naftoquinona (2 e seus acil-derivados (3-8 foram sintetizados e caracterizados e sua atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada. Dados de espectroscopia de infravermelho indicaram que as naftoquinonas coordenam os metais através dos átomos de oxigênio e nitrogênio para 2 e através de átomos de oxigênio, quando os ligantes são os acil-derivados 3-8. Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana demonstraram que 2 e seus derivados foram efetivos na inibição do crescimento de bactérias patogênicas como Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis e Bacillus cereus, mas não apresentaram efeito contra bactérias Gram-negativas. A complexação de metais geralmente causou diminuição da

  4. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos extratos e frações orgânicas de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae

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    Marcelo José Dias Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Mimosaceae, conhecida popularmente como sabiá e cerva viva, é uma planta arbórea encontrada na caatinga nordestina brasileira, amplamente utilizada pela população na forma de infusões para o tratamento de feridas, bronquites e anti-inflamatório. Diante do exposto, os objetivos deste estudo, foram determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do extrato etanólico das folhas (EHM, caules (EHL, cascas do caule (EHC, raízes (EHR e frações obtidas das folhas de M. caesalpiniifolia Benth. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada através do método de captação do radical DPPH, enquanto a atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, sobre leveduras, bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. A capacidade antioxidante mostrou que a fração acetato de etila (Fr-EtOAc foi diretamente proporcional ao teor de polifenóis totais com IC50 de 20,08 ± 0,10 µg/ mL e 721,29±0,60 mg de EAG (equivalentes de ácido gálico por g de extrato. Na atividade antimicrobiana, todos os extratos e frações exibiram atividade inibitória de crescimento frente aos micro-organismos microrganismos avaliados e em concentrações variando de 5 a 1000 μg/mL. A Fr-EtOAc apresentou valores promissores de inibição de crescimento frente a fungos, como Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030 e Candida krusei (ATCC 6258, com concentrações de 20 e 40 μg/mL, respectivamente. Estes resultados são importantes, pois são os primeiros a serem realizados com a espécie M. caesalpiniifolia.

  5. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

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    Andrés E Pereira P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de glúcidos, proteínas y lípidos. Se determinó el contenido de Calcio, Potasio, cloruros, Sodio y Magnesio. Se midieron los parámetros de conductividad eléctrica, potencial óxido-reducción, saturación de oxígeno, oxígeno total disuelto, pH, sólidos disueltos totales. Se realizó un ensayo de actividad antibacteriana por la técnica de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: Se encontraron glúcidos en concentraciones de 582 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 62.1 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas, y proteínas en concentraciones de 836 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 1413 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana frente a las tres cepas ensayadas. Streptococcus agalactiae alcanzó un MIC90 a una concentración de 3,6 mg/mL con la fracción de mucinas; Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tuvo un MIC50 de 3,3 mg/mL y Escherichia coli un MIC 70 de 3.8 mg/mL. Conclusiones: Se reportan por primera vez las características físicas y los oligoelementos presente en la secreción de Achatina fulica. La actividad antibacteriana obtenida frente a cepas Gram positivas y Gram negativas plantea la necesidad de realizar estudios para purificar las moléculas con dicha actividad, conocer los mecanismos de acción y establecer la inocuidad, entre otros.

  6. Avaliação antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e possível interação farmacológica in vitro

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    Sarah Carobini Werner de Souza Eller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade biológica de plantas medicinais tem sido o alvo de intensa investigação científica, constituindo uma importante fonte de novos produtos biologicamente ativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana interativa, in vitro, de seis extratos vegetais, sendo eles: cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, favela [Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus (Müll. Arg. Pax & Hoffm L.], fedegoso (Heliotropium indicum L. e quixaba [Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Humb. ex Roem. & Schult. TD Penn.], através do método de difusão em disco, frente às cepas padrão American Type Culture Collection (ATCC: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Os resultados revelaram que dentre os extratos testados 50% deles apresentaram atividade frente à cepa de S. aureus ATCC 25923. Os extratos ativos foram cajueiro, barbatimão e aroeira. Os demais extratos não apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas em estudo. Quando se avaliou a ação interativa entre os extratos ativos, observou-se interferência antagônica, constatada pela redução dos diâmetros dos halo de inibição de crescimento bacteriano nas associações com os extratos de cajueiro/barbatimão, cajueiro/aroeira e barbatimão/aroeira. De modo que, o uso concomitante extratos vegetais merece um olhar muito cuidadoso pela possibilidade de ocorrer interferências entre eles, reduzindo a potência da atividade antimicrobiana, em relação a sua potência quando utilizados isoladamente.Palavras-chave: Plantas medicinais. Atividade antimicrobiana. Extratos vegetais. Interação. ABSTRACTInteractive study of the antimicrobial activity of plant extractsThe biological activity of medicinal plants has been the subject of intensive scientific research and is an important source of new biologically active products. The aim of this

  7. Evaluación antimicrobiana de 4 productos derivados del ácido piroleñoso para su posible utilización como desinfectantes

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    Miriam Concepción Rojas

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la efectividad antimicrobiana de 4 productos derivados del ácido piroleñoso (LQ 501-10, LQ 501-20, LQ 502-10 y LQ 502-20, según la metodología CAME. Los 4 productos tienen buena efectividad antimicrobiana a la concentración del 6 %. El estudio práctico en áreas quirúrgicas mostró una gran reducción de unidades formadoras de colonias después de la desinfección. En el estudio toxicológico se aprecia que los 4 productos son aptos para el uso propuesto. Se recomienda su utilización como desinfectantes de superficie (paredes, pisos, mesetas, etcétera, además pueden emplearse como limpiador. Los 4 productos formulados se pusieron en práctica y se incluyeron en el Registro de Productos Sanitarios.It is evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of 4 products derived from the pyroligneous acid (LQ 501-10, LQ 501-20, LQ 502-10, and LQ 502-20, according to the CMEA methodology. The 4 products have a good antimicrobial efficiency at a concentration of 6 %. The practical study in surgical areas showed a great reduction of those units forming colonies after disinfection. According to the toxicological study, the 4 products are suited to their purposes. It is recommended their use as surface disinfectants (walls, floors, counters, etc.. They can also be used as cleaners. These four products were put into practice and included in the Register of Sanitary Products.

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos da raiz, caule e folhas de Croton pulegioides Baill. (Zabelê

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    L.G. Arrais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso popular de plantas medicinais continua sendo de grande interesse para a população, principalmente em países em desenvolvimento, nos quais o acesso à medicina alopática ainda é muito restrito. Assim, além de sua importância na medicina tradicional, o conhecimento das plantas pode fornecer para a indústria farmacêutica, direta ou indiretamente, princípios ativos de interesse terapêutico. No presente trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos secos de Croton pulegioides Baill. obtidos a partir da raiz, do caule e das folhas nas concentrações de 25, 50 e 100mg/mL utilizando o método de difusão em Agar (técnica de poços frente a cinco cepas Gram-positivas, três cepas de fungos e três cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Na execução do estudo foi utilizado o antibiótico Gentamicina (100µg/mL no teste com bactérias, e Cetoconazol (300µg/mL para as Candidas verificando-se, ao mesmo tempo, a ausência de atividade para o diluente DMSO 20% em água. Na observação dos resultados evidenciaram-se halos de inibição indicando atividade dos extratos metanólicos da raiz, caule e folhas, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente Bacillus subtilis AM 04; dos extratos metanólicos da raiz e do caule, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente Staphylococcus aureus AM 103 (ATCC 6538; e do extrato metanólico do caule, nas concentrações de 50 e 100mg/ml, frente S. epidermidis AM 235. Por outro lado, todos os extratos foram inativos nas concentrações avaliadas frente às bactérias Gram-negativas utilizadas no estudo (Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM 206, Escherichia coli AM 1050 e Klebsiella pneumoniae AM 410. Referente à atividade sobre fungos, os extratos metanólicos da raiz e do caule inibiram, nas três concentrações avaliadas, o crescimento de Candida tropicalis AM 1181 e C. albicans AM 1140, enquanto o extrato das folhas, inibiu o crescimento de C. tropicalis AM 1181 nas concentra

  9. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE AMOSTRAS DE Salmonella Enteritidis ISOLADAS DE DIFERENTES FONTES ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Salmonella Enteritidis STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

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    Iolanda A. Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Salmonella Enteritidis é descrita em amostras isoladas de galinhas saudáveis e doentes, casos esporádicos de gastrenterite humana relacionadas ao consumo de produtos contendo ovos, carne de frango, ovos bicados, farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura, fezes de suínos e alimentos. No período de 1995 a 1997 foi observado que 72,2% foram sensíveis, enquanto que 9,2% e 17,8% foram resistentes e intermediárias, respectivamente. Constatou-se resistência em 6,2% das isoladas do homem, 5,0% de carnes de frangos, 36,4% de alimentos, 4,2% de galinhas, 23,7% de ovos bicados, 5,7% de farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura e 13,3% de suínos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram elevada proporção de amostras com sensibilidade intermediária (18,1% do total e 100% de sensibilidade a seis princípios. Considerando as amostras resistentes, quinze (57,7% apresentaram resistência única a nove antimicrobianos. Quatro (15,4% (galinhas e ovos bicados apresentaram resistência dupla; resistência tripla foi detectada em uma amostra (3,8%, enquanto que seis (23,1% apresentaram seis perfis de multirresistência, frente a 4-9 drogas, identificados em amostras do homem, alimentos, galinhas e ovos bicados. Embora o índice de resistência aqui descrito possa ser considerado baixo, deve ser destacada a alta frequência de sensibilidade intermediária à tetraciclina, particularmente em amostras associadas a aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos, galinhas, gastrenterite humana, multirresistência a antibióticos.
    Enteritidisin the period from 1995 to 1997 is described in strains isolated from healthy and ill chickens, human sporadic gastrenteritis outbreaks related to egg products consumption, poultry meats, broiler chicken pipped embryos, meat meal/aviculture environment, swine feces and foods (cheese, mayonnaise, cake mass, cake cover and bacon. It was observed that 72.2% were sensitive, whereas 9.2% and 17.8% were

  10. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of each component in Grossman’s sealer Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de cada um dos componentes do cimento de Grossman

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    Ricardo Novak Savioli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Grossman’s sealer and its components was evaluated on 13 different strains using the double layer well-diffusion method. Results revealed that Grossman’s sealer presented antimicrobial activity against all the tested strains. Among the components of the cement, sodium tetraborate presented the greatest antimicrobial activity, both in type and diameter of the halo and ring of inhibition. Sealer powder, rosin, and eugenol presented similar activity, with no effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. Among these, only eugenol had an effect on E. coli. Zinc oxide was only active against S. sobrinus and E. coli. Barium sulfate and bismuth subcarbonate did not show any antimicrobial effect.Os autores estudaram a atividade antimicrobiana do cimento de Grossman e de seus componentes sobre 13 diferentes cepas pelo método de difusão de poço em camada dupla. Os resultados revelaram que o cimento de Grossman apresentou atividade antimicrobiana contra todas as cepas utilizadas. Dos componentes do cimento, o tetraborato de sódio foi o que apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana, tanto por tipo como por tamanho do halo e aro de inibição. O pó do cimento, o breu e o eugenol apresentaram atividades semelhantes, sendo que eles não tiveram ação sobre P. aeruginosa e C. albicans e, dos três componentes, somente o eugenol teve ação sobre E coli. O óxido de zinco somente teve ação sobre S. sobrinus e E. coli. O sulfato de bário e o subcarbonato de bismuto não tiveram nenhuma ação antimicrobiana.

  11. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de antissépticos e desinfetantes utilizados em um serviço público de saúde

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    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo determinar in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana de antissépticos e desinfetantes utilizados no serviço de atenção primária à saúde de uma cidade do norte do Paraná, utilizando microrganismos padronizados pelo Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Para tanto, foram realizadas análises da atividade antimicrobiana e da estabilidade química de três diferentes antissépticos e um desinfetante utilizados no serviço de atenção primária à saúde. A partir das análises realizadas no primeiro, sétimo, décimo quarto e vigésimo primeiro dias, após a abertura dos frascos, verificou-se que as amostras mantiveram sua atividade antimicrobiana in vitro em relação às cepas padronizadas, evidenciadas pela ausência de crescimento de unidades formadoras de colônias e estabilidade química dos princípios ativos dos antissépticos. O estudo permitiu verificar a eficácia das amostras frente a análises microbiológicas in vitro utilizando microrganismos padronizados.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil

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    T.R.O. Machado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

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    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  14. Cost of antimicrobial treatment in patients infected with multidrug-resistant organisms in the Intensive Care Unit Costo de la terapia antimicrobiana en pacientes infectados con microorganismos multirresistentes en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos

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    Fabiana Xavier Cartaxo Salgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the costs of antimicrobial drugs used in the treatment of patients infected with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO or those not infected with this type of organisms in an intensive care unit (ICU. It is a retrospective comparative case-control study, performed in a public hospital in the capital city of Brazil, comprising the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. Information on age, sex, length of hospitalization, clinical outcome, antimicrobial drugs, microorganisms and microbial sensitivity to antibiotics was collected. Spearman and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at p El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo comparar los costos del tratamiento con fármacos antimicrobianos para las infecciones debidas a organismos multirresistentes (OMDR versus aquellas debidas a gérmenes no multirresistentes, en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI de un hospital público de Brasilia, Distrito Federal. Fue un estudio retrospectivo, de casos y controles y abarcó un período de tres años (2007, 2008, 2009. Se recolectó información sobre edad, sexo, tiempo de internación, resultados clínicos, antimicrobianos usados, microorganismos aislados y su sensibilidad a los antibióticos. Se utilizaron en el análisis estadístico las pruebas de Spearman y de Mann-Whitney, con p < 0.05. La muestra consistió en 401 pacientes con media de edad de 51.36 años (± 19.68, siendo 226 varones (56.4%. En cuanto al tiempo de internación, un 32.9% de los pacientes permanecieron más de 20 días, con 195 altas y 206 óbitos. El tratamiento antimicrobiano costó US$ 1113 221.55 en los tres años, siendo éste mayor para los que presentaron OMDR que para los que no los presentaron (p = 0.01. Se comprobó la presencia de, por lo menos, un microorganismo multirresistente en el 54.6% de los pacientes. La infección intrahospitalaria con OMDR y el elevado costo del tratamiento de los pacientes infectados

  15. Cinética de fermentación y acción antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa contra Staphylococcus aureus y Streptococcus agalactiae

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    Liliana Serna Cock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las cinéticas de producción de biomasa, producción de ácido láctico, consumo de sustrato y actividad antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa, una bacteria acido láctica con actividad antimicrobiana frente a Streptococcus agalactiae y Staphylococcus aureus, microorganismos productores de mastitis bovina. Las fermentaciones se llevaron a cabo anaeróbicamente en discontinuo utilizando como sustratos, sustrato comercial (SC, leche suplementada con extracto levadura (LEL y leche suplementada con extracto de levadura y glucosa (LELG y se compararon los parámetros cinéticos. La mayor inhibición de los patógenos, la mayor producción de ácido láctico y el mayor rendimiento de biomasa se presentó en sustrato LELG. En éste último sustrato al cabo de la cuarta hora de fermentación, se presentó un diámetro de inhibición de 36,33 mm para Staphylococcus aureus y a la octava hora de fermentación 39 mm de diámetro para Streptococcus agalactiae; la producción máxima de ácido láctico fue 13,12 gL-1 (a las 48 h y la máxima concentración de biomasa fue 3,07 gL-1 (a las 48 h. Estos resultados fueron superiores a los obtenidos en SC donde, para el mismo tiempo de fermentación, se obtuvieron 24,38 mm para Staphylococcus aureus y 30,58 mm de diámetro de inhibición para Streptococcus agalactiae; la mayor producción de ácido láctico fue 11,6 gL-1 (a las 12 h y la mayor concentración de biomasa fue 1,18 gL-1 (a las 24 h. Los resultados sugieren que el LELG puede convertirse en una alternativa a bajo costo para la producción de Weissella confusa, microorganismo con gran potencial para el control y el tratamiento de mastitis bovina.

  16. Características de la resistencia antimicrobiana de una colección clínica de Strptococcus pyogenes Antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes clinical strains

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    Romeo S. Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pyogenes con el fin de estimar la prevalencia de los fenotipos de resistencia a los macrólidos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal, en 1999, en el que se evaluaron 100 cepas de S. pyogenes, aislados en el Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, en el lapso comprendido entre 1992 y 1998, procedentes de niños con faringoamigdalitis, conservadas en congelación en el laboratorio de bacteriología hasta su procesamiento. Se determinó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a algunos beta-lactámicos, macrólidos y clindamicina. La resistencia a eritromicina se probó por medio de la prueba de difusión de doble disco. Se calcularon medidas de tendencia central. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a los beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 16% fueron resistentes a los macrólidos, y todas correspondieron al fenotipo M. CONCLUSIONES: Es conveniente realizar periódicamente pruebas de escrutinio para conocer los posibles cambios en los patrones de sensibilidad estreptocócica.OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of recent isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and to evaluate the prevalence of macrolide-resistant phenotypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1999, we conducted a cross-sectional study at Mexico Children's Hospital "Federico Gomez", to analyze one hundred strains of S. pyogenes isolated from 1992 to 1998, in children with uncomplicated pharyngotonsillitis. Strains were frozen at the bacteriology lab until they were analyzed. Strains were tested for susceptibility against some beta-lactams, macrolides and clindamycin. Double-disk testing was carried out to evaluate erythromycin-resistant phenotypes. Data are presented using central tendency measures. RESULTS: All tested strains were not resistant to beta-lactams and clindamycin; 16% of the strains were resistant to macrolides and all of them belonged to phenotype M. CONCLUSIONS

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens Atividade antimicrobiana da Uncaria tomentosa sobre patógenos da cavidade bucal humana

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    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta medicinal usada por vários séculos pela população peruana como alternativa de tratamento para diversas doenças. Muitos microrganismos que usualmente não habitam a cavidade bucal humana podem se tornar agentes etiológicos de doenças sob certas condições. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações de Uncaria tomentosa sobre diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados de cavidades bucais humanas. Uncaria tomentosa micropulverizada foi testada in vitro para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM em isolados microbianos selecionados. Cepas de Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae e

  18. Purificación parcial y caracterización de una sustancia antimicrobiana producida por Alteromonas sp. de origen marino

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    Jorge León

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Un miembro del género Alteromonas sp. (cepa N22.C, aislado del neuston marino y productor de sustancias que inhiben el crecimiento de ictiopatógenos fue caracterizado fenotípicamente mediante pruebas morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas convencionales. Para determinar la naturaleza quí- mica de la sustancia inhibitoria, extractos crudos de sobrenadantes de cultivos fueron precipitados con concentraciones crecientes de Sulfato de Amonio hasta el 70% y filtrados a través de columnas de Sephadex G-25. Ensayos con Dodecil Sulfato de Sodio-electroforesis en Geles de Poliacrilamida (SDS– PAGE revelaron que la sustancia antimicrobiana es un compuesto proteináceo con una masa molecular de aproximadamente 34000 Da, que carece de residuos de azúcares asociados. Otros ensayos realizados con extractos crudos y fracciones semipurificadas de la cepa de Alteromonas sp. N22.C mostraron un amplio espectro de actividad antibiótica contra cepas de bacterias patógenas de peces, moluscos y crustáceos.

  19. CÓMO OPTIMIZAR LA FARMACODINAMIA ANTIMICROBIANA: UNA GUÍA PARA UN PROGRAMA DE OPTIMIZACIÓN DEL USO DE ANTIMICROBIANOS

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    Joseph L. Kuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Los conceptos de farmacodinámica deberían aplicarse para optimizar los regímenes de dosificación antibiótica, especialmente de cara a algunas infecciones bacterianas resistentes a múltiples drogas. A pesar de que la farmacodinamia de la mayoría de las clases de antibióticos utilizadas en el ámbito hospitalario está bien descrita, las pautas acerca de cómo seleccionar regímenes y su implementación en un programa de administración antimicrobiana en la propia institución, son más limitadas. La función del antibiótico en concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (MIC es primordial para entender qué regímenes podrían beneficiarse de la implementación como un protocolo o como uso en los pacientes individuales. Este artículo destaca la farmacodinámica de aminoglucósidos, betalactámicos, fluoroquinolonas, tigeciclina, vancomicina, polimixinas, con el objetivo de proporcionar una base estratégica para seleccionar un régimen antibiótico optimizado en vuestro ámbito hospitalario.

  20. Plantas e constituintes químicos empregados em Odontologia: revisão de estudos etnofarmacológicos e de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro em patógenos orais

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    D.R.P. Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Produtos derivados de plantas podem representar estratégia promissora na odontologia. Desse modo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi levantar na literatura os estudos sobre o uso popular de plantas em afecções orais, bem como os estudos de avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de extratos vegetais e compostos isolados sobre patógenos orais, no período de 1996 a 2011. Quarenta e sete famílias botânicas foram referidas, com maior número de citações para Anacardiaceae, sendo Anacardium occidentale L., a espécie mais citada. O levantamento sobre estudos de avaliação antimicrobiana relacionou extratos de sessenta e seis espécies vegetais pertencentes a trinta e oito famílias botânicas, destacando-se Anacardiaceae, com pesquisas realizadas de forma predominante com as folhas, investigadas pelo método de difusão em ágar. Cinquenta e oito substâncias isoladas de plantas foram avaliadas, demonstrando que Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae representa a espécie vegetal com atividade antimicrobiana in vitro mais significativa, apresentando halo de inibição de 32,97 mm contra Staphylococcus aureus, microrganismo encontrado em infecções orais; enquanto ácido tetra iso-alfa isolada de Humulus lupulus L. (Canabinaceae apresentou maior halo de inibição para Streptococcus mutans (26,0 mm. Os resultados apresentados devem estimular o desenvolvimento dos estudos de validação na garantia do uso seguro e eficaz de espécies vegetais em odontologia.

  1. Avaliação da ação antimicrobiana de diferentes medicações usadas em endodontia = Evaluation of the antimicrobial action of different medications used in endodontics

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    Dotto, Sidney Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    A efetividade da ação antimicrobiana de medicamentos intracanais foi testada in uitro frente a uma bactéria anaeróbia facultativa, o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). Com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento do hidróxido de cálcio associado a diferentes substâncias frente a este microrganismo utilizou-se as seguintes associações: o hidróxido de cálcio com propilenoglicol, o hidróxido de cálcio associado ao paramonoclorofenol canforado (PMCC) e propilenoglicol, a pasta Calen, a pasta Cale...

  2. Composição e atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia, citronela e palmarosa Composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove, citronella and palmarosa essential oils

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    R. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a ação antioxidante, ação antimicrobiana e a composição dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus e palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii. A ação antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método de DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila, e a ação antimicrobiana determinada pelo método da microdiluição definindo-se a concentração inibitória mínima para os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens. A composição química dos óleos foi determinada por CG-DIC e a identificação dos compostos voláteis por CG-EM, em ambos os casos, utilizando uma coluna capilar DB-5. O óleo de cravo-da-índia apresentou uma forte atividade antioxidante e ação antimicrobiana moderada a forte, sendo o eugenol o componente majoritário do óleo de cravo-da-índia (83,7%. Por outro lado, as amostras de citronela e palmarosa apresentaram fraca ação antioxidante, porém a ação antimicrobiana foi moderada a forte.Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as the chemical composition of essential oils of clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii were studied. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and the antimicrobial activity determined by the microdilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentration was defined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens. The chemical composition of oils was determined by GC-FID and volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, using a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. Clove essential oil showed very high antioxidant activity and moderate to high antimicrobial activity, and eugenol was its major compound (83.7%. On the other hand, citronella and palmarosa samples presented low

  3. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de Salmonella spp. aisladas del beneficio porcino en Colombia / Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from pork carcasses on Colombia

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    Paula M. Bermúdez D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando 30 patrones diferentes de multiresistencia; el más común fue Ampicilina, Amoxicilina, Cloranfenicol, Florfenicol y Tetraciclina en el 16,77% (n=26 de las cepas. Tetraciclina y Florfenicol fueron los antimicrobianos menos efectivos en el 94,84% (n=147 y 47,74% (n=74 de cepas resistentes, respectivamente. Discusión: se deben consolidar los sistemas de monitoreo, y de vigilancia y control de las resistencias antimicrobianas para prevenir, con un enfoque de cadena productiva, la diseminación de cepas multiresistentes en alimentos de origen animal, como parte integral del sistema de gestión de inocuidad de los alimentos en Colombia. - Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando

  4. Análise da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de Cordia verbenacea DC, Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip. ex Baker e Psidium Cattleianum frente a microrganismos endodônticos

    OpenAIRE

    Massunari, Loiane [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Na busca por fontes alternativas de antimicrobianos, diversos autores tem explorado o uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de várias doenças. A atividade antimicrobiana de várias espécies de plantas como, Cordia verbenacea DC, Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. Ex Baker e Psidium cattleianum, popularmente chamadas de erva-baleeira, guaco e de araçá, respectivamente, tem sido relatada contra diversos microrganismos orais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano dos...

  5. Comportamiento de la resistencia antimicrobiana de gérmenes aislados en heridas por quemaduras Behavior of antimicrobial resistance germs isolated from burn wounds

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    Frank Pérez Hera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Son objetivos de este trabajo determinar el comportamiento de la resistencia de diferentes microorganismos aislados frente a antimicrobianos probados en las heridas por quemadura, en pacientes ingresados en el servicio de quemados del Hospital General Provincial «Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola», durante los años 2001, 2003 y 2005. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 96 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizó cultivo con antibiograma según la técnica descrita para el método de Kirby Bauer, y en algunos pacientes se empleó el sistema DIRAMIC. Se procesaron los datos en el programa computarizado Microsoft Excel, y los resultados se representaron en tablas y gráficos, con números absolutos y porcentajes. RESULTADOS. Durante el 2001, la resistencia antimicrobiana alcanzada por el germen que con mayor frecuencia se aisló (Pseudomonas aeruginosa abarca a la kanamicina (65,5 % y la ceftriazona (55,1 %, en orden decreciente. Durante el 2003 el resultado fue muy similar y se aisló, también en orden de frecuencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Proteus mirabilis, este último con una resistencia sobre el 33,3 % a todos los antimicrobianos probados. En el 2005 se observó predominio de Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Escherichia coli, con una resistencia marcada a los aminoglucósidos y betalactámicos superior al 50 %. CONCLUSIONES. Se diagnosticaron 8 especies bacterianas con una elevada resistencia antimicrobiana. Los gérmenes aislados con mayor frecuencia fueron Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mostró una tendencia al aumento de la resistencia frente a antimicrobianos como el cloranfenicol, los aminoglucósidos y las cefalosporinas.INTRODUCTION: The aims of present paper is to determine the resistance behavior of different isolated microorganisms towards antimicrobials detected in burn wounds in patients admitted in

  6. Profilaxis antimicrobiana en cirugía mayor electiva otorrinolaringológica Antimicrobial prophylaxis related to otorhinolaryngology elective major surgery

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    Gladys Pérez López

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La profilaxis antimicrobiana disminuye las infecciones quirúrgicas, pero su empleo indiscriminado favorece el incremento de las tasas de infección, pues la resistencia bacteriana es mucho más probable en presencia de antibióticos. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar los resultados de la antibioticoprofilaxis en la cirugía mayor electiva otorrinolaringológica. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación retrospectiva-descriptiva del uso profiláctico de antibióticos en cirugía mayor electiva en el Servicio de Otorrinolaringología del Hospital «Comandante Manuel Fajardo», durante 6 años (2001-2006. El universo estuvo constituido por 661 pacientes y se estudiaron variables como sexo, edad y criterios de respuesta terapéutica (satisfactorio e insatisfactorio. Según la envergadura de la intervención, se administró antibioticoprofilaxis oral o parenteral y se realizó cultivo del sitio de la herida quirúrgica. RESULTADOS. Predominó el sexo masculino (54,1 % y el grupo etario de 31 a 62 años. Requirió profilaxis antibiótica el 41,90 % de los pacientes operados. Ocurrió un 7,9 % de infecciones de la herida quirúrgica. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados fueron Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter y Escherichia coli. En las cirugías oncológicas de cabeza y cuello, el promedio de infecciones fue elevado (42,3 %. La evolución tórpida se debió a la concurrencia de factores de riesgo de infección. No se reportaron eventos adversos ni complicaciones graves. CONCLUSIONES. En otorrinolaringología, la profilaxis antimicrobiana funciona contra una amplia gama de microorganismos, pero no ocurre así en las cirugías oncológicas.INTRODUCTION. Antimicrobial prophylaxis decreases the surgical infections, but its indiscriminate use to favors the increment of infection rates and the bacterial resistance is much more probable in presence of antibiotics. The aim of present research was to evaluate the

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella spp. isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil Resistência Antimicrobiana de Shigella spp. isoladas no Estado do Pará

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    Flávia Corrêa Bastos

    2011-10-01

    á, Brasil. A resistência antimicrobiana das amostras isoladas de coprocultura, foi determinada pelo método de difusão em disco e pelo sistema Vitek II. RESULTADOS: A maior resistência foi observada em relação à tetraciclina (93,8%, seguida de cloranfenicol (63,9%, e trimetoprimsulfametoxazol (63,1%. Multirresistência a pelo menos três antimicrobianos foi mais comum em S. flexneri comparada a S. sonnei (39,5% vs. 10%. Seis (4,9% amostras foram sensíveis a todos antimicrobianos testados. Todas as amostras apresentaram sensibilidade a cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ciprofloxacina, ácido nalidixico e nitrofurantoína. CONCLUSÕES: As altas taxas de multirresistência de Shigella spp. são um sério problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Sendo assim, torna-se extremamente importante um monitoramento contínuo da resistência antimicrobiana de Shigella spp. para uma terapia efetiva e medidas de controle contra shigelose.

  8. Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses Resistência antimicrobiana em Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango

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    Martha Oliveira Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from broiler carcasses between May 1995 and April 1996 in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using the disk diffusion method. Resistance to colistin, novobiocin, erythromycin and tetracycline was observed in 100% of the isolates. The strains showed intermediate resistance at different levels to kanamycin (1.25%, enrofloxacin (3.75%, neomycin (3.75%, fosfomycin (20%, sulphonamides (86.25% and nitrofurantoin (90%. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, polymyxin B, sulphametrim and sulphazotrim was not found. Since resistance to antibiotics especially those introduced in the last decades, was detected, it is recommended that their use must be based on the results of resistance tests or minimum inhibitory concentration tests.Oitenta amostras de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de carcaças de frango no período entre maio de 1995 a abril de 1996 no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil foram testados para susceptibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de antibiograma. O antibiograma das amostras apresentou 100% de resistência a colistina, novobiocina, eritromicina e tetraciclina. Tiveram resistência em diferentes níveis a canamicina (1,25%, enrofloxacina (3,75%, neomicina (3,75%, fosfomicina (20%, sulfonamida (86,25% e nitrofurantoína (90% e por outro lado não apresentaram resistência a ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina, gentamicina, polimixina B, sulfametrim e sulfazotrim. A constatação de resistência a antibióticos, inclusive àqueles introduzidos na última década, enfatiza a necessidade de uso responsável de antibióticos, e com base em antibiograma ou concentração inibitória mínima.

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoólicos de Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, frente a bactérias multirresistentes de origem hospitalar

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    Zenaldo Porfírio

    Full Text Available Os microrganismos patogênicos multirresistentes apresentam-se como grandes responsáveis por milhões de mortes em todo o mundo, principalmente Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, responsáveis por grande parte das infecções hospitalares. A preocupação com estas espécies faz com que novas pesquisas busquem alternativas para controlar estes microrganismos de uma forma mais eficiente e também mais econômica. Os extratos fitoterápicos são alternativas promissoras para este fim, visto que são uma imensa fonte de compostos de ação biológica. O objetivo do trabalho foi a elucidação da atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Lythraceae, frente a linhagens de bactérias multirresistentes (P. aeruginosa, S. aureus isoladas de pacientes com múltiplas infecções internados na Unidade de Emergência de Maceió. Os testes de atividade antibacteriana foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em meio sólido (Kirby-Bauer modificado. De acordo com os ensaios in vitro, foi constatado que 96,4% das linhagens de bactérias utilizadas na pesquisa apresentaram-se sensíveis ao extrato da folha da planta, demonstrando atividade antibacteriana. Halos de inibição de crescimento de até 26 mm foram encontrados. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o extrato de Lafoensia pacari apresenta possibilidades de se encontrar substâncias úteis no combate a bactérias multirresistentes.

  10. Actividad antimicrobiana de bacterias ácido lácticas aisladas de invertebrados marinos de la costa del Chubut (Patagonia – Argentina

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    Parada Romina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la actividad antagonista de cepas de bacterias ácido lácticas (BAL aisladas de invertebrados marinos de la costa del Chubut. Dentro de los 92 aislamientos, 22 exhibieron actividad, de las cuales 3 cepas se clasificaron como Lactobacillus y 19 como Enterococcus. En todos los casos, después de la neutralización con NaOH y tratamiento térmico, la actividad inhibitoria del sobrenadante libre de células de las cepas estudiadas permaneció activa. El tratamiento con lisozima y catalasa no afectó la actividad antimicrobiana; sin embargo la actividad enzimática de la tripsina abolió la acción inhibitoria de los sobrenadantes, confirmando la naturaleza proteica de los compuestos activos. Las actividades contra Listeria inocua ATCC 33090 logradas por cepas de Enterococcus variaron entre 640 y 163.840 unidades arbitrarias/mililitro (AU/ml, mientras que las cepas de Lactobacillus exhibieron actividades entre 20 y 40 AU/ml. Las cepas E. mundtii 278Pe, E. hirae 463Me y E. hirae 471Me exhibieron las actividades inhibitorias más altas contra un amplio espectro de bacterias patógenas y/o contaminantes de alimentos. A pesar de la amplia información disponible sobre estos microorganismos, existen pocos estudios de BAL aisladas a partir de invertebrados de origen marino. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio sugieren que esta fuente puede contribuir al hallazgo de nuevas bacteriocinas con potencial uso en la industria alimentaria.

  11. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

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    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  12. EVALUACIÓN IN VITRO DE LA CAPACIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DEL ACEITE ESENCIAL DE ENELDO–Anethum graveolens–COMO INHIBIDOR DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Staphylococcus aureus, COLIFORMES Y HONGOS PRESENTES EN LA CARNE DE TRUCHA

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    D. V. Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite esencial de eneldo tiene propiedades antimicrobianas y antifúngicas, por lo que puede ser utilizado para evitar el deterioro de los alimentos. En esta investigación se evaluó la capacidad inhibitoria del aceite esencial de eneldo sobre Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes y hongos presentes en la carne de trucha ( Oncorhynchus mykiss , utilizando 50 y 100 μL de aceite esencial. Se evaluaron diferentes condiciones de extracción del aceite esencial mediante el método de hidrodestilación y se logró un rendimiento máximo en base seca de 1,32% utilizando una relación 1:5 de agua y material vegetal durante 90 minutos. Al evaluar la capacidad antimicrobiana, el mayor efecto inhibitorio se obtuvo al aplicar 100 μL de aceite esencial de eneldo en cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus , coliformes fecales, coliformes totales y hongos, evidenciándose un mayor halo de inhibición para coliformes totales.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila Atividade antimicrobiana de condimentos do sul da India sobre Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila

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    M.N. Indu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of extracts of Allium sativum (garlic, Myristica fragrans (nutmeg, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Allium cepa (onion and Piper nigrum (pepper has been evaluated against 20 different serogroups of Escherichia coli, 8 serotypes of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Garlic extract showed excellent antibacterial activity against all the test organisms, except L. monocytogenes. Nutmeg showed good anti-listerial activity, although activity against E. coli and Salmonella were serotype dependent. Both garlic and nutmeg extracts were effective against A. hydrophila. Extracts of ginger showed inhibitory activity against two serogroups of E. coli: as O8 (enterotoxigenic E. coli and O88 only. Extracts of onion and pepper did not show any antibacterial activity against the test organisms.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de alho (Allium sativum, noz-moscada (Mysritica frangrans, gengibre (Zingiber officinale cebola (Allium cepa e pimenta do reino (Piper nigrum sobre 20 sorotipos de Escherichia coli, 8 sorotipos de Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes e Aeromonas hydrophila. O alho apresentou atividade antimicrobiana excelente sobre todos os microrganismos testados, excepto L. monocytogenes. A noz-moscada apresentou boa atividade antilisteria, emboara atividade sobre E. coli e Salmonella tenha sido sorotipo-dependente. Tanto alho como noz-moscada foram eficientes contra A. hydrophila. O extrato de gengibre apresentou atividade inibitória sobre dois sorotipos de E. coli: 08 (enterotoxigenico e 088. Os extratos de cebola e pimenta do reino não apresentaram nenhuma atividade contra os microrganismos testados.

  14. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  15. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

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    José Portilla C

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.

  16. Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de microrganismos obtidos de otite externa aguda Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of acute external otitis microorganisms

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a infecção do conduto auditivo externo, geralmente causada por flora polimicrobiana. OBJETIVO: Isolar, identificar e determinar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos organismos causadores da otite externa (OE. MÉTODO: 27 swabs foram obtidos de 27 orelhas de pacientes portadores de OE para cultura e 22 microrganismos foram isolados para avaliação de susceptibilidade. A susceptibilidade in vitro foi obtida através do método de ágar difusão em disco e os resultados, interpretados de acordo com critérios clínico-laboratoriais padrão. RESULTADOS: 10 culturas positivas para S. aureus, 8 culturas para P.aeruginosa, 5 para P.aeruginosa e S.aureus e 4 para fungos (Candida albicans e C. krusei. Gentamicina e as quinolonas foram ativas contra todas as cepas testadas, havendo resistência significativa contra amoxicilina/clavulanato. As espécies de Candida testadas foram sensíveis à Anfotericina B, nistatina, fluconazol e clotrimazol e resistentes à miconazol. CONCLUSÃO: A otite externa aguda é uma infecção polimicrobiana, e o conhecimento apropriado da etiologia e susceptibilidade dos microrganismos irá contribuir para o uso racional de antibióticos e o sucesso do tratamento.Acute external otitis is a polymicrobial infectious disease. AIM: The purpose of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing otitis externa (OE. METHODS: twenty-seven swabs were taken from the ears of 27 patients with OE for culture and 22 microorganisms were isolate to evaluate sensitivity. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed by agar diffusion disk and results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards. RESULTS: 10 Ear cultures were positive for S. aureus , 8 for P. aeruginosa, 5 for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and 4 for fungal organisms (Candida albicans e C. Krusei. Gentamicin and quinolones were active against all bacteria tested and significant

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    tratamento e os grupos controle (p=1. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação riboflavina 0,1% e luz ultravioleta 365 nm de comprimento de onda não demonstrou atividade antimicrobiana contra S. aureus oxacilina sensível.

  18. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Maytenus rigida Mart. (Celastraceae

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    V.L Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A realização de estudos farmacológicos é fundamental para comprovar a eficácia do uso de plantas medicinais pela população para o tratamento de doenças e descobrir novos fitoterápicos. Esse estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano do extrato etanólico e fase acetato de etila do bom nome (Maytenus rigida Mart. sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, 3 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus multirresistentes isoladas de pacientes com infecções nosocomiais, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 e Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut e 01-S isoladas de ambiente aquático, utilizando o método de difusão em agar. Os testes revelaram que o extrato e fase de M. rigida apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana in vitro frente a todas as cepas de S. aureus testadas, apresentando concentração inibitória mínima (MIC de 400 mg mL-1. Entretanto, estes produtos não apresentaram atividade frente às linhagens de bactérias Gram-negativas testadas, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Salmonella sp.Ppharmacological studies are essential to prove the effectiveness of using medicinal plants to treat diseases and discover new phytotherapics. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "bom-nome" (Maytenus rigida Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, three samples of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients with nosocomial infections, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Salmonella sp. (228-R-Tet, 118-R-Sut and 01-S isolated from water environment, using the agar diffusion test. Both extracts showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against all S. aureus strains, presenting 400 mg mL-1 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. However, these products did not show activity against strains of the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella sp.

  19. Colonización nasofaríngea y resistencia antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños de una guardería en Santa Fe de Bogotá.

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    lngrid J. Peñuela

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es el principal agente etiológico bacteriano de infección respiratoria aguda en niños. Esta bacteria coloniza la nasofaringe desde el momento del nacimiento, y el hombre se constituye, así, en el reseworio de la infección. La atención mundial se centra actualmente en la propagación de los aislamientos de S. pneumoniae resistentes a los antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de establecer, mediante un seguimiento de seis meses, el porcentaje de colonización por Spneumoniae en un grupo de 20 niños menores de 2 años que asistían a una guardería, así como la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos recuperados y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Se obtuvieron 98 muestras nasofaríngeas con las que se estableció un porcentaje global de colonización por S. pneumoniae de 69%. Todos los niños fueron colonizados, por lo menos una vez durante el tiempo de estudio. Los serotipos más frecuentes fueron: 23F (41%, 19F (26%, 6A (10% y 10A (6% y la susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina (SDP se estableció en 53%. La resistencia global al trimetoprimsulfametoxazol (TMS fue de 68%, al cloranfenicol de 43% y a la eritromicina de 3%. Los porcentajes de resistencia presentaron variaciones durante los meses de estudio. El 42% de los aislamientos fue multirresistente y el patrón predominante fue la asociación penicilina, TMS y cloranfenicol. Los serotipos con SDP fueron 23F (72%, 19F (1 1%, 23A (8%, 6A (6% y 15 (3%. En la guardería en estudio, los datos obtenidos señalan el alto porcentaje de circulación de aislamientos con resistencia antimicrobiana, lo que constituye un factor de riesgo para su diseminación en la comunidad; también destacan la importancia de implementar un sistema de vigilancia con portadores, lo que permite monitorizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de este patógeno.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

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    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  1. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  2. Antimicrobial effectiveness of different trademarks mouthwashes with and without alcohol against different organisms: in vitro study = Efetividade antimicrobiana de diferentes marcas comerciais de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool sobre diversos microrganismos: estudo in vitro

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    Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo in vitro foi de avaliar a ação antimicrobiana de enxaguatórios bucais com e sem álcool. Metodologia: Usaram-se no estudo o Periogard®, o CEPACOL®, Plax Classic® e o ORAL-B®, anti-séptico sem álcool. Para a realização desse estudo foram utilizadas 40 placas de Petri com meio de cultura de Ágar Sangue para os seguintes microrganismos: Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Para a mensuração dos halos de inibição, um único examinador treinado utilizou uma lupa estereoscópica e um paquímetro digital. Após a coleta dos dados, as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se do teste estatístico ANOVA (análise de variância com teste corretivo de Bonferroni, para nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O Periogard® com álcool e o sem álcool apresentaram os melhores resultados. O Plax® sem álcool obteve os piores resultados. O Plax® com álcool foi melhor substância em relação ao S. aureus. Os demais resultados mantiveram-se com melhor efetividade em relação à substância controle. Conclusão: Os enxaguatórios sem álcool não têm a mesma eficácia antimicrobiana comparada aos enxaguatórios com álcool em relação aos microrganismos testados neste estudo

  3. Xanthium strumarium L. antimicrobial activity and carboxyatractyloside analysis through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry Atividade antimicrobiana e análise de carboxiatractilosideo por espectrometria de massas com ionização por electrospray de Xanthium strumarium L

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    R. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaf extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens, as well as to investigate the presence of the toxic compound carboxyatractyloside in different plant parts. S. aureus and C. perfringens were more sensitive to non-polar than to polar fractions, and there was no difference between extracts for the remaining bacteria. All extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against the evaluated microorganisms. Carboxyatractyloside was found in cotyledons and seeds but not in adult leaves and burrs. Thus, only Xanthium strumarium leaves in adult stage can be used for medicinal purposes.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de folhas de Xanthium strumarium L. sobre os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens, bem como verificar a presença do composto tóxico carboxiatractilosideo em diferentes partes da planta. As bactérias S. aureus e C. perfringens foram mais sensíveis às frações não polares do que as polares, sendo que para as outras bactérias não foi verificada diferença entre os extratos. Todos os extratos apresentaram uma forte ação antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos avaliados. O carboxiatractilosideo foi encontrado nos cotilédones e nas sementes da planta, entretanto, não foi encontrado nas folhas em estádio adulto e na carapaça espinhosa que envolve a semente. Portanto, somente as folhas de Xanthium strumarium na fase adulta podem ser utilizadas para o uso medicinal.

  4. ACTIVIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA Y COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA DE LOS ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Malvaviscus arboreus Cav, Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth Y Psidium guajava L.

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    Daniel Vázquez Cahuich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aceites esenciales de las hojas de Malvaviscus arboreus Cav., Pimenta dioica (L. Merr., Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Kunth y Psidium guajava L., obtenidos por hidrodeltilación, fueron evaluados como antimicrobianos potenciales contra Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 4028 y Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778. Para la evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana se emplearon los métodos de difusión en disco, bioautografía y microdilución, subsecuentemente cada extracto fue analizado por cromatografía de gases/masas (CG-MS para la obtención del perfil químico. Los aceites esenciales de las cuatro especies presentaron actividad antimicrobiana por el método de difusión en agar contra las tres cepas de microorganismos. En cuanto a la bioautografía, se detectó que la fracción 4 en el aceite esencial de P. dioica, con una referencia frontal (Rf de 0.42 cm, inhibió el crecimiento de B. cereus, S. typhimurium y S. aureus. En la microdilución se determinó que B. cereus fue el microorganismo más susceptible a la presencia de los aceites esenciales de M. arboreus, P. dioica, B. crassifolia y P. guajava. El eugenol fue el principal componente de P. dioica y P. guajava con porcentajes de abundancia de 94.86% y 33.84% respectivamente, determinado por CG-MS.

  5. Manual de terapéutica antimicrobiana en estomatología: Temas de actualización

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    Moisés A Santos Peña

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos una investigación basada en la revisión bibliográfica y actualización del uso de los antimicrobianos en las afecciones estomatológicas más frecuentes en nuestro medio, y que demandan de la utilización de estos fármacos. Agrupamos las enfermedades según el sitio de afectación en el sistema cráneo-cérvico-facial. Se presenta el concepto de la noxa, algunas referencias de su etiopatogenia, tratamiento antimicrobiano de elección y fármacos alternativos, con dosis, vías de administración y duración del tratamiento. Se hace referencia a los efectos indeseables de los antimicrobianos en cada enfermedad tratada. Se adjuntan en los anexos la composición microbiológica de la flora bucal y la clasificación actualizada, según su estructura bioquímica, de los antimicrobianos disponibles universalmente. Se acota la bibliografía revisada en cada enfermedad planteada. Presentamos el informe final en formato de manual para hacer más factible su utilización como medio de consulta a todo el personal facultativo que lo demande.We carried out a research study based on the bibliography review and updating of the use of antibiotics in the most frequent dental diseases requiring the use of such drugs in our country. We grouped diseases by the affected site in the cranial-cervical-facial system. The concept of noxa and some references on its ethiopathogenesis, selection of microbial treatment, and alternative drugs, doses, ways of administration and duration of treatment are present. Reference is made to unwanted effects of antibiotics in each treated disease. The annexes comprise the microbiological composition of mouth flora and the present classification of available antibiotics worldwide by their biochemical structure. The reviewed bibliography for each analyzed disease is added. We present this final report in a manual format so as to facilitate the use of this document as a reference for medical personnel which requires so.

  6. Caracterização fenogenotípica da resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus spp. isolados de mastite bovina

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    Elaine C.L. Mendonça

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de antibióticos no controle das infecções intramamárias e na eliminação de prováveis fontes de infecção nas fazendas leiteiras se constitui em importante medida de controle. No entanto, o uso inadequado de antibióticos no tratamento da doença pode selecionar cepas resistentes e comprometer a eficiência do tratamento. Bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus spp. estão entre os principais agentes etiológicos da mastite bovina e são freqüentemente resistentes aos antimicrobianos, em especial aos beta-lactâmicos, principalmente por dois mecanismos distintos: a produção da enzima extracelular beta-lactamase, codificada pelo gene blaZ, e a produção de PBP2a ou PBP2´, uma proteína ligante de penicilina de baixa afinidade, codificada pelo gene mecA. A expressão do gene mecA é constitutiva ou induzida por antibióticos betalactâmicos, como a oxacilina e cefoxitina. O gene mecA está inserido no cromossomo através de um elemento genético móvel, denominado cassete estafilocócico cromossômico mec (SCCmec. O presente estudo avaliou o perfil fenogenotípico de resistência aos beta-lactâmicos em 250 isolados de Staphylococcus spp., utilizando os marcadores oxacilina e cefoxitina, de modo a produzir dados que possam contribuir para o conhecimento da resistência antimicrobiana em algumas propriedades leiteiras das regiões Sul-Fluminense e Metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro com o objetivo de subsidiar a implementação de medidas de controle dessa enfermidade. A avaliação da resistência foi feita a partir de 8 diferentes testes fenotípicos, sendo obtidos 54 perfis. Os testes de difusão em disco simples e ágar screen com oxacilina foram utilizados como "padrão ouro" para os cálculos dos valores de sensibilidade, especificidade e predição por serem preconizados pelo CLSI veterinário. O teste de difusão em disco simples com cefoxitina foi o de melhor desempenho na predição da resistência a

  7. Evaluación preliminar de toxicidad, genotoxicidad y actividad antimicrobiana de Sida rhombifolia L. Preliminary evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L. toxicity, genotoxicity and antimicrobial activity

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    Brugés Keile

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La actual predisposición a consumir productos naturales y, en muchas regiones, la difícil disponibilidad y accesibilidad a los medicamentos han llevado a las poblaciones del mundo a buscar otras alternativas para aliviar sus dolencias. Una de las más difundidas ha sido el regreso a la medicina ancestral, lo cual ha provocado un aumento en el consumo de fitoterapéuticos. En Colombia, el uso de los fitomedicamentos está muy extendido y, dentro de ellos, en esta investigación se  seleccionó la planta Sida rhombifolia L. a la cual se le realizó la evaluación de la toxicidad de extractos y fracciones utilizando como organismos de prueba Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuata y Artemia salina. La actividad biológica fue evaluada mediante la prueba de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos y la genotoxicidad con el ensayo Cometa. Los ensayos de toxicidad aguda con los organismos de prueba muestran que los extractos acuosos son prácticamente no tóxicos (CL50 >1000 ppm, lo cual sugiere que su uso en forma de infusión es seguro. Los extractos etanólicos y las fracciones de acetato de etilo y cloroformo presentaron actividad antimicrobiana frente a Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa que puede ser atribuida a los metabolitos secundarios (terpenoides, flavonoides que están presentes en esta especie. Los extractos etanólicos presentaron una importante actividad genotóxica sobre los linfocitos en el ensayo Cometa, siendo el extracto etanólico de raíces el que presenta mayor genotoxicidad (CL50 35 ppm. Es importante señalar que el extracto acuoso de hojas presenta una baja genotoxicidad (CL50 900 ppm, lo cual es relevante si se toma en consideración que es la parte de la planta tradicionalmente utilizada por las comunidades indígenas ubicadas en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The current tendency to consume more natural products and difficult availability of and access to medicines in many regions has led the world’s population to seek

  8. Estudo in vitro da ação antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas contra Enterococcus faecalis In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar o potencial terapêutico das plantas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos da aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, da aroeira-do-sertão (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., da ameixa-do-mato (Ximenia americana L., da quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.] e do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 2,5%, contra o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado teste de difusão em ágar, pelo método do poço, utilizando-se como controle positivo a clorexidina a 0,12%. Os microrganismos foram semeados em caldo BHI e incubados a 37ºC por 24 horas. Posteriormente, as suspensões microbianas foram semeadas em placas Petri, com ágar Mueller Hinton, sendo confeccionados seis poços equidistantes. As placas foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente por 2 horas, para ocorrer a pré-difusão das substâncias, e incubadas a 37ºC por 48 horas. Foram feitas as análises e medições dos halos de inibição em triplicata e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente (teste de análise de variância [ANOVA]. RESULTADOS: A quixabeira apresentou os menores halos de inibição (teste t, p INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the therapeutic benefits of plants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, aroeira (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., Olacaceae (Ximenia americana L., quixaba (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 2.5% against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METHODS: The agar diffusion test was performed and 0.12% chlorhexidine was applied as positive control. The microorganisms were allowed to grow in a brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. Subsequently, the microbial suspensions were seeded on Petri dishes

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

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    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  10. Antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria extract as assessed by linear regression compared with commercial mouthrinses Eficácia antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria avaliada por regressão linear comparada com anti-sépticos bucais comerciais

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    Adriana Bugno

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe extract against some oral microorganisms was compared with the antimicrobial activity of five commercial mouthrinses in order to evaluate the potential of the plant extract to be incorporated into formulas for improving or creating antiseptic activity. The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of plant extracts and commercial products were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans using a linear regression method to evaluate the microbial reduction obtained in function of the exposure time, considering as effectiveness a 99.999% reduction in count of standardized microbial populations within 60 seconds. The results showed that the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe extract was similar to that of commercial products, and its incorporation into a mouthrinse could be an alternative for improving the antimicrobial efficacy of the oral product.A atividade antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe contra algumas bactérias da microbiota bucal foi comparada com a atividade antimicrobiana de cinco anti-sépticos comerciais, a fim de avaliar o potencial do extrato vegetal de ser incorporado em formulações com a finalidade de melhorar ou conferir atividade anti-séptica. A eficácia antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato vegetal e produtos comerciais foi avaliada frente a Streptococcus mutans,Enterococcus faecalis,Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans, utilizando o método de regressão linear para avaliar a redução microbiana obtida em função do tempo de exposição, considerando como eficácia a redução de 99,999% na contagem de população microbiana padronizada em 60 segundos. Os resultados demonstraram que a eficácia antimicrobiana do extrato de Curcuma zedoaria (Christm Roscoe foi similar a de produtos comerciais e que sua incorporação em anti-sépticos bucais pode ser uma

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

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    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  12. Atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ho-sho (Cinnamomum camphora Ness e Eberm Var. Linaloolifera fujita essential oil

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    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante do óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. O principal componente do óleo essencial obtido a partir de folhas da planta submetidas ao processo de hidrodestilação foi o linalol (80 a 95% m/m. O óleo essencial mostrou atividade antimicrobiana para todos os microrganismos testados, com exceção de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial sobre as bactérias testadas foi observada sobre Xanthomonas campestris (33,0 mm e a menor sobre Yersinia enterocolitica (10,5 mm. Para a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, observou-se que todos os microrganismos apresentaram-se susceptíveis ao óleo essencial de Ho-Sho. A variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-positivas foi de 1,00 mg.mL-1 (Streptococcus mutans a 1,75 mg.mL-1 (Staphylococcus epidermidis. Já a variação das CIM para as bactérias Gram-negativas foi de 0,625 mg.mL-1 (Citrobacter freundii a 2,50 mg.mL-1 (Shigella flexneri. Os resultados obtidos na determinação da atividade antioxidante do óleo essencial demonstram que o percentual antioxidante aumenta proporcionalmente à concentração de óleo essencial adicionado, atingindo o valor máximo de 97,49% de atividade antioxidante para a concentração de 50000 μg.mL-1.The main objective of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the Ho-Sho essential oil. The major component of the essential oil obtained from the leaves submitted to hydro-distillation was linalool (80-95 wt%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial activity for all tested microorganisms, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher antimicrobial activities over the tested bacterium were observed for Xanthomonas campestris (33.0 mm, and lower activities were obtained for Yersinia enterocolitica (10.5 mm. For the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC, it was observed that all microorganisms presented susceptibility to the Ho

  13. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais em bactérias patogênicas de origem alimentar Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against sessile and planktonic pathogens of food source

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    C. Valeriano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar e quantificar os constituintes e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum e Origanum majorana contra cepas de Escherichia coli enteropatogênica, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes e Enterobacter sakazaki. A obtenção dos óleos essenciais foi realizada a partir de folhas secas, empregando-se a técnica de hidrodestilação e utilizando-se a aparelho de Clevenger modificado. A atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. Observou-se que os óleos essenciais inibiram o crescimento bacteriano, mas a efetividade foi variada. Entre os óleos essenciais testados, M. piperita apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana para E. coli, (8.106 UA mL-1 quando comparada as demais bactérias, atividade moderada para Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Enterobacter sakazakii (1.706 e 3.200 UA mL-1 respectivamente e baixa atividade para Listeria monocytogenes (106,67 UA mL-1. Já óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana frente a E. coli (9.386 UA mL-1 e atividade moderada frente a Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Listeria monocytogenes (2.773 UA mL-1 para ambas. Ocimum basilicum apresentou maior atividade antibacteriana frente E. coli e Enterobacter sakazakii (6.826 e 8.106 UA mL-1 respectivamente, moderada atividade frente a Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (1.600 UA mL-1 e não apresentou atividade frente a Listeria monocytogenes.Origanum majorana também foi testado neste estudo e apresentou maior atividade antimicrobiana frente E. coli (5.973 UA mL-1, atividade moderada para Salmonella enterica Enteritidis e Enterobacter sakazakii (1.706 e 2.346 UA mL-1 , respectivamente e não apresentou atividade para Listeria monocytogenes.ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to identify and quantify the constituents, and to evaluate the

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of irreversible hydrocolloid impressions against 12 oral microorganisms Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de moldes de hidrocolóide irreversível contra 12 microrganismos orais

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    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial activity of irreversible hydrocolloids (one containing an antimicrobial agent prepared with water or with a 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution against 12 strains of the oral microbiota. Twenty specimens (0.5 x 1.0 cm for each group (1. Jeltrate mixed with water; 2. Jeltrate mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution; 3. Greengel mixed with water; 4. Greengel mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution were prepared under sterile conditions and placed in culture media inoculated with the indicator strains. After incubation in aerobiosis or microaerophilia, inhibition of the microbial growth was measured and the results were interpreted. The normal adherence curve revealed a non-normal distribution of the data, so the non-parametric Friedman Test was performed (p Este trabalho avaliou in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana de alginatos (um deles contendo agente antimicrobiano manipulados com água ou solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 0,2% contra 12 cepas da microbiota oral. Vinte espécimes (0,5 x 1,0 cm para cada grupo (1. Jeltrate manipulado com água, 2. Jeltrate manipulado com solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 0,2%; 3. Greengel manipulado com água; 4. Greengel manipulado com solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 0,2% foram confeccionados sob condições estéreis e semeados em meios de cultura inoculados com as cepas indicadoras. Após incubação em aerobiose ou microaerofilia, a inibição do crescimento microbiano foi medida e os resultados foram interpretados. A curva normal de aderência revelou uma distribuição não-normal dos dados, então o teste não paramétrico de Friedman (p < 0,05 foi realizado. A atividade antimicrobiana dos grupos foi classificada na seguinte ordem crescente: 1, 3, 4 e 2. Os resultados sugerem que a manipulação de alginatos com solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 0,2% é um método efetivo para reduzir a contamina

  15. Aislamientos invasivos de Haemophilus influenzae en menores de 5 años: distribución de los serotipos y de la sensibilidad antimicrobiana, SIREVA II, Colombia 2002-2013

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    Mabel Karina Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar del 2002 al 2013 los datos de la vigilancia de los serotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasivos de Haemophilus influenzae ( H. influenzae en niños menores de 60 meses. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron los datos demográficos, fuente y enfermedad asociada de los aislamientos invasivos de H. influenzae recibidos entre 2002 y 2013. Todos los aislamientos habían sido confirmados bacteriológicamente, tenían el dato del serotipo, el cual fue determinado por el método de aglutinación en lámina y PCR y los patrones de sensibilidad antimicrobiana por concentración inhibitoria mínima a ampicilina, SXT, cloranfenicol, cefuroxima y ceftriaxona. El análisis se realizó por periodos de 3 años. Resultados: Por enfermedad invasiva el 50,5% eran de pacientes con meningitis, 23,5% de neumonías, 19,5% de sepsis y bacteriemia, 2,0% de otros y 4,5% sin dato. Por procedencia se recibieron de Bogotá y Antioquia 55 aislamientos de cada uno, de Risaralda 24, de Valle 15, de Santander 11 y 40 de 14 departamentos. El serotipo predominante fue el Hib (40,5%, seguido de HiNT (38,0%, Hia (17,5%, Hid (2,0%, Hif (1,5% y Hie (0,5%. Del total de los aislamientos, 12,0% eran resistentes a ampicilina; 16,5% a SXT; 1,0% a cloranfenicol y 0,5% a ceftriaxona. Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a cefuroxima y a rifampicina. Conclusiones: La vigilancia por el laboratorio es una vigilancia pasiva voluntaria pero, no obstante el número reducido de aislamientos, permite determinar que Hib continúa circulando en esta población y que hay otros serotipos de H. influenzae que causan enfermedad invasiva. Por tanto es necesario mantener y fortalecer la vigilancia de este patógeno.

  16. Evaluation of culture media for Paenibacillus larvae applied to studies of antimicrobial activity Evaluación de medios de cultivo para el crecimiento de Paenibacillus larvae aplicables en estudios de actividad antimicrobiana

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    L. B. Gende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare different liquid culture media for Paenibacillus larvae growth in order to find the best one to be used in studies on activity of antimicrobial substances, such as essential oils. P. larvae presented poor growth in usual broths such as Mueller-Hinton, commonly employed in antimicrobial activity assays. Growth in liquid media was evaluated using Paenibacillus larvae strains isolated from hives located in different geographical zones. The MYT medium (Mueller-Hinton broth, yeast extract and thiamine was selected out of the eight liquid media analyzed, as it proved to be the most adequate due to its higher absorbance at 620 nm. The following mean values were obtained from the four P. larvae strains: 0.227 ± 0.016 for the Cobo strain, 0.279 ± 0.015 for La Plata strain, 0.758 ± 0.020 for Mechongué strain and 0.244 ± 0.0079 for Sierra de los Padres strain, respectively.Este trabajo está orientado a comparar diferentes medios de cultivo líquidos para el crecimiento de Paenibacillus larvae. El objetivo fue encontrar el más apropiado para utilizar en estudios de actividad antimicrobiana de diferentes sustancias, tales como aceites esenciales. P. larvae presenta un crecimiento débil en medios de cultivo como el Mueller-Hinton, comúnmente usado en ensayos de actividad antimicrobiana. Se evaluó el crecimiento en caldos de cultivo de cepas aisladas de colmenas ubicadas en diferentes zonas geográficas. De los ocho medios analizados, el MYT (Mueller-Hinton, extracto de levadura y tiamina mostró ser el más apropiado, en éste se observó el mayor valor de absorbancia a 620 nm. Los valores obtenidos en promedio para los cuatro aislamientos de P. larvae evaluados fueron 0,227 ± 0,016 (cepa de Cobo; 0,279 ± 0,015 (cepa de La Plata; 0,758 ± 0,020 (cepa de Mechongué y 0,244 ± 0,0079 (cepa de Sierra de los Padres.

  17. Physicochemical properties, labeling and antimicrobial activity of mouthwashes for children = Propriedades físico-químicas, apresentação de rotulagem e atividade antimicrobiana de colutórios infantis

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    Cunha, Diego Alves da

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar propriedades físico-químicas, modo de apresentação e ação antimicrobiana de colutórios infantis sobre microrganismos do biofilme dentário. Metodologia: Selecionaram-se oito marcas de colutórios, adotando-se água destilada e clorexidina como controle negativo e positivo, respectivamente. As embalagens foram analisadas por meio de observação direta. A avaliação do pH, ºBrix e viscosidade cinemática foi realizada mediante phmetro digital, refratômetro específico de campo e viscosímetro capilar, respectivamente. Utilizou-se cepas de Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus. mutans, Streptococcus salivarius e Lactobacillus acidophilus, sendo elas reativadas em BHI e semeadas em placas contendo ágar sangue. Pelo método da difusão em ágar, realizaram-se testes de susceptibilidade, com incubação a 37ºC/48 horas. Resultados: Os valores de pH, ºBrix e viscosidade variaram de 4,89 a 7,23; 2,8 a 20,0; 1,47 mm²/s a 2,73 mm²/s, respectivamente. A clorexidina demonstrou os maiores halos de inibição sobre S. salivarius e L. acidophilus, sendo este efeito observado para os colutórios frente ao S. oralis e S. mutans. Conclusão: O pH dos colutórios infantis foi neutro ou próximo a ele, havendo presença de sólidos solúveis em sua composição, enquanto a viscosidade mostrou pouca variação. Estes produtos apresentaram ação antimicrobiana sobre os microrganismos estudados, exceto um dos colutórios que não demonstrou efeito sobre S. mutans

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a Staphylococcus spp isolados de mastite caprina Antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from spices against Staphylococcus spp isolated from goat mastitis

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    Marcelo Dal Pozzo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais (OEs de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Lippia graveolens (lípia, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão, bem como de frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol, cinamaldeído e cineol frente a 33 isolados de Staphylococcus spp oriundos de rebanhos leiteiros caprinos. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas por meio da técnica de microdiluição em caldo. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OEs de orégano, lípia e tomilho, bem como para as frações majoritárias de carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído. A ordem decrescente de atividade foi orégano = tomilho > lípia. As frações majoritárias carvacrol, timol e cinamaldeído evidenciaram melhor atividade do que os óleos essenciais e, dentre elas, carvacrol e cinamaldeído foram mais ativas que o timol.The antimicrobial activity of some essencial oils was evaluated as follows: Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil, as well as the majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde and cineole against 33 Staphylococcus spp isolates from herds of dairy goats. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate by using broth microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity observed on the essencial oils of oregano, mexican oregano, thymus, well as to majoritary constituents of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde. The descending order of antimicrobial activity were oregano = thyme > mexican oregano. The majority constituents carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde presented themselves more active than the verified by the essencial oils

  19. Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of salvia L. species Caracterização química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de distintas espécies de salvia L.

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    Morgana Karen Pierozan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the essential oils of S. officinalis, S. sclarea, S. lavandulifolia and S. triloba were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD, and their antimicrobial activity was tested against 10 microorganisms using the disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC technique. The following major compounds were identified in the essential oils: α - and β-thujone, camphor and 1,8-cineole, except in S. sclarea, where linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol were the major constituents. The antimicrobial activity showed significant differences (p Neste trabalho os óleos essenciais de S. officinalis, S. sclarea, S. lavandulifolia e Salvia sp. foram analisados quimicamente por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi testada contra 10 microrganismos utilizando o método de difusão em discos e através da determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Cânfora, α - e ß-thujone e 1,8-cineol foram os compostos majoritários identificados na maioria dos óleos essenciais, exceto para S. sclarea, em que linalol, acetato de linalil e α-terpineol foram os compostos majoritários identificados. As atividades antimicrobianas apresentaram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 somente quando obtidas pelo método CIM. Microorganismos gram-positivos apresentaram grande sensibilidade para os óleos essenciais. A menor CIM foi observada para o Staphylococcus aureus quando exposto a 2,31 mg.mL-1 de óleo essencial de S. lavandulifolia, enquanto que a maior CIM foi observada para Shigella flexneri exposta a 9,25 mg.mL-1 do mesmo óleo essencial, provando que este óleo constitui-se em um eficiente agente bacteriostático contra microrganismos gram-positivos.

  20. Avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico frente aos antibióticos de uso sistêmico

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    Bárbara Trindade Di Santi

    Full Text Available ResumoIntroduçãoBactérias associadas ao insucesso do tratamento endodôntico são capazes de adquirir e expressar resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos comumente empregados para tratar infecções, o que torna necessário, em determinadas situações, a realização de testes laboratoriais para detectar a resistência ou a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana desses micro-organismos.Objetivoavaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das cepas de Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Actinomyces viscosus e Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico.Material e métodoCepas clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis (n=3, Enterococcus faecium (n=3, Actinomyces viscosus (n=3 e Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coletadas in vivo de canais radiculares com insucesso endodôntico, foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana por meio do método E-test em duplicata, utilizando os antibióticos: Amoxicilina (AC, Rifampicina (RI, Moxifloxacina (MX, Vancomicina (VA, Tetraciclina (TC, Ciprofloxacina (CI, Cloranfenicol (CL, Benzilpenicilina (PG, Amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico (XL, Doxiciclina (DC, Eritromicina (EM e Azitromicina (AZ.ResultadoTodas as cepas clínicas testadas foram suscetíveis aos antibióticos AC, XL, PG, DC, MX, TC e VA. Todos os isolados das espécies de S. aureus foram suscetíveis aos 12 antibióticos testados. As cepas de E. faecalis, E. faecium e A. viscosus mostraram padrão de suscetibilidade intermediário contra EM. Algumas cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium foram resistentes a AZ e RI.ConclusãoAs cepas clínicas isoladas dos canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico mostraram perfis diferentes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e nenhum isolado de E. faecalis e E. faeciumapresentou-se suscetível a AZ e EM.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

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    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. The genus Bacillus is a producer of these active compounds, and among them B. subtilis produces surfactin, the most potent biosurfactant known. These compounds can act as antibiotics, antivirals, antitumorals, immunomodulators and enzyme inhibitors. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactants obtained by cultivation of B. subtilis R14 was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacteria. During cultivation in defined medium, the surface tension of the medium was reduced from 54 mN/m in the beginning of the microbial growth to 30 mN/m after 20 hours. A crude surfactant concentration of 2.0 g/L was obtained after 40 hours of cultivation. A preliminary characterization suggested that two surfactants were produced. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds was carried out against 29 bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis (11 strains, Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 strains and Escherichia coli CI 18 (1 strain displayed a profile of well defined drug resistance. All strains were sensitive to the surfactants, in particular Enterococcus faecalis. The results demonstrated that lipopeptides have a broad spectrum of action, including antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles.Os lipopeptídeos representam uma classe de surfactantes microbiológicos com crescente interesse científico, terapêutico e biotecnológico. O gênero Bacillus é um dos maiores produtores destes compostos ativos. Dentre as espécies produtoras de biossurfactante, B. subtilis produz surfactina um dos mais conhecidos. Estes compostos atuam como antibióticos, antivirais, agente antitumorais, imunomoduladores e inibidores enzimáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de biossurfactantes, obtidos pelo cultivo de B. subtilis R

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana de derivados fenólicos do líquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd. Laundron Antimicrobian activity of phenols actives from the liquen Ramalina sorediosa (B. de Lesd. Laundron

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    Emerson P. da Silva Falcão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de extratos brutos de Ramalina sorediosa foi detectada pelo método de difusão em disco de papel. Dois metabólitos liquênicos de natureza fenólica foram identificados por meio de técnicas biocromatográficas. Uma dessas substâncias foi identificada por meio de cromatografia em camada delgada como sendo o ácido úsnico. A segunda substância, que se encontra presente em maior concentração em relação aos demais constituintes nos extratos, trata-se do ácido homossequicáico. As análises em cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE revelaram ainda a presença do ácido salazínico. Os dados obtidos tornam possível atribuir a atividade antibiótica observada nesta espécie a uma provável associação sinérgica destas substâncias.The antimicrobian activity of crude extracts from Ramalina sorediosa was detected by the diffusion disc-paper method. Two phenolic compounds from the lichen considered active were detected by using biochromathograhyc technique. Two of those compounds were identified through thin layer chromatographic technique (TLC as been usnic acid and the second one, wich is present in higher concentration when compared with the other substances, was the homosekikaik acid. The TLC and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC assays still detected the salazanic acid presence. The obtained data make it possible to attribute the antibiotic activity of this species to a synergic association of those two substances.

  3. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

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    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  4. Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from aromatic plants used in Brazil Composição e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas aromáticas usadas no Brasil

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    Adilson Sartoratto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum, O. basilicum were obtained by steam destillation using a Clevenger-type system. These oils were screened for antibacterial and anti-Candida albicans activity using bioautographic method. Subsequently, minimal inhibitory concentration from oils was determined by microdilution method. Most essential oil studied were effective against Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella cholerasuis. Aloysia triphylla and O. basilicum presented moderate inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus while only A. tryphila and M. piperita were able to control the yeast Candida albicans. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majoritary compounds.Óleos essenciais foram obtidos a partir das partes aéreas de Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, O. applii, Aloysia triphylla, Ocimum gratissimum e O. basilicum através de arraste de vapor em sistema tipo Clevenger. Os óleos foram avaliados quanto à atividade antimicrobiana contra bactérias e contra a levedura Candida albicans pelo método de bioautografia. A concentração mínima inibitória dos óleos com atividade positiva foi em seguida determinada pelo método da microdiluição. De acordo com os resultados, a maioria dos óleos essenciais estudados foram efetivos contra Enterococcus faecium e Salmonella cholerasuis. A.triphylla e O. basilicum apresentaram inibição moderada contra Staphylococcus aureus enquanto apenas A. tryphila e M. piperita foram capazes de inibir a levedura Candida albicans. Os óleos foram analisados quimicamente por técnicas de CG e CG-EM de modo a determinar os compostos majoritários presentes.

  5. BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND SENSIBILITY IN HEALTH AND SICK DOGS La identificación bacteriana y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de líquido de lavado tracheobronchial de sanos y enfermos perros IDENTIFICAÇÃO BACTERIANA E SENSIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DO FLUIDO DE LAVAGEM TRAQUEOBRÔNQUICA DE CÃES SADIOS E DOENTES

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    Paula Cristina Basso

    2009-09-01

    ón bacteriana de las muestras y de pruebas de sensibilidad a los antibióticos por el método de difusión en agar. Las bacterias aisladas fueron: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas y Proteus mirabilis. Entre las muestras analizadas, 63% mostraron resistencia a diversos antibióticos. Se concluyó que la resistencia a la acción de los antibióticos está presente tanto en animales sanos como los enfermos, y que la ceftriaxona asociada con amoxicilina clavulánico y son eficaces contra las bacterias en el tracto respiratorio de perros.

    Pesquisas sobre a utilização de antibióticos e a resistência aos antimicrobianos em animais de produção são realizadas em diversos países. No entanto, poucos estudos incluem os agentes bacterianos associados ao trato respiratório de animais de companhia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana no fluido do lavado traqueobrônquico de cães saudáveis e doentes. Utilizaram-se vinte animais, dez clinicamente saudáveis (Grupo 1 e dez com distúrbio respiratório (Grupo 2. A colheita do lavado traqueobrônquico foi realizada com tubo endotraqueal ou guiada com o auxílio de um endoscópio rígido. Efetuaram-se o cultivo e a identificação bacteriana das amostras e teste de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos pelo método de difusão em ágar. As bactérias isoladas foram: Haemophilus aphrophilus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosas e Proteus mirabilis. Dentre as amostras analisadas, 63% demonstraram resistência bacteriana a diferentes antimicrobianos. Conclui-se que resistência à ação dos antibióticos está presente tanto nos animais sadios quanto nos doentes e que a ceftriaxona e a amoxicilina associada com ácido clavulânico s

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana das pastilhas de Paraformaldeído reproduzindo as condições de uso nas instituições de saúde do Brasil Actividad antimicrobiana de las PastilLas de Paraformaldehído reproduciendo las condiciones de uso en las instituciones de salud del Brasil Paraformaldehyde Tablets microbiological activity reproducing the use conditions of the Brazilian health Institutions

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    Kazuko Uchikawa Graziano

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana das Pastilhas de Paraformaldeído, reproduzindo as condições de uso das Instituições de Saúde do Brasil (sem o aquecimento, sem o acréscimo da umidade relativa, a 5%, por um período longo de exposição de 12 horas, foi avaliada "in vitro" por meio do monitoramento microbiológico, segundo a metodologia da AOAC, adotada oficialmente pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil para o registro dessa categoria de produtos. Os resultados dos experimentos refutaram a ação esterilizante das Pastilhas de Paraformaldeído nestas condições. Diante destes resultados, realizou-se, então, os testes para avaliação desinfetante do produto utilizando-se o Método de Diluição de Uso, preconizada pela AOAC, adaptado para produtos gasosos, contra os microrganismos teste padronizados Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC nº. 6538, Samonella choleraesuis (ATCC nº. 10708 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC nº. 15442. Nestes experimentos, os resultados das culturas mostraram-se 100% negativos contra todas as bactérias testadas inferindo-se indícios de atividade desinfetante de alto nível.La actividad antimicrobiana de las Pastillas de Paraformaldehído, reproduciendo las condiciones de uso en las Instituciones de Salud del Brasil (sin el calentamiento y aumento de la humedad relativa, en un porcentaje del 0,5%, pese al largo período de exposición de 12 horas, fue evaluada "in vitro" por medio del monitoramiento microbiológico, según la metodología de la AOAC, adoptada oficialmente por el Ministerio de Salud del Brasil para el registro de esa categoría de produtos. Los resultados de los experimentos refutaron la acción esterilizante de las Pastillas de Paraformaldehído en las condiciones estudiadas. Frente a estos resultados se realizó, entonces, los test para evaluación desinfectante del produto utilizándose el Método de Dilución de Uso, preconizada por la AOAC, adaptado para productos gaseosos, contra los microorganismos test

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana de méis de cinco espécies de abelhas brasileiras sem ferrão Antimicrobial activity of honey from five species of Brazilian stingless bees

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    Manuela Dória Mercês

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antimicrobiana de méis produzidos por Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula e Plebeia sp. foi investigada. O teste de difusão em poço demonstrou que todos os méis tem ação antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, mas somente as amostras produzidas por M. quadrifasciata anthidioides e F. doederleinei inibiram o crescimento de Escherichia coli. No ensaio de determinação da concentração inibitória mínima, os méis de M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei e T. angustula foram mais ativos que os de Plebeia sp. frente a S. aureus e E. coli. Os micro-organismos Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Candida albicans foram resistentes a todos os méis em ambos ensaios. Os méis foram mais efetivos contra as bactérias do que frente a uma solução de açúcar, sugerindo que o mecanismo de inibição do crescimento bacteriano não está somente relacionado ao efeito osmótico. Os resultados obtidos podem explicar o uso medicinal desses méis em doenças bacterianas.The antimicrobial activity of honey produced by Melipona asilvai, Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides, Friseomelita doederleinei, Tetragonisca angustula and Plebeia sp. were investigated. The agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that all honeys had antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, but only the samples from M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and F. doederleinei inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. In the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration determination assay, M. asilvai, M. quadrifasciata anthidioides, F. doederleinei and T. angustula honeys were more active than that from Plebeia sp. for S. aureus and E. coli. The microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were resistant to the all native stingless bee honeys in both assays. Honeys were more effective against bacteria than a sugar solution, suggesting that the mechanism for bacterial growth inhibition

  8. Avaliação do potencial biológico da Tabebuia aurea(Silva Manso como fonte de moléculas bioativas para atividade antimicrobiana, antiedematogênica e antirradicalar

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    R.F.E.P. SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As espécies da família Bignoniaceae e do gênero Tabebuia são amplamente utilizadas na medicina tradicional e possuem um forte potencial terapêutico. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial biológico da Tabebuia aurea, determinando a atividade antimicrobiana; por meio do método da microdiluição em caldo, para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM; antiedematogênica, pelo ensaio de edema de orelha induzido por capsaicina; e antirradicalar, frente ao radical DPPH. Os extratos etanólicos de T. aurea não evidenciaram citotoxicidade, exceto o extrato etanólico da flor nas concentrações > 0,5 mg mL-1. O extrato etanólico da flor foi ativo com ação bactericida frente a S. epidermidis (CIM de 0,06 mg mL-1 enquanto o extrato etanólico da folha foi moderadamente ativo frente a S. epidermidis (CIM: 0,25 mg mL-1 e S. aureus (CIM: 0,50 mg mL-1 sugerindo ação bacteriostática para ambas as linhagens. Os dois extratos apresentaram ação antiedematogênica, com inibição do edema de 40,50% pelo extrato etanólico da flor e de 41,73% pelo extrato da folha. T. aurea não apresentou atividade antirradicalar. Os resultados comprovam o perfil antibacteriano e antiedematogênico com ausência de citotoxidade pela T. aurea. Sugere-se a continuação dos testes com frações e substâncias isoladas das flores e folhas da referida espécie vegetal, bem como de experimentos in vivo, como forma de agregar evidências visando à busca de novos fitoterápicos.

  9. Tamizaje fitoquímico y evaluación de la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos alcohólico y etéreo de la semilla de Mammea americana de Ecuador

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    Patricia Manzano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En  el  presente  trabajo  investigativo  se muestran  los  resultados del  tamizaje  fitoquímico  y la evaluación  del estudio de inhibición antimicrobiana  de los extractos  obtenidos de  la almendra  y policarpo  de la semilla de Mammea americana L (Mamey Cartagena del Ecuador. Los procesos de secado y molinado se realizaron por el método de Martínez (2000; el tarnizaje fitoquímico por el método de Miranda y Cuéllar (2000, mientras que la actividad inhibitoria se ensayó  mediante la prueba  de sensibilidad  por difusión  con discos (Winn,  2008. En el análisis  estadístico  para comprobar    la normalidad  de los  resultados  obtenidos    se utilizó    el  test  de Shapiro- Wilks  y Kruskal-Wallis  para determinar diferencias estadísticas entre los rangos de los tratamientos.  En el tamizaje fitoquímico   se   determinó   la  presencia   de   los   siguientes compuestos   químicos: aceites/grasas;   alcaloides;   flavonoides; quinonas;   saponinas;   lactonas;   azúcares/reductores   y taninos. El extracto alcohólico  mostró inhibición frente a Pseudomonas  spp, Salmonel1a spp y E. Coli; y, el extracto  etéreo inhibió  E.coli. Estos resultados  son los primeros   informados  para la especie ecuatoriana,    lo que  conlleva  a la  elaboración  de  una línea  base sólida  para  estudios posteriores.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae: evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en aislamientos invasores en 11 años de vigilancia en colombia (1994 -2004.

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    Clara Inés Agudelo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae es una las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en niños y adultos en el mundo. Objetivo. Realizar un análisis de los datos de la vigilancia por el laboratorio de los aislamientos invasores de S. pneumoniae recuperados entre 1994 y 2004. Materiales y métodos. Se empleó la información de los aislamientos invasores de S. pneumoniae recibidos en el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud durante la vigilancia de meningitis bacteriana aguda e infección respiratoria aguda entre 1994 y 2004. Los aislamientos contaban con datos epidemiológicos, serotipo, patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y algunos con tipificación molecular. Resultados. Se analizaron los datos de 2.022 aislamientos procedentes de 120 hospitales de diferentes regiones del país, recuperados principalmente de hemocultivos (50,7% y líquido cefalorraquídeo (42%. Los serotipos más importantes fueron el 14, 6B, 23F, 1, 5, 6A, 19F, 18C y 9V, los cuales corresponden al 83,6% en niños menores de 6 años, al 74,0% en el grupo de 6 a 14 años y al 61,4% en mayores de 14 años. El 29,8% de los aislamientos presentó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina (SDP, 44,3% a trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, 32,4% a tetraciclina, 8,2% a cloranfenicol, 3,8% a eritromicina; todos fueron sensibles a vancomicina y el 13% fue multirresistente. Se tipificaron 602 aislamientos con SDP, de los cuales 27 (4,5% se relacionaron con el clon 1-España23F, 38 (6,3% con el clon 2-España6B, 301 (50% con el 3- España9V y 75 (12,5% con el clon 26-Colombia23F, además, los 138 aislamientos con tipo capsular 5 se relacionaron con el clon 19-Colombia5. Conclusiones. Los resultados proporcionan información básica necesaria para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para la prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica en nuestro país.

  11. Bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and their decontamination with antimicrobial solutions Taxa de sobrevivência bacteriana em escovas dentais e sua descontaminação com soluções antimicrobianas

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    Sandra Sato

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes after brushing and the efficacy of their decontamination by spraying antimicrobial solutions. Thirty subjects were instructed to spray the solutions on toothbrush bristles after brushing. Each volunteer tested three sprays, one solution per week; the sprays were labeled spray 1 (cetylpyridinium chloride - CPC - and basic formulation, 2 (basic formulation only and 3 (control - sterile tap water. At the end of each week, the brushes were collected and sonicated in Letheen Broth®; the suspensions were ten-fold diluted and the dilutions were plated on various culture media. Anaerobic bacteria, evaluated by colony count of black pigment producing organisms on Ask medium, were recovered from 83.3% of the samples, Streptococci from 80% and aerobic Gram-negative bacilli from 46.7% of them in the control tests. There was a significant decrease in toothbrush contamination with antimicrobial sprays 1 and 2, the first showing the greatest decrease on bacterial counts.O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência bacteriana em escovas dentais após a escovação e a eficácia na sua descontaminação pelo borrifamento de soluções antimicrobianas. Trinta indivíduos foram instruídos a borrifar as soluções nas cerdas das escovas após a escovação. Cada voluntário testou três sprays, uma solução por semana; os sprays foram rotulados spray 1 (cloreto de cetilpiridínio - CCP - e formulação básica, 2 (formulação básica apenas e 3 (controle - água de torneira esterilizada. Ao final de cada semana, as escovas eram recolhidas e introduzidas no caldo Letheen®, submetidas a ultra-som, à diluição decimal seriada e as suspensões semeadas em vários meios de cultura. As bactérias anaeróbias, avaliadas pela contagem de colônias de microrganismos produtores de pigmento negro no meio Ask, foram recuperadas em 83,3% das amostras, estreptococos em 80

  12. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

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    Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in

  13. Antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas on cariogenic bacteria evaluated using the linear regression method Atividade antimicrobiana de quatro formulações diferentes de géis dentais em bactérias cariogênicas avaliada pelo método de regressão linear

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    Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four different dental gel formulas was evaluated on three microorganisms associated with cariogenesis: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces viscosus. The preliminary antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed using an agar diffusion method. In addition, the formulas were challenged using each microorganism with subsequent determinations of survivors at time intervals of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The decimal reduction time (D-value calculated from the obtained curves (logCFU/mL vs. time was employed for the antimicrobial activity comparison of the formulas. The selected method for survivor enumeration was validated according to official compendia. Results revealed intense bactericidal activity, even at 1:2 dilution, on S. mutans and L. casei. The data concerning A. viscosus showed the absence of microbial reduction in the challenge employing diluted formulas at the selected time interval. The obtained D-values were 0.21, 2.08, 1.93 and 5.79 minutes for formulas 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After comparing the obtained results, formula 1 can be considered to have the highest bactericidal activity.A atividade antimicrobiana de quatro diferentes fórmulas de gel dental foi avaliada empregando três microrganismos associados à cariogênese: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei e Actinomyces viscosus. A avaliação preliminar foi efetuada utilizando método por difusão em ágar. Além disso, as fórmulas foram desafiadas empregando cada microrganismo e as determinações relativas aos sobreviventes foram efetuadas após 1, 5, 10, 20 e 30 minutos do desafio. O tempo de redução decimal (valor-D foi calculado por meio das curvas obtidas (UFC/mL x tempo, objetivando a comparação da atividade antimicrobiana entre as fórmulas. O método selecionado para a enumeração dos sobreviventes foi validado de acordo com compêndio oficial. Os resultados revelaram intensa atividade antimicrobiana

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana, antiaderente e antifúngica in vitro de plantas medicinais brasileiras sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e cepas do gênero Candida In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida

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    Pollianna Muniz Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana, antifúngica e antiaderente da aroeira-do-sertão, malva e goiabeira sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e candidose oral. Os extratos mostraram-se eficazes, inibindo o crescimento das bactérias do biofilme dental e fungos da candidose oral, sugerindo a utilização dessas plantas como meio alternativo na terapêutica odontológica.The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-sertão, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidiasis, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy.

  15. Evaluation of a lipopeptide biosurfactant from Bacillus natto TK-1 as a potential source of anti-adhesive, antimicrobial and antitumor activities Avaliação de um lipopeptídio biosurfactante de Bacillus natto TK-1 com fonte potencial de atividade antiadesiva, antimicrobiana e antitumoral

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    Xiao-Hong Cao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus natto TK-1 has a strong surface activity. The biosurfactant was found to be an anti-adhesive agent against several bacterial strains, and also showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The biosurfactant induced a significant reduction in tumor cells viability in a dose- dependent manner.Um lipopeptídio biosurfactante produzido por Bacillus natto TK-1 apresenta intensa atividade de superfície. Verificou-se que o biosurfactante apresentou atividade antiadesiva contra várias cepas bacterianas, e também atividade antimicrobiana de amplo espectro. O biosurfactante causou uma redução significativa na viabilidade de células tumorais, de forma dose-dependente.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de erva-cidreira e manjericão frente a bactérias de carnes bovinas
    Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cidreira-herb and basil against bacteria from bovine meat

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    G. G. SANTOS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana, in vitro, dos óleos essenciais extraídos de Lippia alba (Mill N. E. Brown e Ocimum basilicum frente a microrganismos isolados de carnes bovinas. Os óleos foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e caracterizados quanto à composição por cromatografi a gasosa. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida mínima dos óleos (CBM foram determinadas pelo método de microplacas utilizando concentrações de óleos entre 0,39 e 25μg/mL. Foram utilizadas suspensões de diferentes cepas de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. na concentração de 0,5x104 UFC/mL. O óleo de Lippia alba N.E. Brown apresentou maior efi ciência como agente bacteriostático e bactericida frente às diferentes cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella sp. isoladas de carnes bovinas do que o óleo essencial de Ocimum basilicum (cultivar “Maria Bonita”, o qual foi mais efetivo frente às cepas de Escherichia coli. Além disto, os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana em concentrações muito menores do que as obtidas por outros pesquisadores.

  17. Tendencia del perfil de sensibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos de sangre en un hospital oncológico (1998-2003 Trend of antimicrobial drug-susceptibility of blood isolates at an oncological center (1998-2003

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    Patricia Cornejo-Juárez

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la frecuencia de la resistencia en microrganismos aislados en cultivos de sangre en pacientes de un hospital oncológico de tercer nivel. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De enero de 1998 a diciembre de 2003, en el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología se desarrolló un estudio retrospectivo en el cual se obtuvieron cepas de cultivos de sangre que fueron incluidas y procesadas por sistema Bactec y Microscan, para determinar identificación y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Se determinó la tendencia anual de la resistencia de cada organismo especificado a los diferentes antibióticos. Se obtuvo la diferencia porcentual (incremento o decremento comparando la frecuencia de resistencia al inicio y al final del estudio. RESULTADOS: Se detectaron 2 071 cultivos positivos. Se recuperaron Gram negativos en 59.7% de las muestras, Gram positivos en 35.7% y levaduras en 4.6%. Escherichia coli fue el principal germen identificado (18.6%, seguido de S. epidermidis (12.7% y Klebsiella spp (9%. Durante el periodo de estudio la sensibilidad se mantuvo estable y por arriba de 88% (excepto para Pseudomonas aeruginosa. La sensibilidad de ciprofloxacina para E. coli se encontró alrededor de 50%. Amikacina presentó mayor sensibilidad que gentamicina. Staphylococcus aureus presentó una sensibilidad a oxacilina de 96% y a vancomicina de 100%. S.epidermidis de 14% a oxacilina y de 98.6% a vancomicina. No se encontraron cepas de enterococo resistente a vancomicina. Todas las cepas de S. pneumoniae fueron sensibles a penicilina. CONCLUSIONES: Se considera que los patrones de resistencia encontrados en este hospital son el resultado del control en el uso de antimicrobianos, del programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales y de la utilización de terapia combinada en todos los pacientes con bacteremia.OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of antimicrobial resistance organisms isolated in blood cultures from patients detected in a tertiary level of care, teaching

  18. Detección y expresión de superantígenos y de resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos obtenidos de mujeres portadoras de Staphylococcus aureus que cuidan y alimentan niños.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaca-González, Yina Marcela; Flórez-Restrepo, Gladys Fernanda; Moncayo-Ortíz, José Ignacio; Santacruz-Ibarra, Jorge; Álvarez-Aldana, Adalucy

    2018-03-15

    Introducción. Staphylococcus aureus coloniza mucosas y piel, y causa graves infecciones en el hombre y los animales. Es importante establecer el estatus de portadoras de cepas enterotoxigénicas de este microorganismo en manipuladoras de alimentos, con el fin de prevenir intoxicaciones alimentarias.Objetivo. Establecer las correlaciones entre los genes de enterotoxinas clásicas, el gen tsst-1, la producción de toxinas en cultivo y la resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos de S. aureus provenientes de manipuladoras de alimentos que cuidan niños en sus comunidades.Materiales y métodos. Se cultivaron muestras de las fosas nasales y las yemas de los dedos de las manos, y se identificó S. aureus empleando las pruebas de rutina y métodos automatizados. La extracción de ADN se hizo mediante el método de bromuro de cetil-trimetil-amonio (Cetyl-Trimethyl-Ammonium Bromide, CTAB) modificado. Para la detección de superantígenos se emplearon pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) simple y múltiple, y para la de toxinas, estuches comerciales.Resultados. Se encontró que el 22,0 % de los aislamientos correspondía a portadoras de S. aureus: 17,0 % en los aislamientos de fosas nasales; 5,0 % en los de las manos y 6,7 % simultáneamente en los dos sitios. La prevalencia de superantígenos fue de 73,7 %. El genotipo más frecuente fue el seatsst-1, con 10,0 %. La resistencia a un solo antibiótico fue de 74,7 % y, a cuatro antibióticos, de 3,2 %; de los aislamientos, el 93,7 % correspondía a cepas productoras de betalactamasas. La detección de genes clásicos y de tsst-1 mediante PCR fue de 48,4 % y la de toxinas en el sobrenadante, de 42,1 %,con una correlación de 95,7 %. Las mayores correlaciones se establecieron entre las toxinas TSST-1 (22/22) y SEA (17/18). La correlación del gen tsst-1 con la proteína y la resistencia fue de 100 %. Todos los aislamientos con el genotipo sea-tsst-1 t fueron resistentes y productores de las toxinas

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

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    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-10-01

    en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68.4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.

  20. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia

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    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory tract of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%. Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolations (17%, with 12 (11

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

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    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    ampicilina a um aminoglicosídeo além de outros, em segunda escolha, representados por cloranfenicol, eritromicina, tetraciclina e rifampicina. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de amostras de origem humana isoladas nas últimas quatro décadas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 68 cepas provenientes de casos clínicos humanos ocorridos em diferentes regiões do país no período de 1970-2008. A susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados foi determinada através dos critérios estabelecidos por Soussy pelo método de Kirby-Bauer e a concentração mínima inibitória realizada através do E-Test. RESULTADOS: A amostragem constituiu-se de 68 cepas, isoladas principalmente de líquido cefalorraquidiano, e hemocultura no período, pertencentes ao Laboratório de Zoonoses Bacterianas/LABZOO/Fiocruz. O sorovar L4b (60,3% foi o mais prevalente, seguido do sorovar 1/2a (20,6%, 1/2b (13,2% e aqueles mais raros representados por 1/2c, 3b e 4ab (5,9%. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis à ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, teicoplanina e vancomicina. Apenas uma cepa (1,5% apresentou resistência à rifampicina, enquanto duas (3% foram resistentes à associação de sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de o estudo ter demonstrado uma baixa prevalência de amostras resistentes aos antimicrobianos indicados na terapêutica da listeriose humana, o sistema de monitoramento do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana é de extrema importância para a orientação do tratamento adequado, principalmente nas infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos.

  2. Estudo da Atividade Antimicrobiana das Folhas de Jatrophacurcas L. frente ao Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli/ Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Leave of Jatropha curcas L. against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

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    Amanda Venturini Arantes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: O presente estudo investigou a atividade antimicrobiana do extrato obtido das folhas de Jatropha curcas L., frente às bactérias Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de pacientes de um Hospital Escola do sul de Minas Gerais. Metodologia: Foi realizado o teste da Microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. Colocou-se 50µl de Ágar Mueller Hinton em todos os poços, seguidos de 50µl do extrato da planta em diferentes concentrações (25 a 200 mg/mL nas colunas apropriadas e em seguida, 10µl de cada cepa bacteriana na concentração de 0,5 de McFarland em solução salina estéril. Seguiu-se a incubação em estufa de 35ºC por 24h. Posteriormente, realizou-se a revelação pela adição de 20 µL de Cloreto de Trifenil Tetrezólico e análise dos resultados pela coloração. Em cada placa foi realizado um controle positivo e negativo. Resultados: Houve efeito inibitório do crescimento microbiano de S. aureus e E. coli perante extratos de Jatropha Curcas L. nas concentrações de 50mg a 200mg. Apenas na concentração de 25mg não houve efeito inibitório diante de E. coli e S. aureus. Conclusão: O extrato bruto de Jatropha curcas L. apresentou atividade inibitória do crescimento de colônias de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de pacientes de um hospital escola do sul de Minas Gerais, nas concentrações 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 e 200mg/ml. Objectives: This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of the extract obtained from the leaves of Jatropha curcas L., on the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from patients at a university hospital in southern Minas Gerais. Methodology: The microdilution test was made in plates of 96 wells. An amount of 50mL of Mueller Hinton agar was placed into each well, followed by 50mL of plant extract in different concentrations (25-200 mg / ml in the appropriate columns, and then 10ml of each bacterial strain at a concentration of 0.5 Mc

  3. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Rio de Janeiro Fatores de virulência e resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina no Rio de Janeiro

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    Shana M.O. Coelho

    2009-05-01

    920 pb em 71% dos isolados. O teste de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelou que 42% dos S. aureus foram sensíveis a todos os antibióticos testados. Foram observados sete diferentes padrões de resistência. Os resultados indicaram que 47% e 25% dos isolados foram resistentes à penicilina e oxacilina, respectivamente. Todos os isolados resistentes à oxacilina foram positivos para o gene mecA.

  4. Essential oil of Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity Óleo essencial de Lithraea molleoides (Vell.: composição química e atividade antimicrobiana

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    Mario Tsunezi Shimizu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithraea molleoides (Vell. (Anacardiaceae is a tree found in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. It is popularly used in the form of alcoholic extracts, decoctions and infusions for the treatment of cough, bronchitis, arthritis, diseases of the digestive system and as diuretic, tranquilizer, haemostatic and tonic agent. The objectives of this study were the extraction of the essential oil of the mature fruit, leaves and aerial parts of the plant and quantification of the yield thereof; the identification and quantification of the principal components of the essential oil and the determination of its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast. The essential oil yield of the mature fruits was 1.0% but essential oil was not detected in leaves and flowery branches. The gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of the mature fruits detected the presence of limonene (89.89%, alpha-pinene (3.48%, beta-pinene (2.63%, alpha-terpineol (1.27%, myrcene (0.64%, sabinene hydrate (0.54%, 4-terpineol (0.28%, camphene (0.22% and delta-3-carene (0.13%. The essential oil was active against just a few of the Gram-positive bacteria and yeast tested and did not present antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria.Lithraea molleoides(Vell. (Anacardiaceae é uma árvore encontrada no Brasil, Paraguai, Bolívia, Uruguai, Argentina e Chile. É popularmente usada na forma de extrato alcoólico, decocção e infusão para o tratamento de tosse, bronquite, artrite, doenças do sistema digestivo, como diurético, tranqüilizante, hemostático e tônico. O objetivo do presente estudo foi a extração do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros, folhas e outras partes aéreas da planta e o rendimento do mesmo; a identificação e quantificação dos principais componentes e a determinação da atividade antimicrobiana. O rendimento do óleo essencial dos frutos maduros foi de 1%, entretanto, não foi encontrado

  5. Biossurfactantes: propriedades anticorrosivas, antibiofilmes e antimicrobianas

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    Lívia Vieira de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of biofilms in the food industry, new products are being developed to enhance the efficiency of cleaning food-contact surfaces. Biosurfactants could be an alternative to synthetic products. The major advantages of biosurfactants over synthetic detergents are their low toxicity and highly biodegradable nature. Biosurfactants may also exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anticorrosive activity concomitantly. In this review, we emphasize the potential application of biosurfactants as surface coating agents to prevent corrosion and decrease planktonic and sessile microbial growth.

  6. Interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae essential oil Interferência do aquecimento sobre a atividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae

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    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Origanum vulgare L. (oregano, Lamiaceae, essential oil has a variety of biological properties and its antimicrobial activity has received a renewed interest for use in food conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of heating on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of O. vulgare essential oil. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil kept at room temperature and exposed to different heating temperatures (60, 80, 100 and 120 °C during 1 hour was evaluated by observing antimicrobial effectiveness at absolute concentration and determining MIC values by the solid medium diffusion procedure. The essential oil chemical composition analysis was performed by GC-MS. O. vulgare essential oil showed interesting antimicrobial activity on all assayed microbial strains (Candida albicans, C.krusei, C. tropicalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcencens, noted by large growth inhibition zones (30-42 mm. Heating treatment showed no significant interference (p O óleo essencial de Origanum vulgare L. Lamiaceae (orégano apresenta variadas propriedades biológicas, de modo que seu potencial antimicrobiano tem despertado interesse para uso na conservação de alimentos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a interferência de diferentes tratamentos térmicos (60, 80, 100 e 120 °C/1 hora sobre a efetividade antimicrobiana e composição química do óleo essencial de O. vulgare. A efetividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial exposto aos diferentes tratamentos térmicos foi avaliada através da observação de sua atividade antimicrobiana em concentração absoluta e através da determinação da sua CIM utilizando-se a técnica de difusão em meio sólido. O estudo da composição do óleo essencial foi realizado através de GC-MS. O óleo essencial apresentou intensa atividade antimicrobiana sobre todas as amostras microbianas ensaiadas

  7. Synergistic and antimicrobial properties of commercial turmeric (Curcuma longa essential oil against pathogenic bacteria Propriedades antimicrobianas e sinergísticas de óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma (Curcuma longa contra bactérias patogênicas

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    Sara Albino Antunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of turmeric (Curcuma longa, widely used in food industry as a colorant, among other functions. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of turmeric essential oil against pathogenic bacteria and to study the influence of the addition of ascorbic acid on the prevention of polyphenols oxidation. The commercial turmeric essential oil alone did not show bactericidal activity against the microorganisms studied, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium, but when combined with ascorbic acid, it showed significant antibacterial activity. The highest antimicrobial activity of turmeric essential oil against Salmonella typhimurium was 15.0 ± 1.41 mm at the concentration of 2.30 mg.mL-1 of essential oil and 2.0 mg.mL-1 of ascorbic acid. With regard to Listeria monocytogenes, the largest zone of inhibition (13.7 ± 0.58 mm was obtained at the same concentrations. The essential oil showed antioxidant activity of EC50 = 2094.172 µg.mL-1 for the DPPH radical scavenging method and 29% under the concentration of 1.667 mg.mL-1 for the β-carotene bleaching method.Vários estudos têm demonstrado as propriedades antimicrobianas e antioxidantes da cúrcuma (Curcuma longa, a qual é amplamente utilizada na indústria de alimentos, entre outras funções, para colorir. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as atividades antioxidantes e antimicrobianas do óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma contra bactérias patogênicas, além de estudar a influência do ácido ascórbico na prevenção da oxidação dos polifenóis. O óleo essencial comercial de cúrcuma não apresentou atividade bactericida contra os micro-organismos estudados, Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella typhimurium, mas, analisado com o ácido ascórbico, apresentou atividade antibacteriana considerável. A maior atividade antimicrobiana do óleo contra Salmonella typhimurium foi

  8. Colonização e resistência antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae isolado em nasofaringe de crianças com rinofaringite aguda Nasopharyngeal colonization and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children with acute rinofaringitis

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    Lêda Lúcia M. Ferreira

    2001-06-01

    ças com infecção respiratória alta podem ser usados na vigilância da resistência antimicrobiana numa determinada comunidade.OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence and risk factors for nasopharyngeal colonization by, and to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in children with acute rhinopharyngitis. METHODS: we collected nasopharyngeal swab specimens from 400 children aged 3 months to 5 years and with clinical status of acute rhinopharyngitis from June 16, 1997 to May 20, 1998 at the outpatient clinics of two hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected pernasally using a calcium alginate swab and plated immediately after collection onto trypticose soy agar with 5% sheep blood and garamicin 5 mcg/ml. Penicillin susceptibility was determined by oxacillin 1 mcg disk screening test and the minimal inhibitory concentration by the E-test. RESULTS: Pneumococci were recovered from 139 children, indicating a colonization prevalence of 35%. The risk factors analyzed indicated that the colonization was more prevalent in children attending day-care centers, children with siblings younger than 5 years, and children with recent use of antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of penicillin non-susceptible strains was of 16 % (20 strains. All strains were intermediately resistant (0.1mcg/ ml < MIC < 1.0 mcg/ ml. Out of the penicillin intermediately resistant strains, 7 (37% showed intermediate resistance to cotrimoxazol and 2 (11% full resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. No strains were resistant to ceftriaxone, amoxicillin, clarithromicin, or chloramphenicol. CONCLUSIONS: our findings indicate that the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with upper respiratory infections was of 34.8%. Children attending day-care centers and children with younger siblings showed higher levels of colonization The results of prevalence of bacterial resistance were similar to those

  9. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda oral y de la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceite de hígado de tiburones de Cuba Assessment of the oral acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oily mixture from shark's liver of Cuba

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    Caridad Margarita García Peña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda oral y la actividad antimicrobiana de una mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburón, de las especies Rhincodon typu (tiburón ballena y Galeocerdo cuvier (tiburón tigre, que habitan en zonas aledañas a las costas del litoral norte occidental de Cuba, para su posterior uso farmacéutico, debido a que presenta un alto contenido de vitaminas y de ácidos grasos, que le confieren actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. El estudio de la toxicidad aguda oral demostró que la mezcla de aceites de hígado de tiburones, no provocó alteraciones macroscópicas en los órganos extraídos, ni síntomas tóxicos severos, ni mortalidad de ninguno de los animales empleados en el estudio a la dosis de 20 mL/kg. Los resultados del estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana demostraron una ligera actividad bacteriostática frente a K. pneumoniae; además una actividad antifúngica frente a Microsporum canis; y resistencia frente a C. albicans y T. mentagrophytes a las concentraciones evaluadas.The total acute toxicity and the antimicrobial activity of an oil mixtures from shark liver of Rhicodon typu (whale-shark and Galeocerdo cuvier (tigger-shark was assessed in species leaving in the adjacent costs of Cuban northern coastal for its subsequent pharmaceutical use due to its high content of vitamins and fatty acids and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Study of oral acute toxicity demonstrated that oil mixture of shark liver hasn't macroscopic alterations in removed organs, severe toxic symptoms and on mortality of any animals used in study at 20 mL/kg dose. Study results of antimicrobial activity showed a slight bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae and an antifungal activity against Microsporum canis, and a resistance against C. albicans and T. mentagrophytes at assessed concentrations.

  10. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas da córnea e da conjuntiva à moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina e outras fluoroquinolonas

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    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2% to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4% to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1% and 103 (100% were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6% specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4% and 96 (93.2% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer e comparar a susceptibilidade in vitro de bactérias isoladas do olho à fluoroquinolonas, incluindo moxifloxacina e gatifloxacina. MÉTODOS: Um total de 154 bactérias isoladas de ceratites e conjuntivites foram submetidas a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana aos antibióticos usando o método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: Das 51 bactérias isoladas da córnea, 46 (90,2% foram sensíveis a ciprofloxacina, 45 (88,2% a ofloxacina e 41 (80,4% a lomefloxacina. Todas as bactérias isoladas da córnea foram sensíveis a moxifloxacina e a gatifloxacina. Das 103 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva 101 (98,1% e 103 (100% foram sensíveis a gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, respectivamente. Duas cepas de Streptococcus sp do grupo viridans mostraram-se resistentes à gatifloxacina. Um total de 82 (79,6% esp

  11. Estudo do perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249 Study of drugs susceptibility and molecular samples evaluation of Enterococcus spp isolated in hospitalized patients - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249

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    Celso Luis Cardoso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi investigado o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp, isoladas de urina, secreção purulenta, sangue e ferida cirúrgica de pacientes do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, estado do Paraná, no período entre 1998 e 2000. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto à susceptibilidade a drogas, tipificadas através de JB1-PCR e investigadas quanto à presença de gene Van A e Van B. Das 58 amostras, 98,3% foram classificadas como Enterococcus faecalis. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis à nitrofurantoína e vancomicina, 96,6% sensíveis à ampicilina, 32,8% foram resistentes à estreptomicina, 10,3% resistentes à gentamicina e ciprofloxacina e 6,9% resistentes a norfloxacina. Por meio do teste de CIM, para vancomicina, observou-se crescimento bacteriano até a concentração de 4μg/ml. Não foi detectada a presença de gene Van A e Van B. A amplificação por JB1-PCR proporcionou padrões de bandas com até 7 fragmentos sendo as amostras divididas em 6 grupos distintos. Não houve prevalência de algum padrão de bandeamento que denotasse a presença de um clone e não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre genótipo com resistência antimicrobiana.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalency of Enterococcus spp, isolated from different clinical materials. The strains were evaluated for drugs susceptibility, typing by JB1-PCR and screened to the presence of Van A and Van B gene. From the 58 strains, 98.3% were classified as Enterococcus faecalis. All strains were sensible to nitrofurantoin and vancomycin, 96.6% were sensible to ampicilin, 32.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 10.3% were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin and 6.9% were resistant to norfloxacin. Using CIM test to check vancomycin susceptibility was observed bacterial growth until 4μg/ml. The presence of Van A e Van B gene was not detected. The amplification by JB1-PCR provided band

  12. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  13. Infecção urinária em menores de 15 anos: etiologia e perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana em hospital geral de pediatria Urinary tract infection in children under 15 years: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in a children's hospital

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    Denise Swei Lo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência dos principais agentes etiológicos de infecção urinária comunitária em crianças menores de 15 anos e analisar o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana do principal agente, Escherichia coli. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo conduzido a partir de uroculturas com crescimento de agente único, com unidades formadoras de colônia maior ou igual a 10(5/mL. A população selecionada foi atendida no Pronto Atendimento de Pediatria do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo entre janeiro de 2006 e dezembro de 2007. Para analisar o perfil de sensibilidade de E. coli, foram excluídos casos com infecção urinária de repetição e/ou portadores de uropatias. RESULTADOS: Dos 176 casos de infecção urinária, 133 (76% ocorreram no sexo feminino e 43 (24% no masculino. A faixa etária de maior prevalência das infecções urinárias foi a de menores de dois anos, com 84 casos (48%. Escherichia coli foi o principal agente isolado (122 culturas - 69% do total. Foram encontrados altos índices de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de E. coli às cefalosporinas de segunda e terceira geração (cefuroxima e ceftriaxona, 100%, aos aminoglicosídeos (amicacina, 100%; gentamicina, 96,4%, ao ácido nalidíxico (97,3%, à nitrofurantoina (98,2% e às quinolonas (ciprofloxacina e norfloxacina, 98,2%; sensibilidade moderada à cefalosporina de primeira geração (cefalotina, 78,4%; baixa sensibilidade à ampicilina (38,7% e ao sufametoxazol-trimetoprim (55%. CONCLUSÕES: E. coli continua sendo a bactéria mais prevalente das infecções urinárias comunitárias. Conhecendo a baixa sensibilidade in vitro dessa bactéria à sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim e à ampicilina, recomenda-se que tais drogas não sejam eleitas para a terapêutica inicial.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of the most frequent etiological agents of community acquired urinary tract infection in children under the age of 15 years, as well as to analyse

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana "in vitro" de compostos a base de hidróxido de cálcio e tergentol em diferentes concentrações sobre bactérias orais Antimicrobial activity "in vitro" of calcium hydroxide and tergentol on different concentrations in oral bactéria

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    Eduardo José Guerra Seabra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo realizado no departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte foi idealizado com propósito de pesquisar a ação "in vitro" de soluções a base de Ca(OH2 e tergentol frente a bactérias colonizadoras da cavidade bucal e cariogênicas visando contribuir para o estudo sobre os agentes químicos para controle do biofilme dental. MÉTODOS: Testou-se através de discos de antibiograma e ação em bactérias formadoras de biofilme a ação antimicrobiana de algumas soluções de Ca(OH2 e tergentol usando-se como padrão-ouro o digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12%. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram analisados através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis e do pós-teste de comparação múltipla de Dunn com valores de p sempre menores que 0,05. A clorexidina obteve melhores resultados em nível de ação antimicrobiana em relação às soluções a base de Ca(OH2 e tergentol. A diferença estatísta da ação da clorexidina frente às demais soluções e aos tipos bacterianos testados não foi significativa para a maiorias dos cruzamentos. CONCLUSÕES: O digluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% foi o egente antimicrobiano mais efetivo neste estudo. As soluções a base de hidróxido de cálcio não apresentaram efetividade satisfatória em relação a clorexidina, principalmente em relação ao Streptococcus mutans. São necessários estudos mais aprofundados para se determinar o real potencial do HCT 20 como anti-séptico bucal.PURPOSES: This research desenvolved in Rio Grande do Norte Federal University, Department of Dentistry purpose evaluation "in vitro" Ca(OH2 and tergentol solutions action in oral cavity that first reside in and cariogenic microorganisms for dental biofilm chemical control increasing. METHODS: "In vitro" tests with antibiogram discs and biofilm formers bacteria antibiothic action from Ca(OH2 and tergentol solutions and the 0,12% clorhexydine digluconate as "gold-standard". RESULTS: The results were

  15. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  16. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana do extrato etanólico bruto e frações orgânicas obtidas a partir da casca do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis Cham, & Scthdl, (Rubiaceae

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    Ana Flávia Schvabe Duarte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano do extrato bruto e frações obtidas das cascas do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis, Os ensaios antioxidantes indicaram alto potencial antioxidante, No ensaio de redução de fosfomolibdênio, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade antioxidante de 41,67% em relação ao padrão de ácido ascórbico e superou em 35,21% a atividade do padrão rutina, No ensaio de redução do DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, a fração acetato de etila apresentou um IC50 de 10,91 µg mL-1, valor próximo ao do ácido ascórbico (IC50 = 4,78 µg mL-1 e da rutina (IC50 = 6,62 µg mL-1, Pelo ensaio de TBA (acido tiobabitúrico o extrato bruto (IA = 71,48% e a fração hexano (IA = 47,85% apresentaram índices superiores ao controle de BHT (butil hidroxi tolueno (IA = 42,66, Através do ensaio de microdiluição em placas, foi observado que o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, cumarinas, esteroides e/ou triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos, taninos e aminogrupos.

  17. Composição química do óleo essencial e avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, extrato etanólico bruto e frações das folhas de Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil Chemical composition of the essential oil and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. leaves

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    B.A. Chaibub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil (manacá é utilizada popularmente como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas (chá das folhas para dores musculares, de estômago, de cabeça, e disfunções hepáticas (chá das raízes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a composição química do óleo essencial e a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial, do extrato etanólico bruto e frações obtidos das folhas de S. odoratissima contra bactérias Gram positivas e negativas, e Candida albicans. O extrato bruto das folhas foi obtido por maceração seguido de concentração em rotaevaporador e as frações por partição em coluna filtrante. O pó das folhas foi submetido à hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e o óleo essencial obtido foi analisado por CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método da diluição em ágar para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram β-cariofileno (20,64%, γ-muuroleno (17,70%, biciclogermacreno (14,73%, e δ-cadineno (13,40%. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana de S. odoratissima, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus epidermidis (extrato etanólico bruto, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, C. albicans (fração hexano, CIM de 0,049 mg/mL, Bacillus cereus (diclorometano, CIM de 0,098 mg/mL, Micrococcus roseus (fração acetato de etila, CIM 0,049 mg/mL, e M. roseus, Micrococus luteus, B. cereus e C. albicans (fração metanol, CIM de 0,391 mg/mL.Spiranthera odoratissima ("manacá" has been popularly used as a blood cleanser, for liver and kidney diseases (tea from the leaves, as well as for muscle and stomach pains, headache and liver disorders (tea from the roots. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil and the antimicrobial activity of essential oil, crude ethanol extract and fractions of S. odoratissima leaves against Gram-positive and negative

  18. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders on the basis of their possession of reliable knowledge in technical as well as organizational domains. The informal leaders engaged in interpretation and brokering of information and knowledge, as well as in mediating strategic values and priorities on both formal and informal arenas. Informal...... leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study...... contributed to task structuring through sensemaking activities, while formal leaders focused on aspects such as clarifying output expectations, providing feedback, project structure, and diversity....

  19. Salmonella spp. in raw broiler parts: occurrence, antimicrobial resistance profile and phage typing of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates Salmonella spp. em cortes de frango: ocorrência, resistência antimicrobiana e fagotipificação dos isolados de Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Reginato Ribeiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in raw broiler parts and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-four (39.3% broiler parts samples were positive for Salmonella and twenty-five Salmonella strains were isolated, since two different serovars were detected in one single positive sample. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar. Among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 95.2% belonged to Phage Type 4 (PT4 (20/21 and 4.8% to PT7 (1/21. Twenty-two (88% strains of Salmonella were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, generating eight different resistance patterns. The S. Typhimurium (n: 1 and S. Hadar (n: 3 isolates presented multiple resistance. Three S. Enteritidis isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, two were resistant only to tetracycline. The high prevalence of Salmonella in the broiler parts strenghtens the importance of the use of good manufacturing practices (GMP, and HACCP. The results also emphasize the need for the responsible use of antimicrobials in animal production.Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a ocorrência de Salmonella em cortes de frango e para determinar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana das cepas isoladas. Vinte e quatro (39,3% cortes de frango foram positivas para Salmonella, tendo sido isoladas vinte e cinco cepas de Salmonella, uma vez que em uma amostra isolaram-se dois sorovares. Salmonella Enteritidis foi o sorovar prevalente. Entre as Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas, 95,2% pertencem ao Fagotipo 4 (PT4 (20/21 e 4,8% ao PT7 (1/21. Vinte e duas (88% cepas de Salmonella foram resistentes a pelo menos um agente antimicrobiano e oito diferentes padrões de resistência foram observados. S. Typhimurium (n:1 e S. Hadar (n: 3, apresentaram múltipla resistência. Três cepas de S. Enteritidis foram sensíveis a todos os antimicrobianos e duas resistentes somente a tetraciclina. A elevada ocorr

  20. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy assessment of multi-use solution to disinfect hydrophilic contact lens, in vitro Avaliação da ação antimicrobiana de soluções multiuso para desinfecção de lentes de contato hidrofílicas, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Fioravanti Lui

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting solutions in hydrophilic contact lenses (CL. METHODS: Two multi-use solutions denominated solution A (0.001% polyquaternium-1 and 0.0005% myristamidopropyl dimethylamine and solution B (0.0001% polyaminopropyl biguanide were used. The solutions were tested in hydrophilic contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and the decrease in microorganisms growth after the hydrophilic contact lenses were cleaned with the respective solutions was verified. The manufacture's instructions were followed. RESULTS: A decrease of 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and a decrease 100% of Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed. CONCLUSION: The solutions decreased the amount of microorganisms tested.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da ação antimicrobiana das soluções multiuso para desinfecção de lentes de contato hidrofílicas. MÉTODOS: Duas soluções multiuso denominadas solução A (poliquaternário-1 a 0,001% e miristamidopropil dimetilamina a 0,0005% e solução B (poliaminopropil biguanida a 0,0001% foram testadas em lentes de contato hidrofílicas contaminadas com Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923 e Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 para verificar a quantidade de redução do crescimento dos microrganismos após o enxágue com as soluções. Foram seguidas as instruções preconizadas pelos fabricantes. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 90% do crescimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus e Candida albicans. Não houve crescimento de Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSÃO: As soluções testadas neste trabalho mostraram redução do número de

  2. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from selected herbs cultivated in the South of Brazil against food spoilage and foodborne pathogens Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas selecionadas cultivadas no Sul do Brasil contra micro-organismos patogênicos e deteriorantes de alimentos

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    Sheila Mello da Silveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 10 selected plant essential oils obtained by steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was screened against 12 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. MIC and MBC were determined for the essential oils that presented the highest activity in the agar disc-diffusion test. The most active essential oils against the tested bacteria were, in descending order, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and laurel (Laurus nobilis. Except for S. Typhimurium, the tested bateria were inhibited at MIC values lower or equal to 0.62mg mL-1 by lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil. Yersinia enterocolitica presented the highest sensitivity to all essential oils tested (CMI≤0.62mg mL-1. There was a significant correlation (PA composição química de 10 óleos essenciais obtidos por destilação a vapor foi determinada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi detectada através do método de difusão em ágar frente a 12 espécies de bactérias de importância em alimentos. As CMI e CMB foram determinadas para os óleos essenciais que na difusão em ágar evidenciaram maior atividade. Os óleos essenciais que apresentaram maior atividade contra as bactérias testadas foram, em ordem decrescente, os de capim-limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, orégano (Origanum vulgare, folha de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e louro (Laurus nobilis. Com exceção de S. Typhimurium, o óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus apresentou valores de CMI e CMB iguais ou inferiores a 0,62mg mL-1 contra os micro-organismos testados. Yersinia enterocolitica foi o patógeno mais sensível frente a todos os óleos essenciais avaliados (CMI≤0,62mg mL-1. Foi detectada correlação significativa (P<0,05 entre os n

  3. Information Space, Information Field, Information Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes information space, information field and information environment; shows that information space can be natural and artificial; information field is substantive and processual object and articulates the space property; information environment is concerned with some object and acts as the surrounding in relation to it and is considered with regard to it. It enables to define information environment as a subset of information space. It defines its passive description. Information environment can also be defined as a subset of information field. It corresponds to its active description.

  4. Information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  5. Atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica das frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. frente a clones multirresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial and synergic activity of fractions from the leaves of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. against Staphylococcus aureus multiresistant clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica de 4 frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" e F2" frente às cepas Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes. Os métodos utilizados foram poços de difusão em ágar, concentração mínima inibitória (CMI - diluição em ágar, e bioautografia. Nos resultados bioautográficos observou-se três halos de inibição relacionados, no mínimo, à quatro constituintes ativos; sendo dois deles isolados das folhas (galato de metila e ácido gálico. A F2" (200∝g/mL apresentou halos de inibição de 16 e 19mm frente as cepas de S. aureus multirresistente e Klebsiella pneumoniae, e CMI 100∝g/mL, respectivamente. Quanto as análises das associações das frações F1" ou F2" (25 e 50∝g/mL com a tetraciclina e oxacilina, mostraram ações aditiva e sinérgica para a F2" (50∝g/mL, embora não suficiente para que a CMI atingisse valores inferiores a 2 e 4∝g/mL, necessário para serem classificadas como cepas sensíveis a oxacilina e tetraciclina, respectivamente. "Assim, conclui-se que a F2" das folhas de S. brasiliensis apresentou potencial antimicrobiano frente às cepas de S. aureus MRSA multirresistentes e que as associações das frações com os antibióticos testados não apresentaram benefícios não justificando o uso concomitante.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and synergic activity of 4 leaf fractions of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" and F2" against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The used methods were agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC - agar dilution, and bioautography. The bioautographic results showed three inhibition zones that corresponded to at least four active compounds, two of which (methyl gallate and gallic acid have already been isolated from leaves. The F2" (200∝g/mL fraction showed inhibition zones of 16 mm and 19 mm against S

  6. Evaluation of antimicrobial, antioxidant and phototoxic activities of extracts and isolated compounds from Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae Avalição da atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e fototóxica dos extratos e compostos isolados de Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl, Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre André De Souza

    2010-12-01

    das raízes de S. cayennesis foi avaliada através de testes in vivo e in vitro. In vitro a atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelo teste fotocolorimétrico do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilidrazil (DPPH•. In vivo, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, um modelo de célula eucariótica, foi utilizado tanto para avaliar a fototoxicidade quanto a capacidade antioxidante contra as espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROS menadiona e peróxido de hidrogênio. O extrato, partições e os dois compostos majoritários isolados, verbascosídeo e ácido betulínico foram capazes de aumentar a sobrevivência e diminuir a peroxidação lipídica de S. cerevisiae contra EROS. Verbascosídeo apresentou atividade antimicrobiana moderada contra Streptococcus pyogenes, S.epidermidis e Staphylococcus aureus. O extrato etanólico e as partições testadas não apresentaram fototoxicidade, indicando que S. cayennensis é uma planta segura para o tratamento de lesões de pele e como possível ingrediente em cosméticos.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife -PE, Brazil Perfil de resistência antimicrobiana de isolados de Staphylococcus aureus provenientes de infecções de pele e tecidos moles de pacientes ambulatoriais de um hospital universitário em Recife - PE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Beserra Caraciolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS: From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63% had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS: With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA.FUNDAMENTOS: O Staphylococcus aureus possui uma notável habilidade de adquirir resistência antimicrobiana, sendo a resistência à meticilina um problema de saúde pública crescente. O S. aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA vem se

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  10. Assessment of the efficiency of essential oils in the preservation of postharvest papaya in an antimicrobial packaging system Avaliação da eficiência de óleos essenciais na preservação pós-colheita de mamão mediante um sistema de embalagem antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Judith Perez Espitia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rot and damage caused by post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi affect fruit quality. Essential oils (EO are considered as an alternative to fungicides. Postharvest diseases of fruits may also be controlled by the bagging approach and the use of antimicrobial packaging. Based on the beneficial properties of EO and the concepts of bagging and antimicrobial packaging, this study aimed to develop sachets containing EO to be used as part of an antimicrobial packaging system. The activities of oregano, cinnamon and lemon grass EO were evaluated testing the sachets in vitro against the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Fusarium semitectum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus stolonifer. The effects of the sachets on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters of post-harvest papaya were also evaluated. Both pure and sachet-incorporated EO showed antifungal activity in vitro against all tested fungi. For papaya, sachets containing cinnamon, oregano and lemon grass showed a significant reduction in the growth of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and mould, with the cinnamon sachet causing the greatest reduction in microorganisms at the end of the storage time. Physicochemical parameters of papaya, such as weight loss, colour, firmness, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio and pH were not significantly altered by the presence of EO sachets, thus not affecting the natural ripening process of the papaya.Podridão e danos pós-colheita causados por fungos fitopatogênicos afetam a qualidade das frutas. Óleos essenciais (OE têm sido considerados como uma alternativa ao uso de fungicidas. Uma alternativa para o controle de doenças pós-colheita dos frutos é a técnica de ensacamento. Portanto, baseado nas propriedades benéficas dos OE e no conceito de ensacamento, este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sachês incorporados com OE para serem usados como parte de um sistema de embalagem antimicrobiana. A atividade dos OE de

  11. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites; Atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes hidroxiapatitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (LIMAV/CCN/UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Natureza. Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avancados

    2014-07-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  13. Compostos fenólicos e atividade antimicrobiana de Myracrodruon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Usuario

    2012-04-20

    Apr 20, 2012 ... dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). After inoculation, the ... spectrophotometer UV-VIS (Analyser 850M) at 760 nm, using gallic acid as standard. ... and against the following isolates of fungi: Candida albicans. ATCC14053 ...

  14. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  15. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  16. Information Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadi Helena Presser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the ways of appropriation in organizations. The notion of Information Myopia is characterized by the lack of knowledge about the available informational capabilities in organizations, revealing a narrow view of the information environment. This analysis has focused on the process for renewing the software licenses contracts of a large multinational group, in order to manage its organizational assets in information technology. The collected, explained and justified information allowed to elaborate an action proposal, which enabled the creation of new organizational knowledge. In its theoretical dimension, the value of information was materialized by its use, in a collective process of organizational learning.

  17. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouvig, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  18. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Use of Online Information Sources in Federal University Medical Libraries in North West Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. By ... on the quality of information services provided to clients. .... North West Zone need to identify the importance of.

  19. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  20. Copyright Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Copyright Information URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/copyright.html Copyright Information To use ... the Magazine and NIH MedlinePlus Salud The FAQs ( https://medlineplus.gov/faq/faq.html ) The same content ...

  1. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    The paper also discusses some challenges faced in the teaching ... groups, language and cultural barriers and time and lack of computers. The paper ... administrative staff, researchers and librarians work with information. ...... The role of Information and Communication Technologies in Harnessing Information for women in.

  2. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  3. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  4. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  5. Information Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Atele-Williams , Tosan; Marsh , Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Part 7: IFIPTM 2017 Graduate Symposium; International audience; Information has been an essential element in the development of collaborative and cooperative models, from decision making to the attainmentof varying goals, people are adept at making judgment on the trustworthiness of information, based on knowledge and understanding of a normative model of information. Contemporary narrative especially in high-impact contexts like politics, health, business, government and technology, is erodi...

  6. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to February 1997, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  7. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of April 2002. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  8. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Member States. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to the end of May 1999, grouped by field of activity. A complete list of information circulars in numerical order is given in an annex

  9. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/... for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. The present revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1994. A complete numerical list of information circulars is reproduced with their titles in the Annex

  10. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. This revision contains INFCIRCs published up to mid-August 1992. A complete numerical lift of Information Circulars with their titles is reproduced in an Annex

  11. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study investigated the effectiveness and impact of library instruction (GST 111 – the use of ... information literacy of the students for lifelong .... competency of freshman business students of a ... strategies, information sources, proper use of library ..... P. Remark. Library skill. Secondary school attended. 47.5846. 01.3600.

  12. Spacetime information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    In usual quantum theory, the information available about a quantum system is defined in terms of the density matrix describing it on a spacelike surface. This definition must be generalized for extensions of quantum theory which neither require, nor always permit, a notion of state on a spacelike surface. In particular, it must be generalized for the generalized quantum theories appropriate when spacetime geometry fluctuates quantum mechanically or when geometry is fixed but not foliable by spacelike surfaces. This paper introduces a four-dimensional notion of the information available about a quantum system's boundary conditions in the various sets of decohering, coarse-grained histories it may display. This spacetime notion of information coincides with the familiar one when quantum theory is formulable in terms of states on spacelike surfaces but generalizes this notion when it cannot be so formulated. The idea of spacetime information is applied in several contexts: When spacetime geometry is fixed the information available through alternatives restricted to a fixed spacetime region is defined. The information available through histories of alternatives of general operators is compared to that obtained from the more limited coarse grainings of sum-over-histories quantum mechanics that refer only to coordinates. The definition of information is considered in generalized quantum theories. We consider as specific examples time-neutral quantum mechanics with initial and final conditions, quantum theories with nonunitary evolution, and the generalized quantum frameworks appropriate for quantum spacetime. In such theories complete information about a quantum system is not necessarily available on any spacelike surface but must be searched for throughout spacetime. The information loss commonly associated with the ''evolution of pure states into mixed states'' in black hole evaporation is thus not in conflict with the principles of generalized quantum mechanics

  13. Exchanging information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The Agency has a statutory mandate to foster 'the exchange of scientific and technical information on the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. The prime responsibility for this work within the Agency lies with the Division of Scientific and Technical Information, a part of the Department of Technical Operations. The Division accomplishes its task by holding conferences and symposia (Scientific Conferences Section), through the Agency Library, by publishing scientific journals, and through the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). The Computer Section of the Division, which offers services to the Agency as a whole, provides resources for the automation of data storage and retrieval. (author)

  14. Information evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Capet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep

  15. How Informed Are Informal Educators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Niess, Margaret L.

    1998-01-01

    Explores current reforms in both mathematics and science education that emphasize the importance of learning in informal settings. Suggests that informal education must include planned and purposeful attempts to facilitate students' understanding of mathematics and science in community settings other than the local school. (Author/CCM)

  16. Informed consent: information or knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A fiduciary relationship should be nurtured between patient and physician. This requires effective communication throughout all aspects of care - especially pertaining to treatment decisions. In the context of illness as experienced by the patient a unique set of circumstances is presented. However, communication in an illness context is fraught with problems. The patient is vulnerable and the situation may be overwhelming. Voluminous amounts of information are available to patients from a host of health care providers, family members, support groups, advocacy centers, books, journals, and the internet. Often conflicting and confusion, frequently complex, this information may be of greater burden than benefit. Some information is of high validity and reliability while other information is of dubious reliability. The emotional freight of bad news may further inhibit understanding. An overload of information may pose an obstacle in decision-making. To facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge, the health care provider must act on some occasions as a filter, on other occasions as a conduit, and on still other occasions simply as a reservoir. The evolution of patient rights to receive or refuse treatment, the right to know or not to know calls for a change in processing of overwhelming information in our modem era. In this paper we will discuss the difference between information and knowledge. How can health care providers ensure they have given their patients all necessary and sufficient information to make an autonomous decision? How can they facilitate the transformation of information into knowledge? The effect of knowledge to consent allows a more focused, relevant and modern approach to choice in health care.

  17. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1996-10-01

    Oct 1, 1996 ... locate and access information from current awareness sources such as newspapers and radio. Legislators (35%) ... law-making and supervision for a viable democracy .... from a parliamentary library is a major concern for.

  18. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  19. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    information but also quickly access and retrieve large volume of ... created their management becomes a challenge for most institutions .... continuous upgrade of operating system, .... Tammro, A.M (2006) the Digital Library Users: Case.

  20. Supporting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  1. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  2. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    Institutions are consequently introducing information literacy programmes in their curricula in a bid to ..... Brazil, Chile and Mexico (Lau 2007:31). Lau (2007) reported that these initiatives rarely involve IL inclusion in curricula and are scattered ...

  3. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Communication technologies (ICTs) to Library Operations and Routines in Selected Nigerian Federal University ... should use Open-source library information management software and DSpace content management ..... Marketing of library.

  4. UBS INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS

    2002-01-01

    As a supplement to the information published on 27.05.2002, we inform you that the works foreseen in the building 504 will begin July 1st. The alterations become necessary force us to suspend the contomat service for a duration of one month. From July 1st the services of counter will be offered in the building 500. We ask you to excuse us for this interruption and thank you for your understanding. Your UBS

  5. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The document summarizes the information circulars published by the IAEA for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. In the main body of the document only those documents which are regarded as likely to be of current interest are listed. A complete numerical list of information circulars with their titles is reproduced in the Annex

  6. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  7. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya

    1999-01-01

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilin, Sergei Ya [B.I. Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1999-05-31

    A new research direction known as quantum information is a multidisciplinary subject which involves quantum mechanics, optics, information theory, programming, discrete mathematics, laser physics and spectroscopy, and depends heavily on contributions from such areas as quantum computing, quantum teleportation and quantum cryptography, decoherence studies, and single-molecule and impurity spectroscopy. Some new results achieved in this rapidly growing field are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Basili, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept which is well established in theory while in practice it is only slowly breaking ground in accordance with the understanding of its significance and the possibilities of its realisation. Based on fundamental works, the characteristics of information literacy, its cognitive foundations and significance for individuals as well as for society, are argumented in the article. The analyzed content of this concept is connected with the content of a librarian’s knowl...

  10. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  11. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  12. When Information Improves Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossklags, Jens; Johnson, Benjamin; Christin, Nicolas

    This paper presents a formal, quantitative evaluation of the impact of bounded-rational security decision-making subject to limited information and externalities. We investigate a mixed economy of an individual rational expert and several naïve near-sighted agents. We further model three canonical types of negative externalities (weakest-link, best shot and total effort), and study the impact of two information regimes on the threat level agents are facing.

  13. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  14. Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, James

    Newspaper librarians discussed the public use of their newspapers' libraries. Policies run the gamut from well-staffed public information services, within or outside the newspaper library, to no service at all to those outside the staff of the paper. Problems of dealing with tax and law enforcement agencies were covered, as well as cooperative…

  15. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. Informed ... more evidence-based policy on social ... Community involvement is key to the success of CBMS in reducing poverty. IDRC ... nationwide network of “telecentres” that ... and holidays for young people to use for ... National Conference on Youth led to the.

  16. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a

  17. Information Parallax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjen, F.A.; Weide, Th.P. van der; Sugumaran, V.

    2007-01-01

    To effectively use and exchange information among AI systems, a formal specification of the representation of their domain of discourse - called an ontology - is indispensable. In this chapter we introduce a special kind of knowledge representation based on a dual view on the universe of discourse

  18. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  19. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Four research questions were posed in order to assess the Mac Arthur ... The research adopted survey method using questionnaire as instrument for data ... serial resources in these university libraries were inadequate before the ... and societal development has made the demand for ..... Information Management in Nigeria.

  20. Information circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The document summarizes the Information Circulars published by the IAEA under the symbol INFCIRC/ for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A complete list of INFCIRCs in numerical order with their titles is given in the Annex

  1. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  2. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  3. Supplementary information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary information. Flexible synthesis of isomeric pyranoindolones and evaluation of cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells. J C JEYAVEERANa, CHANDRASEKAR PRAVEEN*,b, Y ARUNc, A A M PRINCEa and P. T PERUMALc. aDepartment of Chemistry, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Mylapore, Chennai.

  4. Information week...

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    Here we are at the end of a series of public information meetings held in the Departments. We thank all those who came to find out about the subjects presented and to exchange ideas and opinions. All the positive feedback we have received shows how much you appreciate these meetings. And well, so do we!

  5. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-06-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current or on the press on 15 May 1966 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  6. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-01-18

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars that were current on 31 December 1964 is given, followed by an index to their subject matter.

  7. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit...

  8. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  9. Informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous articles on informed consent have appeared in medical and legal journals over the past few years. Many of these have been in the radiological literature. This chapter presents an overview of the legal principles behind this controversial topic. Recent articles are reviewed and specific suggestions are made where applicable. The doctrine of informed consent is both a product of and the basis for the physician-patient relationship. Their communications to each other establish the relationship, but once established, heightened degrees of expectations on the patient's part have dictated the need for a more sophisticated level of communication. Since patients and physicians often expect different things of each other, it is imperative that the relationship leads to effective and respectful conversation

  10. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  11. Information Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34 continuously over time " through a division of labor and responsibility " integrated by INFORMATION-BASED decision process * in an environment of stress...responsibilities for learning in a particular field. This division of labor is especially true for staff members who must develop expertise in particular...likely founa a commano clima e with: - Multiple layering - Sub optimization Policy of no surprises - Lip service to feedback - Over centralization and non

  12. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-01-24

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/. . . . for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A list of the circulars which were of current interest on 15 January 1969 is given below, followed by an index to their subject matter. Other circulars can be traced by reference to earlier issues of the present document.

  13. Medizinbibliotheken: Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 3/2014 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2014 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Medical libraries: Information”. The authors in this issue are Michaele Adam (Bibliometrics 2.0 – Altmetrics in Medicine, Bruno Bauer (Open access cooperation in Austria: Open Access Network Austria and Austria – recent developments since 2012, Fabian Gail & Ulrich Korwitz (Market and strategy – results of the ZB MED market study, Sabine Gehrlein (Library goes Anatomy: Anatomical teaching media at Heidelberg University Library, Kaja Scheliga (Opening science: New publication forms in science, Ulrike Ostrzinski (The four types of social media user in the academic and research community. Results of a nationwide study, Sandra Pfob & Alena Ittner (First aid for library use on PC: webinars increase library visits, reach everyone, save costs, Simone Waldboth (Integration of e-learning in the lecture “Information Literacy” at the Provincial College for Health-Care Professions Claudiana, Maike Piegler (The pick up box of the library of the Hamburg medical association – a way to bring scientific information to medical specialists and Christoph Wehrmüller & Heidrun Janka (Medical : Information – Annual meeting 2014 of the German MLA, September 22 to 24 in Mannheim.Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Bruno Bauer (: transformation strategies for subscription-based journaleport on the 8 Open Access Days at Cologne, September 8–9 2014, Eike Hentschel (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2014: Introduction of the winners; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015 – Announcement and Franz J. Kühnen (Klaus Gerber 1934–2014.

  14. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    2003. http://cse.org/informed/issues_template.php/1250.htm [60] World Bank. E- Government , www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/ egov /definition.htm [61...Office of Management and Budget, E-Gov Related Legislation Overview. www.whitehouse.gov/omb/ egov /about_leg.htm [62] E- Government Act, December 17...s, the IT industry contributed 30% to U.S. GDP growth. Additionally, ev military service transformation relies heavily on IT. An IT advantage is

  15. Information services and information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Attempts made to design and extend space system capabilities are reported. Special attention was given to establishing user needs for information or services which might be provided by space systems. Data given do not attempt to detail scientific, technical, or economic bases for the needs expressed by the users.

  16. Teaching Information Skills: Recording Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students in primary and intermediate grades to record and organize information. Highlights include developing a research question; collaborative planning between teachers and library media specialists; consistency of data entry; and an example of a unit on animal migration based on an appropriate Web site. (LRW)

  17. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  19. Information Circulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-10

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  20. Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...

  1. Information Circulars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Information circulars are published from time to time under the symbol INFCIRC/.. for the purpose of bringing matters of general interest to the attention of all Members of the Agency. A subject index to the circulars is presented overleaf. It covers all those published in the last five years (that is, since the beginning of 1968 and ending with INFCIRC/192), as well as others which, for one reason or another, are still considered to be of current rather than merely historical interest. Such circulars can be traced by reference to the indexes that were included in earlier revisions of the present document.

  2. Quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, P.

    1998-01-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  3. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  4. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  5. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  6. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Beyond information retrieval: information discovery and multimedia information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Raieli

    2017-01-01

    The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.

  9. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-01-01

    Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  10. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  11. Information and information flow an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow. Syntactic information theory is concerned with the information contained in the very fact that some signal has a non-random structure. Semantic information theory is concerned with the meaning or information content of messages and the like. The theory of information flow is concerned with deriving some piece of information from another. The main part will take us to situation semantics as a foundation of modern approaches in information theory. We give a brief overview o

  12. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 77 ... Libraries all over the world are applying information and communication ..... Bank Branch Performance, The International Journal on Advances in ICT for Emerging.

  13. Informe científico de investigador: Fuselli, Sandra Rosa (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuselli, Sandra Rosa

    2015-01-01

    El Grupo Microbiología Aplicada (GIMA), perteneciente al Centro de Investigación en Abejas Sociales (CIAS) de la FCEyN-UNMdP, bajo la dirección de Dra. SR Fuselli, desarrolla dos líneas de investigación: Sanidad apícola: Productos naturales bioactivos, y Calidad y trazabilidad de productos agroalimentarios. En este contexto, se están llevando a cabo estudios sobre la actividad antimicrobiana y antipatogénica de PRODUCTOS NATURALES, concr...

  14. Ergonomics and information technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment

  15. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  16. Network Centric Information Structure - Crisis Information Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aarholt, Eldar; Berg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a generic Network Centric Information Structure (NCIS) that can be used by civilian, military and public sectors, and that supports information handling applied to crises management and emergency response...

  17. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards desi...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  18. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  19. Information Sensitive Consumers and Market Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)

  20. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 55. Adeola Esther Olutoki ... The main instruments used for data collection were research ... collections in the library and enhance academic performance. ... libraries; they contain the latest information on research findings which are of great importance.

  1. Information Skills for an Information Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawith, Gwen

    1986-01-01

    Although information skills are the most basic of skills, the tendency is to teach strategies related to educational projects, erroneously assuming that these "information skills" are applicable to everyday decision-making. Educated imaginations are needed for today's variety of lifelong creative information situations. (17 references)…

  2. Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks of farmers in Ghana. ... should identify such farmers who can serve as intermediaries between actors to help disseminate information in rural communities. Keywords: key communicators, farmers, rural communities, social networks, extension agents ...

  3. Organising and presenting information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankanady, Raghavendra; Wells, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Information management can be a daunting process for clinicians, health care providers and policy makers within the health care industry. This chapter discusses the importance of information classification and information architecture in the information economy and specific challenges faced within the health care industry. The healthcare sector has industry specific requirements for information management, standards and specifications for information presentation. Classification of information based on information criticality and the value in the health care industry is discussed in this paper. Presentation of information with reference to eHealth standards and specifications for healthcare information systems and their key requirements are also discussed, as are information architecture for eHealth implementation in Australia. This chapter also touches on information management and clinical governance since the importance of information governance is discussed by various researchers and how this is becoming of value to healthcare information management.

  4. Computing handbook information systems and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Topi, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber

  5. A Model for Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an approach drawn from the ideas of computer systems modelling to produce a model for information itself. The model integrates evolutionary, static and dynamic views of information and highlights the relationship between symbolic content and the physical world. The model includes what information technology practitioners call “non-functional” attributes, which, for information, include information quality and information friction. The concepts developed in the model enable a richer understanding of Floridi’s questions “what is information?” and “the informational circle: how can information be assessed?” (which he numbers P1 and P12.

  6. Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system

  7. Technology Information Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, E.L.; Shepherd, E.W.; Minor, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A Transportation Technology Center (TTC) has been established at Sandia to address the transportation of nuclear waste and spent fuel. The Technology Information Center (TIC) acts as TTC's clearing house for nuclear material transportation information. TIC's activities are divided into three activities: public information, policy information, and technical information. Some of the uses of TIC's activities are briefly outlined

  8. Information as Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruchie, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the value of information-based services in today's global economy. The combination of information technology with library and information services at an international accounting and auditing firm is described; the Global Information Network is explained; and the importance of the appropriate use of information is discussed. (LRW)

  9. Building an Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1992-01-01

    College governing boards can promote good campus information management by understanding available services, monitoring changes and their relationship to priorities, supporting policies enhancing access to information, encouraging resource allocation for networking, promoting regional economic development through information use, and supporting…

  10. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) ... Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA. ...

  12. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  14. Personal anticipated information need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. Elaboration. Examination of the literature of information needs and information seeking behaviour leads to the formulation of five propositions that elaborate the concept of personal, anticipated information need. These propositions draw upon concepts such as uncertainty, predictability, sensitivity and the valuation of information sources. Conclusion. An individual's understanding of personal, anticipated information need and how this understanding guides the acquisition and management of personal information will determine the effectiveness of that collection.

  15. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    as well.The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Improving knowledge scores and reducing decisional conflict can be obtained by group counselling...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  16. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  17. Towards Information Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu

    2010-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  18. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  19. Personal anticipated information need

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...

  20. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  1. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  2. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  3. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  4. FFRRO Program Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes information related to Cleanups at Federal Facilities. Information is provided about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities,...

  5. History of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, MK; Liu, Z

    1998-01-01

    This informative volume concentrates on the following areas: Historiography of Information Science; Paul Otlet and His Successors; Techniques, Tools, and Systems; People and Organizations; Theoretical Topics; and Literature.

  6. What is Quantum Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. About the Concept of Information: 1. About the concept of information Sebastian Fortin and Olimpia Lombardi; 2. Representation, information, and theories of information Armond Duwell; 3. Information, communication, and manipulability Olimpia Lombardi and Cristian López; Part II. Information and quantum mechanics: 4. Quantum versus classical information Jeffrey Bub; 5. Quantum information and locality Dennis Dieks; 6. Pragmatic information in quantum mechanics Juan Roederer; 7. Interpretations of quantum theory: a map of madness Adán Cabello; Part III. Probability, Correlations, and Information: 8. On the tension between ontology and epistemology in quantum probabilities Amit Hagar; 9. Inferential versus dynamical conceptions of physics David Wallace; 10. Classical models for quantum information Federico Holik and Gustavo Martin Bosyk; 11. On the relative character of quantum correlations Guido Bellomo and Ángel Ricardo Plastino; Index.

  7. Information technology to support informal knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davison, R.M.; Ou, C.X.J.; Martinsons, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge management (KM) literature largely focuses on the explicit and formal representation of knowledge in computer-based KM systems. Informal KM practices are widespread, but less is known about them. This paper aims to redress this imbalance by exploring the use of interactive information

  8. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Abstract. This study was designed to determine the impact of collaboration on research and teaching .... delivery of quality instruction. ... for doing Collaborative projects, and there ... reveals that co-construction of knowledge ..... Get relevant materials.

  9. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. The Information "Revolution": Information, Communications and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, Bernard

    Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…

  11. Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...

  12. INFORMATION CULTURE AND INFORMATION SAFETY OF SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Belyakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of interaction between schoolchildren and possible informational risks transmitted on the Internet. Considering the lack of external filters on the way of harmful information streams, it is actually necessary to develop information culture of schoolchildren, their abilities to sensibly and critically interpret the information on the Internet, and choice of adequate behaviour models surfing the Web. The aim of the present research is to analyze the state of informational safety of schoolchildren while using the Internet; gaining an understanding of the role of external restrictions and opportunities of intrapersonal filtration of the harmful Internet content depending on children age. Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the research is based on modern methods aimed to consider the problem of personal socialization in modern information society. Thus, the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF questionnaire let the authors define the level of awareness of recipients on the problem under consideration. Results and scientific novelty. The theoretical analysis helped the authors predict the correlation of basic methods in order to guarantee personal safety of schoolchildren taking into account the process of maturity as well as the decrease of external filters that may stop harmful content. Empirical part of the research has enabled to reveal decrease in external control of staying of a child in network in the process of growing up against the background of restrictive attitudes prevalence among teachers and parents. Therefore, the research supposed to improve information culture of schoolchildren from the earliest ages encouraging them to sensibly and correctly interpret the information on the Internet. Practical significance. The practical recommendations to parents and teachers in order to improve informational personal safety of schoolchildren are proposed. The relevancy

  13. The Information Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Al

    1994-01-01

    The new information marketplace is based on a network of wide, two-way highways comprised of private owners and developers, makers of information appliances (televisions, telephones, computers, and combinations of all three), information providers (local broadcasters, digital libraries, information service providers, and entrepreneurs), and…

  14. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  15. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  16. Understanding mobile information needs

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Karen; Smyth, Barry

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a four-week diary study of mobile information needs, focusing on the intent behind mobile needs and the importance on context on such needs. We identified three key intents among diary entries: informational, geographical and personal information management (PIM). Furthermore, we found many of these information needs have high temporal and location dependencies.

  17. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  18. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  19. Handbook of information science

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Wolfgang G

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an

  20. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  1. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  2. Information Aggregation in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the analysis of information aggregation procedures within organizations. Facing uncertainty about the consequences of a collective decision, information has to be aggregated before making a choice. Two main questions are addressed. Firstly, how well is an organization suited for the aggregation of decision-relevant information? Secondly, how should an organization be designed in order to aggregate information efficiently? The main part deals with information a...

  3. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  4. Information Warfare, Threats and Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Nikolaevich Bespalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the opposite, but dependent on each other's reality - Revolutionary War information,information security goals and objectives of their study within the scheme "challenge-response", methodological and analytical support, the role of elites and the information society in promoting information security. One of the features of contemporaneityis the global spread of ICT, combined with poor governance and other difficulties in the construction of innovation infrastructures that are based on them in some countries. This leads to the reproduction of threats, primarily related to the ability to use ICT for purposes that are inconsistent with the objectives of maintaining international peace and security, compliance with the principles of non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, etc. In this regard, include such terms as "a threat of information warfare", "information terrorism" and so forth. Information warfare, which stay in the policy declared the struggle for existence, and relationships are defined in terms of "friend-enemy", "ours-foreign". Superiority over the opponent or "capture of its territory" is the aim of political activity. And information security, serving activities similar process of political control, including a set of components, is a technology until their humanitarian. From the context and the decision itself is the ratio of the achieved results of information and political influence to the target - a positive image of Russia. Bringing its policy in line with the demands of a healthy public opinion provides conductivity of theauthorities initiatives in the country and increases the legitimacy of the Russian Federation actions in the world.

  5. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  6. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    References must conform to the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of ... Book. Chapman, L.(2001). Managing acquisition in libraries and information services. ... For electronic resources, please see APA guidelines at www.apastyle.org ...

  7. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meeting the information needs of remote library users: the case of University of Maiduguri Distance Learning Programme · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Adam Gambo Saleh, 1-16 ...

  8. Information technology acceptance in health information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdekhoda, M; Ahmadi, M; Dehnad, A; Hosseini, A F

    2014-01-01

    User acceptance of information technology has been a significant area of research for more than two decades in the field of information technology. This study assessed the acceptance of information technology in the context of Health Information Management (HIM) by utilizing Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which was modified and applied to assess user acceptance of health information technology as well as viability of TAM as a research construct in the context of HIM. This was a descriptive- analytical study in which a sample of 187 personnel from a population of 363 personnel, working in medical records departments of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, was selected. Users' perception of applying information technology was studied by a researcher-developed questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed by SPSS software (version16) using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results suggest that TAM is a useful construct to assess user acceptance of information technology in the context of HIM. The findings also evidenced the perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PE) were positively associated with favorable users' attitudes towards HIM. PU was relatively more associated (r= 0.22, p = 0.05) than PEOU (r = 0.014, p = 0.05) with favorable user attitudes towards HIM. Users' perception of usefulness and ease of use are important determinants providing the incentive for users to accept information technologies when the application of a successful HIM system is attempted. The findings of the present study suggest that user acceptance is a key element and should subsequently be the major concern of health organizations and health policy makers.

  9. The Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; José A. Scheinkman

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of informal economic activity. We present two equilibrium models of informality and test their implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. In the first model there is a single industry and informal firms face a higher cost of capital and a limitation on size. As a result informal firms are smaller and have a lower capi...

  10. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  11. Towards Information Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Khrennikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the methods of quantum theory (QT, especially quantum information and probability, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social and political sciences, psychology, economics, finances, decision making, molecular biology and genetics. Such models can be called quantum-like, in contrast to real quantum physical cognitive and biological models. Quantum-like means that only the information and probability structures of QT are explored. This approach matches the information interpretation of QT well (e.g., Zeilinger and Brukner, Fuchs and Mermin, D’Ariano, as well as the informational viewpoint on physics in general (e.g., Wheeler’s “it from bit” paradigm. In this paper, we propose a quantum-like model of an information laser by precessing the assumptions on the structure of state spaces of information processors, “information atoms” (i-atoms and information fields. The basic assumption is the discrete structure of state spaces related to quantization of an information analog of energy. To analyze a possible structure of the state space of i-atoms leading to the possibility to create information lasers, we have to develop a purely information version of quantum thermodynamics. We did this by placing the main attention on the derivation of the conditions for the equilibrium of information exchange between i-atoms and a quantized information field.

  12. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  13. Information manager vol 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    1989-05-11

    May 11, 1989 ... This study explored rural-based library and information services. The location was .... However, following the passage of Imo State Law on. Local Government ... What are the information sources used to satisfy these needs? 3.

  14. Informal Unemployment and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Anne-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper develops a four sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available to low educated workers. More ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General No ... RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC. ...

  16. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act ... mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC.gov is ...

  18. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  19. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  20. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  1. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  2. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  3. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  4. PDQ® Cancer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI database that contains the latest information about cancer treatment, screening, prevention, genetics, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine, plus drug information and a dictionary of cancer terms.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Sitemap RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of ... News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  6. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper is to o...... and corporeal information sources newcomers learn about the organizational practice, and the knowledge needed in order to develop as a competent practitioner and become a full member of the organization.......Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...

  7. What is quantum information ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.

  8. Senior Information Officials Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document establishes the (SIOs) as the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) primary points of accountability for the effective oversight, coordination, and management of information and information technology (IT)

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector ... Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the " ...

  11. RCRA Facility Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...

  12. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-Sanjuan , Fidelia; Buckland , Michael; Latham , Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    International audience; During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coheren...

  13. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  14. Dynamic Strategic Information Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Golosov; Vasiliki Skreta; Aleh Tsyvinski; Andrea Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies strategic information transmission in a dynamic environment where, each period, a privately informed expert sends a message and a decision maker takes an action. Our main result is that, in contrast to a static environment, full information revelation is possible. The gradual revelation of information and the eventual full revelation is supported by the dynamic rewards and punishments. The construction of a fully revealing equilibrium relies on two key features. The first f...

  15. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  16. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  17. Computer information systems framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahabuddin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Management information systems (MIS) is a commonly used term in computer profession. The new information technology has caused management to expect more from computer. The process of supplying information follows a well defined procedure. MIS should be capable for providing usable information to the various areas and levels of organization. MIS is different from data processing. MIS and business hierarchy provides a good framework for many organization which are using computers. (A.B.)

  18. Natural Information Processing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    John Sweller; Susan Sweller

    2006-01-01

    Natural information processing systems such as biological evolution and human cognition organize information used to govern the activities of natural entities. When dealing with biologically secondary information, these systems can be specified by five common principles that we propose underlie natural information processing systems. The principles equate: (1) human long-term memory with a genome; (2) learning from other humans with biological reproduction; (3) problem solving through random ...

  19. Information Services Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The Information Services Directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information

  20. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  1. Information Manager (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Information Manager is an Interdisciplinary Journal which provides a forum for the ... It serves as a forum for new research in information dissemination and communication processes in general, The basic focus of Information manager are: i. to ... Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial Resources of ...

  2. Informed Consent and Routinisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    provide evidence of the routinisation of informed consent in various types of interaction on the internet; among these, the routinisation of consent to the exchange of health related information. We also provide evidence that the extent of the routinisation of informed consent is dependent...

  3. Information Services Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The Information Services directory is intended to facilitate participation by states, affected Indian tribes and the public in the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management program. The Directory is produced by the Information Services Division of the OCRWM's Office of Policy and Outreach and will be updated periodically. It is a reference document that identifies the sources of available program information

  4. Community Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew

    Information is provided on technological and social trends as background for a workshop designed to heighten the consciousness of workers in community information systems. Initially, the basic terminology is considered in its implications for an integrated perspective of community information systems, with particular attention given to the meaning…

  5. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  6. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  7. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  8. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  9. Recommendation with Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) systems have tremendously broaden users' access to information. However, users need to select their needs from trillions of information indexed daily. Due to the "semantic gap" between queries and indexed terms in IR system, whether users can satisfy their needs depends on whether they use the correct terms as…

  10. The Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  11. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  12. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  13. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and

  14. Evaluating Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  15. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  16. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  17. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  18. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  19. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  20. Methods of information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosarev, Yu G; Gusev, V D

    1978-01-01

    Works are presented on automation systems for editing and publishing operations by methods of processing symbol information and information contained in training selection (ranking of objectives by promise, classification algorithm of tones and noise). The book will be of interest to specialists in the automation of processing textural information, programming, and pattern recognition.

  1. Information, Precedent, and Statute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Yalnazov (Orlin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractI compare precedent and statute in cost-effectiveness terms. To make laws, a lawmaker needs information. Information has a cost. That cost is sensitive to the choice of law production technology. The orthodoxy is that the courts acquire information more cheaply. Litigants volunteer it in

  2. Personal, Anticipated Information Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in "Bookmarks" and "Favourites". Argument: It is suggested that personal information collections are…

  3. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  4. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new

  5. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  6. Does Information Change Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.

  7. Information manager vol 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The Perception of Librarians As Sources Of Information On HIV/AIDS By ... the librarian is confined to the library. ... is to offer information services that can assist information users to meet their needs at the right time and in the right format. ... relationships (Sande and Volbering,1992). ..... Education for Students: A Proposal for.

  8. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  9. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  10. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  11. The Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Nath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses various definitions and concepts of the so-called information society. The term information society has been proposed to refer to the post-industrial society in which information plays a pivotal role. The definitions that have been proposed over the years highlight five underlying characterisations of an information society: technological, economic, sociological, spatial, and cultural. This article discusses those characteristics. While the emergence of an information society may be just a figment of one’s imagination, the concept could be a good organising principle to describe and analyse the changes of the past 50 years and of the future in the 21st century.

  12. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  13. Nuclear Information Democratization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear information (Nl) interests people for many reasons, with energy supply, safety, and security being at the top of the list. Democratizing nuclear information has its roots in the growth of a knowledge-based economy, the knowledge worker as a user of nuclear information, developments in information and communication technologies (ICT), and the impact of internet growth. Results of democratization are apparent in the process of information creation, in how nuclear information is distributed and accessed, and in the conditions for using the information found. The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) both reflects and contributes to these trends. Nuclear information falls under the overall umbrella of scientific and technical information (STI). It is highly specialized, but it follows general principles and trends of STI. The world of STI has its own culture and its own long-established rules of use and existence. These have brought us many inventions and improvements, introduced important technological changes, and made our lives and work much easier and more pleasurable. However, the world is constantly changing, and the traditional closed STI environment, including the world of nuclear information, is not keeping up with today’s changes. (author)

  14. Informed Consent in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kevin I

    2017-03-01

    A review of literature regarding informed consent in dentistry reveals a paucity of information and minimal scholarship devoted to this subject. But this begs the question about informed consent somehow being different for dentistry than for medicine or other healthcare delivery. My account draws distinctions where appropriate but is rooted in the premise that informed consent is an ethical construct applicable to vulnerable people as patients independent of what type of treatment or body part being considered. This paper highlights the crucial importance of the process of informed consent and refusal in dentistry, underscoring its important place in oral healthcare. This paper will not address the unique circumstances involving consent in those without capacity or focus on informed consent in the research setting; our focus will be on those patients with full decisionmaking capacity in the clinical setting. I will emphasize the importance of disclosure of treatment options and highlight the benefits of shared-decision-making in the informed consent process.

  15. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  16. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analytical study on availability of information and communication technology facilities in selected Nigerian university libraries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. William O. Nkanu, Ebong N. Nkebem, Victoria A. Iyishu, Christopher E. Ogar ...

  17. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  18. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge management

    Five (5) research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of ... key factor of knowledge management is knowledge sharing. ... difference has been recorded in terms of skills acquisition, information literacy, classroom ... However, little is known about knowledge-sharing strategies and their ...

  19. Application of information technology infrastructure in information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the application of infotech infrastructure in information processing for enhancing workplace safety in Rivers State. In view of this, the study was a research survey design. The population of the study comprised 600 oil company workers in Rivers State. A-30% basis was used to randomly select the ...

  20. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contributions of agriculture and veterinary complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria to the dissemination of agricultural information: a bibliometric analysis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gabriel M. Kasa, Ibrahim Umar, Maimuna Izah, 51-59 ...

  1. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    the students was not library and information science they all had their career prior their ... boils down to a career decision-making process”. That is .... choose secretarial option do so on the account of their failure to be registered in accounting.

  2. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  3. Information Management: Enhancing Information Discovery and Information Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimfuehr, W.

    2015-01-01

    IBM Security Intelligence with Analytics of massive data provides exceptional threat and risk detection, combining deep security expertise with analytical insights on a massive scale. For forward-leaning organizations seeking advanced insight into security risks, the IBM solution -- Security Intelligence Platform for massive data -- provides a comprehensive, integrated approach that combines real-time correlation for continuous insight, custom analytics across massive structured and unstructured data, and forensic capabilities for irrefutable evidence. The combination can help you address advanced persistent threats, fraud and insider threats. The IBM solution is designed to widening the scope and scale of investigation, enabling analyzes of any kind of data in any format, such as DNS transactions or full packet capture data to find malicious activity hidden deep in the masses of an organization's data. IBMWatson Explorer provides a unified view displaying all of security relevant information in a portal-like UI. The information analytics system is built around AQL (Annotated query language), a declarative rule language with a familiar SQL-like syntax. AQL supports the paradigm describing data for data with an optional data governance catalogue for massive volumes of data supporting individual views in addition to the pre-defined Document view that holds the textual and label content. An underlying Role-Based Access Control that data protection rules are strictly enforced within the whole architecture. Security at the document, sub-document and record level is built intoWatson Explorer. When Watson Explorer security is implemented, users cannot see information that they would be prohibited from seeing if they were directly logged into the target system. (author)

  4. Actividad antimicrobiana y estudio fitoquímico preliminar de Mandevilla veraguasensis (Seem. Helms. (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Abad-Reyes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extract from leaves of Mandevilla veraguasensis (Seem. Hemsl. (Apocynaceae has been assayed for antibacterial and antifungal activity. A moderate activity against Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, which can be in part attributed to the flavonoids 4´-O-methyl-kaempferol (I and quercetin (II isolated from this extract, was observed.

  5. EXTRATO DE CHÁ VERDE (Camellia sinensis PROMOVE AÇÃO ANTIMICROBIANA SOBRE Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Wagner Figueira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available É de grande importância ampliar as pesquisas científicas com plantas medicinais sobre micro-organismos. Foi verificado o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato de C. sinensis , sobre cultura planctônica e biofilme de S. aureus. Neste estudo foi verificada ação do extrato entre 50 a 0,09 mg/mL sobre cultura planctônica, para determinação da CIM e CBM. A ação do extrato sobre biofilme foi analisada pela exposição de 5 min ao produto vegetal a 200mg/mL. Foi utilizado o método de MTT para determinar a redução da viabilidade do biofilme. Nos grupos controles foram utilizadas clorexidina (+ e solução salina (-, sendo n = 12/grupo. A redução do biofilme foi analisada por ANOVA e Tukey Test (p ≤ 0,05. Em cultura planctônica as concentrações avaliadas não foram efetivas, contudo, utilizando-se a concentração de 200 mg/mL sobre o biofilme, foi verificada redução significativa. Com isso, concluiu-se que o extrato de chá verde demonstrou ação sobre biofilme de S. aureus provendo redução significativa em sua viabilidade.

  6. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência à penicilina foi detectada em 15,5% das cepas e predominou em crianças abaixo de dois anos de idade. Foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae em pacientes internados com doença invasiva, e a maioria dos sorotipos (82,6% e das cepas (90,2% está incluída na vacina polissacarídica 23-valente. As cifras para a vacina 7-valente, atualmente disponível (PN CRM7, são de 46,7% dos sorotipos e 63,6% das cepas, obtidos de crianças com até cinco anos de idade.

  7. Aportaciones al estudio de la actividad antimicrobiana de los antisépticos y desinfectantes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Rodríguez, Águeda

    2006-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Las infecciones nosocomiales (IN) provocan una elevada morbilidad y mortalidad, una gran carga de trabajo para el personal y un elevado coste económico. El uso eficaz de los biocidas, antisépticos y desinfectantes, junto con la desinfección de los dispositivos médicos y de superficies, el lavado de manos y las técnicas de barrera, constituyen las medidas de prevención de dichas IN. El desarrollo de estudios sobre la acti...

  8. Profilaxis perioperatoria antimicrobiana con cefazolina en cirugía estética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Martínez Padrón

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo de la efectividad de la cefazolina como antibiótico profiláctico perioperatorio en operaciones de cirugía estética, para contribuir a disminuir las infecciones posoperatorias, pues una cicatrización deficiente o inadecuada constituiría el fracaso total de la operación. El mayor porcentaje de intervenciones quirúrgicas correspondió a las hipertrofias mamarias con el 67,5 % y la deformidad abdominal sólo en el 32,5 %. La tasa de infección para el grupo control resultó ser del 20 %, mientras que con la aplicación de la profilaxis perioperatoria de 2,5 %. El empleo de este antibiótico demostró gran efectividad frente a las bacterias habituales que causan infección en las heridas; con él se obtuvieron excelentes resultados y ventajas económicasA prospective study on the effectiveness of cefazolin as a perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in cosmetic surgery was conducted to contribute to reduce postoperative infections, since a deficient or inadequate cicatrization would lead to the total failure of the operation. The higher percentage of surgical procedures corresponded to breast hypertrophies with 67.5 %, and only 32.5 % to abdominal deformities. The infection rate for the control group was 20 %, whereas with the application of perioperative prophylaxis it was just 2.5 %. This antibiotic proved to be highly effective against those bacteria that usually cause wound infection. Excellent results and economic advantages were attained with its use

  9. Amidas halogenadas: rea??es de acoplamento e investiga??o in silico da atividade antimicrobiana

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Ricardo Carneiro

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como finalidade preparar uma cole??o de benzilamidas para-halogenadas derivadas de ?cidos cin?micos e benzoicos estruturalmente relacionadas atrav?s de rea??es de acoplamento com 4-(cloro, fluro e bromo) benzilaminas, utilizando o benzotriazol-1-iloxi-tris-(dimetilamino)-fosf?nio (BOP) como agente de acoplamento. Al?m disso, foram preparados derivados ?teres e ?steres da amida do ?cido van?lico. Todos os compostos preparados foram submetidos a testes antimicrobianos p...

  10. Information Asymmetry in Federations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikhailovich Libman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the problems of information transmission between levels of government in a federal state. The central government in a federation typically faces serious difficulties while collecting information on economic and political situation in the regions. There are two types of problems: lack of incentives for the regions to accurately collect information and strategic manipulation of information, which are discussed in the paper along with possible solutions. In particular, overcoming information asymmetry would require the development of national parties or informal coalitions of bureaucrats and politicians of the center and of the regions, creating incentives for regional politicians to back the successful functioning of the federal level. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issue of «informal decentralization», which emerges as a result of information asymmetry, and its consequences for the functioning of a federal state, including both advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that under information asymmetry the organization of the federation will inevitably turn into an issue of permanent negotiations and bargaining between the center and the regions, which functions as the information acquisition tool for optimal allocation of authorities in a federation

  11. 75 FR 28777 - Information Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Collection; Financial Information Security Request Form AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Request... currently approved information collection; Financial Information Security Request Form. DATES: Comments must... Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Information Security...

  12. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  13. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Daniela RIZEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence competitiveness has already started to build its road in the company’s long term strategies. Nonetheless, business executives continue to look for ways to apply information technology strategically to their businesses. Using information managers manage to communicate, to convey their knowledge about markets, competitors, products, services and operations. Even if data and information are all over there are few amounts of managers that realize the importance of them to the success of the business. This article will review competitive forces and competitive information systems strategies for gaining competitive advantages, explain concepts of value chain, value co-opetition (competition and cooperation, and discuss innovation strategy. Co-opetition is a strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time with their competitors, complementors (i.e. hardware and software businesses, customers, suppliers. The article discuss an important dimension of information system, identifies competitive advantages and enhancing competitive strategies thought information systems.

  14. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  15. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  16. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    ) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  17. Information services directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This Directory will facilitate dissemination of information. It is a reference document that lists the sources of program information available to the states, Indian Tribes, and the public. Chapter 1 describes current program information sources produced by OCRWM and by DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI). Chapter 2 provides a directory of OCRWM and DOE technical information, and includes descriptions of computerized data bases and other resources. Chapter 3 is an index of OCRWM Headquarters and Project Office contacts, as well as state and Indian Tribe contacts. Chapter 4 enumerates Congressional Committees and Subcommittees that have jurisdiction over various components of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, and Chapter 5 lists DOE reading rooms, as well as information offices and the public libraries in affected states that are on one or more of OCRWM's mailing lists

  18. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  19. Accident management information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R.

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself

  20. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.

  1. We inform you, you inform us

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    Our September information meetings have ended and we thank the many people who came. This will allow us to start an extremely useful dialogue that we will continue with the survey announced at these meetings, which is now available. We invite all CERN staff members to reply to this questionnaire to enable us to have an accurate picture of your expectations and wishes with respect to the evolution of social and employment policies.

  2. Information, Technology, and Information Worker Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Van Alstyne, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...

  3. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  4. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  5. Quality of Information

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Accounting and auditing is closely related to the quality of data. Two important elements supporting the quality of information are internal controls and materiality. Inspired by Simons (1994), these elements can be considered “basic building blocks”. Internal controls are perhaps the most important element, as they ensure that information used for management purposes has the required quality (Kinney, 2000). This information can be used as a basis for preparing the external ...

  6. Design information verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides the bases to complete a Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ) for a research reactor. The IAEA requirements for provision of design information for nuclear facility is described. The role of the provided information for the development of the safeguards approach and for planning of the IAEA's general inspection program for a specific facility is emphasized. Content and preparation of the IAEA DIQ by the State is presented

  7. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  8. Management Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Furduescu Bogdan-Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Technology is the science that studies processes, methods and operations run or applied onto raw materials, matters or data, in order to obtain a certain product. Information is the material signal able to launch a material reaction of a dynamic auto-tuning system for which the system is conditioned and finalized. Information Technology is the technology needed for handling (procuring, processing, storing converting and transmitting) information, in particular, with the use of computers [Long...

  9. Management Information Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The...paper discusses several aspects of research on management information systems and reviews a selection of efforts that appear significant for future progress. (Author)

  10. 2001 Industry Studies: Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    increasingly demand communications, computers, and software for use in the Internet , intranets, and extranets. Information technology (IT) - enabled...As the number of Internet users increases, so does the demand for the rapid deployment of information and telecommunication technologies . The key...proliferation has become uncontrollable. Only then will the US maintain the lead in the IT market . 13 ESSAYS ON MAJOR ISSUES ISSUE: THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

  11. Framing Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Dirkx

    2016-01-01

    In 2000 the Association of College & Research Libraries (ACRL) published the Standards for Information Literacy. After 15 years these standards were in desperate need of revision. Instead of releasing a revised edition of the Standards, in 2015 ACRL presented a completely new vision on information literacy in higher education. In this keynote we will explore the new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy in all its glory. We will compare it to the old standards. Is this new American Fram...

  12. IAEA safeguards information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic concepts, structure, and operation of the Agency Safeguards Information System is discussed with respect to its role in accomplishing the overall objectives of safeguards. The basis and purposes of the Agency's information system, the structure and flow of information within the Agency's system, the relationship of the components is the Agency system, the requirements of Member States in respect of their reporting to the Agency, and the relationship of accounting data vis-a-vis facility and inspection data are described

  13. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  14. HOPE information system review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Nishiyama, Kenji; Ono, Shuuji; Fukuda, Kouin

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the review conducted on H-2 Orbiting Plane (HOPE) is presented. A prototype model was constructed by inputting various technical information proposed by related laboratories. Especially operation flow which enables understanding of correlation between various analysis items, judgement criteria, technical data, and interfaces with others was constructed. Technical information data base and retrieval systems were studied. A Macintosh personal computer was selected for information shaping because of its excellent function, performance, operability, and software completeness.

  15. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  16. Future of information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Baofu, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b

  17. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  18. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  19. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  20. Information management for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil B; Martin, Stephen A; Maypole, Jack; Andrews, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians are bombarded with information daily by social media, mainstream television news, e-mail, and print and online reports. They usually do not have much control over these information streams and thus are passive recipients, which means they get more noise than signal. Accessing, absorbing, organizing, storing, and retrieving useful medical information can improve patient care. The authors outline how to create a personalized stream of relevant information that can be scanned regularly and saved so that it is readily accessible. Copyright © 2016 Cleveland Clinic.

  1. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  2. Quantification of informed opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

  3. Advanced information society (10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Informationalization in Japan has spread among various fields of industrial and social life in wide and depth by drastic advancement in technology and networking. Looking at the change in industrial structure as well as international trend in information the Japanese Government regards the role of information and communication technology as infrastructure to be important, and is under the way of constructing various measures with ministries and agencies concerned with them. This paper describes how administrative agencies involved in information and communication such as Ministry of Postal Services, Ministry of International Trade and Industry cope with informationalization, and mentions future direction in information policies.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business ... Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General ...

  5. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  6. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, the Information Security Management Handbook has served not only as an everyday reference for information security practitioners but also as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination. Now completely revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a complete understanding of all the items in it. This is a ...must have... book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a c

  7. Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2015-06-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leuchs, Gerd; Beth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SimulationofHamiltonians... References... 1 1 1 3 5 8 10 2 Quantum Information Processing and Error Correction with Jump Codes (G. Alber, M. Mussinger...

  9. EDIS Investigation Filing Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...

  10. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  11. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  12. Sustainability of scholarly information

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2015-01-01

    Professor Gobinda Chowdhury BSc Hons, MSc, PhD, FCLIP is Professor in Information Science at iSchool@northumbria, and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences at Northumbria University. Before joining Northumbria University he was a Professor and Director of the Centre for Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Technology Sydney, Australia. For over 25 years he has worked as an academic and researcher in information science in different parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. For the past few years he has been actively involved

  13. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIlvain, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is the core capability required to align our resources and increase our effectiveness on the battlefield by integrating and coordinating our preventative measures and responses...

  14. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  15. Fundamentals of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilinger, A.

    1998-01-01

    The fact that information is physical means that the laws of quantum mechanics can be used to process and transmit it in ways that are not possible with existing systems. Ever since its invention in the 1920s, quantum physics has given rise to countless discussions about its meaning and about how to interpret the theory correctly. These discussions focus on issues like the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, quantum non-locality and the role of measurement in quantum physics. In recent years, however, research into the very foundations of quantum mechanics has also led to a new field quantum information technology. The use of quantum physics could revolutionize the way we communicate and process information. The important new observation is that information is not independent of the physical laws used to store and processes it (see Landauer in further reading). Although modern computers rely on quantum mechanics to operate, the information itself is still encoded classically. A new approach is to treat information as a quantum concept and to ask what new insights can be gained by encoding this information in individual quantum systems. In other words, what happens when both the transmission and processing of information are governed by quantum laws? (UK)

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  17. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1962-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ... Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC.gov is the U.S. government's official ...

  19. information manger-2012-editedx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    much as possible to exploit the benefits brought by information and communication technologies (ICTs) as an alternative to its services and for easy access, retrieval and dissemination of information to it users. Introduction. The Northern Nigerian area has been one of the earliest regions of West Africa with a literary tradition ...

  20. Archival Information Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    management system named Archival Information Management System (AIMS), designed to meet the audit trail requirement for studies completed under the...are to be archived to the extent that future reproducibility and interrogation of results will exist. This report presents a prototype information

  1. Anthropology and nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nuffelen, D.

    1994-01-01

    In this article is sketched a paradigm which permits to envisage nuclear information as an anthropologic problem. The author modelizes public information by a general theory of exchange. For him the most urgent problem is to refounding the circulation between the different components of social system. 3 figs,. 2 tabs,. 12 refs

  2. Credit Market Information Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan, Lakshmi; Craig, Ben R.; Thomson, James B.; Zaman, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We examine how a combination of credit market and asset quality information can jointly be used in assessing bank franchise value. We find that expectations of future credit demand and future asset quality explain contemporaneous bank franchise value, indicative of the feedback in credit market information and its consequent impact on bank franchise value.

  3. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  4. Evolution of information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    This article offers a dynamic view of continuously changes in a specific informational system illustrated through a case study in a small network company. Central aspects of the evolutionary process will be identified and framed in relation to the informational system change. It will be argued th...

  5. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  6. Summary information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Summary Information Report (SIR) provides summary data concerning NRC and its licensees for general use by the Chairman, other Commissioners and Commission staff offices, the Executive Director for Operations, and the Office Directors. SIR is published quarterly by the Management Information Branch (49-27834) of the Office of Resource Management

  7. Lean information management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of a Lean Enterprise has proven to be extremely valuable for making companies fit for today's competitive business environment. Lean Information Management denotes the type of information management that is appropriate for such all organization. According to the paradigm of a Lean

  8. Makerspaces in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Antink-Meyer, Allison

    2017-01-01

    The maker movement, with its focus on-hands on learning through creating with familiar materials, has seen growth in both formal and informal learning spaces. This article examines three informal learning spaces that have redesigned their space (or a portion of it) to accommodate several tenets of the maker movement and in various ways have become…

  9. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States government. Website Feedback Connect with Us: Facebook Instagram YouTube Twitter Blog SlideShare GooglePlus Flickr Report an Unsafe Product Subscribe to CPSC News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  11. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  12. Slavery and information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how asymmetric information shaped slavery by determining the likelihood of manumission. A theoretical model explains the need to offer positive incentives to slaves working in occupations characterized by a high degree of asymmetric information. As a result, masters freed (and,

  13. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  14. Constructor theory of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible—i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems). PMID:25663803

  15. Post-socialist Informalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to understand and explain informality, while also debating its relationship with the market and society. The authors seek to explain informality beyond a mere monetaristic/economistic approach, rediscovering its interconnection with social phenomena to propose a more holistic interpretation of the meaning...

  16. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  17. Marketing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Maura

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…

  18. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  19. Public information strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldahl, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 uncovered serious information problems in many Western countries, and started a debate on crisis communication and information strategies in relation to radiation danger in society. The information problem focuses on four main perspectives. The first is related to information as a persuasion process in which an efficient strategy would influence both the public's knowledge of radiation danger, their attitude towards it and their behaviour. The second perspective calls attention to the importance of the different elements of the information process. How important are different characteristics of the information source; the message itself, and the receiver? The third perspective concentrates on different types of information. What is this issue all about, why is the situation as it is, and how should people behave to protect themselves? The fourth perspective points to the various phases of a crisis. The information needed is obviously not the same in the period before a crisis emerges when no one knows what is going to happen, in the warning period when one knows that something may happen, and during the crisis itself. (Author)

  20. The nature of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tpudlik

    2015-11-01

    In reply to Mark Buchanan's review of César Hidalgo's book How Information Grows (“The wealth of nations”, October pp40-41, http://ow.ly/SlqN3), in which Hidalgo argues that we need an “information-centric” view of economic growth.

  1. ISRIC - World Soil Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    ISRICWorld Soil Information is an independent foundation, funded by the Netherlands Government with a mandate to increase knowledge of the land, its soils in particular, and to support the sustainable use of land resources; in short, to help people understand soils. Its aims are to -Inform and

  2. The Information Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Margaret L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines the concept of information and how it relates to our future. She discusses the various waves of information about education: the decay of technology and the raid on educational institutions for brainpower made by business and industry, foreign competition, and the quality of education. (CT)

  3. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  4. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    legislators have to be ICT compliant so that they can utilize the services of their libraries and information centres to the fullest capacity. Introduction ... engagement in collaborative efforts with other libraries and information centres within ... economic, political and other civic activities that takes place in the country for which the.

  5. Information and Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines approaches taken to development in lesser developed countries in the past, discusses the importance of appropriate technology and human development, and summarizes the information needs of the rural poor in developing nations. Information dissemination programs using video- and audiotape technology in Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Peru are…

  6. A Mine of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa B.

    1986-01-01

    Business researchers and marketers find certain databases useful for finding information on investments, competitors, products, and markets. Colleges can use these same databases to get background on corporate prospects. The largest data source available, DIALOG Information Services and some other databases are described. (MLW)

  7. Strengthening Health Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, A. S.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need to apply modern scientific management to health administration in order to effectively manage programs utilizing increased preventive and curative capabilities. The value of having maximum information in order to make decisions, and problems of determining information content are reviewed. For journal availability, see SO 506…

  8. Medical Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  9. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    To apply for information under the Privacy Act, complete this form or a written request mentioning the Act. Describe the information being sought and provide any relevant details necessary to help the. International Development Research Centre. (IDRC) find it. If you require assistance, refer to. Info Source (Sources of ...

  10. Information. Mapping the money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowper, Andy

    2006-03-16

    Dr Foster Intelligence aims to improve the use and accessibility of information to offer people more control over their care. It will also provide management with the information required to make effective business decisions. The new service will be 'taking advantage of private-sector expertise for public-sector advantage.

  11. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  12. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles

  13. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator......Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  14. Energy Information Directory 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquires to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information

  15. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  16. Training and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Training and Information Division provides centralized direction and coordination for the training and information activities of the Center for Energy and Environment Research (formerly Puerto Rico Nuclear Center). The Division Head serves as Educational Officer, Technical Information Officer, and Public Information Officer. Training responsibilities include registering students; maintaining centralized records on training activities; preparing reports for ERDA; scheduling the utilization of training facilities; providing audiovisual equipment; assisting in the preparation of courses, seminars, symposia, and meetings; administering fellowship programs; and providing personal assistance to students in matters such as housing and immigration. The Division Head represents the Director on the Admissions Committee. Information responsibilities include preparation of manuscripts for ERDA patent clearance and publication release, maintenance of central files on all manuscripts and publications, preparation of the Annual Report, providing editorial and translation assistance, operation of a Technical Reading Room, operation of an ERDA Film Library, operation of a Reproduction Shop, providing copying services, and assisting visitors

  17. Physics as Information Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2011-01-01

    I review some recent advances in foundational research at Pavia QUIT group. The general idea is that there is only Quantum Theory without quantization rules, and the whole Physics - including space-time and relativity - is emergent from the quantum-information processing. And since Quantum Theory itself is axiomatized solely on informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms: this is the It from bit of J. A. Wheeler.The review is divided into four parts: a) the informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; b) how space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from quantum computation; c) what is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and of (ℎ/2π), and how the quantum field emerges; d) an observational consequence of the new quantum field theory: a mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I will conclude with the research lines that will follow in the immediate future.

  18. Defining Information Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Björn; Möller, Niklas

    2017-11-15

    This article proposes a new definition of information security, the 'Appropriate Access' definition. Apart from providing the basic criteria for a definition-correct demarcation and meaning concerning the state of security-it also aims at being a definition suitable for any information security perspective. As such, it bridges the conceptual divide between so-called 'soft issues' of information security (those including, e.g., humans, organizations, culture, ethics, policies, and law) and more technical issues. Because of this it is also suitable for various analytical purposes, such as analysing possible security breaches, or for studying conflicting attitudes on security in an organization. The need for a new definition is demonstrated by pointing to a number of problems for the standard definition type of information security-the so-called CIA definition. Besides being too broad as well as too narrow, it cannot properly handle the soft issues of information security, nor recognize the contextual and normative nature of security.

  19. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  20. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  1. Quality of Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Accounting and auditing is closely related to the quality of data. Two important elements supporting the quality of information are internal controls and materiality. Inspired by Simons (1994), these elements can be considered “basic building blocks”. Internal controls are perhaps the most...... important element, as they ensure that information used for management purposes has the required quality (Kinney, 2000). This information can be used as a basis for preparing the external financial reporting (COSO, 2013) and as a prerequisite for establishing information-based management control systems...... (MCS) (Simons, 1994). When regarding management controls as a package, internal controls are part of the administrative controls and often formalised in policies and procedures (Malmi and Brown, 2008). The level of controls should be guided by the need for reliable information. These considerations...

  2. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...

  3. Energy information directory 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-28

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. The two principal functions related to this task are (1) operating a general access telephone line, and (2) responding to energy-related correspondence addressed to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The Energy Information Directory was developed to assist the NEIC staff, as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) staff, in directing inquiries to the proper offices within DOE, other Federal agencies, or energy-related trade associations. The Directory is a list of most Government offices and trade associations that are involved in energy matters. It does not include those DOE offices which do not deal with the public or public information.

  4. Next generation information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limback, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Medina, Melanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Silva, Michelle E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Information Systems Analysis and Development (ISAD) Team of the Safeguards Systems Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been developing web based information and knowledge management systems for sixteen years. Our vision is to rapidly and cost effectively provide knowledge management solutions in the form of interactive information systems that help customers organize, archive, post and retrieve nonproliferation and safeguards knowledge and information vital to their success. The team has developed several comprehensive information systems that assist users in the betterment and growth of their organizations and programs. Through our information systems, users are able to streamline operations, increase productivity, and share and access information from diverse geographic locations. The ISAD team is also producing interactive visual models. Interactive visual models provide many benefits to customers beyond the scope of traditional full-scale modeling. We have the ability to simulate a vision that a customer may propose, without the time constraints of traditional engineering modeling tools. Our interactive visual models can be used to access specialized training areas, controlled areas, and highly radioactive areas, as well as review site-specific training for complex facilities, and asset management. Like the information systems that the ISAD team develops, these models can be shared and accessed from any location with access to the internet. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the capabilities of information systems and interactive visual models as well as consider the possibility of combining the two capabilities to provide the next generation of infonnation systems. The collection, processing, and integration of data in new ways can contribute to the security of the nation by providing indicators and information for timely action to decrease the traditional and new nuclear threats. Modeling and simulation tied to comprehensive

  5. Information als Prozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diether Elstner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A unified definition of the phenomenon information is not possible at present, because of the enormous number of different views. The situation is increased by the 'Capurro‘s trilemma' which postulates the logical impossibility of a unified concept of information. There are two approaches in the literature, which aim to solve the trilemma. The first approach avoids collision with the trilemma through the introduction of a generalized parameter to form rules of language for information systems. The second approach is understood as a draft of a generalized understanding of information within a yet to be developed unified information science. This article presents the approach of understanding information as an instantaneous process, which effects changes in systems. These changes must be captured and reproduced by the organization of the system, otherwise they get lost by fluctuations. Information in this reductionist conception is possible in each system, under the assumption, that it has several stable states, which alternatively may be assumed by the system . The 'Capurro‘s trilemma' is negated.

  6. Acting to gain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  7. Ignorance, information and autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Keywood, K

    2001-09-01

    People have a powerful interest in genetic privacy and its associated claim to ignorance, and some equally powerful desires to be shielded from disturbing information are often voiced. We argue, however, that there is no such thing as a right to remain in ignorance, where a fight is understood as an entitlement that trumps competing claims. This does not of course mean that information must always be forced upon unwilling recipients, only that there is no prima facie entitlement to be protected from true or honest information about oneself. Any claims to be shielded from information about the self must compete on equal terms with claims based in the rights and interests of others. In balancing the weight and importance of rival considerations about giving or withholding information, if rights claims have any place, rights are more likely to be defensible on the side of honest communication of information rather than in defence of ignorance. The right to free speech and the right to decline to accept responsibility to take decisions for others imposed by those others seem to us more plausible candidates for fully fledged rights in this field than any purported right to ignorance. Finally, and most importantly, if the right to autonomy is invoked, a proper understanding of the distinction between claims to liberty and claims to autonomy show that the principle of autonomy, as it is understood in contemporary social ethics and English law, supports the giving rather than the withholding of information in most circumstances.

  8. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  9. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  10. Reframing information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Resmini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Information architecture has changed dramatically since the mid-1990s and earlier conceptions of the world and the internet being different and separate have given way to a much more complex scenario in the present day. In the post-digital world that we now inhabit the digital and the physical blend easily and our activities and usage of information takes place through multiple contexts and via multiple devices and unstable, emergent choreographies. Information architecture now is steadily growing into a channel- or medium-specific multi-disciplinary framework, with contributions coming from a

  11. Future Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Stojmenovic, Ivan; Choi, Min; Xhafa, Fatos; FutureTech 2013

    2014-01-01

    Future technology information technology stands for all of continuously evolving and converging information technologies, including digital convergence, multimedia convergence, intelligent applications, embedded systems, mobile and wireless communications, bio-inspired computing, grid and cloud computing, semantic web, user experience and HCI, security and trust computing and so on, for satisfying our ever-changing needs. In past twenty five years or so, Information Technology (IT) influenced and changed every aspect of our lives and our cultures. These proceedings foster the dissemination of state-of-the-art research in all future IT areas, including their models, services, and novel applications associated with their utilization.

  12. Interviews with information receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories

  13. Relying on the Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TK YAYIN KURULU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The editorial discusses internet filtering in the light of the optional internet packages for users, namely Family, Standard, Kids and Domestic, to be offered by the Information Technologies Board with the "Secure Internet Law" to take effect on August 22, 2011. Also sharing the hesitations about the objectivity of the application with the reader, editorial emphasizes an education system focused on breeding citizens who are not scared of relying on the information and who can, by themselves, decide whether information is harmful or not. References are made to the results of similar applications abroad while the press statement made by Turkish NGOs on the issue are included.

  14. PROLOGUE : Health Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Tomar, Shivanjali

    2013-01-01

    Prologue is a health information system developed for underserved communities in Bihar, India. It is aimed at helping people living in poverty and with low literacy to take the right steps to manage their and their family’s health. Bihar suffers from one of the worst healthcare records in the country. This is as much due to the lack of access to the right information as it is due to the economic condition of the region. The inaccessibility of information is aggravated by the complex social se...

  15. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Information Security Management Handbook continues its tradition of consistently communicating the fundamental concepts of security needed to be a true CISSP. In response to new developments, Volume 4 supplements the previous volumes with new information covering topics such as wireless, HIPAA, the latest hacker attacks and defenses, intrusion detection, and provides expanded coverage on security management issues and applications security. Even those that don't plan on sitting for the CISSP exam will find that this handbook is a great information security reference.The changes in the tech

  16. Advanced information society (11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Kotaro

    Late in the 1980's the information system of Japanese corporation has been operated strategically to strengthen its competitive position in markets rather than to make corporate management efficient. Therefore, information-oriented policy in the corporation is making remarkable progress. This policy expands the intelligence activity in the corporation and also leads to the extension of the market in an information industry. In this environment closed corporate system is transformed into open one. For this system network and database are important managerial resources.

  17. Quantum Information Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Leuchs, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Quantum processing and communication is emerging as a challenging technique at the beginning of the new millennium. This is an up-to-date insight into the current research of quantum superposition, entanglement, and the quantum measurement process - the key ingredients of quantum information processing. The authors further address quantum protocols and algorithms. Complementary to similar programmes in other countries and at the European level, the German Research Foundation (DFG) started a focused research program on quantum information in 1999. The contributions - written by leading experts - bring together the latest results in quantum information as well as addressing all the relevant questions

  18. Accident information needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-01-01

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information

  19. Oxyfuels information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Questions have been raised about the benefits and risks of oxygenated gasoline and reformulatd gasoline (`oxyfuels`). This document highlights areas of information that would improve scientific understanding of the impacts of these fuels on the environment and public health. It emphasizes the importance of obtaining data to support quantitative assessments of oxyfuels in comparison to conventional fuels. In addition to providing some background information and outlining a general framework for comparative risk assessments of fuels, the document briefly summarizes currently available information and then focuses on work that is now underway or planned and on data needs that remain to be filled.

  20. Accident information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Arcieri, W.C.; Ward, L.W.

    1992-12-31

    A Five-step methodology has been developed to evaluate information needs for nuclear power plants under accident conditions and the availability of plant instrumentation during severe accidents. Step 1 examines the credible accidents and their relationships to plant safety functions. Step 2 determines the information personnel involved in accident management will need to understand plant behavior. Step 3 determines the capability of the instrumentation to function properly under severe accident conditions. Step 4 determines the conditions expected during the identified severe accidents. Step 5 compares the instrument capabilities and the severe accident conditions to evaluate the availability of the instrumentation to supply needed plant information.