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Sample records for antimicrobial-resistant escherichia coli

  1. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

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    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  2. Azorean wild rabbits as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

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    Marinho, Catarina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Silva, Nuno; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, David; Rodrigues, Tiago; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an increasing problem that is not only constrained to the clinical setting but also to other environments that can lodge antibiotic resistant bacteria and therefore they may serve as reservoirs of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance. One hundred and thirty-six faecal samples from European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) were collected on São Jorge Island in Azores Archipelago, and analysed for Escherichia coli isolates. Seventy-seven isolates (56.6%) were recovered and studied for antimicrobial resistance, one isolate per positive sample. Thirteen (16.9%), 19 (24.7%), 25 (32.4%) and 20 (26%) isolates were ascribed to A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups, respectively, by specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Different E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (16.9%), tetracycline (1.3%), streptomycin (42.9%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (1.3%), amikacin (1.3%), tobramycin (2.6%) and nalidixic acid (1.3%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tetA, strA/strB, aadA, sul1, intI, intI2 and qacEΔ+sul1 genes were found in most resistant isolates. This study showed that E. coli from the intestinal tract of wild rabbits from Azores Archipelago are resistant to widely prescribed antibiotics in medicine and they constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant genes, which may play a significant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, antibiotic resistant E. coli from Azorean wild rabbits may represent an ecological and public health problem.

  3. Associations between Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Virulence Genes of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Grow-Finish Pigs ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli often carries linked antimicrobial resistance genes on transmissible genetic elements. Through coselection, antimicrobial use may select for unrelated but linked resistance or virulence genes. This study used unconditional statistical associations to investigate the relationships between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes in 151 E. coli isolates from healthy pigs. Phenotypic resistance to each drug was significantly associated with phenotyp...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

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    Bryan Jill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

  5. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli in Public Beach Waters in Quebec

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    Patricia Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities.

  6. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  7. Association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli obtained from blood and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Sandvang, Dorthe; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faeces (n = 85) and blood (n = 123) were susceptibility tested against 17 antimicrobial agents and the presence of 9 virulence genes was determined by PCR. Positive associations between several antimicrobial resistances and 2 VF genes (iutA and traT) were...

  8. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integrons in Escherichia Coli from Punjab, Pakistan

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    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance was studied in Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine samples of 457 patients suffering from urinary tract infection. High prevalence of class 1 integrons (43.56%, sulfamethoxazole resistance genes sul1 (45.54% and sul2 (51.48% along with occurrence of quinolone resistance genes was detected in multi drug resistance isolates.

  9. Current perspectivesin pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

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    Kong, Haishen; Hong, Xiaoping; Li, Xuefen

    2015-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults. While the pathogenic mechanisms of EAEC intestinal colonization have been uncovered (including bacterial adhesion, enterotoxin and cytotoxin secretion, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation), those of severe extraintestinal infections remain largely unknown. The recent emergence of multidrug resistant EAEC represents an alarming public health threat and clinical challenge, and research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed.

  10. Multiple antimicrobial resistance among Avian Escherichia coli strains in Albania

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    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 101 Escherichia (E. coli isolates from broilers, laying hens and turkeys which had died from colibacillosis, collected from 37 intensive and rural farms in Albania, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility toward 12 different molecules. The highest levels of resistance were observed for Erythromycin (E (100% Amoxicillin (AMX (99.1%, Tetracycline (TE 30 (96.07%, Streptomycin (STR (93.07% and Neomycin (N30 (85.15%. Considerable resistance was also detected for fluoroquinolones. Moreover, 73.33% of E. coli resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone were also resistant to the two other fluoroquinolones checked. No evident differences were found between the E. coli from intensive and from rural farms. Multiple antibiotic resistance was expressed by all the E. coli tested. 23.63% and 17.39% of E. coli isolated from intensive and rural farms, respectively, were resistant towards all the drugs tested. These data would seem to indicate incorrect use of antibiotics on poultry farms in Albania.

  11. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

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    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  12. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

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    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  13. [Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli--epidemiology, pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance].

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    Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are one of the most common foodborne pathogen in human worldwide. High pathogenic potential of these organisms makes it often the cause of international outbreaks with numerous fatalities. This study presents the current knowledge on verocytotoxigenic E. coli: pathogenicity, drug resistance as well as the epidemiology of infections.

  14. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses.

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    Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2000-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance can make the efficient treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals more difficult. Antimicrobial use in food animals may be one of the factors contributing to resistance. The Spanish surveillance network VAV has established a baseline of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials used in animals and humans were determined for 205 faecal strains isolated in a sampling frame of four slaughterhouses in Spain from 220 pigs in 1998. Higher levels of resistance were seen against antimicrobial agents authorised for use in food animals especially tetracycline, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and amoxycillin. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials employed mainly in humans such as ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam and amikacin.

  15. MOLECULAR-PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM GOATS WITH DIARRHEA

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    Rodrigo Almeida Guimarães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea determines significant changes in feed conversion, causing productivity loss in caprine herds. The antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is characterized as an important public health issue; therefore, Escherichia coli may be characterized as an important pathogen due to expressing virulence mechanisms responsible for significant clinical conditions in humans and animals. The present study evaluated the presence of E. coli among 117 caprine fecal samples and analyzed the isolates for antimicrobial resistance. Suggestive colonies were submitted to biochemical screening followed by genotypic group determination and phylogenetic analysis; further, the samples were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test. E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter aerogenes were identified. E. coli isolates were phylogenetically classified as B2 (9/39, D (19/39, B1 (7/39 e A (4/29 groups. The analysis of the isolates also revealed the presence of K99 (04/39 and Stx (02/39 virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed sensitive isolates to Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin, being all resistant to Lincomycin, Vancomycin and Penicillin. The results support the need of establishing restricted protocols for antimicrobial use, a fundamental procedure for health improvement in Brazilian caprine herds.

  16. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

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    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  17. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

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    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  18. Antimicrobial-resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in different ecological niches in Bangladesh

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    Mahmudur Rashid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid and wide-scale environmental spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in different ecosystems has become a serious issue in recent years. Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL in Bangladeshi wild birds and aquatic environments, samples were taken from Open Bill Stork (Anastomus oscitans (OBS and the nearby water sources. Methods: Water and fresh fecal samples were collected from several locations. All samples were processed and cultured for Escherichia coli and tested for antibiotic susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics. ESBL producers were characterized at genotypic level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, multilocus sequence typing, and rep-PCR. Results and discussion: A total of 76 E. coli isolates from the 170 OBS and 8 E. coli isolates from three river sources were isolated. In total, 29% of E. coli isolated from OBS and all of the E. coli isolated from water sources were resistant to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Resistant phenotypes were observed with all antimicrobials except tigecycline, gentamicin, imipenem, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance was observed in 2.6% of OBS and 37.5% of the water isolates. Also, 1.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from OBS, whereas 50% of the E. coli isolated from water sources were ESBL producers possessing the CTX-M-15 gene. The most concerning aspect of our findings was the presence of human-associated E. coli sequence types in the water samples, for example, ST156-complex156, ST10-complex10 and ST46. Conclusion: This study reports the presence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli in OBSs and nearby aquatic sources in Bangladesh.

  19. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

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    Peng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. RESULTS: A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%, ampicillin (27.9%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, streptomycin (16.2% and ceftiofur (10.9%, and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%, gentamicin (6.9%, and spectinomycin (2.3% were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%, clindamycin (82.1%, tetracycline (64.3%, and erythromycin (48.8%. Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%, penicillin (6.0%, ciprofloxacin (3.6%, levofloxacin (1.2%, and ampicillin (1.2% were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

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    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  2. Investigation of integrons/cassettes in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from food animals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study,326 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals collected during the last four decades in China were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for integrons/cassettes.Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) testing indicated that the antimicrobial resistance of E.coli has increased since the 1970s.The findings of this study present a warning to veterinary practitioners about the excessive use of antimicrobials,and suggest the necessity for surveillance and control of antimicrobial resistance in veterinary clinical medicine in China.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  4. Factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in zoo animals.

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    Ishihara, Kanako; Hosokawa, Yuko; Makita, Kohei; Noda, Jun; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Mukai, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Ito, Masaki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-10-01

    Factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were analysed among zoo animals. An association was observed between selection of amoxicillin as the first-line therapy and a significantly higher percentage of resistance to ampicillin (54.5%) from 11 animals treated with antimicrobials, compared with isolates from 32 untreated animals (9.4%). In addition, the percentage resistance to kanamycin (36.4%), gentamicin (27.3%), trimethoprim (27.3%) and tetracycline (63.6%) from 11 treated animals was significantly higher than those from 32 untreated animals (3.1%, 3.1%, 3.1% and 25%, respectively), although these antimicrobials were rarely used. All kanamycin-, gentamicin- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates and more than half of the tetracycline-resistant isolates from treated animals were also resistant to ampicillin. Co-resistance to other antimicrobials with ampicillin was suggested to contribute to an increasing of resistance towards antimicrobials that were rarely administered. The present investigation revealed an association of antimicrobial treatment with the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among zoo animals.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of ESBLand AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from meat

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    Wasiński Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (18 strains or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin

  6. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli.

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    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Ng, J C; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2014-12-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors in Escherichia coli from swedish dairy calves

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    de Verdier Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, knowledge about the role of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in neonatal calf diarrhea and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from young calves is largely unknown. This has therapeutic concern and such knowledge is also required for prudent use of antimicrobials. Methods In a case control study Esherichia coli isolated from faecal samples from dairy calves were phenotyped by biochemical fingerprinting and analyzed for virulence genes by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Farm management data were collected and Fisher's exact test and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Of 95 E. coli tested for antimicrobial susceptibility 61% were resistant to one or more substances and 28% were multi-resistant. The virulence gene F5 (K99 was not found in any isolate. In total, 21 out of 40 of the investigated virulence genes were not detected or rarely detected. The virulence genes espP, irp, and fyuA were more common in resistant E. coli than in fully susceptible isolates (P terZ was associated with calf diarrhea (P ≤ 0.01. The participating 85 herds had a median herd size of 80 lactating cows. Herds with calf diarrhea problems were larger (> 55 cows; P P There was no association between calf diarrhea and diversity of enteric E. coli. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance was common in E. coli from pre-weaned dairy calves, occurring particularly in calves from herds experiencing calf diarrhea problems. The results indicate that more factors than use of antimicrobials influence the epidemiology of resistant E. coli. Enteropathogenic E. coli seems to be an uncommon cause of neonatal calf diarrhea in Swedish dairy herds. In practice, calf diarrhea should be regarded holistically in a context of infectious agents, calf immunity, management practices etc. We therefore advice against routine

  8. Clonal spread of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates among pups in two kennels

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    Takahashi Toshio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the dog breeding industry is common in many countries, the presence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria among pups in kennels has been infrequently investigated. This study was conducted to better understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from kennel pups not treated with antimicrobials. We investigated susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobials, and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL in 86 faecal E. coli isolates from 43 pups in two kennels. Genetic relatedness among all isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Susceptibility tests revealed that 76% of the isolates were resistant to one or more of tested antimicrobials, with resistance to dihydrostreptomycin most frequently encountered (66.3% followed by ampicillin (60.5%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.9%, oxytetracycline (26.7%, and chloramphenicol (26.7%. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance against two or more classes of antimicrobials, was observed in 52 (60.5% isolates. Three pups in one kennel harboured SHV-12 ESBL-producing isolates. A comparison between the two kennels showed that frequencies of resistance against seven antimicrobials and the variation in resistant phenotypes differed significantly. Analysis by PFGE revealed that clone sharing rates among pups of the same litters were not significantly different in both kennels (64.0% vs. 88.9%, whereas the rates among pups from different litters were significantly different between the two kennels (72.0% vs. 33.3%, P E. coli clones, including multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing clones. It is likely that resistant and susceptible bacteria can clonally spread among the same and/or different litters thus affecting the resistance prevalence.

  9. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70% and ampicillin (63%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A (72%, blaTEM (68%, and sul1 (47%, while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9. Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN, 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection.

  10. After genomics, what proteomics tools could help us understand the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhouani, Hajer; Pinto, Luís; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2012-06-01

    Proteomic approaches have been considerably improved during the past decade and have been used to investigate the differences in protein expression profiles of cells grown under a broad spectrum of growth conditions and with different stress factors including antibiotics. In Europe, the most significant disease threat remains the presence of microorganisms that have become resistant to antimicrobials and so it is important that different scientific tools are combined to achieve the largest amount of knowledge in this area of expertise. The emergence and spread of the antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, can lead to serious problem public health in humans. E. coli, a very well described prokaryote, has served as a model organism for several biological and biotechnological studies increasingly so since the completion of the E. coli genome-sequencing project. The purpose of this review is to present an overview of the different proteomic approaches to antimicrobial-resistant E. coli that will be helpful to obtain a better knowledge of the antibiotic-resistant mechanism(s). This can also aid to understand the molecular determinants involved with pathogenesis, which is essential for the development of effective strategies to combat infection and to reveal new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in West of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Benameur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern poultry flocks undergo strong microbial pressure. Antibiotics can contribute to reduce bacterial infections. Their use increased these last years. Studies performed in Morocco and Algeria highlighted the importance of antibioresistance after excessive use of antibiotics in poultry breeding. In western Algeria, 240 strains of enterobacteriaceae were isolated according to usual bacteriological procedures. In order to assess antimicrobial resistance, the disc diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility (tetracycline (TE, enrofloxacin (ENR, trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (AMC, ceftiofur (KF, colistin (CT, neomycin (N, gentamicin (GN and chloramphenicol (C was applied (Antibioresistance Committee of the French Microbiology Society, 2010. All enterobacteriaceae strains isolated presented at least one resistance to those antibiotics. Escherichia coli counted for 47.5% of these strains (N=114. By omitting intermediate resistances, 28% of E. coli presented a resistance to at least 6 antibiotics and 31.6% to 5 antibiotics. In general, 90.35%, 79.82%, 70.17%, 92.10%, 62.28%, 31.57% and 21.05% of E. coli were resistant to, respectively, TE, ENR, SXT, AMC, KF, CT and N. Considering such a high resistance rate, it is strongly advised to implement epidemiological survey of bacterial resistances at the regional level.

  12. Whole-Genome Analysis of Antimicrobial-Resistant and Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in River Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Michio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Yoneda, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    Contamination of surface waters by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria is a great concern. In this study, 531 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River in Japan were evaluated phenotypically for resistance to 25 antimicrobials. Seventy-six isolates (14.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR), 66 (12.4%) were nonsusceptible to one or two classes of agents, and 389 (73.3%) were susceptible. We performed whole-genome sequencing of selected strains by using Illumina technology. In total, the genome sequences of 155 strains were analyzed for antibiotic resistance determinants and phylogenetic characteristics. More than 50 different resistance determinants, including acquired resistance genes and chromosomal resistance mutations, were detected. Among the sequenced MDR strains (n = 66), sequence type 155 (ST155) complex (n = 9), ST10 complex (n = 9), and ST69 complex (n = 7) were prevalent. Among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains (n = 58), clinically important clonal groups, namely, ST95 complex (n = 18), ST127 complex (n = 8), ST12 complex (n = 6), ST14 complex (n = 6), and ST131 complex (n = 6), were prevalent, demonstrating the clonal distribution of environmental ExPEC strains. Typing of the fimH (type 1 fimbrial adhesin) gene revealed that ST131 complex strains carried fimH22 or fimH41, and no strains belonging to the fimH30 subgroup were detected. Fine-scale phylogenetic analysis and virulence gene content analysis of strains belonging to the ST95 complex (one of the major clonal ExPEC groups causing community-onset infections) revealed no significant differences between environmental and clinical strains. The results indicate contamination of surface waters by E. coli strains belonging to clinically important clonal groups.IMPORTANCE The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant and pathogenic E. coli strains in surface waters is a concern because surface waters are used as sources for drinking water, irrigation, and

  13. Enterobacterial detection and Escherichia coli antimicrobial resistance in parrots seized from the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidasi, Hilari Wanderley; Hidasi Neto, José; Moraes, Dunya Mara Cardoso; Linhares, Guido Fontgallad Coelho; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora

    2013-03-01

    Enteric bacteria are considered important potential pathogens in avian clinical medicine, causing either primary or opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of enterobacteria in the intestinal microbiota of psittacine birds and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the Escherichia coli isolates cultured. Fecal samples were collected from 300 parrots captured from the illegal wildlife trade in Goiás, Brazil and were processed using conventional bacteriological procedures. A total of 508 isolates were obtained from 300 fecal samples: 172 E. coli (33.9% of isolates; 57.3% of individuals); 153 Enterobacter spp. (30.1% of isolates; 51.0% of individuals); 89 Klebsiella spp. (17.7% of isolates; 29.7% of individuals); 59 Citrobacter spp. (11.6% of isolates; 19.7% of individuals), 21 Proteus vulgaris (4.2% of isolates; 7.0% of individuals), 5 Providencia alcalifaciens (0.98% of isolates; 1.67% of individuals), 5 Serratia sp. (0.98% of isolates; 1.67% of individuals), 3 Hafnia aivei (0.59% of isolates; 1.00% of individuals), and 1 Salmonella sp. (0.20% of isolates; 0.33% of individuals). Escherichia coli isolates were subsequently tested for susceptibility to the following antibiotics: amoxicillin (70.93% of the isolates were resistant), ampicillin (75.58%), ciprofloxacin (23.25%), chloramphenicol (33.14%), doxycycline (64.53%), enrofloxacin (41.28%), tetracycline (69.19%), and sulfonamide (71.51%). Multi-resistance to three and four groups of antibiotics occurred in 40 samples (23.25%) and 4 samples (2.32%), respectively. These results demonstrate that illegally traded birds are carriers of potentially pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli strains with antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from Tigris River and children diarrhea

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    Ibrahim IA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Israa AJ Ibrahim, Rana M Al-Shwaikh, Mahmoud I IsmaeilDepartment of Biology, College of Education for Pure Science, Ibn Al-Haitham, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, IraqObjective: To investigate the virulence factors including hemolysin production, β-lactamase production, and biofilm formation. Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid content of 20 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from feces and Tigris water were screened.Methods: Ten clinical and ten environmental E. coli isolates were collected from children diarrhea and swim areas on Tigris River in Baghdad city, Iraq, respectively. The bacterial isolates were identified by cultural characteristics, Gram stain, biochemical tests, and screened for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 serotype. Bacterial E. coli isolates were investigated for hemolysin production, biofilm formation, and β-lactamase production. Antibiotics susceptibility and plasmid content were determined.Results: A total of ten clinical and ten water E. coli isolates were studied. Results showed that all E. coli isolates give negative results for latex O157:H7. Virulence factors analysis showed that 6/10 water isolates and 2/10 clinical isolates were hemolytic, 5/10 water isolates and 3/10 clinical isolates were biofilm formation, and 7/10 water isolates and 4/10 clinical isolates were β-lactamase producer. Antibiotics profile showed that all bacterial isolates were multidrug resistant. All E. coli isolates (100% were resistant to carbenicillin, cefodizime, imipenem, and piperacillin. The plasmid DNA analysis showed that all E. coli isolates contained plasmid with molecular weight range between 4.507 kbp and 5.07 kbp, but clinical isolates contained multiple small and mega plasmids.Conclusion: Our study revealed that E. coli isolates from river water exhibit a higher level of hemolysin production, β-lactamase production, and biofilm formation than feces isolates may be due to long adaptation. On the other hand, clinical E. coli

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance in Indicator Escherichia coli Isolates from Free-Ranging Livestock and Sympatric Wild Ungulates in a Natural Environment (Northeastern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N.; Porrero, M.C.; Mentaberre, G.; Serrano, E.; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L.; Lavín, S

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild ungulates in a natural environment (Northeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Porrero, M C; Mentaberre, G; Serrano, E; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance was assessed in indicator Escherichia coli isolates from free-ranging livestock and sympatric wild boar (Sus scrofa) and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in a National Game Reserve in northeastern Spain. The frequency of antimicrobial resistance was low (0% to 7.9%). However, resistance to an extended-spectrum cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones was detected.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Australian Cattle Populations at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Robert S; McMillan, Kate E; Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle; Jordan, David; Mellor, Glen E

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacteria associated with diseases. Australia is the world's third largest exporter of beef; however, this country does not have an ongoing surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle or in foods derived from these animals. In this study, 910 beef cattle, 290 dairy cattle, and 300 veal calf fecal samples collected at slaughter were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the phenotypic AMR of 800 E. coli and 217 Salmonella isolates was determined. E. coli was readily isolated from all types of samples (92.3% of total samples), whereas Salmonella was recovered from only 14.4% of samples and was more likely to be isolated from dairy cattle samples than from beef cattle or veal calf samples. The results of AMR testing corroborate previous Australian animal and retail food surveys, which have indicated a low level of AMR. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella isolates from beef cattle was detected infrequently; however, the resistance was to antimicrobials of low importance in human medicine. Although some differences in AMR between isolates from the different types of animals were observed, there is minimal evidence that specific production practices are responsible for disproportionate contributions to AMR development. In general, resistance to antimicrobials of critical and high importance in human medicine was low regardless of the isolate source. The low level of AMR in bacteria from Australian cattle is likely a result of strict regulation of antimicrobials in food animals in Australia and animal management systems that do not favor bacterial disease.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from organic and conventional poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Fente, C A; Calo-Mata, P; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2008-12-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 55 samples of organic poultry meat and in 61 samples of conventional poultry meat. A total of 220 E. coli, 192 S. aureus, and 71 L. monocytogenes strains were analyzed by an agar disk diffusion assay for their resistance to ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole (E. coli); chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, oxacillin, and sulfisoxazole (S. aureus); and chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin (L. monocytogenes). The results indicated a significantly higher (P poultry meat as compared with conventional poultry meat. E. coli isolated from organic poultry meat exhibited lower levels of antimicrobial resistance against 7 of the 10 antimicrobials tested as compared with isolates recovered from conventional meat. In the case of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes isolated from conventional poultry, antimicrobial resistance was significantly higher only for doxycycline as compared with strains isolated from organic poultry. In the case of E. coli, the presence of multiresistant strains was significantly higher (P poultry meat as compared with organic poultry meat. Organically farmed poultry samples showed significantly lower development of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal bacteria such as E. coli.

  19. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsdottir, T R; Haraldsson, G; Fridriksdottir, V; Kristinsson, K G; Gunnarsson, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of resistant bacteria in food products in Iceland is unknown, and little is known of the prevalence in production animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy pigs and broiler chicken, pork, broiler meat, slaughterhouse personnel and outpatients in Iceland. A total of 419 E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a microbroth dilution method (VetMIC), and resistant strains were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All samples were screened for enrofloxacin-resistant strains with selective agar plates. The resistance rates among E. coli isolates were moderate to high from caecal and meat samples of pigs (54.1% and 28%), broilers (33.6% and 52%) and slaughterhouse personnel (39.1%), whereas isolates from outpatients showed moderate resistance rates (23.1%). Of notice was resistance to quinolones (minimum inhibitory concentrations: nalidixic acid > or = 32, ciprofloxacin > or = 0.12 and enrofloxacin > or = 0.5), particularly among broiler and broiler meat isolates (18.2% and 36%), as there is no known antimicrobial selection pressure in the broiler production in Iceland. The majority (78.6%) of the resistant E. coli isolates was genotypically different, based on PFGE fingerprint analyses and clustering was limited. However, the same resistance pattern and pulsotype were found among isolates from broiler meat and a slaughterhouse worker, indicating spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. Diverse resistance patterns and pulsotypes suggest the presence of a large population of resistant E. coli in production animals in Iceland. This study gives baseline information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from production animals, and their food products in Iceland and the moderate to high resistance rates emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. Further studies on the

  20. Regional, Seasonal, and Temporal Variations in the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Pigs at Slaughter in Denmark (1997-2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær;

    2009-01-01

    and explanatory variables region, season, and the year of isolate sampling were analyzed using a logistic regression model. The Cochran-Armitage test provided evidence of significant temporal trends for ampicillin-resistant E. coli (an increasing trend, p ...The aim of this study was to analyze and discuss regional, seasonal, and temporal trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from pigs at slaughter in Denmark between 1997 and 2005. Data on antimicrobial-resistant E. coli were obtained from the Danish Integrated...... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme database. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to detect the presence and evaluate the significance of regional, seasonal, and annual trends in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for four drugs. Associations between resistance...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Escherichia coli in Cheese Made from Unpasteurized Milk in Three Cities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laryssa Freitas; Barbosa, Mayhara Martins Cordeiro; Pinto, Fernanda de Rezende; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Oliveira, Mônica Costa; de Souza, Viviane; de Medeiros, Maria Izabel Merino; Borges, Lucimara Antonio; do Amaral, Luiz Augusto; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-09-01

    The production of cheeses from unpasteurized milk is still widespread in Brazil, even with a legal ban imposed on its marketing. The manufacture of this cheese is a public health problem, due to the use of raw milk and the poor hygienic conditions throughout the supply chain process. Contamination may occur from several sources and involve several different pathogenic microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli. The latter can cause different clinical manifestations depending on the pathotype involved. Furthermore, some isolates manifest antimicrobial resistance and may be a risk for public health. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic E. coli in raw-milk cheese in Brazil and their possible risk to public health. A total of 83 cheeses were collected from three different cities and 169 E. coli isolates were characterized for the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigatoxigenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) virulence genes, phylogenetic type, antimicrobial resistance, O serogroup, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The number of samples positive for E. coli was highest in Aracaju (90.32%, 28/31). The prevalence of samples positive for potential ExPEC genes was similar for Uberaba and Aracaju (23.07%); the most prevalent ExPEC virulence genes were tsh, iucD, and papC. Isolates from Uberaba had a higher prevalence of resistance to tetracycline (38.46%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (58.85%), and ampicillin (61.54%) than the other cities. Overall, antimicrobial resistance genes tetB, blaTEM, and blaCMY-2 were the most prevalent genes (26.32%, 15.79%, and 28.95%, respectively) and the most prevalent serotypes were O4 (8%), 018 (12%), and O23 (8%). Clones originating from the same regions and from different regions were observed. These results emphasize the presence of a potential danger for humans in the consumption of raw-milk cheeses in three cities in Brazil due to

  3. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Meinersmann, Richard J; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Englen, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli in relation to plasmid replicon types, animal sources, and genotypes. E. coli isolates (n = 35) from seven different animal sources were selected and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relationships among the E. coli isolates. Plasmid types based on their incompatibility (Inc) replicon types were determined, and linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for antimicrobial resistance profiles, replicon types, and animal source. A high degree of genotypic diversity was observed: 34 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types among the 35 isolates examined. Twelve different plasmid Inc types were detected, and all isolates carried at least one replicon type. IncF (n = 25; 71.4%) and IncFIB (n = 19; 54.3%) were the most common replicon types identified. Chloramphenicol resistance was significantly linked with four Inc types (A/C, FIIA, F, and Y), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was linked with three Inc types (B/O, P and Y). Resistance to any other antimicrobial was linked to two or fewer replicon types. The isolate source was linked with resistance to seven antimicrobials and IncI1. We conclude that commensal E. coli from animal sources are highly variable genotypically and are reservoirs of a diverse array of plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from hen egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande Burgos, María José; Fernández Márquez, Maria Luisa; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-12-05

    Eggs may contain extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) and diarrheogenic (DEC) Escherichia coli which in addition may carry antibiotic resistance. The wide use of biocides and disinfectants in the food industry may induce biocide tolerance in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance in E. coli from hen egg shells. A total of 27 isolates obtained from a screening of 180 eggs were studied. Seven isolates carried both eae and bfpA genes of typical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains, while 14 isolates only carried eae associated with atypical EPEC strains. Shiga toxin genes stx and stx2 were detected in four isolates. Heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxin genes as well as aggR were also detected. Several isolates had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) that were higher than the wild-type for the biocide hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP, 18.52%) or the commercial disinfectant P3 oxonia (OX, 14.81%). Antibiotic resistance was detected for ampicillin (37.03%), streptomycin (37.03%), tetracycline (37.03%), chloramphenicol (11.11%), nalidixic acid (18.51%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (14.81%). Eight isolates (29.63%) were biocide tolerant and antibiotic resistant. Efflux pump genes detected included acrB (96.29%), mdfA (85.18%) and oxqA (37.03%), in addition to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance genes qacA/B (11.11%) and qacE (7.40%). Antibiotic resistance genes detected included blaCTX-M-2 (22.22%), blaTEM (3.70%), blaPSE (3.70%), tet(A) (29.63%), tet(B) (29.63%), tet(C) (7.40%), tet(E) (11.11%), aac(6')-Ib (3.70%), sul1 (14.81%), dfrA12 (3.70%) and dfrA15 (3.70%). Most isolates (96.30%) carried more than one genetic determinant of resistance. The most frequent combinations were efflux pump components acrB and mdfA with tetracycline resistance genes (33.33% of isolates). Isolates carrying QAC resistance genes also carried between 4 and 8 of the additional antimicrobial resistance genes

  5. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Talebiyan; Mehdi Kheradmand; Faham Khamesipour; Mohammad Rabiee-Faradonbeh

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88....

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Escherichia coli Causing Bloodstream Infections in Three Hospitals in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wang

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is one of the most frequent and lethal causes of bloodstream infections (BSIs. We carried out a retrospective multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic background of clinical E. coli isolates recovered from bloodstream in three hospitals in Shanghai. E. coli isolates causing BSIs were consecutively collected between Sept 2013 and Sept 2014. Ninety isolates randomly selected (30 from each hospital were enrolled in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion. PCR was used to detect antimicrobial resistance genes coding for β-lactamases (TEM, CTX-M, OXA, etc., carbapenemases (IMP, VIM, KPC, NDM-1 and OXA-48, and phylogenetic groups. eBURST was applied for analysis of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST. The resistance rates for penicillins, second-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone and tetracyclines were high (>60%. Sixty-one of the 90 (67.8% strains enrolled produced ESBLs and no carbapenemases were found. Molecular analysis showed that CTX-M-15 (25/61, CTX-M-14 (18/61 and CTX-M-55 (9/61 were the most common ESBLs. Phylogenetic group B2 predominated (43.3% and exhibited the highest rates of ESBLs production. ST131 (20/90 was the most common sequence type and almost assigned to phylogenetic group B2 (19/20. The following sequence types were ST405 (8/90 and ST69 (5/90. Among 61 ESBL-producers isolates, B2 (26, 42.6% and ST131 (18, 29.5% were also the most common phylogenetic group and sequence type. Genetic diversity showed no evidence suggesting a spread of these antimicrobial resistant isolates in the three hospitals. In order to provide more comprehensive and reliable epidemiological information for preventing further dissemination, well-designed and continuous surveillance with more hospitals participating was important.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of Escherichia coli Causing Bloodstream Infections in Three Hospitals in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Zhao, Sheng-Yuan; Xiao, Shu-Zhen; Gu, Fei-Fei; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Tang, Jin; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Ni, Yu-Xing; Han, Li-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most frequent and lethal causes of bloodstream infections (BSIs). We carried out a retrospective multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic background of clinical E. coli isolates recovered from bloodstream in three hospitals in Shanghai. E. coli isolates causing BSIs were consecutively collected between Sept 2013 and Sept 2014. Ninety isolates randomly selected (30 from each hospital) were enrolled in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion. PCR was used to detect antimicrobial resistance genes coding for β-lactamases (TEM, CTX-M, OXA, etc.), carbapenemases (IMP, VIM, KPC, NDM-1 and OXA-48), and phylogenetic groups. eBURST was applied for analysis of multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The resistance rates for penicillins, second-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone and tetracyclines were high (>60%). Sixty-one of the 90 (67.8%) strains enrolled produced ESBLs and no carbapenemases were found. Molecular analysis showed that CTX-M-15 (25/61), CTX-M-14 (18/61) and CTX-M-55 (9/61) were the most common ESBLs. Phylogenetic group B2 predominated (43.3%) and exhibited the highest rates of ESBLs production. ST131 (20/90) was the most common sequence type and almost assigned to phylogenetic group B2 (19/20). The following sequence types were ST405 (8/90) and ST69 (5/90). Among 61 ESBL-producers isolates, B2 (26, 42.6%) and ST131 (18, 29.5%) were also the most common phylogenetic group and sequence type. Genetic diversity showed no evidence suggesting a spread of these antimicrobial resistant isolates in the three hospitals. In order to provide more comprehensive and reliable epidemiological information for preventing further dissemination, well-designed and continuous surveillance with more hospitals participating was important.

  8. The changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance within 42,033 Escherichia coli isolates from nosocomial, community and urology patient-specific urinary tract infections, Dublin, 1999-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullen, Ivor M

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli urinary tract infection over an eleven year period, and to determine whether E. coli antibiotic resistance rates vary depending on whether the UTI represents a nosocomial, community acquired or urology patient specific infection.

  9. Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler Chicken Meat, Broiler Chickens, Pork, and Pigs Share Phylogroups and Antimicrobial Resistance with Community-Dwelling Humans and Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L.; Kurbasic, A.; Skjot-Rasmussen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance...

  10. A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Jaspers, Stijn; Butaye, Patrick; Wattiau, Pierre; Méroc, Estelle; Aerts, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Van der Stede, Yves

    2015-12-01

    A temporal trend analysis was performed on antimicrobial resistance data collected over 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) in the official Belgian antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme. Commensal Escherichia coli strains were isolated from faecal samples of four livestock categories (veal calves, young beef cattle, broiler chickens and slaughter pigs) and the trends of resistance profiles were analysed. The resistance prevalence remained high (>50%) during the study period for ampicillin in veal calves and chickens, for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in chickens, for sulfamethoxazole in veal calves, chickens and pigs and for tetracycline in veal calves. Using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equation and after p value adjustment for multiple testing (Linear step-up method), statistically significant decreasing temporal trends were observed for several of the 11 tested antimicrobials in several livestock categories: in veal calves (10/11), in chickens (6/11) and in pigs (5/11). A significant increasing trend was observed for the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in chickens. Multi-resistance, considered as the resistance to at least three antimicrobials of different antibiotic classes, was observed in the four livestock categories but was significantly decreasing in veal calves, chickens and pigs. Overall, the prevalence of resistance and of multi-resistance was lowest in the beef cattle livestock category and highest in broiler chickens. These decreasing temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance might be due to a decrease of the total antimicrobial consumption for veterinary use in Belgium which was reported for the period between 2010 and 2013. The methodology and statistical tools developed in this study provide outputs which can detect shifts in resistance levels or resistance trends associated with particular antimicrobial classes and livestock categories. Such outputs can be used as objective evidence to evaluate the possible

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for the

  13. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Natália; Meneghetti, Karine Lena; de Almeida, Clara Ponzi; da Rosa Bastos, Marina; Otton, Letícia Muner; Corção, Gertrudes

    2016-01-01

    Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacEΔ1 gene at the 3' conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  14. Study of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in healthy broilers of Jabalpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Arpita; Sharma, R. K.; Sahni, Y. P.; Shrivastav, Neeraj; Gautam, Vidhi; Jain, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in samples collected from the ceca of healthy broilers of poultry sale outlets (PSOs) Jabalpur. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 cecal swab samples were taken randomly from freshly slaughtered poultry of 39 PSOs located at four different zones or areas of Jabalpur and were screened for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli using standard methods. Further they were characterized phenotypically by standard methods. Results: All the 400 samples were screened for E. coli producing ESBL enzyme. Among the samples positive for E. coli 135 were positive for ESBL E. coli giving an overall prevalence of 33.5%. Conclusion: This study related to the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in healthy broilers in Jabalpur is indicative of antibiotic resistance prevalent in the healthy birds which are used for human consumption as well. It also signifies resistance prevalent against beta-lactam antibiotics including third and fourth generations of cephalosporins. PMID:27956778

  15. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAM Stephenson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs. Objectives: We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. Methods: A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin. Results: Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%, was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%. The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01 among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. Conclusions: This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  16. Determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from faeces and urine of women with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper D J den Heijer

    Full Text Available For women with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI, the contribution of antibiotic use versus patient-related factors in determining the presence of antimicrobial resistance in faecal and urinary Escherichia coli, obtained from the same patient population, has not been assessed yet. Within the context of the 'Non-antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections' (NAPRUTI study, the present study assessed determinants of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from urinary and faecal samples of women with rUTIs collected at baseline. Potential determinants of resistance were retrieved from self-administered questionnaires. From 434 asymptomatic women, 433 urinary and 424 faecal samples were obtained. E. coli was isolated from 146 (34% urinary samples and from 336 (79% faecal samples, and subsequently tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Multivariable analysis showed trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT use three months prior to inclusion to be associated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-9.9, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 4.4, 1.5-13.3, trimethoprim (OR 3.9, 1.4-10.5 and SXT (OR 3.2, 1.2-8.5, and with faecal E. coli resistance to trimethoprim (OR 2.0, 1.0-3.7. The number of UTIs in the preceding year was correlated with urine E. coli resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (OR 1.11, 1.01-1.22, trimethoprim (OR 1.13, 1.03-1.23 and SXT (OR 1.10, 1.01-1.19. Age was predictive for faecal E. coli resistance to amoxicillin (OR 1.02, 1.00-1.03, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (both OR 1.03, 1.01-1.06. In conclusion, in women with rUTI different determinants were found for urinary and faecal E. coli resistance. Previous antibiotic use and UTI history were associated with urine E. coli resistance and age was a predictor of faecal E. coli resistance. These associations could best be explained by cumulative antibiotic use.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems.

  18. Prevalence and molecular epidemiological characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese black beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Hasegawa, Megumi; Esaki, Hidetake; Muramatsu, Masatake; Hirayama, Norio; Hirai, Katsuya

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in Japanese black beef cattle from the three major production regions of Japan. We collected and examined 291 fecal samples from Japanese black beef cattle in Hokkaido, Chubu, and Kyushu. Of the 3,147 E. coli isolates, 1,397 (44.4%) were resistant to one or more antibiotics; these included 553 (39.8%) of 1,388 isolates from Hokkaido, 352 (54.4%) of 647 isolates from Chubu, and 492 (44.2%) of 1,112 isolates from Kyushu. The difference in resistance rates between the three regions was significant. The antibiotics with the highest rates of resistance were oxytetracycline and dihydrostreptomycin (35.8% each), followed by ampicillin (21.4%). Further, E. coli isolates from calves had higher resistance rates than those from growing cattle and mature cattle, and the calf isolates showed high rates of resistance to gentamicin (20.2%), enrofloxacin (9.4%), and ceftiofur (4.2%). In addition, the high degrees of similarity in the genotypes of the isolates and in the resistance patterns on each farm suggest that resistance bacteria and resistance genes were horizontally transferred. Most isolates, in each of the three regions, harbored resistance genes such as blaTEM, strA, strB, aphA1, aphAI-IAB, and catI. In contrast to the isolates from Kyushu, most of which harbored aacC2, tetB, and dfrA12, the isolates from Hokkaido and Chubu harbored a variety of resistance genes. Furthermore, the prevalence of genes for resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim differed significantly between the regions. This is the first large-scale study describing and comparing antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from different regions in Japan. The results will contribute to improving food safety and promoting careful usage of antimicrobial agents.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus from Raw Fish and Seafood Imported into Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Renate; Overesch, Gudrun; Baumgartner, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    A total of 44 samples of salmon, pangasius (shark catfish), shrimps, and oysters were tested for the presence of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, which are indicator organisms commonly used in programs to monitor antibiotic resistance. The isolated bacterial strains, confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, were tested against a panel of 29 antimicrobial agents to obtain MICs. Across the four sample types, Enterococcus faecalis (59%) was most common, followed by E. coli (55%), P. aeruginosa (27%), and S. aureus (9%). All bacterial species were resistant to some antibiotics. The highest rates of resistance were in E. faecalis to tetracycline (16%), in E. coli to ciprofloxacin (22%), and in S. aureus to penicillin (56%). Antibiotic resistance was found among all sample types, but salmon and oysters were less burdened than were shrimps and pangasius. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were exclusively found in shrimps and pangasius: 17% of pangasius samples (MDR E. coli and S. aureus) and 64% of shrimps (MDR E. coli, E. faecalis, and S. aureus). Two of these MDR E. coli isolates from shrimps (one from an organic sample) were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents. Based on these findings, E. coli in pangasius, shrimps, and oysters, E. faecalis in pangasius, shrimps, and salmon, and P. aeruginosa in pangasius and shrimps are potential candidates for programs monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Enrichment methods for the detection of MDR bacteria of special public health concern, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus and E. coli producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases, should be implemented.

  20. Risk factors for carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario, Canada, in 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Erin K; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Finley, Rita L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Peregrine, Andrew S

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine pet-related management factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli in a population of pet dogs. SAMPLE 138 dogs from 84 households in Ontario, Canada. PROCEDURES From October 2005 through May 2006, dogs and households in Ontario, Canada, were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Fecal samples were submitted for culture of Salmonella spp and E coli, which provided 515 bacterial isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for household and dog were created to identify pet-related management factors associated with antimicrobial resistance. RESULTS Bacterial species, feeding a homemade diet or adding homemade food to the diet, feeding a raw diet or adding anything raw to the diet, feeding a homemade raw food diet, and feeding raw chicken in the past week were significant risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in this population of dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, several potentially important pet-related risk factors for the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp and E coli in pet dogs were identified. Further evaluation of risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in dogs may lead to development of evidence-based guidelines for safe and responsible dog ownership and management to protect the public, especially pet owners who are immunocompromised.

  1. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Canal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacE Δ1 gene at the 3′ conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  2. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  3. Impact of UV and peracetic acid disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli in wastewater effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basanta Kumar; Khairallah, Ramzi; Bibi, Kareem; Mazza, Alberto; Gehr, Ronald; Masson, Luke; Frigon, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater discharges may increase the populations of pathogens, including Escherichia coli, and of antimicrobial-resistant strains in receiving waters. This study investigated the impact of UV and peracetic acid (PAA) disinfection on the prevalence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most abundant E. coli pathotype in municipal wastewaters. Laboratory disinfection experiments were conducted on wastewater treated by physicochemical, activated sludge, or biofiltration processes; 1,766 E. coli isolates were obtained for the evaluation. The target disinfection level was 200 CFU/100 ml, resulting in UV and PAA doses of 7 to 30 mJ/cm(2) and 0.9 to 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. The proportions of UPECs were reduced in all samples after disinfection, with an average reduction by UV of 55% (range, 22% to 80%) and by PAA of 52% (range, 11% to 100%). Analysis of urovirulence genes revealed that the decline in the UPEC populations was not associated with any particular virulence factor. A positive association was found between the occurrence of urovirulence and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). However, the changes in the prevalence of ARGs in potential UPECs were different following disinfection, i.e., UV appears to have had no effect, while PAA significantly reduced the ARG levels. Thus, this study showed that both UV and PAA disinfections reduced the proportion of UPECs and that PAA disinfection also reduced the proportion of antimicrobial resistance gene-carrying UPEC pathotypes in municipal wastewaters.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance, integrons and plasmid replicon typing in multiresistant clinical Escherichia coli strains from Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chah, Kennedy F; Agbo, Ifeoma C; Eze, Didacus C; Somalo, Sergio; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Eleven multiresistant Escherichia coli strains of animal and human origin were assayed for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, integrons and associated gene cassettes, as well as plasmid content. Ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were screened for amino acid changes in GyrA and ParC proteins. The E. coli strains were found to harbor a variety of genes including cmlA, aac (3)-II, aac (3)-IV, aadA, strA-strB, tet (A), tet (B), bla(TEM), sul1, sul2 and sul3. Four of the eight int I1-positive strains were also positive for qacE Δ1 -sul1 region and the following gene cassettes were detected: dfrA7, dfrA12 + orfF + aadA2 and bla(OXA1)+ aadA1. Five strains contained class 1 integrons lacking the qacE Δ1 -sul1 region and they showed a single type of gene cassette arrangement (estX + psp + aadA2 + cmlA + aadA1 + qacH + IS440 + sul3). The two int I2-positive strains carried the same type of gene cassette arrangement (dfrA1 + sat + aadA1). The seven ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains exhibited a Ser-83-Leu substitution in GyrA protein and a Ser-80-Ile substitution in ParC protein; six of these strains presented an additional substitution in GyrA (Asp-87-Gly or Asp-87-Asn) and one strain in ParC (Glu-84-Gly). Eight different plasmid-replicon-types were detected among the 11 E. coli strains, IncF being the most frequent one detected, found in nine strains; other plasmid replicon types detected were IncX, IncI1, IncY, IncW, IncFIC, IncB/O, and IncK. Antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli strains studied was mediated by a variety of genes, some of them included in integrons, as well as by mutations gyr A and par C genes.

  5. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung; Park, Kun Taek; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-06-30

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Bamusi; Mafirakureva, Prettimore; Mbanga, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), can lead to great economic losses in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns in APEC in Zimbabwe. From 503 chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis, 103 E. coli isolates were obtained. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using microscopy and biochemical tests. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 8 commercial antibiotics. Many isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antibiotic. Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to tetracycline (100%), bacitracin (100%), and cloxacillin (100%) and a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (94.1%). However; there were high prevalences of sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (100%) and gentamycin (97.1%). The isolates showed moderate rates of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and neomycin. All isolates in this study showed multidrug resistance because they were all resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Seven multidrug resistance patterns were observed. The most common pattern (resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, cloxacillin, and tetracycline) was exhibited by 30 isolates. Our findings show that there is emerging drug resistance in APEC associated with colibacillosis in Zimbabwe. The observed high level of multidrug resistance could hamper the treatment of colibacillosis in Zimbabwe.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

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    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  8. Impact of wastewater from different sources on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in sewage treatment plants in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Masato; Senba, Hironobu; Otagiri, Haruna; Prabhasankar, Valipparambil P; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Ian Joshua, Derrick; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2015-05-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) is one of the most important interfaces between the human population and the aquatic environment, leading to contamination of the latter by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To identify factors affecting the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, water samples were collected from three different STPs in South India. STP1 exclusively treats sewage generated by a domestic population. STP2 predominantly treats sewage generated by a domestic population with a mix of hospital effluent. STP3 treats effluents generated exclusively by a hospital. The water samples were collected between three intermediate treatment steps including equalization, aeration, and clarification, in addition to the outlet to assess the removal rates of bacteria as the effluent passed through the treatment plant. The samples were collected in three different seasons to study the effect of seasonal variation. Escherichia coli isolated from the water samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that the hospital wastewater inflow significantly increased the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, whereas the treatment processes and sampling seasons did not affect the prevalence of these isolates. A bias in the genotype distribution of E. coli was observed among the isolates obtained from STP3. In conclusion, hospital wastewaters should be carefully treated to prevent the contamination of Indian environment with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  9. Prevalence of Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance among Commensal Escherichia coli Derived from Dairy and Beef Cattle

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    Ewa Bok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli, bacteria that can represent a significant threat to public health, hence it is crucial to monitor the prevalence of the genetic determinants of virulence and antimicrobial resistance among the E. coli population. The aim of this study was the analysis of the phylogenetic structure, distribution of virulence factors (VFs and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolated from two groups of healthy cattle: 50 cows housed in the conventional barn (147 isolates and 42 cows living on the ecological pasture (118 isolates. The phylogenetic analysis, identification of VFs and antimicrobial resistance genes were based on either multiplex or simplex PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of E. coli were examined using the broth microdilution method. Two statistical approaches were used to analyse the results obtained for two groups of cattle. The relations between the dependent (VFs profiles, antibiotics and the independent variables were described using the two models. The mixed logit model was used to characterise the prevalence of the analysed factors in the sets of isolates. The univariate logistic regression model was used to characterise the prevalence of these factors in particular animals. Given each model, the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval for the population were estimated. The phylogroup B1 was predominant among isolates from beef cattle, while the phylogroups A, B1 and D occurred with equal frequency among isolates from dairy cattle. The frequency of VFs-positive isolates was significantly higher among isolates from beef cattle. E. coli from dairy cattle revealed significantly higher resistance to antibiotics. Some of the tested resistance genes were present among isolates from dairy cattle. Our study showed that the habitat and diet may affect the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli in the cattle. The results suggest that the ecological pasture habitat

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF VIRULENCE GENES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF LUNG PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATES IN FOREST MUSK DEER (MOSCHUS BEREZOVSKII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Jian-guo; Luo, Yan; Dai, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Zou, Li-kou; Li, Bei; Xiao, Jiu-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated genotypic diversity, 26 virulence genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of lung pathogenic Escherichia coli (LPEC) isolated from forest musk deer. Associations between virulence factors (VFs) and phylogenetic group, between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and phylogenetic group, and between AMR and VFs were subsequently assessed. The results showed 30 LPEC isolated were grouped into seven different clusters (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G). The detection rates of crl (90%), kpsMT II (76.67%), mat (76.67%), and ompA (80%) were over 75%. The most frequent types of resistance were to amoxicillin (100%), sulfafurazole (100%), ampicillin (96.67%), and tetracycline (96.67%), with 93.33% (n = 28) of isolates resistant to more than eight types of drugs. There were significant relationships between resistance to cefalotin and the presence of iucD(a) (P < 0.001), papC (P = 0.032), and kpsMT II (P = 0.028); between resistance to chloromycetin and the presence of irp2 (P = 0.004) and vat (P = 0.047); between resistance to nalidixic acid and the presence of crl (P = 0.002) and iucD(a) (P = 0.004); and between resistance to ampicillin/sulbactam and the presence of vat (P = 0.013). These results indicated there could be some association between resistance and VFs, and there is a great need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in LPEC.

  11. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern and Molecular Analysis among Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli

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    Hossein Kazemian 1,2, Hamid Heidari 3, Roya Ghanavati 4, Reza Mohebi 2, Sobhan Ghafourian 2, Aref Shavalipour 5, Asieh Taji 3, Hamidreza Houri 5 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection is a serious problem in medicine and appropriate antibiotic therapy is very important. Because of broad spectrum activity and low toxicity of β-lactam antibiotics, they are the most commonly used drugs. But, bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, has been considered as the global healthcare concern. The aim of study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance pattern and molecular characterization among ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with diarrhea admitted to a hospital in Ilam, Iran. Methods: Totally, fifty E. coli isolates were investigated. Confirmatory tests for phenotypic detection of ESBLs were performed. Molecular identification of the blaTEM and blaSHV genes was carried out by PCR method. To identify genetic relatedness among isolates, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed. Results: The antibiotic susceptibility results showed that the most effective antibiotic was imipenem and minimum effect was related to gentamicin. Thirty-one isolates (62% were ESBL-producing organisms according to phenotypic method. The distribution of blaTEM and blaSHV genes among ESBL-producing isolates were 20 (64.5% and 6 (19.3%, respectively. RAPD-PCR typing among isolates gave us eight different types. Twelve isolates were clustered in genotype A and all of them were ESBL-producer. Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable incidence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from outpatients and hospitalized patients with diarrhea. Therefore, it seems that constant supervision is crucial to monitor the ESBL-producing microorganisms in hospitals and community.

  12. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from cases of calf enteritis during the spring-calving season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, James F; Boland, Fiona; Buckley, James F; Butler, Francis; Egan, John; Fanning, Séamus; Markey, Bryan K; Leonard, Finola C

    2014-05-14

    Neonatal enteritis is a common condition of young calves and can be caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We hypothesised that on-farm antimicrobial use would result in an increased frequency of resistance in these strains during the calving season. We also sought to determine if the frequency of resistance reflected on-farm antimicrobial use. Faecal samples were collected from cases of calf enteritis on 14 spring-calving dairy farms during two 3 week periods: Period 1 - February 11th through March 2nd 2008 and Period 2 - April 14th through May 5th 2008. E. coli were cultured from these samples, pathogenic strains were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on these pathogenic isolates. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected from each farm for the previous 12 months as an indicator of antimicrobial use. The correlation between antimicrobial use and resistance was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between resistance, sampling period and pathotype. Penicillins and aminopenicillins, streptomycin, and tetracyclines were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials and the greatest frequencies of resistance were detected to these 3 antimicrobial classes. A strong correlation (ρ=0.879) was observed between overall antimicrobial use and frequencies of antimicrobial resistance on farms. Sampling period was significant in the regression model for ampicillin resistance while pathotype was significant in the models for streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole resistance. The frequencies of resistance observed have implications for veterinary therapeutics and prudent antimicrobial use. Resistance did not increase during the calving season and factors other than antimicrobial use, such as calf age and bacterial pathotype, may influence the occurrence of resistance in pathogenic E. coli.

  13. Serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns of human diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates circulating in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Chen, X; Zheng, S; Yu, F; Kong, H; Yang, Q; Cui, D; Chen, N; Lou, B; Li, X; Tian, L; Yang, X; Xie, G; Dong, Y; Qin, Z; Han, D; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Tang, Y-W; Li, L

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) infection is a major health problem in developing countries. The prevalence and characteristics of DEC have not been thoroughly investigated in China. Consecutive faecal specimens from outpatients with acute diarrhoea in nine sentinel hospitals in southeastern China were collected from July 2009 to June 2011. Bacterial and viral pathogens were detected by culture and RT-PCR, respectively. DEC isolates were further classified into five pathotypes using multiplex PCR. The O/H serotypes, sequence types (STs) and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the DEC isolates were determined. A total of 2466 faecal specimens were collected, from which 347 (14.1%) DEC isolates were isolated. DEC was the dominant bacterial pathogen detected. The DEC isolates included 217 EAEC, 62 ETEC, 52 EPEC, 14 STEC, one EIEC and one EAEC/ETEC. O45 (6.6%) was the predominant serotype. Genotypic analysis revealed that the major genotype was ST complex 10 (87, 25.6%). Isolates belonging to the serogroups or genotypes of O6, O25, O159, ST48, ST218, ST94 and ST1491 were highly susceptible to the majority of antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates belonging to O45, O15, O1, O169, ST38, ST226, ST69, ST31, ST93, ST394 and ST648 were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC accounted for the majority of bacterial pathogens causing acute diarrhoea in southeastern China, and it is therefore necessary to test for all DEC, not only the EHEC O157:H7. Some serogroups or genotypes of DEC were highly resistant to the majority of antimicrobials. DEC surveillance should be emphasized.

  14. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Productivity, and Class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli from Healthy Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkaew, Kanjana; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Nakajima, Chie; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals increases the risk of higher antimicrobial resistance in the normal intestinal flora of these animals. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains and to characterize class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli in healthy swine in Thailand. All 122 of the tested isolates had drug-resistant phenotypes. High resistance was found to ampicillin (98.4% of isolates), chloramphenicol (95.9%), gentamicin (78.7%), streptomycin (77.9%), tetracycline (74.6%), and cefotaxime (72.1%). Fifty-four (44.3%) of the E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL-producing strains. Among them, blaCTX-M (45 isolates) and blaTEM (41 isolates) were detected. Of the blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates, 37 carried the blaCTX-M-1 cluster, 12 carried the blaCTX-M-9 cluster, and 5 carried both clusters. Sequence analysis revealed blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135, and blaTEM-175 in 38, 2, and 1 isolate, respectively. Eighty-seven (71%) of the 122isolates carried class 1 integrons, and eight distinct drug-resistance gene cassettes with seven different integron profiles were identified in 43 of these isolates. Gene cassettes were associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, aadA22, or aadA23), trimethoprim (dfrA5, dfrA12, or dfrA17), and lincosamide (linF). Genes encoding β-lactamases were not found in class 1 integrons. This study is the first to report ESBL-producing E. coli with a class 1 integron carrying the linF gene cassette in swine in Thailand. Our findings confirm that swine can be a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli harboring class 1 integrons, which may become a potential health risk if these integrons are transmitted to humans. Intensive analyses of animal, human, and environmental isolates are needed to control the spread of ESBL-producing E. coli strains.

  16. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  17. Resistencia a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Escherichia coli de origen animal Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from animals

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    G. Carloni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el perfil de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de 100 aislamientos de E.coli provenientes de diversas patologías en bovinos, equinos, caninos y felinos, siguiendo metodología del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute y detectando la aparición de aislamientos multiresistentes. El panel de antibióticos ensayados incluyó amicacina, ampicilina/sulbactama, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol, colistina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, nitrofurantoína, tetraciclina, trimetoprima/ sulfametoxazol. El mayor porcentaje de resistencia (R se detectó frente a tetraciclina en aislamientos de todas las especies animales (entre 34% en los de origen felino y 75% de origen equino. En las cepas de origen canino y felino se encontraron porcentajes considerables frente ampicilina/ sulbactama (27% de caninos y 53% de felinos y ante ciprofloxacina (30% y 67% respectivamente. En estos aislamientos también, se detectó el mayor porcentaje de multiresistencia (29% en caninos y 67% en felinos. La presión selectiva originada por la aplicación inadecuada de antibióticos puede resultar un factor, aunque no el único, responsable de la aparición de R. Además existe la posibilidad de que E.coli pueda constituirse en un eslabón de transmisión de genes de R a antimicrobianos, aunque no se conoce hasta el momento, el origen de ellos, humano o animal y, su permanencia en el tiempo.Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were determined in 100 isolates of E.coli from differents patologies in cattle, horses, dogs and cats, according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Multiresistance isolates were detected in this assay. The antibiotics selected were amikacin, ampicillin /sulbactam, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, colistin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The antibiotic with the highest resistance was tetracycline (34% in cats and 75% in dogs. In isolated strains from dogs

  18. Association Between Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Food Animals and Blood Stream Isolates from Humans in Europe: An Ecological Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Collignon, Peter; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: In addition to medical antimicrobial usage, the use of antimicrobials in food animals contributes to the occurrence of resistance among some bacterial species isolated from infections in humans. Recently, several studies have indicated that a large proportion of Escherichia coli causing...... infections in humans, especially those resistant to antimicrobials, have an animal origin.Methods: We analyzed the correlation between the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections in humans and in E. coli isolates from poultry, pigs, and cattle between 2005...... and 2008 for 11 countries, using available surveillance data. We also assessed the correlation between human antimicrobial usage and the occurrence of resistance in E. coli isolates from blood stream infections.Results: Strong and significant correlations between prevalences of resistance to ampicillin (r...

  19. The effects of antibiotic usage in food animals on the development of antimicrobial resistance of importance for humans in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, F M; Wegener, H C

    1999-07-01

    Modern food animal production depends on use of large amounts of antibiotics for disease control. This provides favourable conditions for the spread and persistence of antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria such as Campylobacter and E. coli O157. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance to antimicrobials used in human therapy is increasing in human pathogenic Campylobacter and E. coli from animals. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for prudent use of antibiotics in food animal production to prevent further increases in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food-borne human pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter and E. coli.

  20. Prolonged clonal spreading and dynamic changes in antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli ST68 among patients who stayed in a respiratory care ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Ke, Se-Chin; Li, Chia-Ru; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2014-11-01

    From 2007 to 2009, we collected a total of 83 bacteraemic isolates of Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility or resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs). Isolates were genotyped by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The PFGE patterns revealed two highly correlated clusters (cluster E: nine isolates; cluster G: 22 isolates) associated with this prolonged clonal spreading. Compared with cluster E isolates, cluster G isolates were significantly more likely to harbour aac(6')-Ib-cr (Pcoli cases caused by cluster E and G isolates were significantly associated with having stayed in our hospital's respiratory care ward (Pcoli ST68 associated with a stay in a long-term care facility. Using epidemiological investigations and PFGE and MLST analyses, we have identified long-term clonal spreading caused by E. coli ST68, with extra antimicrobial-resistance genes possibly acquired during the prolonged spreading period.

  1. The effects of antibiotic usage in food animals on the development of antimicrobial resistance of importance for humans in Campylobacter and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1999-01-01

    Modern food animal production depends on use of large amounts of antibiotics for disease control. This provides favourable conditions for the spread and persistence of antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria such as Campylobacter and E. coli O157. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance...... to antimicrobials used in human therapy is increasing in human pathogenic Campylobacter and E. coli from animals. There is an urgent need to implement strategies for prudent use of antibiotics in food animal production to prevent further increases in the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food-borne human...

  2. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  3. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry. PMID:26733732

  4. Assessment of Virulence Factors Characteristic of Human Escherichia coli Pathotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance in O157:H7 and Non-O157:H7 Isolates from Livestock in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species.

  5. Assessment of virulence factors characteristic of human Escherichia coli pathotypes and antimicrobial resistance in O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 isolates from livestock in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, A; Gómez-Barrero, S; Porrero, C; Bárcena, C; López, G; Cantón, R; Gortázar, C; Domínguez, L; Álvarez, J

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species.

  6. Enterotoxins, colonization factors, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains isolated from hospitalized children with diarrhea in Bolivia

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    Claudia Rodas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is recognized as the main cause of bacterial diarrhoea among children in Asia, Africa and Latin America but less investigated in Bolivia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between enterotoxins, CFs and serotypes as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns in a set of ETEC isolates collected from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea. In the present study we characterized 43 ETEC strains isolated from 2002 to 2006 from hospitalized children (0-5 years with acute diarrhea in Bolivia. The strains were analyzed for heat-labile (LT and heat-stable (ST enterotoxins and colonization factor (CF profiles, as well as for serogroups and antimicrobial resistance using phenotypic (ELISA, dot blot, slide agglutination and disc diffusion and genotypic (Multiplex PCR methods. Among the ETEC isolates tested, 30 were positive for LT, 3 for STh and 10 for LT/STh. Sixty-five percent (28/43 of the strains expressed one or more CF. The most common CFs were CS17 (n = 8 and CFA/I (n = 8. The phenotypical and genotypical results for toxins and CFs were congruent except for CS21 that was amplified in 10 of the strains by multiplex PCR, but CS21 pili was only detected phenotypically in four of these strains. The ETEC strains had diverse O and H antigens and the most common types were O8:H9 LT CS17 (n = 6; 14% and O78:HNM LT-ST CFA/I (n = 4; 9%. The analysis of antibiotic resistance showed that 67% (n = 29/43 of the strains were resistant to one or several of the antimicrobial agents tested. Presence of CFs was associated with antibiotic resistance. CONCLUSION: The most common toxin profile was LT 70%, LT/STh 23% and STh 7%. High antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin among serogroups O6, O8 and O78 were the most common.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Factors and Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolates from Household Water Supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Talukdar (Prabhat Kumar); M. Rahman (Mahdia); A. Nabi (Ashikun); Z. Islam (Zhahirul); M.M. Hoque (Mahfuzul); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource countries. To understand the extent of public health risk attributed to supply water in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Escherichia coli isolated from tap water samples collected

  8. Study of Sensibility and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection in Tabriz City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Molaabaszadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: Urinary infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, and Escherichia coli is the most important cause of urinary infections. This study was done with the aim of surveying the amount of susceptibility and resistance among the strains of Escherichia coli isolated from those who referred to the private laboratories in the Iranian city of Tabriz.   Materials & Methods: This survey was done periodically during the first 6 months of the year 2010. Samples were obtained in a sterile manner and were subjected to all necessary pathological tests. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility was conducted with disk diffusion standard method, and the results were analyzed.   Results: Totally, 5701 Escherichia coli strains were identified. The highest sensitivity to Imipenem was 90.95%, Nitrofurantoin 85.97%, and Cefotaxime 71.02% and the highest resistance to Ampicillin was 83.95%, Tetracycline 80.97%, and Co-trimoxazole 63.92%.   Conclusion: Our results suggest that the cause of the high resistance of Escherichia coli strains to Ampicillin and Tetracycline could be the consumption of these antibiotics. Therefore, abstaining from overuse of unnecessary antibiotics and production of new-generation and cost-effective antibiotics are recommend. 

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Outpatients in Town Hospitals of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Wang, Lei; Song, Wengang; Zhou, Yufa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from outpatients in town hospitals of Shandong province, China. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli was tested using the disk diffusion and resistance genes encoding for β-lactamases (blaTEM, blaCTXM, and blaSHV) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Multilocus sequence typing (ST) of ESBL-producing E. coli was analyzed in this study. Our results showed that of 320 E. coli isolates, 201 carried ESBL genes (201/320, 62.8%), and these isolates all carried blaCTX-M genes, the most common being blaCTX-M-14 (116/201, 57.7%), followed by blaCTX-M-55 (47/201, 23.4%) and blaCTX-M-15 (31/201, 15.4%). ESBL-producing E. coli exhibited highly resistant to penicillin derivatives, fluoroquinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, and third-generation cephalosporins, but no carbapenem-resistant isolates were found in this study. Forty-two STs were found among the 201 ESBL-producing E. coli, and the most common ST was ST131 (27/201, 13.4%), followed by ST405 (19/201, 9.5%) and ST69 (15/201, 7.5%). Taken together, a high isolation rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (62.8%) was found among outpatients in town hospitals. blaCTX-M gene was most dominant and was composed of a variety of subtypes. No dominant ST was detected among ESBL-producing E. coli, indicating that these ESBL-producing E. coli isolates derive from different clones. PMID:28174570

  10. Detection of tetracycline resistance determinant tetA gene and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Escherichia coli isolates recovered from healthy layer chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balasubramaniam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinant tetA gene, and antibacterial resistance pattern in commensal Escherichia coli recovered from healthy non-clinical layer chickens. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four cloacal swabs were obtained from 15 flocks in five different layer farms located at around Namakkal, which is a place of high-intensity layer chicken rearing in south India. Identification of E. coli was carried out by performing cultural and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out using disc diffusion method. The polymerase chain reaction employing tetAC forward and tetAC reverse primers were carried out to detect tetA gene conferring resistance to tetracycline. Result: All the collected cloacal swabs yielded E. coli. Twenty-one isolates (88% were resistant to tetracycline antibiotic in disc diffusion method. All the isolates showed resistance to more than six antibiotics, which implied existence of multidrug resistant microbiota in intestine of poultry. Only seven (29% isolates showed the presence of tetA gene indicating the involvement of either other one or more efflux gene(s, namely tetB, tetC and tetD or ribosomal protection encoded by tetM, tetO, tetQ and tetS genes than tetA gene. Conclusion: Based on the presence of tetA gene among tetracycline-resistant bacteria in healthy non-clinical food-producing animals such as layer chickens, it can be significant in human medicine as tetA gene could easily be spread to other bacteria. This kind of phenomenon can be extrapolated in transfer of resistance for other antibacterial essential for treating bacterial infections in human. We conclude that preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance through direct or indirect contact, consumed food/feed and through the environment is empirical in reduction of failures while treating bacterial infections.

  11. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from human and animal sources uncovers multiple resistances from human sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli are widely used as indicators of fecal contamination, and in some cases to identify host sources of fecal contamination in surface water. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 600 generic E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment from creeks and channels along the middle Santa Ana River (MSAR) watershed of southern California, USA, after a 12 month study. Evaluation of E. coli populations along the creeks and channels showed that E. coli were more prevalent in sediment compared to surface water. E. coli populations were not significantly different (P = 0.05) between urban runoff sources and agricultural sources, however, E. coli genotypes determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were less diverse in the agricultural sources than in urban runoff sources. PFGE also showed that E. coli populations in surface water were more diverse than in the sediment, suggesting isolates in sediment may be dominated by clonal populations.Twenty four percent (144 isolates) of the 600 isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Most multiple resistances were associated with inputs from urban runoff and involved the antimicrobials rifampicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The occurrence of a greater number of E. coli with multiple antibiotic resistances from urban runoff sources than agricultural sources in this watershed provides useful evidence in planning strategies for water quality management and public health protection.

  12. Extraintestinal Pathogenic and Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli, Including Sequence Type 131 (ST131), from Retail Chicken Breasts in the United States in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Porter, Stephen B; Johnston, Brian; Thuras, Paul; Clock, Sarah; Crupain, Michael; Rangan, Urvashi

    2017-03-15

    Chicken meat products are hypothesized to be vehicles for transmitting antimicrobial-resistant and extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) to consumers. To reassess this hypothesis in the current era of heightened concerns about antimicrobial use in food animals, we analyzed 175 chicken-source E. coli isolates from a 2013 Consumer Reports national survey. Isolates were screened by PCR for ExPEC-defining virulence genes. The 25 ExPEC isolates (12% of 175) and a 2:1 randomly selected set of 50 non-ExPEC isolates were assessed for their phylogenetic/clonal backgrounds and virulence genotypes for comparison with their resistance profiles and the claims on the retail packaging label ("organic," "no antibiotics," and "natural"). Compared with the findings for non-ExPEC isolates, the group of ExPEC isolates had a higher prevalence of phylogroup B2 isolates (44% versus 4%; P retail chicken products in the United States, suggesting a potential public health threat.IMPORTANCE We found that among Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat products purchased across the United States in 2013 (many of these isolates being extensively antibiotic resistant), a minority had genetic profiles suggesting an ability to cause extraintestinal infections in humans, such as urinary tract infection, implying a risk of foodborne disease. Although isolates from products labeled "organic" were less extensively antibiotic resistant than other isolates, they did not appear to be less virulent. These findings suggest that retail chicken products in the United States, even if they are labeled "organic," pose a potential health threat to consumers because they are contaminated with extensively antibiotic-resistant and, presumably, virulent E. coli isolates.

  13. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

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    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from household water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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    Prabhat Kumar Talukdar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource countries. To understand the extent of public health risk attributed to supply water in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Escherichia coli isolated from tap water samples collected from different locations of the city were characterized for their antibiotic resistance, pathogenic properties and genetic diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 233 E. coli isolates obtained from 175 tap water samples were analysed for susceptibility to 16 different antibiotics and for the presence of genes associated with virulence and antibiotic resistance. Nearly 36% (n = 84 of the isolates were multi-drug(≥ 3 classes of antibiotics resistant (MDR and 26% (n = 22 of these were positive for extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Of the 22 ESBL-producers, 20 were positive for bla CTX-M-15, 7 for bla OXA-1-group (all had bla OXA-47 and 2 for bla CMY-2. Quinolone resistance genes, qnrS and qnrB were detected in 6 and 2 isolates, respectively. Around 7% (n = 16 of the isolates carried virulence gene(s characteristic of pathogenic E. coli; 11 of these contained lt and/or st and thus belonged to enterotoxigenic E. coli and 5 contained bfp and eae and thus belonged to enteropathogenic E. coli. All MDR isolates carried multiple plasmids (2 to 8 of varying sizes ranging from 1.2 to >120 MDa. Ampicillin and ceftriaxone resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 70 to 100 MDa in size, while ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline resistance were co-transferred in conjugative plasmids of 50 to 90 MDa. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed diverse genetic fingerprints of pathogenic isolates. SIGNIFICANCE: Multi-drug resistant E. coli are wide spread in public water supply in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Transmission of resistant bacteria and plasmids through supply water pose serious threats to public health in

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance of Faecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Pig Farms with Different Durations of In-feed Antimicrobial Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J F; Boland, F; Egan, J; Fanning, S; Markey, B K; Leonard, F C

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial use and resistance in animal and food production are of concern to public health. The primary aims of this study were to determine the frequency of resistance to 12 antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from 39 pig farms and to identify patterns of antimicrobial use on these farms. Further aims were to determine whether a categorization of farms based on the duration of in-feed antimicrobial use (long-term versus short-term) could predict the occurrence of resistance on these farms and to identify the usage of specific antimicrobial drugs associated with the occurrence of resistance. Escherichia coli were isolated from all production stages on these farms; susceptibility testing was carried out against a panel of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected, and farms were categorized as long term or short term based on these. Resistance frequencies and antimicrobial use were tabulated. Logistic regression models of resistance to each antimicrobial were constructed with stage of production, duration of antimicrobial use and the use of 5 antimicrobial classes included as explanatory variables in each model. The greatest frequencies of resistance were observed to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin with the highest levels of resistance observed in isolates from first-stage weaned pigs. Differences in the types of antimicrobial drugs used were noted between long-term and short-term use farms. Categorization of farms as long- or short-term use was sufficient to predict the likely occurrence of resistance to 3 antimicrobial classes and could provide an aid in the control of resistance in the food chain. Stage of production was a significant predictor variable in all models of resistance constructed and did not solely reflect antimicrobial use at each stage. Cross-selection and co-selection for resistance was evident in the models constructed, and the use of trimethoprim/sulphonamide drugs in particular was

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of virulence genes, phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel-calves in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessalah, Salma; Fairbrother, John Morris; Salhi, Imed; Vanier, Ghyslaine; Khorchani, Touhami; Seddik, Mouldi Mabrouk; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44.7% and 41.5% of isolates from camels and herds with diarrhea versus 22.5% and 11.7% in camels (p=0.05) and herds without diarrhea (p=0.02). The aida, cnf1/2, f18, stx2 and paa genes were found only in isolates from camels with diarrhea, although at a low prevalence, 1.8%, 3.7%, 1.8%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of afa8, cdtB, eae, east1, iroN, iss, kpsMTII, paa, sfa, tsh and papC genes did not differ significantly between herds with or without diarrhea. Genes coding for faeG, fanC, f41, estI, estII, CS31a and eltA were not detected in any isolates. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftiofur and the highest frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, and ampicillin (52.8% and 37.1% respectively). The phylogenetic groups were identified by conventional triplex PCR. Results showed that E. coli strains segregated mainly in phylogenetic group B1, 52.8% in diarrheic herds and 52.9% in healthy herds.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistant Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Houseflies Infesting Fish in Food Markets in Zambia

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    Mwansa M. Songe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases and is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This is often caused by contaminated food. Poor food hygiene standards are exacerbated by the presence of flies which can transmit a variety of infectious microorganisms, particularly through animal source foods. This fact becomes especially important in developing countries like Zambia, where fish is a highly valued source of protein. Our interest in this study was to identify if the flies that beset food markets in Zambia carry important pathogenic bacteria on their bodies, and subsequently if these bacteria carry resistance genes to commonly used antibiotics, which would indicate problems in eradicating these pathogens. The present study took into account fish vendors’ and consumers’ perception of flies and interest in interventions to reduce their numbers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with (1 traders (comprised of randomly selected males and females and (2 consumers (including randomly selected males and females. Thereafter, we collected flies found on fish in markets in Mongu and Lusaka districts of Zambia. For the entire study, a total of 418 fly samples were analyzed in the laboratory and Salmonella spp. and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from the flies. Further laboratory screening revealed that overall, 17.2% (72/418 (95% CI; 43.2%–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL-producing E. coli. These significant findings call for a strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy in Zambia and the development of sustainable interventions to reduce fly numbers in food markets and improve food safety and hygiene.

  18. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

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    Nguyen T. Nhung

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40 (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test. Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p < 0.01. The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN, a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam.

  19. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established.

  20. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in wild mammals in central Europe: multiresistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literak, I.; Dolejska, Monika; Radimersky, T.

    2010-01-01

    (TEM-52b). The bla(CTX-M-1) genes were carried on approx. 90 kb IncI1 conjugative plasmids. Conclusions: Antibiotic-resistant E. coli occured in populations of wild mammals in various prevalences. Significance and Impact of the Study: Wild mammals are reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant E. coli including...

  1. 大肠埃希菌对抗菌药物的耐药性分析%Analysis on antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮细生; 陈刚; 何梦林

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To approach the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli (ECO ) ,so as to improve the level of clinical treatment and provide some references for the effective anti-infection .METHODS Infectious speci-mens got from hospital outpatients or inpatients were detected by the rules on clinical microbiology literature ,K-B test was used for sensibility of antibacterial agents followiof the latest version of CLSI .The WHONET 5 .5 soft-ware was used for statistic analysis .RESULTS From all the 639 strains of ECO ,the fist and second department of internal medicine were the most isolated ,accounting for 19 .6% and 13 .0% ,respectively .The constituent ratio of specimens from urine (53 .4% ) and respiratory tract (13 .3% ) were the highest two .A total of 385 strains of isolated ESBLs-producing ECO accounted for 60 .3% .Resistance rate of ECO to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was the highest ,arriving at 60 .3% .The antibiotic with the highest sensitivity rate was carbapenems (100 .0% ) . CONCLUSION Hospitals should strengthen implementing management of clinical application of antibiotics issued by the ministry of health and mandatory management of rational drug use for the clinic to reverse the disorderly growth of bacterial resistance .%目的:探讨大肠埃希菌(EC O )对抗菌药物的耐药性,为提高临床医师治疗水平、有效抗感染提供参考依据。方法将医院门诊和住院患者留取的感染性标本采用临床微生物学操作规则进行菌株鉴定,采用K-B法检测抗菌药物的敏感性,检测数据按照CLSI的最新规则判断;所有数据采用WHONET 5.5软件进行统计分析。结果639株大肠埃希菌中,检出率最高的科室是内一科和外一科,分别占19.6%和13.0%;检出最高的标本是泌尿道和呼吸道,分别占53.4%和13.3%;分离到产ESBLs大肠埃希菌385株,占大肠埃希菌总株数的60.3%;大肠埃希菌对磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧

  2. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and of multidrug-resistant E. coli from foods of animal origin illegally imported to the EU by flight passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, B; Szmolka, A; Smole Možina, S; Kovač, J; Strauss, A; Schlager, S; Beutlich, J; Appel, B; Lušicky, M; Aprikian, P; Pászti, J; Tóth, I; Kugler, R; Wagner, M

    2015-09-16

    The aim of this study was to reveal phenotype/genotype characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) and multidrug resistant E. coli in food products of animal origin confiscated as illegal import at Austrian, German and Slovenian airports. VTEC isolates were obtained by using ISO guidelines 16654:2001 for O157 VTEC or ISO/ TS13136:2012 for non-O157 VTEC, with additional use of the RIDASCREEN® Verotoxin immunoassay. The testing of 1526 samples resulted in 15 VTEC isolates (1.0%) primarily isolated from hard cheese from Turkey and Balkan countries. Genotyping for virulence by using a miniaturized microarray identified a wide range of virulence determinants. One VTEC isolate (O26:H46) possessing intimin (eae) and all other essential genes of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) was designated as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). None of the other VTEC strains belonged to serogroups O157, O145, O111, O104 or O103. VTEC strains harbored either stx(1) (variants stx1(a) or stx(1c)) or st(x2) (variants stx(2a), stx(2b), stx(2a/d) or stx(2c/d)) genes. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) demonstrated high genetic diversity and identified three new sequence types (STs): 4505, 4506 and 4507. Food samples collected from the Vienna airport were also tested for E. coli quantities using the ISO 16649:2001, and for detection of multidrug resistant phenotypes and genotypes. The resulting 113 commensal E. coli isolates were first tested in a pre-screening against 6 selected antimicrobials to demonstrate multidrug resistance. The resulting 14 multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates, representing 0.9% of the samples, were subjected to further resistance phenotyping and to microarray analyses targeting genetic markers of antimicrobial resistance and virulence. Genotyping revealed various combinations of resistance determinants as well as the presence of class 1, class 2 integrons. The isolates harbored 6 to 11 antibiotic

  3. Burden of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals : excess mortality and length of hospital stay associated with bloodstream infections due to Escherichia coli resistant to third-generation cephalosporins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, M. E. A.; Wolkewitz, M.; Davey, P. G.; Koller, W.; Berger, J.; Nagler, J.; Icket, C.; Kalenic, S.; Horvatic, J.; Seifert, H.; Kaasch, A.; Paniara, O.; Argyropoulou, A.; Bompola, M.; Smyth, E.; Skally, M.; Raglio, A.; Dumpis, U.; Kelmere, A. Melbarde; Borg, M.; Xuereb, D.; Ghita, M. C.; Noble, M.; Kolman, J.; Grabljevec, S.; Turner, D.; Lansbury, L.; Grundmann, H.

    2011-01-01

    This study determined excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) attributable to bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli in Europe. A prospective parallel matched cohort design was used. Cohort I consisted of patients with third-generat

  4. Microbial Quality and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli Isolated from Traditional Ice Cream in Hamadan City, West of Iran

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    Ghadimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foodborne diseases are one of the most major public health concerns in the world. Ice cream flavors, especially the traditional ones, have a high potential for the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria. Objectives The aim of the current study is to investigate the microbiological status and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from traditional ice cream. Methods A total of 114 traditional ice creams were randomly collected from retail stores in Hamadan, Iran. Samples were investigated for the total bacteria count (TBC and contamination with the coliform, Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella as well as the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results The count of Enterobacteriaceae (89.47%, mold and yeast (50%, coliform (40.35% and TBC (28.07% of samples was higher than Iran’s standard. Salmonella was not found in all samples. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed in 50% and 37.72% of samples, respectively. Collected Escherichia coli had the highest antibiotic resistance to ampicillin 67.44%, nalidixic acid 39.53% and co-amoxyclav 37.21%. Staphylococcus aureus showed a higher antibiotic resistance to penicillin (82.46% of isolates and oxacillin (38% of isolates. Conclusions The results showed high contamination levels of traditional ice cream with spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms as well as considerable resistance of isolated Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to common antibiotics. Therefore, good hygienic practice during processing and personal hygiene should be considered to improve the quality of ice cream. In addition, it is necessary that the regulatory authorities carry out more control on the production centers of traditional ice cream.

  5. Research on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from three different poultries%辽宁锦州地区三种家禽大肠杆菌耐药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋月; 盛鹏飞

    2015-01-01

    分别从健康和患病鸡、鸭、鹅分离出302株大肠杆菌,采用微量稀释法测定菌株对12种抗菌药物的敏感性。结果表明,302株大肠杆菌除对阿米卡星和多粘菌素B较敏感,对其他抗菌药物呈现不同程度的耐药且多重耐药现象严重。鹅源大肠杆菌和鸭源大肠杆菌对氨苄西林、氯霉素和环丙沙星耐药性较高,鸡源大肠杆菌对其他抗菌药物耐药率较高。同时,患病组家禽分离的大肠杆菌对氨苄西林以外的其他11种抗菌药物的耐药率明显高于健康组大肠杆菌。结果显示,辽宁锦州地区鸡、鸭、鹅三种家禽大肠杆菌对不同抗菌药物的耐药性存在差异,三种家禽对抗菌药物的整体耐药性较强,应加强耐药性监测,为指导兽医临床合理使用抗菌药物提供指导。%To study the presence of antimicrobial resistance in chicken, duck and goose Escherichia coli in Jinzhou, Liaoning Province. A total of 302 E. coli strains, isolated from chicken, duck and goose (healthy and diseased animals), were tested for resistance to 12 antimicrobials by micro-dilution method. Results showed that besides sensitive to Amikacin and Polymyxin B, all the 302 isolates were differently resistant to the other antibiotics, and multi-drug resistance was serious. Except Ampicillin, Streptomycin and Ciprofloxacin, E. coli isolates from chicken had a higher rate of resistance to the other antibiotics. Except Ampicillin, isolates from diseased poultries were markedly more resistant than those from normal poultries for the other 11 antimicrobial agents assessed. Conclusion: Despite some differences among spices, the whole antimicrobial resistance of these three poultry E. coli is severe, it's necessary to strengthen the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and give some direc-tions to clinical medication.

  6. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi S Guruge

    Full Text Available Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and

  7. Source-Related Effects of Wastewater on Transcription Factor (AhR, CAR and PXR)-Mediated Induction of Gene Expression in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes and Their Association with the Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Sonobe, Miyuki; Fujizono, Wataru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Akiba, Masato; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Joshua, Derrick I; Balakrishna, Keshava; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of wastewater collected from 4 sewage treatment plants (STPs) receiving effluents from different sources in South India were investigated for their levels of transcription factor-mediated gene induction in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In addition, the relation between gene induction levels and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in wastewater was examined. STP-3, which treats only hospital wastewater, exhibited significantly greater induction potency of all 6 drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes examined, CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2B15, 3A1, and 3A2, whereas the wastewater at STP-1, which exclusively receives domestic sewage, showed significantly diminished levels of induction of 3 CYP genes when compared to the levels of CYP induction at STP-2, which receives mixed wastewater. Samples collected during the monsoon season showed a significantly altered gene induction capacity compared to that of samples from the pre-monsoon period. The data suggest that the toxicity of wastewater in STPs was not significantly diminished during the treatment process. The chemical-gene interaction data predicted that a vast number of chemicals present in the wastewater would stimulate the genes studied in the rat hepatocytes. The multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the prevalence of isolates resistant to cefotaxime, imipenem and streptomycin was significantly correlated with the levels of induction of at least three CYP-isozymes in STP wastewater. In addition, the resistance of isolates in treatment plants was not altered by the treatment steps, whereas the sampling season did have an impact on the resistance to specific antimicrobials. The identification of receptor-mediated gene regulation capacities offers important data not limited to the (synergistic) physiological role of chemicals in biological systems but may provide new insight into the link between the effects of known/unknown drugs and prevalence of

  8. TRENDS IN ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AMONG UROPATHOGENS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ESCHERICHIA COLI IN COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PEDIATRIC URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS FROM KERALA

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    Nisha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Resistance of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics is increasingly reported from India in adults. There is little data on resistance patterns in childhood community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI. AIMS: To study antibiotic resistanc e trends of uropathogens isolated in community acquired UTI in children from a geographic area. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study conducted in a northern Kerala tertiary pediatric centre between November 2012 and October 2014. METHODS : Urine samples were obtained by clean catch midstream, bladder catheterization or supra - pubic aspiration. Bacterial growth, when significant were identified by standard biochemical reactions with antibiogram by Kirby Bauers disc diffusion method. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : P roportions were calculated and statistical significance obtained by Chi - square. RESULTS : Of the 1387 cultures with suspected community acquired UTI, 274 (19.75% were positive. Mean age of study group was 28.52 months and 64.6% were boys. Escherichia coli (E.coli was the predominant pathogen [189(69%] followed by Klebsiella 50(18.2%. Citrobacter, Enterococcus, Proteus and Pseudomonas constituted less than 6%. All urinary isolates showed high combined resistance to most commonly used antimicrobials inclu ding beta - lactam antibiotics (84.3% to cefotaxime, 83.2% to cefixime, 74.5% to ampicillin, quinolones (54.2% to ciprofloxacin, 46.4% to norfloxacin, 32.8% to levofloxacin, 52.9% to co - trimoxazole, 30.2% to gentamicin, 24.1% to nitrofurantoin and 14.2% to netilmicin. E.coli was highly resistant tocephalosporins and ampicillin (>80%. CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing resistance amongst E.coli coli and Klebsiella to third generation cephalosporins in pediatric age group. It is important to generate regional data on antibiogram pattern to guide therapy.

  9. Prevalence of broad-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in food samples in Tunisia, and characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms implicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Karim; Jouini, Ahlem; Ben Sallem, Rym; Somalo, Sergio; Sáenz, Yolanda; Estepa, Vanesa; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2010-02-28

    The presence of broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates and the implicated mechanisms of resistance were investigated in 79 food samples of animal origin obtained in different supermarkets and local butcheries in Tunisia. Ten of these samples (12.6%) harbored extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli isolates and 13 ESBL-positive isolates were recovered (one or two/sample), which exhibited nine different Pulsed-Field-Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. ESBLs detected were the following: CTX-M-1 (10 strains), CTX-M-1+TEM-1b (2 strains) and CTX-M-1+TEM-20 (1 strain). The orf477 sequence was identified downstream of bla(CTX-M-1) gene in all 13 strains and ISEcp1 upstream in 9 strains. All ESBL-positive strains were included into phylogenetic group A or B1 (4 and 9 strains, respectively). Three of the 79 food samples (3.8%) contained broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant and ESBL-negative E. coli isolates with AmpC phenotype. One isolate per sample was studied, and they showed unrelated PFGE patterns. The CMY-2 type beta-lactamase was identified in one of these 3 strains and specific point mutations in the promoter/attenuator region of ampC gene (at positions -42, -18, -1 and +58) were detected in the remaining two strains. Twelve ESBL-positive and one ESBL-negative E. coli strains contained class 1 integrons with the following gene cassette arrangements: dfrA1+aadA (6 strains) and dfrA17+aadA5 (7 strains). E. coli strains from food samples could represent a reservoir of ESBL-encoding genes and integrons that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain.

  10. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorie-Kanu, O. Josephine; Ezenduka, E. Vivienne; Okorie-Kanu, C. Onwuchokwe; Ugwu, L. Chinweokwu; Nnamani, U. John

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary and human

  11. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

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    O. Josephine Okorie-Kanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014. The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method. Results: About 37 (54.4% and 7 (10.3% of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p0.05. The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonella spp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline. Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in

  12. Contamination rates and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella isolated from "no antibiotics added"-labeled chicken products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Massow, Amanda; Stanley, Megan; Papariella, Melanie; Chen, Xi; Kraft, Brittany; Ebner, Paul

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, products from chickens that were not administered antimicrobial medications during growout can contain labels stating "no antibiotics added." Here we compared microbial profiles of chicken products labeled as coming from birds raised without antimicrobial medications (N=201; NON) with chicken products carrying conventional labels (N=201; CONV). There were no differences in percentages of samples positive for Enterococcus spp. (CONV: 17.4%; NON: 21.3%) or Escherichia coli (CONV: 25.9%; NON: 22.3%). The number of samples positive for Salmonella was low in both groups, but statistically higher in the NON samples (5.0%) versus CONV samples (1.5%; p<0.05). Conversely, CONV samples contained higher concentrations of coliforms (CONV: 3.0 log(10)CFU/mL; NON: 2.5 log(10)CFU/mL; p<0.05). E. coli (N=190) and Enterococcus spp. isolates (N=113) were tested for resistance to common antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from CONV samples were more frequently resistant to at least one antimicrobial (CONV: 61.3%; NON: 41.2%; p<0.05). Enterococcus spp. isolates from both groups were equally likely to be resistant to at least one antimicrobial, but Enterococcus spp. isolates from CONV samples were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin (p<0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that NON samples may more frequently carry Salmonella; however, E. coli and Enterococcus spp. found on CONV are more likely to be resistant to some antimicrobials.

  13. Resistência a antimicrobianos dependente do sistema de efluxo multidrogas em Escherichia coli isoladas de leite mastítico Antimicrobial resistance dependent on multidrugs efflux in Escherichia coli isolated from the mastitic milk

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    M.A.S. Moreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificaram-se e caracterizaram-se a resistência e a multirresistência aos principais antimicrobianos usados no tratamento de mastite bovina causada por Escherichia coli. A concentração inibitória mínima (MIC e o sistema de efluxo foram detectados pelas curvas de crescimento, com base na densidade óptica, em diferentes concentrações da droga e na presença e na ausência do desacoplador da força próton-motora (PMF. E. coli 1 foi resistente à neomicina e à gentamicina; E. coli 3 e 4, à tetraciclina e à estreptomicina; e E. coli 2 e 6 à gentamicina. E. coli 5 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade. Observou-se que MICs de todos os antimicrobianos dos multirresistentes (E. coli 1, 3 e 4 diminuíram na presença do desacoplador, o que sugere sistema de efluxo multidrogas. Após cura, apenas E. coli 1 apresentou modelo de sensibilidade, porém não houve alterações das MICs, antes e após adição do desacoplador. Os resultados indicam possível presença de mecanismo de resistência dependente da PMF codificado, ou parte dele, em plasmídeo.Resistance and multiresistance to main antimicrobials used for treating bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli were identified and characterized. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and efflux systems were detected by the use of growth curves based on optical density at different drug concentrations and both presence and absence of uncoupler of the proton-motive force (PMF. E. coli 1 was resistant to neomycin and gentamycin, E. coli 3 and 4 were resistant to tetracycline and streptomycin, whereas E. coli 2 and 6 were resistant to gentamycin. E. coli 5 showed sensibility model. MICs of all antimicrobials of the multiresistant samples (E. coli 1, 3, and 4 were decreased in presence of the uncoupler, therefore suggesting the presence of the multidrug efflux system. After healing, only E. coli 1 showed sensibility model, however no alteration occurred in MIC(s before and after adding the

  14. Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance and β-lactamase Genotypic Features of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Shan, Xue-feng; Deng, Haijun; Huang, Yu-jun; Mu, Xiao-ping; Huang, Ai-long; Long, Quan-xin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, drug resistance and β-lactamase genotype distribution of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from pediatric patients with diarrhea in southern China. The prevalence of EPEC in children with diarrhea was 3.53%. The commonest serotypes were O55:K59 and O126:K71, and the typical EPEC were more prevalent than atypical EPEC (51 vs 7). Isolates from this region were most commonly found to be resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole, followed by chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. More than 96% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem. The most common β-lactamase genotypes identified in 58 strains were blaCTX-M-1 (60.3%), blaTEM (56.9%), blaCTX-M-9 (27.6%), and blaSHV (15.5%). Among 58 isolates, 22 strains were found to harbor one β-lactamase gene, and the proportions of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime, were 81.8%, 63.6%, 40.9%, 18.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. A further 30 strains carrying multiple β-lactamase genes had increased resistance to the above antimicrobial agents (100%, 83.3%, 70.0%, 60.0%, and 30.0%, respectively). In contrast, antibiotic resistance in the last 6 strains without a detectable β-lactamase gene was substantially reduced. Drug resistance may be associated with the β-lactamase gene number, with a greater the number of β-lactamase genes resulting in higher antibiotic resistance.

  15. Correlation between biofilm forming ability and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli%尿路致病性大肠埃希菌生物膜形成与耐药性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉秀; 葛新; 靳颖; 董小青

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the biofilm forming ability and effect on antimicrobial resistance of 50 uropatho-genic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from clinic. Methods Screening of biofilm formation was performed by crystal violet staining, the susceptibility of 50 UPEC isolates to 8 kinds of antimicrobial agents was determined by Kirby-Bauer method , the correlation between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation was analyzed statistically. Results Among 50 UPEC isolates, 34(68. 00%) were biofilm-positive strains. All UPEC strains showed different resistance to 8 kinds of antimicrobial agents; the resistant rates of biofilm-positive strains to ampicillin (76.47%) and gentamicin (55.88%) were significantly higher than those of biofilm-negative strains (43.75%, 18.75% respectively) (P<0. 05). Conclusion The formation of biofilm in UPEC is common, the formation of biofilm correlats with its resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin.%目的 研究50株临床分离的尿路致病性大肠埃希菌(UPEC)形成生物膜情况及其对抗菌药物敏感性的影响.方法 采用结晶紫染色法检测生物膜阳性菌株,K-B纸片扩散法分析UPEC对8种抗菌药物的敏感性,再通过统计学方法分析细菌耐药性与生物膜形成之间的关系.结果 50株UPEC中,生物膜阳性34株,占68.00%.UPEC对8种抗菌药物均有不同程度耐药性;经统计学分析,生物膜阳性菌株对氨苄西林和庆大霉素耐药率(76.47%和55.88%)明显高于生物膜阴性菌株(43.75%和18.75%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 UPEC产生物膜现象较普遍,生物膜形成与其对氨苄西林和庆大霉素的耐药性具有相关性.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (PE. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from commensal isolates to potential pathogenic

  17. 宠物源大肠埃希菌的分离鉴定和耐药性研究%Isolation,Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli in Companion Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果; 纪雪; 孙洋; 刘哲; 祝令伟; 刘军; 周伟; 郭学军; 冯书章

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and related resistance characteristics were investigated in companion animals in Changchun.E .coli were isolated and identified from 135 anal swab samples from two pet hospitals.Triplex PCR was used to detect E .coli phylogenetic groups.The re-sistance to 1 9 antimicrobial agents and extended-spectrum β-lactamases(ESBLs)phenotype were detected by BD PhoenixTM-100 System.Among 95 isolates,78.9% showed resistance to ampicillin,76.8% showed resistance to piperacillin,followed by 61.6% showed resistance to tetracycline.More than 50% isolates showed resistance to cefazolin,cefotaxime,cefepime,gentamicin,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,cipro-floxacin and levofloxacin.However,all these isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem.Further-more,15 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested (15.8%).63 isolates presented multidrug resistance phenotype (66.3%).53.7% of these isolates presented ESBL phenotype.This study provided the epidemiological characteristics of antimicrobial-resistant E .coli from pets in Changchun,which may be useful for companion animal treatment.%为调查长春地区宠物源大肠埃希菌耐药流行情况,从2家宠物医院采集135份宠物肛拭子样品,分离和鉴定大肠埃希菌并进行多重 PCR 分群。测定大肠埃希菌分离株对19种抗菌药物的耐药性,并鉴定超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)表型。共分离鉴定获得95株宠物源大肠埃希菌,它们对氨苄西林和哌拉西林的耐药率最高(78.9%和76.8%);其次是四环素(61.6%);对头孢唑林、头孢噻肟、头孢吡肟、庆大霉素、复方新诺明、环丙沙星和左氧氟沙星的耐药率均超过了50%;所有分离株均对亚胺培南和美罗培南敏感。其中15个分离株对受试的抗菌药物全部敏感(15.8%),63株呈多重耐药表型(66.3%)。ESBLs 型菌株占53.7%。本研究探明了长春地区宠物源大肠埃希菌

  18. The high prevalence of some uropathogenic Escherichia coli clonal groups with enhanced virulence and antimicrobial resistance%尿道致病性大肠埃希菌克隆株毒力和耐药性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董敏; 郑书发; 余斐; 陈晓; 杨青; 孔海深; 俞小忠; 黄龑; 陈瑜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence,virulence and antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene types in the area.Methods Fifty Escherichia coli clinical isolated from outpatients and inpatients with urinary tract infection in the First Affiliated Hospital,College of Medicine,Zhejiang University from July 2011 to June 2012 were chosen.All isolates were assessed for phylogenetic group,sequence type,46 virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance.Virulence scores were compared between groups by Rank-sum test,while the rates of groups were compared by Chi-square test or Fisher exact test.Results The 55 isolates were divided into phylogenetic group A,B1,B2 and D,accounting for 9.1%,5.5%,43.6% and 41.8%,respectively.The virulence scores (number of virulence genes) P50 were 6,7,14 and 9,respectively.The virulence scores of group A,B1 and D were significantly different from that of group B2 (P <0.001,0.005 and <0.001 respectively).ST73,ST95 and ST493 isolates (9,16.4%) belonging to group B2,exhibited virulence genes up 15 to 20.B2-ST131 was the most common isolate,accounting for 20.0% of the overall isolates.The ST131 isolates exhibited higher antimicrobial resistance to 13 kinds of antimicrobials than non-ST131 isolates.The resistance rate to ciprofloxacin of the ST131 isolates was 90.9% (10/11).Conclusions It is important to pay attention to high prevalence of some UPEC clonal groups with enhanced virulence and(or) antimicrobial resistance in the area.And larger range of surveillance should be emphasized.%目的 了解杭州地区尿道致病性大肠埃希菌(UPEC)基因型的构成以及毒力和耐药性.方法 收集浙江大学医学院附属第一医院2011年7月至2012年6月从尿路感染患者尿液中分离的55株UPEC,对其开展系统分群和多位点序列分型,筛查46种毒力基因,采用纸片扩散法开展药敏试验.毒力分数组间比较采用秩和检验,率的组间比较采

  19. Investigations on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC among dairy farms in the north part of the Republic of Bulgaria

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    Valentina Urumova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period, from January 2011 to May 2013, a total of 1094 faecal swab samples were collected from cattle at different age at 4 farms in North Bulgaria: Okorsh, Slavyanovo (Popovo municipality, Dobri dol and Trem. Out of them, 36 coli strains (3.3% positive in the E. coli O:157 antiserum agglutination test and identified by the BBL CRYSTAL identification system as belonging to the E. coli O:157 serotype were isolated. The distribution of isolates was as followed: 5 (0.5% E. coli O:157 strains at the Okorsh dairy cattle farm, 7 (0.6% E. coli isolates at the Slavyanovo dairy farm, 16 (1.5% isolates at the Dobri dol farm and 8 (0.7% isolates at the Trem farm. Colibacteria exhibited 100% sensitivity to oxyimino-cephalosporins, gentamicin and enrofloxacin, and were resistant to ampicillin (19.4% and tetracycline (41.6%. From the 15 strains resistant to tetracycline, 11 were isolated from the cows at Dobri dol, while the other 4 originated from the other three farms. The 7 ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were detected only at the Dobri dol cattle farm.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine in Changchun%长春地区猪源大肠杆菌的分离鉴定和耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基伟; 冯书章; 孙洋; 纪雪; 刘军; 祝令伟; 周伟; 佟盼盼; 郭学军; 李晓慧

    2014-01-01

    为了解吉林省长春地区猪源大肠杆菌的耐药情况,于2013年采集318份猪源样品,分离鉴定大肠杆菌275株。以氨苄西林、头孢噻肟等15种药物进行了药物敏感性实验,多重 PCR 方法进行系统进化分群。结果表明,大肠杆菌分离株对四环素、氨苄西林和磺胺甲基异恶唑耐药最严重(83.63%、52.72%、51.27%),全部菌株对美洛培南、多粘菌素敏感,其中176株菌表现为对3类以上抗生素的多重耐药(64.00%)。从仔猪腹泻样品分离大肠杆菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素、喹诺酮类抗生素、四环素、氯霉素及磺胺甲基异恶唑的耐药率显著高于健康猪和猪肉样品分离株的耐药率。大肠杆菌分离株主要为 A 群和 B1群。研究获得了吉林长春地区猪源大肠杆菌耐药性的基本流行病学数据,为指导养殖业的临床用药及耐药性监测提供了依据。%In order to investigate the antimicrobial resistant of Escherichia coli from swine, a total of 275 Escherichia coli were recovered from 318 swine origin samples in Chuangchun in Jilin province, The phylogenetic background determinated by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility of 275 isolates to fifteen antimicrobial agents were tested. Among swine E. coli isolates, 83.63% were resistant to tetracycline, 52.72% to ampicillin and 51.27% to sulfamethoxazole. Most of the isolates (176) were multiple resistant bacteria strains; it meant that 64% of the E. coli strains were resistant to more than 3 kinds of antimicrobial agents. All of the isolates were sensitive to meropenem and polymyxin B. In addition, the drug-resistant rates to quinolones, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfanilamide, and β-lactam antibiotics of the E. coli isolates from diarrhea piglets are remarkbly higher than those isolates from healthy swine and pork. The majority of isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A and B1. In this study, epidemiological background and

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance in Commensal Escherichia coli from Pigs during Metaphylactic Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole Treatment and in the Post-Exposure Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mazurek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP and sulfamethoxazole (SMX resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3 and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100% and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs during metaphylactic trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole treatment and in the post-exposure period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Justyna; Bok, Ewa; Stosik, Michał; Baldy-Chudzik, Katarzyna

    2015-02-16

    The prevalence of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance in commensal E. coli from pigs was tested in this study. E. coli was derived from three groups of piglets in successive stages of metaphylactic therapy and from two groups of sows 10 and 18 weeks after the treatment. MIC values of TMP and SMX were determined for a total of 352 strains. The presence of resistance genes (dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, sul3) and class 1 and 2 integron-associated dfrA gene cassettes was tested. Resistance to TMP was very high during the administration of the antimicrobial (from 97 to 100%) and amounted to 86% and 69% in the post-exposure period; MIC > 32 mg/L. The isolates from all groups of pigs were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, with MIC > 1028 mg/L. The dfrA1 and sul1 genes (as part of integrons) dominated in E. coli from piglets, but the dfrA12 and sul1 genes were prevalent in E. coli from sows. Coexistence of the different dfrA genes was detected in 71 isolates from all groups of swine. Transcription analysis revealed that most of these genes were not transcribed, particularly gene cassettes of class 1 integrons. The research revealed a high level of resistance associated with the metaphylactic treatment, persistence and circulation of resistance in bacterial populations. Diverse genetic background with multiple and not transcribed resistance genes was observed.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance to Ceftazidime and Ceftriaxone, and Detection of TEM Gene in Esherchia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahani, S. (MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In the past, most strains of E. coli were susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial agents, but this situation is now changed by indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Ceftriaxone and Ceftazidime are the most current antibiotics used for Enterobacteriaceae infections in hospitals. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from patients. Material and Methods: During a 12-month period, 200 clinical samples taken from patients referred to Zahedan hospitals were assessed to isolate Escherichia coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method and micro-broth dilution; and Bla TEM resistance genes were detected by PCR. Results: Following phenotype verification testing, 112 isolates (56% were produced Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBLs and 130 isolates were potential producers of beta-lactamase (ESBL. Using PCR, 72 isolates (38.55% have TEM gene. Conclusion: The rate of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime is high; therefore, it seems reasonable to do antibiogram before treatment.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  5. Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  6. Celulitis in Japanese Quails (coturnix coturnix japonica for Eschorichia coli: virulence factors, sensibility and profile antimicrobial resistance /Celulite em codornas (coturnix coturnix japonica causada por Escherichia coli: fatores de virulência, sensibilidade e perfil de resistência antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten E. coli strains isolated from celulitis lesion s of Japanese quails were to evaluated antimicrobia l resistance to twent y six drugs , to pathogenicity of strains in SPF chickens embryonated eggs and virulence factors. The antimicrobials of higher efficiency wer e ampicillin, florfenicol and the lesser efficiency were erythromycin, oxacilin, lincomicin, novobiocin, penicillin, sulfonamidas, trimethoprim+sulfomethoxazo/e and tetracyicline. The majority of E. coli strains were serum resistance, the others virulence factors, hemolisin and congo red affinity, were lesser frequent on the studied strains. Pathogenicity of E. coli strains, evaluated to DL50 in embryonated eggs, had varied of 8x10 2 the 3,2x10.Dez cepas de E. coli isoladas de lesões de celulite em codornas foram avaliadas quanto a resistência antimicrobiana frente a vinte e seis drogas, a patogenicidade das amostras em ovos embrionários de galinha SPF e quanto aos fatores de virulência: hemolisinas, resistência sérica e afinidade ao vermelho congo Os antimicrobianos de maior eficiência foram ampicilinar florfenicol e os menos eficientes foram eritromicina, oxacilina. lincomicina, novobiocina. penicsilna, sulfonamida, sulfomethoxazole+ trimetoprim e tetraciclina. A maioria das amostras de E. coli foram resistentes ao soro, os outros fatores do virulência, hemolisina e afinidade ao vermelho-congo, foram menos freqüentes nas amostras estudadas. A patogenicidade das amostras de E. coli estimada através da DL50 em ovos embrionados, variaram de 8x10* a 3.2x10a.

  7. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  8. The role of drinking water in the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B L; Salvadori, M I; McGeer, A J; Sibley, K A; Neumann, N F; Bondy, S J; Gutmanis, I A; McEwen, S A; Lavoie, M; Strong, D; Johnson, I; Jamieson, F B; Louie, M

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether drinking water contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli, selected households sending water samples to Ontario and Alberta laboratories in 2005-2006 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study. Household members aged ≥12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit a rectal swab. In 878 individuals, 41% carried a resistant strain of E. coli and 28% carried a multidrug-resistant strain. The risk of carriage of resistant E. coli was 1·26 times higher for users of water contaminated with resistant E. coli. Other risk factors included international travel [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·33], having a child in nappies (PR 1·33), being male (PR 1·33), and frequent handling of raw red meats (PR 1·10). Protecting private water sources (e.g. by improving systems to test and treat them) may help slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli.

  9. Comparative Research on Serogroups Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coil Isolates from Poultry in Different Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; FENG Zhong-wu; NING Yi-bao; ZHANG Xiu-ying; SHENG Qing-chun; ZHANG Guang-chuan; LIN Shu-mao; WU Hao-ting; ZHAO Hui; GAO Guang

    2008-01-01

    A total of 241 Escherichia coli(E. coli)isolates from 349 avian samples(292 from cloacae,29 from feed and water,28 from dust and padding)were collected from Northeast,South,North,and Central China in recent years.The percentage of isolation was 69.1%.There are 67 serogroups each with 1-2 isolates distributed in different regions.and some of these regions had the preponderant serogroups.Antimicrobial-resistance(AR)of E. coli was so severe that the majority were multi-AR.Fifty percent strains were resistant to 10-19 antimicrobial drugs.Overall,the isolates represented resistance to nalidixic acid(88.1%),tetracycline(85.7%),sulfamethoxazole(81.0%),trimethoprim-sulfamethpxazole(77.1%),ampicillin (76.2%),amoxilline(74.3%),streplomycin(66.2%),fluoroquinolones(57.1-66.7%),chloramphenicol(52.9%),gentamicin (39.0%),and kanamycin(36.2%).The isolates were sensitive to cefalexin,amoxilline-clavulanic acid,amikacin,and florfenicol with all AR rate of 0-19.5%only.The results showed that the AR was more severe in chicken farms in which the antibiotics were used broadly and repeatedly.This study indicated the AR characterization of E. coli in different areas of China.It will be a foundation for studying AR mechanism and regulating the usage of antimicrobial in the poultry industry.

  10. Impact of feed supplementation with antimicrobial agents on growth performance of broiler chickens, Clostridium perfringens and enterococcus counts, and antibiotic resistance phenotypes and distribution of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Silversides, Fred G; Diarrassouba, Fatoumata; Pritchard, Jane; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Bonnet, Claudie; Delaquis, Pascal; Bach, Susan; Skura, Brent J; Topp, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The effects of feed supplementation with the approved antimicrobial agents bambermycin, penicillin, salinomycin, and bacitracin or a combination of salinomycin plus bacitracin were evaluated for the incidence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in 197 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens over 35 days. All isolates showed some degree of multiple antibiotic resistance. Resistance to tetracycline (68.5%), amoxicillin (61.4%), ceftiofur (51.3%), spectinomycin (47.2%), and sulfonamides (42%) was most frequent. The levels of resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were 33.5, 35.5, and 25.3%, respectively. The overall resistance levels decreased from day 7 to day 35 (P chickens receiving feed supplemented with salinomycin than from the other feeds (P chickens fed different growth promoters. Results showed a decrease in the incidence of isolates harboring tet(B), bla(TEM), sulI, and aadA and class 1 integron from days 7 to 35 (P chickens than in the control or other treatment groups (P chickens regardless of the antimicrobial growth promoters used. However, the phenotype and the distribution of resistance determinants in E. coli can be modulated by feed supplementation with some of the antimicrobial agents used in broiler chicken production.

  11. Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates in patients with community-acquired diarrhea%社区腹泻患者感染致泻大肠埃希菌分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文燕; 罗燕萍; 王成彬; 郭宇妮; 徐舒敏; 李芮冰; 王正冠; 高基民

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the common species of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates in patients with community‐acquired diarrhea and analyze the drug resistance so as to provide guidance for effective treatment . METHODS From Jul 2013 to Nov 2013 ,the stool samples were collected from 442 outpatients with diarrhea ;the multiple PCR test was performed for the specific primers of 11 pairs of pathogenic genes (escV ,bf pB ,stx1 ,stx2 , elt ,estIa ,estIb ,invE ,astA ,aggR ,pic)that were obtained from the isolated E .coli ,including 6 species such as EPEC ,EAEC ,ATEC ,STEC ,ETEC ,and EIEC ;the drug susceptibilities of the diarrheagenic E .coli to the commonly used antibiotics were determined by using micro‐broth dilution method .RESULTS The diarrheagenic E . coli strains have been isolated from 130 of 442 (29 .4% ) outpatients with diarrhea ,among whom 10 cases were simultaneously detected with two species of pathogens and 6 cases were detected with same species of pathogen carrying with two genotypes .A total of 147 strains of diarrheagenic E .coli have been isolated ,including 100 (68 .0% ) strains of EAEC ,7 (4 .8% ) strains of ETEC ,9 (6 .1% ) strains of ATEC ,1 strain of EIEC ,1 strain of STEC ,and 29 (19 .7% ) strains with unknown types .CONCLUSION The EAEC is the most common species of diarrheagenic E .coli in the community ,and the ATEC infection has emerged ;the diarrheagenic E .coli strains va‐ry in the drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics due to the different pathogenicities ,and it is necessary to consider the species of diarrheagenic E .coli for the clinical treatment and strengthen the surveillance of drug resistance .%目的:了解社区腹泻患者感染致泻大肠埃希菌(Diarrheagenic E .coli ,DEC )的常见类型及耐药性,为制定有效治疗措施提供参考依据。方法收集医院2013年7-11月442例门诊腹泻患者粪便标本,采用针对肠致病性大肠埃希菌(EPEC)、非典型EPEC(ATEC

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli selected by tylosin treatment at a pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, P; Heiska, H; Olkkola, S; Myllyniemi, A-L; Hänninen, M-L

    2010-11-20

    Limited knowledge is available regarding the dynamics of macrolide resistance under farm conditions with natural Campylobacter populations. We examined the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli at a large pig farm. Faeces were sampled from untreated sows and piglets (n=57), weaned pigs treated with tylosin (n=68) and pigs of the same group 3-5 weeks after withdrawal of tylosin (n=15). Additionally, 48 weaned pigs were sampled after tylosin had not been administered for 7 months at the farm. MICs for seven antimicrobials were determined, isolates were genotyped by PFGE and mutations conferring macrolide resistance were identified. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was higher (Ptylosin had not been administered for 7 months. Resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin also decreased (Ptylosin treatment. In conclusion, tylosin treatment of pigs selected for a high-level of resistance to erythromycin and resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin also increased in C. coli isolates within a few days.

  13. Temporal Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence-Associated Traits within the Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clonal Group and Its H30 and H30-Rx Subclones, 1968 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bente; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Leihof, Rikke Fleron;

    2014-01-01

    (2005) ST131 subclones. In contrast, neither the total virulence gene content nor the prevalence of biofilm production increased temporally, although non-H30 isolates increasingly qualified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Whereas virotype D occurred from 1968 forward, virotypes A and C...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  15. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  16. Wild Birds as biological indicators of environmental pollution: biotyping and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Escherichia coli isolated from Audouin's gulls (Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Mallia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E. Coli biotyping and antimicrobial succeptibility tests were performed on fortyeight cloacal swabs collected from a popoulation of Audouin's gulls ((Larus Audouinii living in the Bay of Gallipoli (Lecce, Italy. The aim was to assess the pathogenic potential of the strains the gulls carry and shed into the environment and to gain a better understanding of the microbial pollution of the aera they live in.

  17. The changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in Europe : trends from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, M. E. A.; Jarlier, V.; Monen, J. C. M.; Heuer, O. E.; van de Sande, N.; Grundmann, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated bacteraemia trends for five major bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, and determined how expanding antimicrobial resistance influenced the total burden of bacteraemias in Europe. Aetio

  18. Food-borne origins of Escherichia coli causing extraintestinal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Amee R; Johnson, James R

    2012-09-01

    Most human extraintestinal Escherichia coli infections, including those involving antimicrobial resistant strains, are caused by the members of a limited number of distinctive E. coli lineages, termed extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), that have a special ability to cause disease at extraintestinal sites when they exit their usual reservoir in the host's intestinal tract. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of the ExPEC strains encountered in humans with urinary tract infection, sepsis, and other extraintestinal infections, especially the most extensively antimicrobial-resistant strains, may have a food animal source, and may be transmitted to humans via the food supply. This review summarizes the evidence that food-borne organisms are a significant cause of extraintestinal E. coli infections in humans.

  19. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle...... attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance...

  20. 住院患者产CTX-M型ESBLs和KPC的大肠埃希菌感染分布与耐药基因分析%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance genes of CTX-M extended-spec-trum β-lactamase-and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟; 王思淼; 金鑫; 李佳佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance genes of CTX-M extended-spectrumβ-lactamases (ESBLs)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs)-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli)isolated from patients with infection.Methods Multidrug-resistant E.coli (MDR-E.coli)isolated from clinical specimens in a hospital in 2011 -2012 were collected,minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)were detec-ted by micro-broth dilution method;ESBLs and KPC genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CTX-M and KPC genotypes,as well as multilocus sequence types (MLST)were identified.Results Of 48 MDR-E. coli,45(93.75%)only produced ESBLs,44(91 .67%)carried bla CTX-M gene,20(41 .67%)of which were bla CTX-M-1 gene and 32(66.67%)were bla CTX-M-9 gene,8 (16.67%)carried both genes.The following subtypes were identified through gene sequencing:CTX-M-14(65.91 %,29/44),CTX-M-55(31 .82%,14/44),CTX-M-15(11 .36%,5/44), CTX-M-3(2.27%,1/44),CTX-M-24(2.27%,1/44),and CTX-M-65(2.27%,1/44).The detection rates of CTX-M-14+CTX-M-55,CTX-M-14+CTX-M-15,and CTX-M-55+CTX-M-65 were 11 .36% (5/44),4.55%(2/44), and 2.27%(1/44)respectively.PCR showed that 2 (4.17%)ESBLs +KPC-producing strains carried bla KPC and bla CTX-M genes,sequencing analysis showed that 1 was CTX-M-14 +KPC-2,and the other was CTX-M-3 +KPC-2.ST 131 (53.66%)was the main type of MLST,ST648,ST405,ST167,and ST1193 were also detected. Conclusion CTX-M-14,CTX-M-55 and CTX-M-15 are the most common genotypes of ESBLs-producing E.coli isolates,different subtypes exists,ST131 is the predominant MLST,KPC-2-producing isolate of E.coli has been detected.%目的:了解住院患者产 CTX-M 型超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)和碳青霉烯酶(KPC)大肠埃希菌感染的临床分布与耐药情况。方法收集某院2011—2012年临床送检标本分离的多重耐药大肠埃希菌,采用微量肉汤稀释法检测抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度(MIC);聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增 ESBLs

  1. Escherichia coli in Europe: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerino Allocati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli remains one of the most frequent causes of several common bacterial infections in humans and animals. E. coli is the prominent cause of enteritis, urinary tract infection, septicaemia and other clinical infections, such as neonatal meningitis. E. coli is also prominently associated with diarrhoea in pet and farm animals. The therapeutic treatment of E. coli infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli strains is increasing worldwide principally due to the spread of mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of E. coli also occurs in Europe. Therefore, the spread of resistance in E. coli is an increasing public health concern in European countries. This paper summarizes the current status of E. coli strains clinically relevant in European countries. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent and control infections are presented and discussed. The article also provides an overview of the current knowledge concerning promising alternative therapies against E. coli diseases.

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the ...

  3. PATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli is a bacterial species which inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of man and warm-blooded animals. Because of the ubiquity of this bacterium in the intestinal flora, it serves as an important indicator organism of fecal contamination. E. coli, aside from serving a...

  4. Common phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns found in a case study of multiresistant E. coli from cohabitant pets, humans, and household surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Liliana Raquel Leite; Pina, Susana Maria Rocha; Simões, Romeo Luís Rocha; de Matos, Augusto José Ferreira; Rodrigues, Pedro; da Costa, Paulo Martins Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles among E. coli strains isolated from cohabitant pets and humans, evaluating the concurrent colonization of pets, owners, and home surfaces by bacteria carrying the same antimicrobial-resistant genes. The authors also intended to assess whether household surfaces and objects could contribute to the within-household antimicrobial-resistant gene diffusion between human and animal cohabitants. A total of 124 E. coli strains were isolated displaying 24 different phenotypic patterns with a remarkable percentage of multiresistant ones. The same resistance patterns were isolated from the dog's urine, mouth, the laundry floor, the refrigerator door, and the dog's food bowl. Some other multiresistant phenotypes, as long as resistant genes, were found repeatedly in different inhabitants and surfaces of the house. Direct, close contact between all the cohabitants and the touch of contaminated household surfaces and objects could be an explanation for these observations.

  5. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tânia A T; Elias, Waldir P; Scaletsky, Isabel C A; Guth, Beatriz E C; Rodrigues, Juliana F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Ferreira, Luís C S; Martinez, Marina B

    2016-12-01

    Most Escherichia coli strains live harmlessly in the intestines and rarely cause disease in healthy individuals. Nonetheless, a number of pathogenic strains can cause diarrhea or extraintestinal diseases both in healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Diarrheal illnesses are a severe public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children, especially in developing countries. E. coli strains that cause diarrhea have evolved by acquiring, through horizontal gene transfer, a particular set of characteristics that have successfully persisted in the host. According to the group of virulence determinants acquired, specific combinations were formed determining the currently known E. coli pathotypes, which are collectively known as diarrheagenic E. coli. In this review, we have gathered information on current definitions, serotypes, lineages, virulence mechanisms, epidemiology, and diagnosis of the major diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes.

  6. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. METHODS: The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 11

  7. 上海市一区级医院老年患者尿路致病性大肠埃希菌分子分型和耐药性分析%Molecular characterization and antimicrobial resistance properties of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from elderly patients in a district tertiary hospital in shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维正; 孙琳; 陈蓓; 严萍; 洪金玲; 张洁; 戴俊华; 陈嘉臻; 张文宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance status of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in senior population in Putuo District ,Shanghai .Methods A total of 72 UPEC strains were isolated from elderly inpatients with urinary tract infections in Putuo Hospital ,Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2013 to March 2015 .The strains were characterized by multi‐locus sequence typing (MLST ) .The β‐lactamase gene and the plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene were detected ,and the mutations of quinolone resistance‐determining regions (QRDR) in gyrA and parC genes were demonstrated .In vitro drug susceptibility test was performed .Continuous variables were compared using t test and categorical variables were compared using chi‐squared test or Fisher exact test .Results The UPEC strains showed different resistance rates to ciprofloxacin ,cefotaxime and trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole ,which were 76 .4% ,73 .6% and 65 .3% , respectively .UPEC still remained highly sensitive to imipenem ,meropenem ,amikacin and piperacillin‐tazobactam .Among 72 isolates ,55 (76 .4% ) of 49 (68 .1% ) extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL )‐positive strains harbored blaCTX‐M genes .Among the 55 ciprofloxacin resistant strains ,51 (92 .7% ) had three or four mutations in QRDR of gyrA and parC genes .The “hot‐spot” mutations of QRDR were located at amino acid position 83 and 87 in gyrA gene and at positions 80 and 84 in parC gene .Forward analysis by MLST showed that the most frequent sequence types (ST ) were ST131 (18/72 ,25 .0% ) , ST1193(7/72 ,9 .7% ) ,ST405 (7/72 ,9 .7% ) ,ST38 (5/72 ,6 .9% ) and ST648 (3/72 ,4 .2% ) .ST131 isolates were predominant in ST which caused community‐onset urinary tract infections .Multiple drug‐resistance were detected in ST 131 ,ST405 ,ST38 and ST648 which were mainly producing blaCTX‐M ESBL .Conclusions Community‐acquired multiple drug

  8. Zoonotic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasteson Yngvild

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, but variants of this species is also among the important etiological agents of enteritis and several extraintestinal diseases. The E. coli strains that cause diarrhoeal illness are categorised into pathogenicity groups based on virulence properties, mechanisms of pathogenicity, clinical symptoms and serology. The five main categories include enterotoxinogenic E. coli (ETEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and Shiga (Vero toxin-producing E. coli (STEC/VTEC. From a zoonotic point of view, STEC is the only E. coli pathogenicity group of major interest, as the shiga toxin-producing strains are able to cause severe disease in humans when being transmitted through the food chain from their animal reservoirs. The focus of this manuscript is therefore on STEC; pathogenicity factors, disease, the reservoirs and on-farm ecology, transmission into the food chain, growth and survival in food and in the environment, and the shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages.

  9. Perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana e detecção do gene ISS pela reação em cadeia da polimerase na tipificação de Escherichia coli patogênica em codornas de corte sob inspeção sanitária Profile of antimicrobial resistance and detection of iss gene by the polymerase chain reaction in the typification of pathogenic Escherichia coli in meat type quails under sanitary inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Lima da Costa Abreu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade das cepas de Escherichia coli está relacionada à expressão de fatores de virulência encontrados em elementos genéticos denominados plasmídios. O patotipo APEC, responsável por diferentes tipos de doenças em aves, pode apresentar o gene iss que aumenta a resistência das cepas de E. coli aos efeitos líticos do soro, além da resistência a diversos antimicrobianos. Este estudo foi conduzido para detectar E. coli em traquéias de codornas destinadas ao abate e avaliar, pela presença do gene iss e o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana, o potencial patogênico para aves e humanos dos isolados obtidos. Foram coletadas 180 traquéias de codornas para detecção de E. coli, determinação do perfil de resistência a agentes antimicrobianos e posterior detecção, por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR, do gene iss. Das traquéias analisadas, 8,9 % (16/180 foram positivas para E. coli, sendo obtidos 20 isolados deste agente. A maioria dos isolados foi resistente à Tetraciclina (16/20, seguida pela Ceftazidima (13/20 e Ácido Nalidíxico (12/20, sendo apenas um resistente à Amoxicilina. A detecção do gene iss ocorreu em 55% (11/20 dos isolados. A presença do gene iss e a resistência a múltiplos antimicrobianos dos isolados obtidos neste estudo pode indicar um possível potencial patogênico das cepas de E. coli tanto para codornas quanto para outros tipos de aves e animais e mesmo para o ser humano que fique em contato com as mesmas.The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli strains is partially related to the expression of virulence factors genes, present in genetic elements called plasmids. APEC strains responsible for diseases in birds may present the iss gene which increases the resistance of E. coli strains to the lityc effect of the host's serum, besides resistance to several antimicrobials. This study was conduced in order to detect E. coli in tracheae of meat-type quails and to evaluate, by the presence of

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  13. Resistência a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isolada de dejetos suínos em esterqueiras Antibiotic-resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from stored pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.F.P. Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial resistance of 96 Escherichia coli strains isolated from a stabilization pond system on a pig-breeding farm was evaluated. Strains were tested for their resistance against 14 antimicrobial using the agar diffusion method. E. coli strains showed resistance to tetracycline (82.3%, nalidixic acid (64%, ampicilin (41%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprin (36%, sulfonamide (34%, cloranphenicol (274%, ciprofloxacin (19%, cefaclor (16%, streptomicyn (7.3%, neomicyn (1%, amoxacilin/ clavulanic acid (1%, and amikacin (1%. No resistance was observed to gentamicin and tobramycin, and 37.5% of E. coli strains were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. The multiresistance pattern was found in strains isolated during all sampled period. Strains showed a high variability in the antimicrobial resistance pattern.

  14. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okoli IC

    2006-01-01

    Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. O...

  15. Recovery of Cephalosporin Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella from Pork, Beef and Chicken Marketed in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Forward

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial use in farm animals is a potentially important contributor to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Resistant Salmonella may lead to serious human infections and resistant Escherichia coli may transfer plasmid-encoded resistance genes to other pathogens.

  16. PART I. ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Mahdi Oraibi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli in the air of facilities involved in management and composting of post-slaughter poultry wastes in selected plants of West Western Pomerania region was studied. Measurements were made on four dates in a variety of weather conditions during the year. The study was conducted at 5 objects that differ in the type of waste and the degree of preparation for composting. These were: chemical treatment and preliminary processing plant, liquid wastes reservoir, platform for preparation of materials for composting, storage of biological sediments, and composting facility. Measurement of bacteria count was carried out in accordance with the applicable procedures on selective chromogenic TBX medium. The assays revealed the presence of E. coli at all test objects, but not always on all measurement dates. It has been shown that the presence of E. coli was from 20 to 3047 CFU∙m-3 of air, although the largest quantities were most frequently detected in the air of the building for post-slaughter waste pre-treatment in chemical treatment plant.

  17. Limited transmission of bla(CTX-M-9)-type-positive Escherichia coli between humans and poultry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ngan, Bui Thi Kim; Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Hirai, Itaru; Tuyen, Le Danh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Escherichia coli isolates that produce CTX-M-9-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are transferred between humans and chickens in a Vietnamese community. The phylogenetic group compositions, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance profiles, the prevalence of plasmid antibiotic resistance genes, and the plasmid replicon types generally differed between the human and chicken E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that transmission of the bla(CTX-M-9)-positive E. coli between humans and poultry was limited.

  18. Identification of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Strains from Avian Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Puño-Sarmiento

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%, three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%, 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%, but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  19. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from avian organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puño-Sarmiento, Juan; Gazal, Luis Eduardo; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Nishio, Erick K; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-08-28

    The Brazilian poultry industry generates large amounts of organic waste, such as chicken litter, which is often used in agriculture. Among the bacteria present in organic fertilizer are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains in avian organic fertilizer, and assess the potential damage they can cause in humans due to antimicrobial resistance. The presence of DEC pathotypes and phylogenetic groups were detected by multiplex-PCR. Phenotypic assays, such as tests for adhesion, cytotoxicity activity, biofilm formation and especially antimicrobial susceptibility, were performed. Fifteen DEC strains from 64 E. coli were isolated. Among these, four strains were classified as enteropathogenic (EPEC; 6.2%), three strains as Shiga toxin-producing (STEC; 4.7%), 10 strains as enteroaggregative (EAEC; 12.5%), but two of these harbored the eaeA gene too. The low number of isolated strains was most likely due to the composting process, which reduces the number of microorganisms. These strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 and HeLa cells and produce Shiga-toxins and biofilms; in addition, some of the strains showed antimicrobial resistance, which indicates a risk of the transfer of resistance genes to human E. coli. These results showed that DEC strains isolated from avian organic fertilizers can cause human infections.

  20. Intestinal Escherichia coli colonization in a mallard duck population over four consecutive winter seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, Stefan; Kramer, Toni; Frömmel, Ulrike; Weinreich, Jörg; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Guenther, Sebastian; Schaufler, Katharina; Schröder, Christian; Schierack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We report the population structure and dynamics of one Escherichia coli population of wild mallard ducks in their natural environment over four winter seasons, following the characterization of 100 isolates each consecutive season. Macro-restriction analysis was used to define isolates variously as multi- or 1-year pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. Isolates were characterized genotypically based on virulence-associated genes (VAGs), phylogenetic markers, and phenotypically based on haemolytic activity, antimicrobial resistance, adhesion to epithelial cells, microcin production, motility and carbohydrate metabolism. Only 12 out of 220 PFGE types were detectable over more than one winter, and classified as multi-year PFGE types. There was a dramatic change of PFGE types within two winter seasons. Nevertheless, the genetic pool (VAGs) and antimicrobial resistance pattern remained remarkably stable. The high diversity and dynamics of this E. coli population were also demonstrated by the occurrence of PFGE subtypes and differences between isolates of one PFGE type (based on VAGs, antimicrobial resistance and adhesion rates). Multi- and 1-year PFGE types differed in antimicrobial resistance, VAGs and adhesion. Other parameters were not prominent colonization factors. In conclusion, the high diversity, dynamics and stable genetic pool of an E. coli population seem to enable their successful colonization of host animal population over time.

  1. Escherichia coli Uropathogenesis In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas E; Khandige, Surabhi; Madelung, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are capable of invading bladder epithelial cells (BECs) on the bladder luminal surface. Based primarily on studies in mouse models, invasion is proposed to trigger an intracellular uropathogenic cascade involving intracellular bacterial proliferation...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cherichia_coli_S.png Escherichia_coli_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+co...li&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NS ...

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative bacteria such as E. coli , Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter species. Other diseases including tuberculosis (TB), gonorrhea, malaria, and childhood ear infections are increasingly more difficult to treat due to ...

  4. Asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, E.M.; Klemm, Per

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect millions of people each year. Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in humans. Persons affected by ABU may carry a particular E. coli strain for extended periods of time without any symptoms. In contrast...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Strain CCUG 62462, Isolated from a Urine Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnning, Anna; Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Boulund, Fredrik; Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Åhrén, Christina; Kristiansson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence has been determined for an extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing (blaCTX-M-15) Escherichia coli strain (CCUG 62462), composed of 119 contigs and a total size of 5.27 Mb. This E. coli is serotype O25b and sequence type 131, a pandemic clonal group, causing worldwide antimicrobial-resistant infections. PMID:27979938

  6. Anti-Microbial Resistance Profiles Of E. Coli Isolated From Free Range Chickens In Urban And Rural Environments Of Imo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoli IC

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the resistance profiles of normal intestinal flora of extensively reared chickens that hardly receive antibiotics in the developing countries can serve as important means of understanding the human/animal pathogens drug resistance interactions in the zone. Three hundred and fifty E. coli isolates, comprising 133 from urban and 217 from rural sites in Imo state, Nigeria, were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. Overall percentage anti-microbial resistance of the isolates against cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin (72–92% were very high. The organisms were highly sensitive to other antibiotics, especially gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. The 59.5% overall mean percentage resistance recorded at the urban area was significantly higher than the 46.8% recorded at the rural area (p<0.05. With the exception of the figures for cotrimoxazole and ampicillin, resistance values obtained against the other antibiotics at the urban sites were statistically higher than those obtained at the rural sites (p<0.05. Zero resistance was recorded against the fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin at all the rural sites except at Enyiogwugwu where a 28.6% resistance was obtained against norfloxacin. Since free-range chickens rarely receive antibiotic medication, it is concluded that the highly resistant E. coli organisms isolated from them may be reflecting consequences of human drug use in the study areas.

  7. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  8. E. coli Group 1 Capsular Polysaccharide Exportation Nanomachinary as a Plausible Antivirulence Target in the Perspective of Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Shivangi; Palur, Raghuvamsi V.; Sudhakar, Karpagam U.; Rathinavelan, Thenmalarchelvi

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. Evolution of such multidrug resistance is due to the fact that, most of the antibiotics target bacterial survival mechanisms which exert selective pressure on the bacteria and aids them to escape from the action of antibiotics. Nonetheless, targeting bacterial virulence strategies such as bacterial surface associated polysaccharides biosynthesis and their surface accumulation mechanisms may be an attractive strategy, as they impose less selective pressure on the bacteria. Capsular polysaccharide (CPS) or K-antigen that is located on the bacterial surface armors bacteria from host immune response. Thus, unencapsulating bacteria would be a good strategy for drug design, besides CPS itself being a good vaccine target, by interfering with CPS biosynthesis and surface assembly pathway. Gram-negative Escherichia coli uses Wzy-polymerase dependent (Groups 1 and 4) and ATP dependent (Groups 1 and 3) pathways for CPS production. Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. PMID:28217109

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2014 NARMS ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  12. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  13. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J M; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P; Humphrey, Tom; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health.

  14. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J. M.; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.; Humphrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  15. Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Allen; Youngster, Ilan; McAdam, Alexander J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is among the common causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. STEC is defined by the production of specific toxins, but within this pathotype there is a diverse group of organisms. This diversity has important consequences for understanding the pathogenesis of the organism, as well as for selecting the optimum strategy for diagnostic testing in the clinical laboratory. This review includes discussions of the mechanisms of pathogenesis, the range of manifestations of infection, and the several different methods of laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing E coli.

  16. A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omulo, Sylvia; Thumbi, Samuel M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Call, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance is driven by varied factors including the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and variable drug efficacy and presents a major threat to the control of infectious diseases. Despite the high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential health and economic consequences, the level of research on antimicrobial resistance in the region remains unknown. Little data exists to quantify the contribution of different factors to the current levels of antimicrobial resistance. To identify the factors that contribute most to the emergence, amplification, persistence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, we used the PRISMA 2009 guidelines to conduct a systematic review of studies on antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria in Eastern Africa. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases and identified 2,155 probable articles, of which 89 studies on humans and 28 on animals remained after full-text review. These were articles from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Burundi, published between 1974 and 2013, that reported resistance in Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. The majority (98%) of human studies were based on hospital- (rather than community-wide) sampling and although they report high levels of antimicrobial resistance in the region, study design and methodological differences preclude conclusions about the magnitude and trends of antimicrobial resistance. To remedy this, we discuss and propose minimum reporting guidelines for the level of detail that should be explicitly provided for antimicrobial resistance study designs, testing of samples and reporting of results that would permit comparative inferences and enable meta-analyses. Further, we advocate for increased focus on community- rather than hospital-based sampling to provide a better indication of population-wide trends in antimicrobial resistance. This approach, together with the

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  18. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

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    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  20. Evolutionary History of the Global Emergence of the Escherichia coli Epidemic Clone ST131

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    Nicole Stoesser

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131 has emerged globally as the most predominant extraintestinal pathogenic lineage within this clinically important species, and its association with fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance impacts significantly on treatment. The evolutionary histories of this lineage, and of important antimicrobial resistance elements within it, remain unclearly defined. This study of the largest worldwide collection (n = 215 of sequenced ST131 E. coli isolates to date demonstrates that the clonal expansion of two previously recognized antimicrobial-resistant clades, C1/H30R and C2/H30Rx, started around 25 years ago, consistent with the widespread introduction of fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in clinical medicine. These two clades appear to have emerged in the United States, with the expansion of the C2/H30Rx clade driven by the acquisition of a blaCTX-M-15-containing IncFII-like plasmid that has subsequently undergone extensive rearrangement. Several other evolutionary processes influencing the trajectory of this drug-resistant lineage are described, including sporadic acquisitions of CTX-M resistance plasmids and chromosomal integration of blaCTX-M within subclusters followed by vertical evolution. These processes are also occurring for another family of CTX-M gene variants more recently observed among ST131, the blaCTX-M-14/14-like group. The complexity of the evolutionary history of ST131 has important implications for antimicrobial resistance surveillance, epidemiological analysis, and control of emerging clinical lineages of E. coli. These data also highlight the global imperative to reduce specific antibiotic selection pressures and demonstrate the important and varied roles played by plasmids and other mobile genetic elements in the perpetuation of antimicrobial resistance within lineages.

  1. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzel, Christina S., E-mail: Christina.Hoelzel@wzw.tum.de [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mueller, Christa [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany); Harms, Katrin S. [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mikolajewski, Sabine [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  2. Silent dissemination of colistin-resistant Escherichia coli in South America could contribute to the global spread of the mcr-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Miriam R; Moura, Quezia; Sartori, Luciana; Silva, Ketrin C; Cunha, Marcos Pv; Esposito, Fernanda; Lopes, Ralf; Otutumi, Luciana K; Gonçalves, Daniela D; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria H; Monte, Daniel Fm; Landgraf, Mariza; Francisco, Gabriela R; Bueno, Maria Fc; de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti; Knöbl, Terezinha; Moreno, Andrea M; Lincopan, Nilton

    2016-04-28

    During a Brazilian multicentric antimicrobial resistance surveillance study, colistin resistance was investigated in 4,620 Enterobacteriaceae isolated from human, animal, food and environmental samples collected from 2000 to 2016. We present evidence that mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli has been emerging in South America since at least 2012, supporting a previous report on the possible acquisition of mcr-1-harbouring E. coli by European travellers visiting Latin American countries.

  3. Prevalence of mcr-1 in commensal Escherichia coli from French livestock, 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Bruneau, Mireille; Houée, Pamela; Deleurme, Karine; Legrandois, Patricia; Poirier, Catherine; Soumet, Christophe; Sanders, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Colistin resistance was investigated in 1,696 isolates collected from 2007 to 2014 within the frame of the French livestock antimicrobial resistance surveillance programme. The mcr-1 gene was detected in all commensal Escherichia coli isolates with a minimum inhibitory concentration to colistin above the 2 mg/L cut-off value (n=23). In poultry, mcr-1 prevalence was 5.9% in turkeys and 1.8% in broilers in 2014. In pigs, investigated in 2013, this prevalence did not exceed 0.5%. These findings support that mcr-1 has spread in French livestock.

  4. Virulence of Escherichia coli O139:K82/ Virulência de Escherichia coli O139:K82

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    Ari Bernardes da Silva

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of BK 125 Escherichia coli strain, several tests were assessed: serotype, slide agglutination for detection of the fimbriae F18, presence of the gene Stx2e, verotoxin production, hemolytic activity, pathogenicity assessement using piglet inoculation and antimicrobial resistance to drugs. The strain BK125 showed the following profile: F18+, Stx2e+, Hly+, resistance to streptomicin, tetraciclin, sulfonamides. It produced clinical disease and death of infected piglets. Moreover, it was possible to recover the BK125 strain from diarrheic feces and from the gut contents of the piglet, with high rate of recovery of colonies expressing fimbriae F18. The present results suggest that the E. coli BK125 (O139:K82 strain could produce virulence factors and experimentally reproduce oedema disease in pigs.Com o objetivo de identificar a patogenicidade e resistência a antimicrobianos da cepa de Escherichia coli BK125, foram utilizados os seguintes testes: sorotipagem, aglutinação em lâmina para detecção da fímbria F18, PCR para verificar a presença do gene Stx2e e teste de citoxicidade para avaliar a expressão da verotoxina, ensaio para detecção de hemolisinas, patogenicidade em leitões e antibiograma. A cepa BK125 apresentou o seguinte perfil: F18+, Stx2e+, Hly+, resistente a estreptomicina, tetraciclina, sulfonamida e foi capaz de provocar a doença clínica e morte em leitões inoculados. Também foi possível o resgate dessa cepa de fezes diarréicas e do conteúdo intestinal dos leitões revelando assim, alto índice de recuperação de colônias inoculadas. Os resultados permitem concluir que a E. coli BK125 (O139:K82 é produtora de fatores de virulência e reproduz experimentalmente a doença do edema em suínos.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

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    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  6. A potential camel reservoir for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing human infection in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlelmula, Ali; Al-Hamam, Naser Abdallah; Al-Dughaym, Abdulla Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is continuing to increase. Consequently, efficient approaches to identify sources of resistance are required. This study aimed to compare Escherichia coli isolates from the intestinal tract of camels with isolates from human urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Al Ahsa Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), for antimicrobial resistance and identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). A microbiological study was conducted on 100 samples of cecal contents from camels and 100 urine samples from female UTI patients, to isolate and confirm E. coli using the VITEK 2 Automated System. Sensitivity patterns and identification of ESBLs were analyzed using the antimicrobial susceptibility test. Molecular techniques were used to detect E. coli drug-resistant clones. The presence rate of E. coli in camels was 26.0 % (n = 26/100), and in human samples, the rate of E. coli was 33.0 % (n = 33/100). ESBLs were reported for the first time in KSA, in 26.9 % (n = 5/26) of camel samples and 36.4 % (n = 8/33) of human samples. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) index was 0.13 and 0.17, for camels and humans, respectively. Escherichia coli drug-resistant O25b:H4-sequence type 131(ST131) clone was detected in two camel and two human isolates. This study demonstrates a high presence rate of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-EC) in camels for the first time in KSA. Confirmation of MDR strains and E. coli ST131 clone in human and camel isolates suggests that camels could be a potential reservoir for resistant E. coli strains contributing to the increase in antimicrobial resistance in KSA.

  7. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  10. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

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    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  11. PmrD is Required for Modifications to Escherichia Coli Endotoxin that Promote Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    AND METHODS Chemicals and other materials. 32Pi was obtained from PerkinElmer. Precoated glass -backed thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates were...a silica gel TLC plate (10,000 cpm per lane) (29). Lipids were separated using a chloroform, pyridine, 88% formic acid, and water solvent system (50...flank the glucosamine disaccha- ride. Thus, the overall charge of the bacterial cell surface becomes more neutral and better repels positively

  12. The in vitro fitness cost of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli varies with the growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2009-01-01

    significantly when the bacteria were grown under all stress conditions tested, while the cost in 1/3 Luria–Bertani was not significantly changed in a streptomycin+rifampicin mutant. The increase in the fitness cost depended in a nonregular manner on the strain/stress combination. The fitness cost of plasmid...

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from diarrheic calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, A.R.M.I.H.; Rahman, M.M.; Islam, Md Zohorul;

    2014-01-01

    sensitivity was found towards Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacillin, Azithromycin and Cefotaxime. Serotyping was done by using specific antisera to identify variants of the somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens. Cultural and biochemical features also reveal the presence of pathogens in the diarrheic calves....

  14. mcr-1 identified in Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Barbieri, Nicolle; Nielsen, Daniel W.; Wannemuehler, Yvonne; Cavender, Tia; Hussein, Ashraf; Yan, Shi-gan; Nolan, Lisa K.; Logue, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance associated with colistin has emerged as a significant concern worldwide threatening the use of one of the most important antimicrobials for treating human disease. Here, we examined a collection (n = 980) of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolated from poultry with colibacillosis from the US and internationally for the presence of mcr-1 and mcr-2, genes known to encode colistin resistance. Included in the analysis was an additional set of avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) (n = 220) isolates from healthy birds for comparative analysis. The mcr-1 gene was detected in a total of 12 isolates recovered from diseased production birds from China and Egypt. No mcr genes were detected in the healthy fecal isolates. The full mcr-1 gene from positive isolates was sequenced using specifically designed primers and were compared with sequences currently described in NCBI. mcr-1 positive isolates were also assessed for phenotypic colistin resistance and extended spectrum beta lactam phenotypes and genotypes. This study has identified mcr-1 in APEC isolates dating back to at least 2010 and suggests that animal husbandry practices could result in a potential source of resistance to the human food chain in countries where application of colistin in animal health is practiced. PMID:28264015

  15. Bacteriophages with the Ability to Degrade Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli Biofilms

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    Amee Manges

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. UTIs are usually managed with antibiotic therapy, but over the years, antibiotic-resistant strains of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC have emerged. The formation of biofilms further complicates the treatment of these infections by making them resistant to killing by the host immune system as well as by antibiotics. This has encouraged research into therapy using bacteriophages (phages as a supplement or substitute for antibiotics. In this study we characterized 253 UPEC in terms of their biofilm-forming capabilities, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance. Three phages were then isolated (vB_EcoP_ACG-C91, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 which were able to lyse 80.5% of a subset (42 of the UPEC strains able to form biofilms. Correlation was established between phage sensitivity and specific serotypes of the UPEC strains. The phages’ genome sequences were determined and resulted in classification of vB_EcoP_ACG-C91 as a SP6likevirus, vB_EcoM_ACG-C40 as a T4likevirus and vB_EcoS_ACG-M12 as T1likevirus. We assessed the ability of the three phages to eradicate the established biofilm of one of the UPEC strains used in the study. All phages significantly reduced the biofilm within 2–12 h of incubation.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Vargas, Rafael H; Atanassova, Viktoria; Reich, Felix; Klein, Günter

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E. coli isolates were obtained from cuts of red deer, roe deer and wild boar. The susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was evaluated by a broth microdilution method according to ISO 20776-1:2006. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were compared to breakpoints and cut-off values published by the EUCAST. Isolates showing MICs above the reference values were further studied for associated resistance determinants and phylogrouping by PCR. Overall, 16 E. coli isolates (7.0%) showed resistance (microbiological or clinical) to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. Clinical resistance was recorded to ampicillin (5/229) and chloramphenicol (4/229), whereas the MIC of 9 isolates exceeded the epidemiological cut-off value for doxycycline. One of the ampicillin-resistant isolates showed resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic derivatives tested, cephalosporines and aztreonam. Three of 9 non-wild-type isolates for doxycycline were positive for tet (B) genes. The ß-lactam-resistant isolate was found to harbour blaCTX-M-1 gene. These data show a low prevalence of resistant E. coli in packed game meat compared to studies on conventional meat. Although isolates obtained in this study may also be originating from the processing environment and not necessarily from animals, based on our results, it is important to monitor the development of antimicrobial resistance in game animals and products in order to identify future threats for the

  17. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in river water, upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Ana; Mendes, Angelo; Vaz-Pires, Paulo; Martins da Costa, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    In this study, microbial quality and antimicrobial resistance of faecal bacteria from a Portuguese river were assessed. River water samples collected upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, throughout a 3-month period, were used for the enumeration of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. The highest numbers found for E. coli and enterococci were 1.1 × 10⁴ and 1.2 × 10⁴ colony forming units (CFU)/100 ml, respectively. In total, 144 isolates of E. coli and 144 of enterococci were recovered and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility; 104 E. coli and 78 Enterococcus spp. showed resistance to one or more antimicrobial drugs. Overall, 70 and 32 different resistance patterns were found for E. coli and enterococci, respectively. One E. coli showed resistance to imipenem and 29 isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase-producers. Multidrug-resistant E. coli belonged mostly to groups A, B1 and group D. Enterococcus spp. were mostly resistant to rifampicin, tetracycline, azithromycin and erythromycin; six isolates showed resistance to vancomycin, presenting the VanA phenotype. The high levels of E. coli and enterococci and the remarkable variety of antimicrobial resistance profiles, reinforces the theory that these river waters can be a pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants, which can be easily spread among different bacteria and reach other environments and hosts.

  18. Efficacy of fosfomycin on Escherichia coli isolated from bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ikuo; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the uteri of bitches with pyometra, and 38 E. coli isolates were used. The antimicrobials used were ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, cefazolin, levofloxacin (LVFX), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (ST) and fosfomycin (FOM). Resistance to ABPC occurred most frequently, followed by LVFX and ST. Multi-drug resistance, defined as resistance against 3 or more classes of antimicrobials, was found in 23.7% of all isolates. Nine out of 13 resistant strains were multi-drug resistant, but no strain was found to be resistant to FOM. This suggests that FOM should be administered for E. coli from pyometra.

  19. Escherichia coli clonal group A causing bacteraemia of urinary tract origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, L; Olsen, S S; Jakobsen, L

    2013-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli clonal group A (CgA) causes disease in humans. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of CgA among E. coli from non-urine, extraintestinal infections in a northern European country. E. coli blood (n = 196) and paired urine (n = 195......) isolates from the same patients with bacteraemia of urinary tract origin were analysed. The isolates were collected from January 2003 through May 2005 at four hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, antimicrobial resistance and patient characteristics were...... a distinctive VAG profile. The blood and urine isolates from each pair were found to be related in 26 of 27 CgA blood/urine pairs, confirming a urinary tract origin of infection. Furthermore, a relationship between the PFGE patterns of CgA blood/urine isolates and CgA isolates from UTI patients in general...

  20. RESISTANCE PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGHE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests.65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics asfeed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials.

  1. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  2. Tracking pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface: banded mongoose and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesapane, R; Ponder, M; Alexander, K A

    2013-06-01

    A primary challenge to managing emerging infectious disease is identifying pathways that allow pathogen transmission at the human-wildlife interface. Using Escherichia coli as a model organism, we evaluated fecal bacterial transmission between banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) and humans in northern Botswana. Fecal samples were collected from banded mongoose living in protected areas (n = 87, 3 troops) and surrounding villages (n = 92, 3 troops). Human fecal waste was collected from the same environment (n = 46). Isolates were evaluated for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics. Resistant E. coli isolates from mongoose were compared to human isolates using rep-PCR fingerprinting and MLST-PCR. Antimicrobial resistant isolates were identified in 57 % of the mongoose fecal samples tested (range 31-78% among troops). At least one individual mongoose fecal sample demonstrated resistance to each tested antibiotic, and multidrug resistance was highest in the protected areas (40.9%). E. coli isolated from mongoose and human sources in this study demonstrated an extremely high degree of genetic similarity on rep-PCR (AMOVA, F ST = 0.0027, p = 0.18) with a similar pattern identified on MLST-PCR. Human waste may be an important source of microbial exposure to wildlife. Evidence of high levels of antimicrobial resistance even within protected areas identifies an emerging health threat and highlights the need for improved waste management in these systems.

  3. Escherichia coli of poultry food origin as reservoir of sulphonamide resistance genes and integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufi, Leila; Sáenz, Yolanda; Vinué, Laura; Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Ruiz, Elena; Zarazaga, Myriam; Ben Hassen, Assia; Hammami, Salah; Torres, Carmen

    2011-01-05

    The antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype, the flanking regions of sulphonamide resistance genes and the integrons were analyzed in 166 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from poultry meat in Tunisia. High percentages of resistance were detected to ampicillin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamide and tetracycline (66-95%), and lower percentages to gentamicin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefoxitin (1-4%). The bla(TEM), tet(A)/tet(B), aph(3')-Ia, aac(6')-Ib-cr, aac(3)-II and cmlA genes were identified in 92, 82, 29, 2, 2 and 7 isolates, respectively. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in 52% of E. coli isolates and five different gene cassette arrangements were identified in the variable regions of class 1 integrons, which included antimicrobial resistance determinants. Sixty-eight isolates contained the sul1 gene and 37 of them presented this gene into a class 1 integron structure. The sul3 gene was detected associated with non-classic class 1 integrons in 4 out of 46 sul3-positive isolates. The sul2 gene was detected in 66 isolates, 51 of them were linked to strA/B genes in seven different genetic structures. Seventy-three-per-cent of integron-positive isolates presented resistance to at least five different antimicrobial families versus 38.7% of integron-negative isolates. Our study highlights the role of commensal E. coli isolates from poultry meat as an important reservoir for sulphonamide resistance genes and integrons carrying antimicrobial resistance genes.

  4. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase genes in extensively drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from a patient in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveenkittiporn, Wantana; Kerdsin, Anusak; Chokngam, Sukanya; Bunthi, Charatdao; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Gregory, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    We reported a case of Escherichia coli with colistin resistance and an extensively drug-resistant phenotype. Molecular analysis revealed that the isolate carried mcr-1 and multiple β-lactamase genes includingblaNDM1, blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM1, and blaCMY-2. This is the first report of a clinical mcr-1 isolate in Thailand highlighting the urgent need for a comprehensive antimicrobial resistance containment strategy to prevent further spread.

  5. Susceptibility the antimicrobial and profile of strength in strains plasmid Escherichia coli isolated freshwater fish and marine, marketed in Fortaleza - Ce.

    OpenAIRE

    Adalva Lopes Machado

    2015-01-01

    The marketing of fish has shown substantial increase; however, their place of origin and ways of handling and storage may pose health risk. The microorganisms in the food chain and in capture environments cause concern over the risk of disease transmission and the multiple resistance to several drugs. This study aimed at characterizing the antimicrobial resistance of 191 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from 20 fish samples, ten saltwater samples: (5) mackerel (S. cavalla) and (5) snapper...

  6. Prevalence of Colistin Resistance Gene mcr-1 and Absence of mcr-2 in Escherichia coli Isolated from Healthy Food-Producing Animals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Michiko; Abo, Hitoshi; Ozawa, Manao; Uchiyama, Mariko; Shirakawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Satowa; Shima, Ayaka; Yamashita, Akifumi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kengo; Kuroda, Makoto; Koike, Ryoji; Kijima, Mayumi

    2017-01-01

    We screened mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes in 9,306 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy animals in the Japanese Veterinary Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring (JVARM) system. mcr-1 was detected in 39 strains (5, 20, and 14 strains isolated from cattle, swine, and broilers, respectively), whereas mcr-2 was not detected. mcr-2 was also not detected with the investigation sequence homology search against our curated GenEpid-J database.

  7. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  8. Molecular characterization of multidrug resistant hospital isolates using the antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Molecular methods that enable the detection of antimicrobial resistance determinants are critical surveillance tools that are necessary to aid in curbing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we describe the use of the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM that targets 239 unique genes that confer resistance to 12 classes of antimicrobial compounds, quaternary amines and streptothricin for the determination of multidrug resistance (MDR gene profiles. Fourteen reference MDR strains, which either were genome, sequenced or possessed well characterized drug resistance profiles were used to optimize detection algorithms and threshold criteria to ensure the microarray's effectiveness for unbiased characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in MDR strains. The subsequent testing of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates revealed the presence of several antibiotic resistance genes [e.g. belonging to TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M classes (and OXA and CTX-M subfamilies of β-lactamases] and their assemblages which were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. When combined with results from the reference strains, ~25% of the ARDM content was confirmed as effective for representing allelic content from both Gram-positive and -negative species. Taken together, the ARDM identified MDR assemblages containing six to 18 unique resistance genes in each strain tested, demonstrating its utility as a powerful tool for molecular epidemiological investigations of antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

  9. Structure of Escherichia coli tryptophanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shao Yang; Yip, Patrick; Howell, P Lynne

    2006-07-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the alpha-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the alpha-proton of the substrate for beta-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  10. Structure of Escherichia Coli Tryptophanase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Howell, P.

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent tryptophanase has been isolated from Escherichia coli and its crystal structure has been determined. The structure shares the same fold with and has similar quaternary structure to Proteus vulgaris tryptophanase and tyrosine-phenol lyase, but is found in a closed conformation when compared with these two enzymes. The tryptophanase structure, solved in its apo form, does not have covalent PLP bound in the active site, but two sulfate ions. The sulfate ions occupy the phosphoryl-binding site of PLP and the binding site of the {alpha}-carboxyl of the natural substrate tryptophan. One of the sulfate ions makes extensive interactions with both the transferase and PLP-binding domains of the protein and appears to be responsible for holding the enzyme in its closed conformation. Based on the sulfate density and the structure of the P. vulgaris enzyme, PLP and the substrate tryptophan were modeled into the active site. The resulting model is consistent with the roles of Arg419 in orienting the substrate to PLP and acidifying the {alpha}-proton of the substrate for {beta}-elimination, Lys269 in the formation and decomposition of the PLP quinonoid intermediate, Arg230 in orienting the substrate-PLP intermediates in the optimal conformation for catalysis, and His463 and Tyr74 in determining substrate specificity and suggests that the closed conformation observed in the structure could be induced by substrate binding and that significant conformational changes occur during catalysis. A catalytic mechanism for tryptophanase is proposed. Since E. coli tryptophanase has resisted forming diffraction-quality crystals for many years, the molecular surface of tryptophanase has been analyzed in various crystal forms and it was rationalized that strong crystal contacts occur on the flat surface of the protein and that the size of crystal contact surface seems to correlate with the diffraction quality of the crystal.

  11. Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustino Martinez-Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the most well-know bacterial model about the function of its molecular components. In this review are presented several structural and functional aspects of their transcriptional regulatory network constituted by transcription factors and target genes. The network discussed here represent to 1531 genes and 3421 regulatory interactions. This network shows a power-law distribution with a few global regulators and most of genes poorly connected. 176 of genes in the network correspond to transcription factors, which form a sub-network of seven hierarchical layers where global regulators tend to be set in superior layers while local regulators are located in the lower ones. There is a small set of proteins know as nucleoid-associated proteins, which are in a high cellular concentrations and reshape the nucleoid structure to influence the running of global transcriptional programs, to this mode of regulation is named analog regulation. Specific signal effectors assist the activity of most of transcription factors in E. coli. These effectors switch and tune the activity of transcription factors. To this type of regulation, depending of environmental signals is named the digital-precise-regulation. The integration of regulatory programs have place in the promoter region of transcription units where it is common to observe co-regulation among global and local TFs as well as of TFs sensing exogenous and endogenous conditions. The mechanistic logic to understand the harmonious operation of regulatory programs in the network should consider the globalism of TFs, their signal perceived, coregulation, genome position, and cellular concentration. Finally, duplicated TFs and their horizontal transfer influence the evolvability of members of the network. The most duplicated and transferred TFs are located in the network periphery.

  12. The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Flávia

    2011-05-01

    Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

  13. Fimbrial adhesins from extraintestinal Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) represent an important subclass of E. coli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in human and animal hosts. Fimbriae are key virulence factors of ExPEC strains. These long surface located rod-shaped organelles mediate receptor-specific attachment...

  14. Cellular chain formation in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on a novel structural phenotype in Escherichia coli biofilms: cellular chain formation. Biofilm chaining in E. coli K-12 was found to occur primarily by clonal expansion, but was not due to filamentous growth. Rather, chain formation was the result of intercellular...

  15. Whole Genome Epidemiological Typing of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is of huge importance in global health both as a commensal organism living within its host or as a pathogen causing millions of infections each year. Infections occur both sporadic and as outbreaks with sometimes up to thousands of infected people. To limit the number...

  16. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Although Escherichia coli is among the most common causes of Gram-negative bacteraemia, infectious endocarditis (IE) due to this pathogen is rare. A 67-y-old male without a previous medical history presented with a new mitral regurgitation murmur and persisting E. coli bacteraemia in spite of broad...

  17. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  18. Strategies for Protein Overproduction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and the role of regulatory sequences which control gene expression at transcription resulting in abundant production of messenger RNA and regulatory sequences in mRNA which promote efficient translation. Also examines the role of E. coli cells in stabilizing mRNA and protein that is…

  19. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P; Dimmic, Matt

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome...

  20. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  1. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported......The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate...... whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified...

  2. ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli ANALISIS CEMARAN BAKTERI Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    ANGGREINI, RAHAYU

    2015-01-01

    2015 RAHAYU ANGGREINI coli Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan identifikasi cemaran bakteri E. coli O157:H7 pada daging sapi di kota Makassar. Sampel pada penelitian ini sebanyak 72 sampel Kata Kunci : Daging sapi, pasar tradisional, E. coli, E. coli O157:H7, kontaminasi bakteri, identifikasi E. coli O157:H7.

  3. Isolation, histopathology and antibiogram of Escherichia coli from pigeons (Columba livia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dutta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli among dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Materials and Methods: Samples were cultured from dead and/or diarrhoic pigeons and identification was done by standard methods. The sensitivity of the isolated E.coli strains to 15 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Organs from those dead birds from which E.coli were recovered were processed according to the routine procedure for histopathological studies. Results: Out of 150 pigeons subjected to microbiological investigation, 91(60.67 % samples were found positive for E. coli.The most frequently occurring serotypes were O157 (9.89%, followed by O68, O121 (7.69%, O9, O75, O131 (5.49%, O2, O13, O22 (3.30%. Antibiogram investigation of the isolates revealed that 91isolates (100% exhibited resistance against Ampicillin followed by Nitro-furantoin (73.62%, Tetracycline (65.93 %, Oxytetracycline (62.63 % and Streptomycin (61.54. Gross changes of some birds showed fibrinous pericarditis and perihepatitis and coligranuloma in different organs like liver and serosal surface of intestine. Microscopically, severe congestion and haemorrhages in different organs such as liver, kidney, lung and intestine. In some cases thick layer of fibrinous exudates with large number of heterophills over the surface of liver and heart with early degenerative changes as well as focal necrosis. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic E.coli is present in pigeons in and around greater Guwahati. Surveillance programs may be introduced to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic E.coli in pigeons in and around greater guwahati. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 91-94

  4. Characterization and zoonotic potential of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Eui-Hwa; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of canine uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and the interaction between canine UPEC and human bladder epithelial cells. Ten E. coli isolates collected from dogs with cystitis were analyzed for antimicrobial resistance patterns, the presence of virulence factors, and biofilm formation. The ability of these isolates to induce cytotoxicity, invade human bladder epithelial cells, and stimulate an immune response was also determined. We observed a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among canine UPEC isolates. All virulence genes tested (including adhesins, iron acquisition, and protectin), except toxin genes, were detected among the canine UPEC isolates. We found that all isolates showed varying degrees of biofilm formation (mean, 0.26; range, 0.07 to 0.82), using a microtiter plate assay to evaluate biofilm formation by the isolates. Cytotoxicity to human bladder epithelial cells by the canine UPEC isolates increased in a time-dependent manner, with a 56.9% and 36.1% reduction in cell viability compared with the control at 6 and 9 h of incubation, respectively. We found that most canine UPEC isolates were able to invade human bladder epithelial cells. The interaction between these isolates and human bladder epithelial cells strongly induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8. We demonstrated that canine UPEC isolates can interact with human bladder epithelial cells, although the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. The results suggest that canine UPEC isolates, rather than dogspecific pathogens, have zoonotic potential.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from...

  6. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility analyses distinguish clinical from bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Tsoi, Sarah; Medihala, Prabhakara; Liu, Juxin; Wylie, John L; Levett, Paul N; Korber, Darren R

    2013-07-01

    A population-based study combining (i) antimicrobial, (ii) genetic, and (iii) virulence analyses with molecular evolutionary analyses revealed segregative characteristics distinguishing human clinical and bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains from western Canada. Human (n = 50) and bovine (n = 50) strains of E. coli O157 were collected from Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2006 and were analyzed by using the six-marker lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA6), antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, the colicin assay, plasmid and virulence profiling including the eae, ehxA, espA, iha, stx1, stx2, stx2c, stx2d, stx2d-activatable, stx2e, and stx2f virulence-associated genes, and structure analyses. Multivariate logistic regression and Fisher's exact test strongly suggested that antimicrobial susceptibility was the most distinctive characteristic (P = 0.00487) associated with human strains. Among all genetic, virulence, and antimicrobial determinants, resistance to tetracycline (P coli O157 strains. Among 11 virulence-associated genes, stx2c showed the strongest association with E. coli O157 strains of bovine origin. LSPA6 genotyping showed the dominance of the lineage I genotype among clinical (90%) and bovine (70%) strains, indicating the importance of lineage I in O157 epidemiology and ecology. Population structure analysis revealed that the more-diverse bovine strains came from a unique group of strains characterized by a high degree of antimicrobial resistance and high frequencies of lineage II genotypes and stx2c variants. These findings imply that antimicrobial resistance generated among bovine strains of E. coli O157 has a large impact on the population of this human pathogen.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  8. Evaluación de la resistencia antimicrobiana en ganado bovino en Chile, utilizando E. coli como bacteria indicadora Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in cattle in Chile using E. coli as the indicator bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B San Martín

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia antimicrobiana es un importante problema de salud pública que afecta a la mayoría de los países, teniendo un impacto negativo en control de las enfermedades bacterianas. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS señala que existen evidencias que los animales de producción son un reservorio de bacterias resistentes y que deben hacerse esfuerzos entre médicos humanos y veterinarios para abordar este problema. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la resistencia antimicrobiana, utilizando E. coli como bacteria indicadora. Se aislaron de contenido cecal 50 cepas de E. coli en ganado de leche (Grupo I y 72 en ganado de carne (Grupo II. Se determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitorias frente a ocho antimicrobianos. Los mayores porcentajes de resistencia (86% se observaron en las cepas aisladas del Grupo I; en el grupo II no superó el 11%. Los mayores niveles de resistencia se presentaron frente a oxitetraciclina, enrofloxacino, ciprofloxacino y ceftiofur, en el Grupo I, y a sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim, en el grupo II. Se observó un alto porcentaje de multirresistencia en las cepas del Grupo I, siendo el perfil enrofloxacino/ciprofloxacino/oxitetraciclina/ceftiofur el más observado (46%. Esta situación contrasta con el Grupo II, en donde menos del 3% de las cepas fueron multirresistentes. De los resultados obtenidos podemos concluir que el ganado de leche como el de carne de la Región Metropolitana no está ajeno a la problemática mundial de resistencia bacteriana, situación que también ha sido reportada en otras regiones del paísAntimicrobial resistance is an important worldwide public health problem having a negative impact on the struggle against bacterial diseases. The WHO indicates that there exists evidence that livestock are a reservoir for resistant bacteria and that medical physicians and veterinarians must work together on this problem. The aim of the present study was to monitor the antimicrobial

  9. High rates of multidrug resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in children and analyses of ESBL producers from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods A total of 5,484 urinary tract specimens from children suspected with UTI attending a teaching hospital of Nepal over a period of one year were processed for the isolation of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Escherichia coli (n = 739, the predominant isolate in pediatric UTI, was further selected for the detection of ESBL-production by phenotypic combination disk diffusion test. Results Incidence of urinary tract infection among pediatric patients was found to be 19.68% and E coli (68.4% was leading pathogen involved. Out of 739 E coli isolates, 64.9% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 5% were extensively drug resistant (XDR. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL was detected in 288 (38.9% of the E coli isolates. Conclusion Alarming rate of drug resistance among pediatric uropathogens and high rate of ESBL-producing E. coli was observed. It is extremely necessary to routinely investigate the drug resistance among all isolates and formulate strict antibiotics prescription policy in our country.

  10. Native valve Escherichia coli endocarditis following urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, D; Ramakrishnan, S; Patro, K C; Devaraj, S; Krishnamurthy, V; Kothari, Y; Satyaki, N

    2013-05-01

    Gram-negative organisms are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Escherichia coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infection and gram-negative septicemia involves endocardium rarely. In this case report, we describe infection of native mitral valve by E. coli following septicemia of urinary tract origin in a diabetic male; subsequently, he required prosthetic tissue valve replacement indicated by persistent sepsis and congestive cardiac failure.

  11. Characterization of integrons among Escherichia coli in a region at high incidence of ESBL-EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-Ming; Wang, Ming-Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Jun; Li, Qin; Zhu, Ya-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Objective : The aim of study was to investigate the distribution of the integrons in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates, and analyze the possible relationship between the antimicrobial resistance profiles and the integrons. Methods : The antimicrobial profiles of 376 E. coli strains were analysed by disk diffusion test. The integron genes and variable regions were detected by PCR. Some amplicons were sequenced to determine the gene cassettes style. Results : Of 376 isolates, 223 isolates (59.3%) were confirmed as ESBL-EC. Comparison to ESBL-negative E. coli, the high rates of resistance to the third and fourth generation of cephalosporins, penicillins and amikacin were found in ESBL-EC. Only class 1 was integron detected in the isolates, and the prevalence of it was 66.5%. It was commonly found in ESBL-EC (77.6%, 173/223), which was higher than that of ESBL-negative E. coli (50.3%, 77/153) (pESBL-EC, while in 9.1% isolates of ESBL-negative E.coli. Conclusion : The high incidence of ESBL-EC with resistance to multiple antibiotics were detected in the isolates from Blood stream infection (BSI). More resistant gene cassettes in ESBL-EC may partially underlie the high resistance to amikacin, while no relation exists between the high incidence of ESBL-EC and classes 1~ 3 integrons in this region.

  12. Genotypic characterization of quinolone resistant-Escherichia coli isolates from retail food in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayme, Kaotar; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bouchrif, Brahim; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Otmani, Fatima; Elmdaghri, Naima; Zerouali, Khalid; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the retail food as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial resistant, particularly quinolones resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of nalidixic acid (Nal) resistant E. coli isolates from diverse retail food samples. In all, 70 (28%) of 250 E. coli isolates studied were Nal-resistant E. coli and 91% of these were multi-drug resistant. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 32 isolates, including aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 16), qnrS1 (n = 11) and qnrB19 (n = 7). Mutations in gyr A and par C genes were detected among 80% of the isolates, and the isolates showed substitution Ser83-Leu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser80-Ile in parC. In addition, three different gene cassettes were identified (aadA1, aadA7, aac(3)-Id) in 18%. Virulence-associated genes stx1, eae, sfa, hlyA and stx2 were found in six (8%), three (4%), two (3%), three (4%) and three (4%) isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (64%, 45/70). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed none epidemiological relationship between these isolates. The results of this work report the higher frequency of Nal-resistant E. coli isolates from Moroccan retail food samples including MDR and pathogenic isolates.

  13. Molecular characterization of quinolone resistance mechanisms and extended-spectrum β-lactamase production in Escherichia coli isolated from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, D; Leite-Martins, L; Bessa, L J; Cunha, S; Fernandes, R; de Matos, A; Manaia, C M; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistances is now a worldwide problem. Investigating the mechanisms by which pets harboring resistant strains may receive and/or transfer resistance determinants is essential to better understanding how owners and pets can interact safely. Here, we characterized the genetic determinants conferring resistance to β-lactams and quinolones in 38 multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from fecal samples of dogs, through PCR and sequencing. The most frequent genotype included the β-lactamase groups TEM (n=5), and both TEM+CTX-M-1 (n=5). Within the CTX-M group, we identified the genes CTX-M-32, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55/79, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-2/44. Thirty isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin presented two mutations in the gyrA gene and one or two mutations in the parC gene. A mutation in gyrA (reported here for the first time), due to a transversion and transition (TCG→GTG) originating a substitution of a serine by a valine in position 83 was also detected. The plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance gene, qnrs1, was detected in three isolates. Dogs can be a reservoir of genetic determinants conferring antimicrobial resistance and thus may play an important role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance to humans and other co-habitant animals.

  14. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are benthic animals that play an important ecological role in marine communities occupying diverse trophic levels in the marine food chains. The majority of echinoderms feed on small particles of edible matter, although they can eat many kinds of food (Clark, 1968. Although, some echinoderms species has been facing an emerging demand for human consumption, particularly in Asian and Mediterranean cuisine, where these animals can be eaten raw (Kelly, 2005; Micael et al., 2009. Echinoderms own an innate immune mechanism that allows them to defend themselves from high concentrations of bacteria, viruses and fungus they are often exposed, on marine sediment (Janeway and Medzhitov, 1998, Cooper, 2003. The most frequent genera of gut bacteria in echinoderms are Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, and Aeromonas; nevertheless Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli are also present (Harris, 1993; Marinho et al., 2013. Moreover, fecal resistant bacteria found in the aquatic environment might represent an index of marine pollution (Foti et al., 2009, Kummerer, 2009. Several studies had been lead in order to identify environmental reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in populations of fish, echinoderms and marine mammals, and they all support the thesis that these animals may serve as reservoirs since they had acquired resistant microbial species (Johnson et al., 1998, Marinho et al., 2013, Miranda and Zemelman, 2001. However, to our knowledge, there are only available in bibliography one study of antimicrobial resistant bacteria isolated from marine echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013, which stats that their provenience in this environment is still unclear. Antimicrobial resistance outcomes from the intensive use of antimicrobial drugs in human activities associated with various mechanisms for bacteria genetic transfer (Barbosa and Levy, 2000, Coque et al., 2008. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into water environments where they are

  15. 77 FR 9888 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... manufacturing trimmings for six non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45..., non-intact product, that are contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26,...

  16. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  17. Using data on resistance prevalence per sample in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Shuyu, Wu; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2008-01-01

    quantitative data on antimicrobial resistance (resistance prevalence per sample). Methods: In this study, a total of 98 faecal samples from slaughter pigs were tested for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance in Escherichia coli using the single colony method, and these results were compared...... tetracycline resistance prevalence was 22.5% using the resistance prevalence per sample method. Similarly, sulphonamide resistance was 32.7% using the single colony method and 19.6% when using the resistance prevalence per sample method. Although different estimates were obtained by each method...

  18. Norwegian patients and retail chicken meat share cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and IncK/blaCMY-2 resistance plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E. S.; Wester, A. L.; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia co...... of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from chicken meat to humans may occur, and may cause difficult to treat infections. Furthermore, these E. coli can be a source of AmpC resistance plasmids for opportunistic pathogens in the human microbiota....

  19. [Study of phenotypical and antimicrobial susceptibility markers in enteric Escherichia coli strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Adalberto; Bernedo, Robert; Llop, Alina; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Yudith

    2007-01-01

    Forty strains of Escherichia coli isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute diarreas, coming from different provinces of the country , were analyzed. Four important phenotypical determinants were tested: sorbosa, sorbitol, enterohemolysin and 0157:H7 serology, in order to select those strains from enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing category. Likewise, they were characterized by biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility methods. The use of phenotypical tests showed six strains with presumptive characteristics, four of which were most likely to be Shiga toxin-producing strains. In antimicrobial susceptibility test, the strains showed high resistance mainly to ampicillin and trimethrophin-sulfamethoxasole. Another interesting finding were intermediate resistance and susceptibility values to augmentin, aztreonan and ceftriaxone. There were 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns of which 10 were multi-resistant.

  20. Dynamics of chromosome segregation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1960’es the conformation and segregation of the chromosome in Escherichia coli has been a subject of interest for many scientists. However, after 40 years of research, we still know incredibly little about how the chromosome is organized inside the cell, how it manages to duplicate...

  1. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...

  2. Escherichia Coli--Key to Modern Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregegere, Francois

    1982-01-01

    Mid-nineteenth century work by Mendel on plant hybrids and by Pasteur on fermentation gave birth by way of bacterial genetics to modern-day molecular biology. The bacterium Escherichia Coli has occupied a key position in genetic studies leading from early gene identification with DNA to current genetic engineering using recombinant DNA technology.…

  3. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...

  4. Progressive segregation of the Escherichia coli chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed the fate of 14 different loci around the Escherichia coli chromosome in living cells at slow growth rate using a highly efficient labelling system and automated measurements. Loci are segregated as they are replicated, but with a marked delay. Most markers segregate in a smooth...

  5. Leaner and meaner genomes in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David

    2006-01-01

    A 'better' Escherichia coli K-12 genome has recently been engineered in which about 15% of the genome has been removed by planned deletions. Comparison with related bacterial genomes that have undergone a natural reduction in size suggests that there is plenty of scope for yet more deletions....

  6. Compaction of isolated Escherichia coli nucleoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Anna S.; Wintraecken, Kathelijne; Spurio, Roberto; Woldringh, Conrad L.; Vries, de Renko; Odijk, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli nucleoids were compacted by the inert polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) in the presence of the H-NS protein. The protein by itself appears to have little impact on the size of the nucleoids as determined by fluorescent microscopy. However, it has a significant impact on the nucle

  7. Clonal distribution and associated characteristics of Escherichia coli clinical and surveillance isolates from a military medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Amee R; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Johnston, Brian D; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Johnson, James R

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli are a concern for military health services. We studied 100 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and non-producing E. coli clinical and surveillance isolates from military personnel and civilians at Brooke Army Medical Center (2007-2011). Major E. coli lineages, most prominently ST10 (24%), ST131 (16%), and ST648 (8%), were distributed much as reported for other North American populations. ST131, represented mainly by its resistance-associated ST131-H30 clonal subset, was uniquely associated with a clinical origin, regardless of ESBL status. Thus, clonal background predicted resistance phenotype and clinical versus surveillance origin, and these findings could assist military clinicians and epidemiologists.

  8. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  9. Characterization of persistent and transient Escherichia coli isolates recovered from clinical mastitis episodes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Dufour, Simon; Fairbrother, John Morris; Francoz, David; Nadeau, Éric; Messier, Serge

    2015-03-23

    Escherichia coli usually cause transient intramammary infections in dairy cows, but persistent intramammary infections have been observed. The objective of the study was to compare antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes found in persistent and transient E. coli isolated from clinical mastitis cases in a cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds monitored over a 2-year period. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution and the presence of 27 virulence genes associated with extra-intestinal E. coli infections was determined by colony hybridization. Proportion of resistance in persistent E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 27.8% (ampicillin and tetracycline). Proportion of resistance in transient E. coli ranged from 0.0% (enrofloxacin) to 16.8% (tetracycline). Odds of being classified as a persistent isolate increased by a factor of 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) for each aditional resistance observed (e.g. isolates resistant to four antimicrobial agents had 1.6 times higher odds of belonging to the persistent groups compared to isolates demonstrating resistance to three agents). Persistency was associated with higher odds of resistance to ampicillin (OR: 9.8, Pcoli isolates is associated with certain traits. Findings concerning iron-acquisition shed new light on the mechanisms of intramammary survival.

  10. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from healthy food handlers in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanping; Cui, Shenghui; Li, Jingyun; Yang, Jiyong; Lin, Lan; Hu, Changqin; Jin, Shaohong; Ye, Liyan; Zhao, Qiang; Ma, Yue

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have reported that Escherichia coli in fecal samples of healthy humans could also serve as important reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria. Limited data are available for E. coli-resistant profiles of healthy food handlers in hospitals who provide food service to inpatients and hospital staffs. E. coli isolates were recovered from hospital healthy food handlers, and one random selected isolate from each food handler was subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, phylogenetic typing, and screening for antimicrobial-resistant mechanisms by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates were further characterized by mutation analysis in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA and ParC. And extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing isolates were screened for bla(CTX-M) by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequence analysis. In total, more than 50% (47/92) of E. coli isolates from healthy food handlers showed multidrug-resistant profiles and 50% (46/92) isolates carried intI. Resistance prevalence of the B2 phylogenetic group was significantly lower than that of the non-B2 groups for all tested antimicrobials (p hospital food handlers of multidrug-resistant E. coli makes it important to introduce control measures such as improved biosecurity to ensure that they do not pass through the food service and limit inpatient therapeutic options.

  11. Pathogenomics of uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subset of faecal E. coli that can enter, colonize urinary tract and cause infection are known as uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. UPEC strains act as opportunistic intracellular pathogens taking advantage of host susceptibility using a diverse array of virulence factors. Presence of specific virulence associated genes on genomic/pathogenicity islands and involvement of horizontal gene transfer appears to account for evolution and diversity of UPEC. Recent success in large-scale genome sequencing and comparative genomics has helped in unravelling UPEC pathogenomics. Here we review recent findings regarding virulence characteristics of UPEC and mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of urinary tract infection.

  12. Impact of medicated feed along with clay mineral supplementation on Escherichia coli resistance to antimicrobial agents in pigs after weaning in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Kabore, Kiswendsida Paul; Fravalo, Philippe; Letellier, Ann; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype and virulence and AMR gene profiles in Escherichia coli from pigs receiving in-feed antimicrobial medication following weaning and the effect of feed supplementation with a clay mineral, clinoptilolite, on this dynamic. Eighty E. coli strains isolated from fecal samples of pigs receiving a diet containing chlortetracycline and penicillin, with or without 2% clinoptilolite, were examined for antimicrobial resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. Overall, an increased resistance to 10 antimicrobials was observed with time. Supplementation with clinoptilolite was associated with an early increase but later decrease in blaCMY-2, in isolates, as shown by DNA probe. Concurrently, a later increase in the frequency of blaCMY-2 and the virulence genes iucD and tsh was observed in the control pig isolates, being significantly greater than in the supplemented pigs at day 28. Our results suggest that, in the long term, supplementation with clinoptilolite could decrease the prevalence of E. coli carrying certain antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes.

  13. Survival of Escherichia coli in stormwater biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, G I; Deletic, A; McCarthy, D T

    2014-04-01

    Biofilters are widely adopted in Australia for stormwater treatment, but the reported removal of common faecal indicators (such as Escherichia coli (E. coli)) varies from net removal to net leaching. Currently, the underlying mechanisms that govern the faecal microbial removal in the biofilters are poorly understood. Therefore, it is important to study retention and subsequent survival of faecal microorganisms in the biofilters under different biofilter designs and operational characteristics. The current study investigates how E. coli survival is influenced by temperature, moisture content, sunlight exposure and presence of other microorganisms in filter media and top surface sediment. Soil samples were taken from two different biofilters to investigate E. coli survival under controlled laboratory conditions. Results revealed that the presence of other microorganisms and temperature are vital stressors which govern the survival of E. coli captured either in the top surface sediment or filter media, while sunlight exposure and moisture content are important for the survival of E. coli captured in the top surface sediment compared to that of the filter media. Moreover, increased survival was found in the filter media compared to the top sediment, and sand filter media was found be more hostile than loamy sand filter media towards E. coli survival. Results also suggest that the contribution from the tested environmental stressors on E. coli survival in biofilters will be greatly affected by the seasonality and may vary from one site to another.

  14. Antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli strains isolated from surface water and groundwater samples in a pig production area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Neto Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics, so excessive and indiscriminate in intensive animal production, has triggered an increase in the number of resistant microorganisms which can be transported to aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of the antimicrobial resistance of samples of Escherichia coli isolated from groundwater and surface water in a region of pig breeding. Through the test of antimicrobial susceptibility, we analyzed 205 strains of E. coli. A high rate of resistance to cefaclor was observed, both in surface water (51.9% and groundwater (62.9%, while all samples were sensitive to amikacin. The percentages of multi-resistant samples were 25.96% and 26.73% in surface water and groundwater, respectively, while 19.23% and 13.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. It was determined that the rate of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR was 0.164 for surface water and 0.184 for groundwater. No significant differences were found in the profile of the antimicrobial resistance in strains of E. coli isolated in surface water and groundwater, but the index MAR calculated in certain points of groundwater may offer a potential risk of transmission of resistant genes.

  15. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Martins, Liliane Vilela; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Ayrles Fernanda Brandão; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Vaz, Renata Valença; Rabello, Carlos Boa-Viagem; Silva, Isabella de Matos Mendes da; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss) were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%), ampicillin (81.5%), cefalotin (88.8%), tetracycline (100%) and streptomycin (100%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials) provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials) were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy.

  16. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Lima-Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%, ampicillin (81.5%, cefalotin (88.8%, tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy.

  17. The evolution of the Escherichia coli phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Roy R; Henderson, Ian R

    2012-03-01

    Escherichia coli is familiar to biologists as a classical model system, ubiquitous in molecular biology laboratories around the world. Outside of the laboratory, E. coli strains exist as an almost universal component of the lower-gut flora of humans and animals. Although usually a commensal, E. coli has an alter ego as a pathogen, and is associated with diarrhoeal disease and extra-intestinal infections. The study of E. coli diversity predates the availability of molecular data, with strains initially distinguished by serotyping and metabolic profiling, and genomic diversity illustrated by DNA hybridisation. The quantitative study of E. coli diversity began with the application of multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and has progressed with the accumulation of nucleotide sequence data, from single genes through multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic methods have shed light on the processes of genomic evolution in this extraordinarily diverse species, and revealed the origins of pathogenic E. coli strains, including members of the phylogenetically indistinguishable "genus"Shigella. In May and June 2011, an outbreak of haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome in Germany was linked to a strain of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O104:H4. Application of high-throughput sequencing technologies allowed the genome and origins of the outbreak strain to be characterised in real time as the outbreak was in progress.

  18. Identification and Prevalence of Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta Mihaela Rotar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of Escherichia coli in animal and non-animal foods, and mainly the incidence of the serotype O157: H7 producing verotoxin. The presence of common Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in various foods (of animal and non animal origin was performed in Transylvania area. We analyzed a total of one hundred forty-one samples of minced meat, one hundred twenty-six samples of meat , twenty six samples of meat products, five samples of alcoholic beverages, three samples of seafood, one hundred samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, seventeen samples of butter, four samples of vegetables and one sample of milk powder, using the standard cultural method and Vidas Eco method for E. coli O157: H7 strains. E. coli was identified in 50 samples of minced meat, 55 samples of meat prepared, 4 samples of meat products, 2 samples of alcoholic beverages, 25 samples of cheese from pasteurized milk, 6 samples of butter and 1 sample of vegetables. In this study were not been identified any foods contaminated with the E. coli O157: H7 serotype. The results of this reasearch have demostrated that E. coli wich represents a hygienic indicator of recent food contamination, can be destroyed with heat treatment and hygienic handling of foods. Our country over the years has been among the few countries where the incidence of the E. coli O157: H7 serotype has been minimal.

  19. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238

  20. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; León, Maribel; Castellanos, Ricardo; Vanegas, Consuelo; Coral, Adriana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Clavijo, Viviana; Vargas, Mercedes; Romero Zuñiga, Juan J; Tafur, McAllister; Pérez-Gutierrez, Enrique; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS), this study aimed to establish the baseline antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. isolates in retail poultry meat from independent stores and from a main chain distributor center. MICs of the isolates were determined for antimicrobials used both in humans and animals, using an automated system. Salmonella serovars were isolated from 26% of the meat samples and E. coli from 83%, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were detected in 81 and 13% of the meat samples, respectively. A principal finding of concern in this study was that almost 98% of isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline were the antimicrobials that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella and E. coli isolates. For enterococci, 61.5% of E. faecium isolates were found to be resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin; this is significant because it is used to treat nosocomial infections when vancomycin resistance is present. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 4% of the E. faecalis isolates. The results of our study highlight the need for rapid implementation of an integrated program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by the Colombian authorities in order to monitor trends, raise awareness, and help promote practices to safeguard later generation antimicrobial agents.

  1. Automatic tracking of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Khan, Shahid; Shah, Mubarak

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic method for estimating the trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria from in vivo phase-contrast microscopy videos. To address the low-contrast boundaries in cellular images, an adaptive kernel-based technique is applied to detect cells in sequence of frames. Then a novel matching gain measure is introduced to cope with the challenges such as dramatic changes of cells' appearance and serious overlapping and occlusion. For multiple cell tracking, an optimal matching strategy is proposed to improve the handling of cell collision and broken trajectories. The results of successful tracking of Escherichia coli from various phase-contrast sequences are reported and compared with manually-determined trajectories, as well as those obtained from existing tracking methods. The stability of the algorithm with different parameter values is also analyzed and discussed.

  2. Homology requirements for recombination in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, V M; Ingles, C J; Urdea, M S; Rutter, W J

    1985-01-01

    The DNA sequence homology required for recombination in Escherichia coli has been determined by measuring the recombination frequency between insulin DNA in a miniplasmid pi VX and a homologous sequence in a bacteriophage lambda vector. A minimum of approximately equal to 20 base pairs in a completely homologous segment is required for significant recombination. There is an exponential increase in the frequency of recombination when the length of homologous DNA is increased from 20 base pairs...

  3. Escherichia coli necrotizing fasciitis in Hirschsprung's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A. Alsaif

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare post-operative complication of Hirschsprung's disease. Very recently the only previous case of necrotizing fasciitis following a Soave procedure was reported with the etiologic agent being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here we are reporting the second case of necrotizing fasciitis following a Soave procedure caused by an extended spectrum beta lactamase harboring strain of Escherichia coli which is a rare pathogen in type II necrotizing fasciitis.

  4. Dissemination of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in Korean veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Juwon; Bae, Il Kwon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, So Hyun; Lim, Suk-kyung; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Kyungwon

    2012-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of rectal colonization with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in dogs hospitalized at veterinary hospitals in Korea and to assess the molecular epidemiologic traits of this organism. A total of 63 unique E. coli isolates obtained from the rectal swabs of hospitalized dogs were analyzed. Genes encoding CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC enzymes were detected in 21 (33.3%) and 15 (23.8%) canine E. coli isolates, respectively. Twelve canine E. coli isolates harbored both the genes encoding the CTX-M and AmpC enzymes. Six ESBL-producing E. coli isolates also carried the rmtB gene. All 24 E. coli isolates producing CTX-M ESBL and/or CMY-2 were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, mutations were found in the gyrA and the parC genes. In most cases, the bla genes of the CTX-M ESBL and AmpC enzymes and the rmtB gene were localized to incompatibility group F (IncF) plasmids. Possible small clonal outbreaks are suggested because some E. coli isolates recovered in the same veterinary hospital were identified as identical sequence types and showed identical banding patterns in repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. The horizontal transfer of IncF plasmids and the clonal transfer of E. coli strains are suggested to play a role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes, and this transfer may occur across host species (i.e., between humans and dogs).

  5. Multiplex PCR Assay for Identification of Human Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A multiplex PCR assay for the identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. The targets selected for each category were eae for enteropathogenic E. coli, stx for Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, elt and est for enterotoxigenic E. coli, ipaH for enteroinvasive E. coli, and aggR for enteroaggregative E. coli. This assay allowed the categorization of a diarrheagenic E. coli strain in a single reaction tube.

  6. Siderophore production by uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagrali Manjula

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most frequently encountered problems in ambulatory medicine. The present study was designed to determine siderophore production as the urovirulence factor of Escherichia coli isolated from the patients of UTI. A total of 160 strains of E. coli isolated from urine of patients with clinically diagnosed UTI were included in the study and 50 fecal isolates of E. coli, siderophore production was seen in 156 (97.5%. In 50 fecal isolates, siderophore production was seen in 2 (4%. Siderophore production has been shown to be more frequent in E. coli from patients with UTI, than in fecal isolates. The results suggest that siderophore production positive strains can be considered as UPEC. Thus, although a great deal has been learned regarding E. coli virulence mechanisms in UTI, much remains to be learned and the practical application of our growing understanding of E. coli virulence factors to the prevention and treatment of UTI has to be continued.

  7. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  9. Interaction between Escherichia coli and lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of mature lunar fines (10084.151) was solubilized to a high degree (about 17 percent) by the chelating agent salicylic acid (0.01. M). The neutralized (pH adjusted to 7.0) leachate was found to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 259922) in a minimial mineral salts glucose medium; however, the inhibition was somewhat less than that caused by neutralized salicylic acid alone. The presence of lunar fines in the minimal medium was highly stimulatory to growth of E. coli following an early inhibitory response. The bacterium survived less well in the lunar leachate than in distilled water, no doubt because of the salicylate. It was concluded that the sample of lunar soil tested has nutritional value to E. coli and that certain products of fermentation helped to solubilize the lunar soil.

  10. Differentiation between Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and noninvasive Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, M J C; Reubsaet, F A G

    2012-06-01

    Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics. This classification does not reflect genetic relatedness; in fact, Shigella species are so related to Escherichia coli , they should be classified as one distinctive species in the genus Escherichia. The differentiation of Shigella and E. coli is even more complicated with the description of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). EIEC are strains that possess some of the biochemical characteristics of E. coli and have the ability to cause dysentery using the same method of invasion as Shigella does. Sequencing of multiple housekeeping genes indicates that EIEC is more related to Shigella than to non-invasive E. coli. Shigella and EIEC evolved from the same ancestor and form a single pathovar within E. coli. Shigella and EIEC could be separated from other E. coli by a PCR targeting the ipaH-gene; this is a multicopy gene exclusively found in all Shigella and EIEC. It is possible to differentiate Shigella and all E. coli, including EIEC, by using multiple tests, including ipaH-gene PCR, physiological and biochemical typing and serological typing. Based on literature study, a key is designed for daily use in diagnostic laboratories to identify Shigella and all E. coli.

  11. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli among Uropathogens of Pediatrics in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli remains as one of the most important bacteria causing infections in pediatrics and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs making them resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In this study we aimed to genotype ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pediatric patients for ESBL genes and determine their association with antimicrobial resistance. One hundred of the E. coli isolates were initially considered ESBL producing based on their MIC results. These isolates were then tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the presence or absence of CTX, TEM, SHV, GES, and VEB beta-lactamase genes. About 30.5% of isolated E. coli was ESBL-producing strain. The TEM gene was the most prevalent (49% followed by SHV (44%, CTX (28%, VEB (8%, and GES (0% genes. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were susceptible to carbapenems (66% and amikacin (58% and showed high resistance to cefixime (99%, colistin (82%, and ciprofloxacin (76%. In conclusion, carbapenems were the most effective antibiotics against ESBl-producing E. coli in urinary tract infection in North of Iran. The most prevalent gene is the TEM-type, but the other resistant genes and their antimicrobial resistance are on the rise.

  12. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E P; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission...

  13. Comparative mutant prevention concentration and antibacterial activity of fluoroquinolones against Escherichia coli in diarrheic buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Supriya; Sidhu, Pritam K; Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Rampal, Satyavan

    2015-10-01

    Owing to emerging threat of antimicrobial resistance, mutant prevention concentration (MPC) is considered as an important parameter to evaluate the antimicrobials for their capacity to restrict/allow the emergence of resistant mutants. Therefore, MPCs of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and norfloxacin were determined against Escherichia coli isolates of diarrheic buffalo calves. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also established. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and norfloxacin were 0·009, 0·022, 0·024, 0·028, and 0·036 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs obtained were very close to the MICs of respective drugs that suggested a bactericidal mode of action of antimicrobials. The MPCs (μg/ml) of ciprofloxacin (4·2×MIC), moxifloxacin (4·8×MIC), and norfloxacin (5·1×MIC) were approximately equal but slightly lower than enrofloxacin (7·6×MIC) and levofloxacin (8·5×MIC) against clinical isolates of E. coli. The MPC data suggested that enrofloxacin has the potential for restricting the selection of E. coli mutants during treatment at appropriate dosing.

  14. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available The relevance of vaginal colonization of pregnant women by Escherichia coli is poorly understood, despite these strains sharing a similar virulence profile with other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing severe obstetric and neonatal infections. We characterized the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence profiles of 84 vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant women from Rabat (Morocco and Manhiça (Mozambique, two very distinct epidemiological settings. Low levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed to all drugs tested, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Manhiça, where this drug is extensively used as prophylaxis for opportunistic HIV infections. The most prevalent virulence factors were related to iron acquisition systems. Phylogroup A was the most common in Rabat, while phylogroups E and non-typeable were the most frequent in Manhiça. Regardless of the apparently "low virulence" of these isolates, the frequency of infections is higher and the outcomes more devastating in constrained-resources conditions, especially among pregnant women and newborns.

  15. Using whole-genome sequencing to determine appropriate streptomycin epidemiological cutoffs for Salmonella and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Li, Cong; Ayers, Sherry; McDermott, Patrick F; Zhao, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    For Enterobacteriaceae such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, no unified interpretive resistance criteria exist for streptomycin, an epidemiologically important antibiotic. As part of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, we had previously used a minimum inhibitory concentration of ≥ 64 μg mL(-1) as an epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) to define non-wild-type isolates. To identify whether this ECV correlated with genetic determinants of resistance, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 463 Salmonella and E. coli isolates to identify streptomycin resistance genotypes. From this analysis, we found that using a streptomycin resistance breakpoint of ≥ 64 μg mL(-1) classified over 20% of strains possessing aadA or strA/strB resistance genes as wild-type. Therefore, to improve the concordance between genotypic and phenotypic data, we propose reducing the phenotypic cutoff values to ≥ 32 μg mL(-1) for both Salmonella and E. coli, to be used widely as ECVs to categorize non-wild-type isolates.

  16. Escherichia coli and urinary tract infections: the role of poultry-meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, A R

    2016-02-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most common cause of community-acquired and hospital-acquired extraintestinal infections. The hypothesis that human ExPEC may have a food animal reservoir has been a topic of investigation by multiple groups around the world. Experimental studies showing the shared pathogenic potential of human ExPEC and avian pathogenic E. coli suggest that these extraintestinal E. coli may be derived from the same bacterial lineages or share common evolutionary roots. The consistent observation of specific human ExPEC lineages in poultry or poultry products, and rarely in other meat commodities, supports the hypothesis that there may be a poultry reservoir for human ExPEC. The time lag between human ExPEC acquisition (in the intestine) and infection is the fundamental challenge facing studies attempting to attribute ExPEC transmission to poultry or other environmental sources. Even whole genome sequencing efforts to address attribution will struggle with defining meaningful genetic relationships outside of a discrete food-borne outbreak setting. However, if even a fraction of all human ExPEC infections, especially antimicrobial-resistant ExPEC infections, is attributable to the introduction of multidrug-resistant ExPEC lineages through contaminated food product(s), the relevance to public health, food animal production and food safety will be significant.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from healthy cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Shimada, J; Nakazawa, M; Morozumi, T; Pohjanvirta, T; Pelkonen, S; Yamamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Japan was examined by using stool samples from 87 calves, 88 heifers, and 183 cows on 78 farms. As determined by screening with stx-PCR, the prevalence was 46% in calves, 66% in heifers, and 69% in cows; as determined by nested stx-PCR, the prevalence was 100% in all animal groups. Of the 962 isolates picked by colony stx hybridization, 92 isolates from 54 farms were characterized to determine their O serogroups, virulence factor genes, and antimicrobial resistance. Of these 92 isolates, 74 (80%) could be classified into O serogroups; 50% of these 74 isolates belonged to O serogroups O8, O26, O84, O113, and O116 and 1 isolate belonged to O serogroup O157. Locus of enterocyte effacement genes were detected in 24% of the isolates, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) hlyA genes were detected in 72% of the isolates. Neither the bundle-forming pilus gene nor the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid was found. STEC strains with characteristics typical of isolates from human EHEC infections, which were regarded as potential EHEC strains, were present on 11.5% of the farms.

  18. Ethanol production by Escherichia coli KO11; Producao de etanol por Escherichia coli KO11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Katia Gianni de Carvalho [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Lab. de Microbiologia de Alimentos]. E-mail: gianni@usp.br; Takahashi, Caroline Maki; Alterthum, Flavio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Microbiologia

    2002-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential use of Escherichia coli KO11 in production of ethanol, based on observation that this organism can efficiently metabolize sugar complex moistures obtained from the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose materials such as sugar-cane bagasse, corncob, corn husk, Pinus sp and oak wood.

  19. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: foe or innocent bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Torres, A G

    2015-08-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remain one the most important pathogens infecting children and they are one of the main causes of persistent diarrhoea worldwide. Historically, typical EPEC (tEPEC), defined as those isolates with the attaching and effacement (A/E) genotype (eae(+)), which possess bfpA(+) and lack the stx(-) genes are found strongly associated with diarrhoeal cases. However, occurrence of atypical EPEC (aEPEC; eae(+)bfpA(-)stx(-)) in diarrhoeal and asymptomatic hosts has made investigators question the role of these pathogens in human disease. Current epidemiological data are helping to answer the question of whether EPEC is mainly a foe or an innocent bystander during infection.

  20. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  1. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  2. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, J.P.; Dimmic, Matt;

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome......, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals...... that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence...

  3. Global gene expression in Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Kjærgaard, K.; Klemm, Per

    2003-01-01

    in expression have no current defined function. These genes, as well as those induced by stresses relevant to biofilm growth such as oxygen and nutrient limitation, may be important factors that trigger enhanced resistance mechanisms of sessile communities to antibiotics and hydrodynamic shear forces.......It is now apparent that microorganisms undergo significant changes during the transition from planktonic to biofilm growth. These changes result in phenotypic adaptations that allow the formation of highly organized and structured sessile communities, which possess enhanced resistance...... to antimicrobial treatments and host immune defence responses. Escherichia coli has been used as a model organism to study the mechanisms of growth within adhered communities. In this study, we use DNA microarray technology to examine the global gene expression profile of E. coli during sessile growth compared...

  4. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer.

  5. Escherichia coli as a bioreporter in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbens, Johan; Dardenne, Freddy; Devriese, Lisa; De Coen, Wim; Blust, Ronny

    2010-11-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment relies to a large extent on the information gathered with surrogate species and the extrapolation of test results across species and different levels of biological organisation. Bacteria have long been used as a bioreporter for genotoxic testing and general toxicity. Today, it is clear that bacteria have the potential for screening of other toxicological endpoints. Escherichia coli has been studied for years; in-depth knowledge of its biochemistry and genetics makes it the most proficient prokaryote for the development of new toxicological assays. Several assays have been designed with E. coli as a bioreporter, and the recent trend to develop novel, better advanced reporters makes bioreporter development one of the most dynamic in ecotoxicology. Based on in-depth knowledge of E. coli, new assays are being developed or existing ones redesigned, thanks to the availability of new reporter genes and new or improved substrates. The technological evolution towards easier and more sensitive detection of different gene products is another important aspect. Often, this requires the redesign of the bacterium to make it compatible with the novel measuring tests. Recent advances in surface chemistry and nanoelectronics open the perspective for advanced reporter based on novel measuring platforms and with an online potential. In this article, we will discuss the use of E. coli-based bioreporters in ecotoxicological applications as well as some innovative sensors awaited for the future.

  6. Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, P S; Griffin, P M

    1998-10-10

    Escherichia coli O157 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982. One of several Shiga toxin-producing serotypes known to cause human illness, the organism probably evolved through horizontal acquisition of genes for Shiga toxins and other virulence factors. E. coli O157 is found regularly in the faeces of healthy cattle, and is transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, and direct contact with infected people or animals. Human infection is associated with a wide range of clinical illness, including asymptomatic shedding, non-bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and death. Since laboratory practices vary, physicians need to know whether laboratories in their area routinely test for E. coli O157 in stool specimens. Treatment with antimicrobial agents remains controversial: some studies suggest that treatment may precipitate haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and other studies suggest no effect or even a protective effect. Physicians can help to prevent E. coli O157 infections by counselling patients about the hazards of consuming undercooked ground meat or unpasteurised milk products and juices, and about the importance of handwashing to prevent the spread of diarrhoeal illness, and by informing public-health authorities when they see unusual numbers of cases of bloody diarrhoea or haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

  7. Virulence Genes, Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Phylogenetic Background of Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The epidemiology of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC in urban and rural communities in Iran was never investigated prior to this study. Objectives The aims of this study were to detect the frequency of virulence genes and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic background of Escherichia coli isolates collected from urban and rural communities. Materials and Methods A total of 100 E. coli isolates were collected from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs residing in two different locations, and confirmed by current biochemical tests. The phylogenetic groups were determined by the triplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method, and multiplex PCRs were used to detect eight Vf genes (fimH, iucD, irp2, hlyA, ompT, iha, iroN, and cnf1. The susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results Ninety-five percent of UPEC showed at least one of the virulence genes, the most prevalent being fimH (95%, followed by irp2 (89%, iucD (69%, ompT (67%, iroN (29%, and iha (29%. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. Phylogenetic groups, B2 (55% and D (22%, comprised the majority of isolated strains. Phenotypic tests showed that 92%, 74% and 71% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftizoxime and cefixime, respectively. Conclusions These findings indicate that the UPEC isolates had eight virulence factors with high frequencies. Moreover, these results suggest a direct connection between virulence factors, gene diversity, phylogenetic background, and antimicrobial resistance in UPEC isolates.

  8. Abundance and phenotypic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in faeces from healthy food animals after slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Miguel A; Teshager, Tirushet; Porrero, M A Concepción; García, María; Escudero, Esther; Torres, Carmen; Domínguez, Lucas

    2007-03-10

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is an increasing phenomenon but its quantitative estimation remains controversial. The classical resistance percentage approach is not well suited to detect either emergence or low levels resistance. One option is to shift the focus from strains to hosts. This approach is applied to test for phenotypic diversity associated with diminished susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (DSESC) in faecal Escherichia coli from healthy food animals in Spain. We performed E. coli enumeration in faecal samples of broilers (82 pooled samples) and pigs (80 pooled samples) at the slaughterhouse level, using Coli-ID plates alone and supplemented with cefotaxime at two levels (1 and 8 microg/ml). Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested by the agar diffusion method. Clustering was carried out using these numerical values and Ward and UPGMA methods. When using plates supplemented with 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime for DSESC E. coli detection, 93% (76/82) of broiler pooled samples and 36% (29/80) pig pooled samples tested positive. When using 8 microg/ml of cefotaxime, 67% (55/82) of broilers and 13% (10/80) of pigs were positive. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of this phenotype was low in both animal species (range 0-4.3%). Irrespective of the clustering method (Ward or UPGMA), a noticeable phenotypic diversity was detected, especially from the plates containing 1 microg/ml of cefotaxime. We concluded that: (a) E. coli with phenotype DSESC are common in broilers and pigs but are less frequent in pigs, and (b) the host approach is the most appropriate method for antimicrobial resistance assessment when null or very low levels of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are expected.

  9. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Smith, Matthew G; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Letellier, Ann; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution with time of ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from pigs in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 2012 with respect to pathotypes, clones and antimicrobial resistance. Eighty-five ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli. The most prevalent pathovirotypes were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC):F4 (40%), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (16.5%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC):F18 (8.2%). Susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed a high prevalence of resistance to 13 antimicrobials, with all isolates being multidrug-resistant. blaCMY-2 (96.5%) was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene, followed by blaTEM (49.4%) and blaCTX-M (3.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applied to 45 representative E. coli isolates revealed that resistance to ceftiofur is spread both horizontally and clonally. In addition, the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates carrying blaCTX-M was observed in 2011 and 2012 in distinct clones. The most predominant plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups were IncFIB, IncI1, IncA/C and IncFIC. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol as well as the frequency of blaTEM and IncA/C significantly decreased over the study period, whereas the frequency of IncI1 and multidrug resistance to seven antimicrobial categories significantly increased. These findings reveal that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant porcine E. coli isolates in Québec belong to several different clones with diverse antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids. Furthermore, blaCMY-2 was the major β-lactamase gene in these isolates. From 2011, we report the emergence of blaCTX-M in distinct clones.

  11. Escherichia coli O157 infections and unpasteurised milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allerberger, F; Wagner, M; Schweiger, P; Rammer, H P; Resch, A; Dierich, M P; Friedrich, A W; Karch, H

    2001-01-01

    We report on two children with Escherichia coli O157 infection, one of whom developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). Both had drunk raw cows or goats milk in the week before their illness. Molecular subtyping identified a sorbitol fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H isolate from a dairy cow. This

  12. Chromatin architecture and gene expression in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli.......Two recent genome-scale analyses underscore the importance of DNA topology and chromatin structure in regulating transcription in Escherichia coli....

  13. Production of glycoprotein vaccines in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssen Julian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. In this study we describe the in vivo biosynthesis of two novel conjugate vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1, an important bacterial pathogen causing severe gastro-intestinal disease states mainly in developing countries. Results Two different periplasmic carrier proteins, AcrA from C. jejuni and a toxoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin were glycosylated with Shigella O antigens in E. coli. Starting from shake flask cultivation in standard complex medium a lab-scale fed-batch process was developed for glycoconjugate production. It was found that efficiency of glycosylation but not carrier protein expression was highly susceptible to the physiological state at induction. After induction glycoconjugates generally appeared later than unglycosylated carrier protein, suggesting that glycosylation was the rate-limiting step for synthesis of conjugate vaccines in E. coli. Glycoconjugate synthesis, in particular expression of oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, strongly inhibited growth of E. coli cells after induction, making it necessary to separate biomass growth and recombinant protein expression phases. With a simple pulse and linear feed strategy and the use of semi-defined glycerol medium, volumetric glycoconjugate yield was increased 30 to 50-fold. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that glycosylated proteins can be produced in recombinant E. coli at a larger scale. The described methodologies constitute an important step

  14. Genomic and proteomic study of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. recovered from wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Radhouani, Hajer

    2015-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Genética Molecular Comparativa e Tecnológica As ferramentas genómicas, proteómicas e bioinformáticas permitem um conhecimento mais aprofundado sobre a fisiologia e estrutura bacterianas e também dos mecanismos envolvidos na resistência antimicrobiana. A resistência aos antimicrobianos tem evoluído e disseminado entre bactérias, representando uma séria e crescente ameaça para a saúde pública. No entanto, esta resistência tem sido detectada também na ausên...

  15. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantial and is likely to grow. Many factors play a role in the emergence of resistance. These resistance mechanisms may be encoded on transferable genes, which facilitate the spread of resistance between bacterial strains of the same and/or different species. Other resistance mechanisms may be due to alterations in the chromosomal DNA which enables the bacteria to withstand the environment and multiply. Many, if not most, of the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC countries do not have clear guidelines for antimicrobial use, and lack policies for restricting and auditing antimicrobial prescriptions. Objective The aim of this study is to review the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in GCC countries and explore the reasons for antibiotic resistance in the region. Methodology The PubMed database was searched using the following key words: antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic stewardship, prevalence, epidemiology, mechanism of resistance, and GCC country (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Results From January1990 through April 2011, there were 45 articles published reviewing antibiotic resistance in the GCC countries. Among all the GCC countries, 37,295 bacterial isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent microorganism was Escherichia coli (10,073/44%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (4,709/20%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4,287/18.7%, MRSA (1,216/5.4%, Acinetobacter (1,061/5%, with C. difficile and Enterococcus representing less than 1%. Conclusion In the last 2 decades, E. coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent reported microorganisms by GCC countries with resistance data.

  16. Clonal spread and interspecies transmission of clinically relevant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli of ST410--another successful pandemic clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufler, Katharina; Semmler, Torsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Wöhrmann, Michael; Baddam, Ramani; Ahmed, Niyaz; Müller, Kerstin; Kola, Axel; Fruth, Angelika; Ewers, Christa; Guenther, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Clinically relevant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing multi-resistant Escherichia coli have been on the rise for years. Initially restricted to mostly a clinical context, recent findings prove their prevalence in extraclinical settings independent of the original occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. To get further insights into the complex ecology of potentially clinically relevant ESBL-producing E. coli, 24 isolates from wild birds in Berlin, Germany, and 40 ESBL-producing human clinical E. coli isolates were comparatively analyzed. Isolates of ST410 occurred in both sample groups (six). In addition, three ESBL-producing E. coli isolates of ST410 from environmental dog feces and one clinical dog isolate were included. All 10 isolates were clonally analyzed showing almost identical macrorestriction patterns. They were chosen for whole-genome sequencing revealing that the whole-genome content of these 10 E. coli isolates showed a very high genetic similarity, differing by low numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms only. This study gives initial evidence for a recent interspecies transmission of a new successful clone of ST410 E. coli between wildlife, humans, companion animals and the environment. The results underline the zoonotic potential of clinically relevant multi-resistant bacteria found in the environment as well as the mandatory nature of the 'One Health' approach.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of ESBL Genes and Multi-Drug Resistance in Diarrheagenic Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Adults in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Kargar, Mohammad; Doosti, Abbas; Abbasi, Pejman; Sarshar, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to oxyimino cephalosporins antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae is primarily done by the extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Clear identification of risk factors for ESBLs-producing infections is necessary. Therefore, efficient strategies can be developed to decrease outbreak of these infections. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial susceptibility and ESBLs pattern of diarrhogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from adult patients. In the present study, diarrheogenic E. coli strains were isolated from 54 patients from the University of Medical Sciences hospitals in Shiraz. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method by CLSI criteria. The presence of bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes was investigated by PCR using designated primers. The prevalence of ESBLs-producer E. coli strains was 12.96%. Antimicrobial resistance testing showed a high resistance to cefexime, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin and penicillin. Overall, β-lactamase genes were identified in 52 (96.30%) isolates which were identified as 45 (83.33%) bla TEM, 17 (31.48%) blaSHV and 11 (20.37%) blaCTX-M. ESBLs-producer E. coli is very prevalent in Diarrheogenic strains isolated from adult patients. Also, this study clearly showed that the bla TEM gene for ESBLs-producer E. coli was widespread in Iran.

  18. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in suckling rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in suckling rabbit causes collibacillosis, which is characterized by sever yellow diarrhea, poor growth and high mortalities. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in suckling rabbits in Egypt. Additionally, expression of some virulence-associated genes in the isolated E. coli serotypes were examined using the polymerase chain reaction. Finally, antibiogram of the identified E. coli serotypes was also investig...

  19. Methane production from kitchen waste using Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, S; Joseph, Kurian; Sukumaran, V

    2007-04-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain isolated from biogas plant sludge was examined for its ability to enhance biogas from kitchen waste during solid phase anaerobic digestion. The laboratory experiments were conducted for total solid concentrations of 20% and 22%. Kitchen waste was characterized for physico-chemical parameters and laboratory experiments were conducted with and without E. coli strain. It was found that the reactor with E. coli produced 17% more biogas than the reactors that are operated without E. coli strain.

  20. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Enterobacteriaceae Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Gottlieb, Thomas; Robson, Jenny; George, Narelle

    2016-06-30

    The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2014 survey was the second year to focus on blood stream infections. During 2014, 5,798 Enterobacteriaceae species isolates were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix, BD) and results were analysed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2015). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 9.0%/9.0% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 7.8%/7.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.0%/8.0% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.4%/11.6% for E. coli, 5.0%/7.7% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, and 3.5%/6.5% in Enterobacter cloacae. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.2%/6.8%, 4.8%/7.2%, 11.1%/11.5%, and 19.0%/24.7% for the same 4 species respectively. Fourteen isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 7 blaIMP-4, 3 blaKPC-2, 3 blaVIM-1, 1 blaNDM-4, and 1 blaOXA-181-lke.

  1. Long term effects of Escherichia coli mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Shlomo E; Heller, Elimelech D; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-07-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently diagnosed causes of bovine mastitis, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long term effects of intramammary infections by E. coli on milk yield and quality, especially milk coagulation. Twenty-four Israeli Holstein cows diagnosed with clinical mastitis due to intramammary infection by E. coli were used in this study. Mean lactation number, days in milk (DIM) and daily milk yield (DMY) at the time of infection was 3.3 ± 1.3, 131.7 days ± 78.6 and 45.7 L ± 8.4, respectively. DMY, milk constituents, somatic cells count (SCC), differential leukocytes count and coagulation parameters were subsequently assessed. Two patterns of inflammation were identified: 'short inflammation', characterized by 15% decrease in DMY and >30 days to reach a new maximum DMY (n = 19). The estimated mean loss of marketable milk during the study was 200 L/cow for 'short inflammation' cases, and 1,500 L/cow for 'long inflammation' ones. Significant differences between 'short' and 'long inflammation' effects were found in almost all parameters studied. Long-term detrimental effects on milk quality were found regardless of clinical or bacteriological cure of affected glands.

  2. Cyclomodulins in urosepsis strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Damien; Delmas, Julien; Cady, Anne; Robin, Frédéric; Sivignon, Adeline; Oswald, Eric; Bonnet, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Determinants of urosepsis in Escherichia coli remain incompletely defined. Cyclomodulins (CMs) are a growing functional family of toxins that hijack the eukaryotic cell cycle. Four cyclomodulin types are actually known in E. coli: cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs), cycle-inhibiting factor (Cif), cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), and the pks-encoded toxin. In the present study, the distribution of CM-encoding genes and the functionality of these toxins were investigated in 197 E. coli strains isolated from patients with community-acquired urosepsis (n = 146) and from uninfected subjects (n = 51). This distribution was analyzed in relation to the phylogenetic background, clinical origin, and antibiotic resistance of the strains. It emerged from this study that strains harboring the pks island and the cnf1 gene (i) were strongly associated with the B2 phylogroup (P, urosepsis origin (P, urosepsis groups, suggesting that the pks island is more important for the colonization process and the cnf1 gene for virulence. pks- or cnf1-harboring strains were significantly associated with susceptibility to antibiotics (amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and quinolones [P, <0.001 to 0.043]). Otherwise, only 6% and 1% of all strains harbored the cdtB and cif genes, respectively, with no particular distribution by phylogenetic background, antimicrobial susceptibility, or clinical origin.

  3. Characterization of multi-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from beef cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Nakano, Motoki; Kitagawa, Wataru; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Hirai, Katsuya; Asano, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistance bacteria is increasing, which is a particular concern on livestock farms. We previously isolated 1,347 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli strains from the feces of beef cattle on 14 Japanese farms. In the present study, the genetic backgrounds and phylogenetic relationships of 45 AMR isolates were characterized by the chromosome phylotype, AMR phenotype, AMR genotype, and plasmid type. These isolates were classified into five chromosome phylotypes, which were closely linked to the farms from which they were isolated, suggesting that each farm had its own E. coli phylotype. AMR phenotype and plasmid type analyses yielded 8 and 14 types, all of which were associated with the chromosomal phylotype and, thus, to the original farms. AMR genotype analysis revealed more variety, with 16 types, indicating both inter- and intra-farm diversity. Different phylotype isolates from the same farm shared highly similar plasmid types, which indicated that plasmids with AMR genes could be transferred between phylotypes, thereby generating multi-antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This ecological study demonstrated that the chromosome phylotype was strongly correlated with the farm from which they were isolated, while the AMR phenotype, genotype, and plasmid type were generally correlated with the chromosome phylotype and farm source.

  4. Studies on Antimicrobial Resistance Transfer In vitro and Existent Selectivity of Avian Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterobacteriaccae In vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; NING Yi-bao; ZHANG Qi-jing; YANG Cheng-huai; GAO Guang; HAN Jian-feng

    2008-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AR) has become a severe problem of public health in the world, whereas control of the AR of bacteria will be based on investigation of the AR mechanism. Furthermore, understanding the existent selectivity of AR organisms from animals can prevent the emergence and diffusion of AR effectively. PCR amplifications of gyrA and parC genes have been performed for detecting fluoroquinolones-resistance (FR) genes. A conjugational transfer test has been carried out using a donor which is resistant to tetracycline (TE), ampicillin (AMP), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), and a recipient which is sensitive to TE, AMP, and SXT. The AR strains have been passed 20 passages. Two groups of chicken inoculated multi-AR Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and multi-AR Salmonella, respectively, are mix-fed. The result shows that amino acid codons of Ser-83 and Asp-87 are mutations from gyrA and there are no mutations from parCgenes in all the FR strains. Resistance to TE, AM, and SXT can transfer among E. Coli and the conjugal transfer frequency of TE is 3 × 10-7. AR can inherit in 20 passages at least. The multi-AR E. Coli and Salmonella can be isolated from all chickens three days after inoculation but CIP-resistant strains decrease during the time run out and disappear at 23 days after inoculation. The results indicate that the mutations of gene gyrA are correlative with the FR phenotype. AR genes that are not connected to the chromosome can transfer horizontally and vertically. AR bacteria can diffuse quickly and eliminate naturally from the host if the chicken is not under the pressure of this antibiotic.

  5. PERFIL DE SENSIBILIDADE MICROBIANA IN VITRO DE LINHAGENS PATOGÊNICAS DE Escherichia coli ISOLADAS DE CARNE BOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli strains (EPEC A, EPEC B, EPEC C, EIEC A e EIEC B isolated from bovine meat. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was evaluated using the technique described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The strains were resistant to most antibiotics tested, and gentamicin showed the best efficiency, with 84.9% of the strains showing sensitivity. In addition, cefoxitin was the least effective antimicrobial agent, have a higher percentage of resistant strains. The multidrug resistance to antimicrobials is a finding of great importance to public health, as resistant pathogens may be conveyed to consumers by the ingestion of animal products, making difficult the treatment of bacterial infections and increasing the occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics.

  6. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Garneau, P.; Bruant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli...

  7. Transport of Escherichia coli in saturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over de manier waarop de bacterie en tevens meest bekende fecale indicator soort Escherichia coli getransporteerd wordt in grondwater is relatief weinig bekend. In deze studie wordt de verwijdering van E. coli uit grondwater ten gevolge van E. coli - sediment interacties bestudeerd en modelmatig ge

  8. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Markers and Phenotypes among Fecal E. coli Isolates Collected from Nicaraguan Infants ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) markers and common phenotypes in 2,164 E. coli isolates from 282 DEC-positive samples. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) were very diverse and were not correlated with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) estA and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) belonged to a few phenotypes and were significantly correlated with diarrhea.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance and related issues: An overview of Bangladesh situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sayedur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to understand Bangladesh situation about antimicrobial resistance. Half of the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella showed resistance against older and common antimicrobials. Most (50% common reasons to prescribe antimicrobial are fever, respiratory and urinary tract infection. About 70% prescriber mentioned diagnostic uncertainty and emergence of resistance as causes for increase in antimicrobial prescribing. 51.9% of prescribers opined that physicians prescribe antimicrobial more than the actual need. About two-third of 5th year medical students answered correctly on different issues related to antimicrobials and resistance. Antimicrobial and resistance received little emphasis in Pharmacology and Microbiology written questions at both undergraduate (0.7 to 16.1% and postgraduate (0.9 to 18.4% level. Print (0.02% to 2.0% and electronic media (0.0 to 0.6% attaches small importance on the issues. Nothing related to ‘antimicrobials’ and ‘measure to contain resistance’ were mentioned in related policy documents.

  10. The eclipse period of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Freiesleben, Ulrik; Krekling, Martin A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2000-01-01

    The minimal time between successive initiations on the same origin (the eclipse) in Escherichia coli was determined to be approximately 25-30 min. An inverse relationship was found between the length of the eclipse and the amount of Dam methyltransferase in the cell, indicating that the eclipse...... corresponds to the period of origin hemimethylation. The SeqA protein was absolutely required for the eclipse, and DnaA titration studies suggested that the SeqA protein prevented the binding of multiple DnaA molecules on oriC (initial complex formation). No correlation between the amount of SeqA and eclipse...... length was revealed, but increased SeqA levels affected chromosome partitioning and/or cell division. This was corroborated further by an aberrant nucleoid distribution in SeqA-deficient cells. We suggest that the SeqA protein's role in maintaining the eclipse is tied to a function in chromosome...

  11. PREVALENCE OF SULFONAMIDE AND FLORFENICOL RESISTANCE GENES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM YAKS (BOS GRUNNIENS) AND HERDSMEN IN THE TIBETAN PASTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anyun; Yang, Yunfei; Wang, Hongning; Lei, Changwei; Xu, Changwen; Guan, Zhongbin; Liu, Bihui; Huang, Xi; Peng, Linyao

    2015-07-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and prevalence of resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from yaks (Bos grunniens) and herdsmen in nine plateau pastures in Tibet, we isolated 184 nonidentical strains of E. coli from yaks and herdsmen. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobials was conducted and the prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1, sul2, and sul3) and florfenicol resistance genes (floR, cfr, cmlA, fexA, pexA, and estDL136) was determined. Escherichia coli isolated from yaks had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (44%), sulphafurazole (40.4%), and florfenicol (11.4%). Escherichia coli isolated from herdsmen had a high resistance rate to sulfamethoxazole (57%) and sulphafurazole (51%). In addition, sul genes were present in 93% of sulfonamide-resistant isolates (84/90), and 17 floR genes and four cmlA genes were found in 19 florfenicol-resistant isolates. Even though florfenicol is prohibited from use in humans, three floR genes were detected in strains isolated from herdsmen. The three floR-positive isolates from herdsmen had pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns similar to isolates from yaks. In addition to documenting the sul and floR genes in E. coli isolated from yaks and herdsmen in the Tibetan pasture, we demonstrated the potential risk that antimicrobial-resistant E. coli could spread among herdsmen and yaks.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring projects for zoonotic and indicator bacteria of animal origin: common aspects and differences between EASSA and EFSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Thomas, Valérie

    2014-07-16

    Resistance monitoring programmes are essential to generate data for inclusion in the scientific risk assessment of the potential for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria or their resistance determinants from food-producing animals to humans. This review compares the technical specifications on monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic Salmonella, Campylobacter and indicator Escherichia coli and Enterococcus as performed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with veterinary pharmaceutical industry's European Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance in Animals (EASSA) programme. The authors conclude that most of EFSA's recent monitoring recommendations have been covered by EASSA since the start of the latter programme in 1998. The major difference between the two programmes is the classification into 'susceptible' versus 'resistant'. While EFSA categorises all isolates with an MIC value above the epidemiological cut-off value as 'resistant', EASSA differentiates between 'percentage decreased susceptible' and 'percentage clinical resistant' strains by applying both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical breakpoints. Because there is still a need to further improve harmonisation among individual EU Member State activities, Animal Health Industry welcomes EFSA's initiative to further improve the quality of resistance monitoring as it is of utmost importance to apply standardised collection procedures and harmonised susceptibility testing, when monitoring antimicrobial resistance across Europe.

  13. Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margarita; Martinez-Medina; Librado; Jesus; Garcia-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli(E. coli), and particularly the adherent invasive E. coli(AIEC) pathotype, has been increasingly implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of Crohn’s disease(CD). E. coli strains with similar pathogenic features to AIEC have been associated with other intestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, colorectal cancer, and coeliac disease, but AIEC prevalence in these diseases remains largely unexplored. Since AIEC was described one decade ago, substantial progress has been made in deciphering its mechanisms of pathogenicity. However, the molecular bases that characterize the phenotypic properties of this pathotype are still not well resolved. A review of studies focused on E. coli populations in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) is presented here and we discuss about the putative role of this species on each IBD subtype. Given the relevance of AIEC in CD pathogenesis, we present the latest research findings concerning AIEC host-microbe interactions and pathogenicity. We also review the existing data regarding the prevalence and abundance of AIEC in CD and its association with other intestinal diseases from humans and animals, in order to discuss the AIEC disease- and hostspecificity. Finally, we highlight the fact that dietarycomponents frequently found in industrialized countries may enhance AIEC colonization in the gut, which merits further investigation and the implementation of preventative measures.

  14. The crystal structure Escherichia coli Spy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eunju; Kim, Dong Young; Gross, Carol A; Gross, John D; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2010-11-01

    Escherichia coli spheroplast protein y (EcSpy) is a small periplasmic protein that is homologous with CpxP, an inhibitor of the extracytoplasmic stress response. Stress conditions such as spheroplast formation induce the expression of Spy via the Cpx or the Bae two-component systems in E. coli, though the function of Spy is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of EcSpy, which reveals a long kinked hairpin-like structure of four α-helices that form an antiparallel dimer. The dimer contains a curved oval shape with a highly positively charged concave surface that may function as a ligand binding site. Sequence analysis reveals that Spy is highly conserved over the Enterobacteriaceae family. Notably, three conserved regions that contain identical residues and two LTxxQ motifs are placed at the horizontal end of the dimer structure, stabilizing the overall fold. CpxP also contains the conserved sequence motifs and has a predicted secondary structure similar to Spy, suggesting that Spy and CpxP likely share the same fold.

  15. Independence of replisomes in Escherichia coli chromosomalreplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breier, Adam M.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    2005-03-13

    In Escherichia coli DNA replication is carried out by the coordinated action of the proteins within a replisome. After replication initiation, the two bidirectionally oriented replisomes from a single origin are colocalized into higher-order structures termed replication factories. The factory model postulated that the two replisomes are also functionally coupled. We tested this hypothesis by using DNA combing and whole-genome microarrays. Nascent DNA surrounding oriC in single, combed chromosomes showed instead that one replisome, usually the leftward one, was significantly ahead of the other 70% of the time. We next used microarrays to follow replication throughout the genome by measuring DNA copy number. We found in multiple E. coli strains that the replisomes are independent, with the leftward replisome ahead of the rightward one. The size of the bias was strain-specific, varying from 50 to 130 kb in the array results. When we artificially blocked one replisome, the other continued unabated, again demonstrating independence. We suggest an improved version of the factory model that retains the advantages of threading DNA through colocalized replisomes at about equal rates, but allows the cell flexibility to overcome obstacles encountered during elongation.

  16. Escherichia coli biofilms: Accepting the therapeutic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI′s are a major public health concern globally. Recurrent UTI′s that are predominantly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli′s forms biofilm that is an intracellular, structured bacterial community, enclosed in a self-produced matrix, adherent to an inert, or living surface. Biofilm physiology is characterized by increased tolerance to stress, antibiotics, and immunological defenses, which is at the origin of their resilience in most medical and industrial settings. Materials and Methods: The present prospective study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Microbiology of a Teaching Tertiary Care hospital located in central India. A total of 100 consecutive, nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were subjected to biofilm formation study by Christensen′s tube adherence method. All the isolates were also subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method in accordance with the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute 2013 guidelines. Results and Discussion: Out of the 100 E. coli isolates studied, 62 (62% were positive for biofilm formation. High percentage of resistance was detected in isolates among the male inpatient group. Overall drug resistance was found to be very high among both biofilm as well as nonbiofilm forming isolates indicating excessive drug resistance among both community and hospital organisms. Conclusion: A greater understanding of the nature of biofilm organisms in chronic UTI′s would help in the development of novel and more effective treatments for these problematic diseases.

  17. Expanding ester biosynthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Tashiro, Yohei; Atsumi, Shota

    2014-04-01

    To expand the capabilities of whole-cell biocatalysis, we have engineered Escherichia coli to produce various esters. The alcohol O-acyltransferase (ATF) class of enzyme uses acyl-CoA units for ester formation. The release of free CoA upon esterification with an alcohol provides the free energy to facilitate ester formation. The diversity of CoA molecules found in nature in combination with various alcohol biosynthetic pathways allows for the biosynthesis of a multitude of esters. Small to medium volatile esters have extensive applications in the flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, solvent, paint and coating industries. The present work enables the production of these compounds by designing several ester pathways in E. coli. The engineered pathways generated acetate esters of ethyl, propyl, isobutyl, 2-methyl-1-butyl, 3-methyl-1-butyl and 2-phenylethyl alcohols. In particular, we achieved high-level production of isobutyl acetate from glucose (17.2 g l(-1)). This strategy was expanded to realize pathways for tetradecyl acetate and several isobutyrate esters.

  18. Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-07-01

    Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes.

  19. Escherichia coli Pathotypes Occupy Distinct Niches in the Mouse Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica P Meador; Caldwell, Matthew E.; Cohen, Paul S.; Conway, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    Since the first step of the infection process is colonization of the host, it is important to understand how Escherichia coli pathogens successfully colonize the intestine. We previously showed that enterohemorrhagic O157:H7 strain E. coli EDL933 colonizes a niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine that is distinct from that of human commensal strains, which explains how E. coli EDL933 overcomes colonization resistance imparted by some, but not all, commensal E. coli strains. Here we...

  20. Iberian wolf as a reservoir of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli of the TEM, SHV, and CTX-M groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Estepa, Vanesa; Pacheco, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Brito, Francisco; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2012-04-01

    The intensive use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine, associated with mechanisms of bacterial genetic transfer, caused a selective pressure that contributed to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in different bacteria groups and throughout different ecosystems. Iberian wolf, due to his predatory and wild nature, may serve as an important indicator of environmental contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates within the fecal microbiota of Iberian wolf. Additionally, the identification of other associated resistance genes, phylogenetic groups, and the detection of virulence determinants were also focused on in this study. From 2008 to 2009, 237 fecal samples from Iberian wolf were collected in Portugal. E. coli isolates with TEM-52, SHV-12, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-14-type ESBLs were detected in 13 of these samples (5.5%). This study reveals the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, in a wild ecosystem, which could be disseminated through the environment. Moreover, the presence of resistant genes in integrons and the existence of virulence determinants were shown. The association between antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants should be monitored, as it constitutes a serious public health problem.

  1. Evaluation of feeding distiller's grains, containing virginiamycin, on antimicrobial susceptibilities in fecal isolates of Enterococcus and Escherichia coli and prevalence of resistance genes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrington, T S; Bischoff, K M; Loneragan, G H; Nisbet, D J

    2014-03-01

    Dried distiller's grains (DG) produced from ethanol fermentations dosed with 0 (control), 2, or 20 mg/kg virginiamycin-based product or spiked with virginiamycin (VM) postfermentation were fed to cattle and effects on antimicrobial susceptibility, and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal bacteria was examined. Biological activity assays of DG (from each fermentation) indicated a concentration of 0, 0.7, and 8.9 mg/kg VM, respectively. Twenty-four crossbred beef steers were fed 1 of 4 diets (containing 8% of each of the different batches of DG) and a fourth using 8% of the control DG (0 mg/kg VM) + 0.025 g/kg V-Max50 (positive control) for 7 wk. Fecal samples were collected weekly throughout the experimental period and cultured for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, and isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, antimicrobial resistance genes (vatE, ermB, and msrC in Enterococcus), and integrons (E. coli). No treatment differences (P > 0.05) were observed in antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates. Enterococcus isolates were resistant to more antimicrobials; however, this was influenced by the species of Enterococcus and not treatment (P > 0.10). The prevalence of ermB was greater (P < 0.05) in the control isolates after 4 and 6 wk while at wk 7, prevalence was greater (P < 0.01) in the 0.7 and 8.9 mg/kg VM treatments. Taken together, the minor treatment differences observed for the presence of ermB coupled with the lack of effect on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns suggest that feeding DG containing VM residues should have minimal if any impact on prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance predicts death in Tanzanian children with bloodstream infections: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Viola

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infection is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and death in children. The impact of antimicrobial resistance and HIV infection on outcome is not firmly established. Methods We assessed the incidence of bloodstream infection and risk factors for fatal outcome in a prospective cohort study of 1828 consecutive admissions of children aged zero to seven years with signs of systemic infection. Blood was obtained for culture, malaria microscopy, HIV antibody test and, when necessary, HIV PCR. We recorded data on clinical features, underlying diseases, antimicrobial drug use and patients' outcome. Results The incidence of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was 13.9% (255/1828 of admissions, despite two thirds of the study population having received antimicrobial therapy prior to blood culture. The most frequent isolates were klebsiella, salmonellae, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 21.6% had malaria and 16.8% HIV infection. One third (34.9% of the children with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection died. The mortality rate from Gram-negative bloodstream infection (43.5% was more than double that of malaria (20.2% and Gram-positive bloodstream infection (16.7%. Significant risk factors for death by logistic regression modeling were inappropriate treatment due to antimicrobial resistance, HIV infection, other underlying infectious diseases, malnutrition and bloodstream infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae, other Gram-negatives and candida. Conclusion Bloodstream infection was less common than malaria, but caused more deaths. The frequent use of antimicrobials prior to blood culture may have hampered the detection of organisms susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials, including pneumococci, and thus the study probably underestimates the incidence of bloodstream infection. The finding that antimicrobial resistance, HIV-infection and malnutrition predict fatal

  3. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division...

  4. Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli is mutagenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, K M; Viau, S; Koutroumanis, M; Cupples, C G

    1996-01-01

    Overexpression of vsr in Escherichia coli stimulates transition and frameshift mutations. The pattern of mutations suggests that mutagenesis is due to saturation or inactivation of dam-directed mismatch repair. PMID:8763960

  5. Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but sister species in the genus Escherichia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2013-02-01

    Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship.

  6. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben V. Horn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  7. ENERGY REQUIREMENT FOR THYMINELESS DEATH IN CELLS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FREIFELDER, D; MAALOE, O

    1964-10-01

    Freifelder, David (University of California, Berkeley), and Ole Maaløe. Energy requirement for thymineless death in cells of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:987-990. 1964.-Thymineless death in thymine-requiring Escherichia coli is arrested immediately and reversibly by nitrogenation if the bacterial population is growing in a medium containing a carbon source that can only be metabolized aerobically. The mechanism of death, therefore, involves a metabolic process.

  8. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma...... concentration profiles of tetracycline. All dosing regimens result in a clear growth advantage for resistant strains. Short treatment duration was found to be preferable, since it allowed less time for resistant strains to outcompete the susceptible ones. Dosing frequency appeared to be ineffective at reducing...

  9. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...

  10. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use....... There was a steady increase in the use of antimicrobials during the period 2001-2006, the majority of the prescribed amount being extended spectrum penicillins followed by aminoglycosides, sulphonamides with trimethoprim, and macrolides....... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54...

  11. Escherichia coli ST131: a multidrug-resistant clone primed for global domination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitout, Johann D.D.; DeVinney, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    A single extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) clone, named sequence type (ST) 131, is responsible for millions of global antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections annually. Population genetics indicate that ST131 consists of different clades (i.e. A, B, and C); however, clade C is the most dominant globally. A ST131 subclade, named C1-M27, is emerging in Japan and has been responsible for the recent increase in AMR ExPEC in that country. The sequential acquisition of several virulence and AMR genes associated with mobile genetic elements during the 1960s to 1980s primed clade C (and its subclades C1 and C2) for success in the 1990s to 2000s. IncF plasmids with F1:A2:B20 and F2:A1:B replicons have shaped the evolution of the C1 and C2 subclades. It is possible that ST131 is a host generalist with different accessory gene profiles. Compensatory mutations within the core genome of this clone have counterbalanced the fitness cost associated with IncF plasmids. ST131 clade C had dramatically changed the population structure of ExPEC, but it still remains unclear which features of this clade resulted in one of the most unprecedented AMR successes of the 2000s.

  12. Longitudinal on-farm study of the development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli from pigs before and after danofloxacin and tylosin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Pekka; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2011-06-02

    Effects of danofloxacin or consecutive fluoroquinolone and macrolide treatments on resistance development in Campylobacter have remained uncharacterised. Therefore we analysed the development of resistance in porcine Campylobacter coli before and after danofloxacin and tylosin treatments at a farrowing farm. Danofloxacin-treated (n=12, group A) and control pigs (n=15, group B) were subsequently treated with tylosin and sampled longitudinally. C. coli were isolated and susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were assessed, isolates were genotyped with PFGE and resistance-related mutations were identified. Isolates from the danofloxacin-treated pigs had more frequently non-wild type MICs (above the epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF)) for ciprofloxacin (Ptylosin treatment increased proportion of isolates with non-wild type MICs for erythromycin in both groups A and B (Ptylosin treatment isolates had even higher MICs for ciprofloxacin and erythromycin than before the treatment. Therefore, controlled use of antimicrobials in food animal production is essential.

  13. Laboratory-based nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opintan JA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Japheth A Opintan,1 Mercy J Newman,1 Reuben E Arhin,1 Eric S Donkor,1 Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt,2 William Mills-Pappoe3 1Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, 2Pharmaceutical Services, Ministry of Health, Ghana Health Services, 3Clinical Laboratory Unit, Institutional Care Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana Abstract: Global efforts are underway to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR. A key target in this intervention is surveillance for local and national action. Data on AMR in Ghana are limited, and monitoring of AMR is nonexistent. We sought to generate baseline data on AMR, and to assess the readiness of Ghana in laboratory-based surveillance. Biomedical scientists in laboratories across Ghana with capacity to perform bacteriological culture were selected and trained. In-house standard operating protocols were used to perform microbiological investigations on clinical specimens. Additional microbiological tests and data analyses were performed at a centralized laboratory. Surveillance data were stored and analyzed using WHONET program files. A total of 24 laboratories participated in the training, and 1,598 data sets were included in the final analysis. A majority of the bacterial species were isolated from outpatients (963 isolates; 60.3%. Urine (617 isolates; 38.6% was the most common clinical specimen cultured, compared to blood (100 isolates; 6.3%. Ten of 18 laboratories performed blood culture. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli (27.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (14.0%, Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%, Streptococcus spp. (2.3%, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (0.6%. Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, and over 80% of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing. Minimum inhibitory concentration levels at 50% and at 90% for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and amikacin on selected multidrug-resistant bacteria species ranged between 2 µg/mL and

  14. The frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial pathogens recovered from cancer patients and hospital environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aymen Mudawe Nurain; Naser Eldin Bilal; Mutasim Elhadi Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance rates of nosocomial pathogens isolated from cancer patients and hospital environments. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2010 to May 2013 at Radiation and Isotopes Centre of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 1 503 samples (505 clinical and 998 environmental) were examined. Isolates were identified, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using standard laboratory procedures. Results: Out of 505 clinical samples, nosocomial pathogens were found as 48.1%. Among hospital environment samples, bacterial contaminants were detected in 29.7%of samples. The main microorganisms recovered from cancer patients were Proteus spp. (23.5%), Escherichia coli (22.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (21.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%). The most frequent isolates from hospital environ-ments were Bacillus spp. (50.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (14.2%) and P. aeruginosa (11.5%). The proportions of resistance among Gram-negative pathogens from cancer patients were high for ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Moderate resistance rates were recorded to ciprofloxacin, such as 51.0%for P. aeruginosa, 21.7%for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 55.5%for Escherichia coli. Except Klebsiella, there were no significant differences (P ? 0.05) of resistance rates between Gram-negative isolates from cancer patients to those from the hospital environments. The proportions of extended-spectrum b-lactamase producing isolates from cancer patients were not differ significantly (P=0.763) from those collected from the hospital environments (49.2%;91/185 vs. 47%;32/68). Conclusions: The prevalence of nosocomial infection among cancer patients was high (48.1%) with the increasing of antimicrobial resistance rates. Hospital environments are potential reservoirs for nosocomial infections, which calls for intervention program to reduce environmental transmission of pathogens.

  15. The frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial pathogens recovered from cancer patients and hospital environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aymen; Mudawe; Nurain; Naser; Eldin; Bilal; Mutasim; Elhadi; Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance rates of nosocomial pathogens isolated from cancer patients and hospital environments.Methods:A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2010 to May 2013 at Radiation and Isotopes Centre of Khartoum,Sudan.A total of 1 503 samples(505 clinical and 998 environmental)were examined.Isolates were identified,and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using standard laboratory procedures.Results:Out of 505 clinical samples,nosocomial pathogens were found as 48.1%.Among hospital environment samples,bacterial contaminants were detected in 29.7%of samples.The main microorganisms recovered from cancer patients were Proteus spp.(23.5%),Escherichia coli(22.2%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(21.0%)and Staphylococcus aureus(20.2%).The most frequent isolates from hospital environments were Bacillus spp.(50.0%),Staphylococcus aureus(14.2%)and P.aeruginosa(11.5%).The proportions of resistance among Gram-negative pathogens from cancer patients were high for ampicillin,cefotaxime,ceftazidime and ceftriaxone.Moderate resistance rates were recorded to ciprofloxacin,such as 51.0%for P.aeruginosa,21.7%for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 55.5%for Escherichia coli.Except Klebsiella,there were no significant differences(P0.05)of resistance rates between Gram-negative isolates from cancer patients to those from the hospital environments.The proportions of extended-spectrum b-lactamase producing isolates from cancer patients were not differ significantly(P=0.763)from those collected from the hospital environments(49.2%;91/185 vs.47%;32/68).Conclusions:The prevalence of nosocomial infection among cancer patients was high(48.1%)with the increasing of antimicrobial resistance rates.Hospital environments are potential reservoirs for nosocomial infections,which calls for intervention program to reduce environmental transmission of pathogens.

  16. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  17. Virulence characteristics and genetic affinities of multiple drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli from a semi urban locality in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Jadhav

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC are of significant health concern. The emergence of drug resistant E. coli with high virulence potential is alarming. Lack of sufficient data on transmission dynamics, virulence spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of certain pathogens such as the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC from countries with high infection burden, such as India, hinders the infection control and management efforts. In this study, we extensively genotyped and phenotyped a collection of 150 UPEC obtained from patients belonging to a semi-urban, industrialized setting near Pune, India. The isolates representing different clinical categories were analyzed in comparison with 50 commensal E. coli isolates from India as well as 50 ExPEC strains from Germany. Virulent strains were identified based on hemolysis, haemagglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity, serum bactericidal activity as well as with the help of O serotyping. We generated antimicrobial resistance profiles for all the clinical isolates and carried out phylogenetic analysis based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (rep-PCR. E. coli from urinary tract infection cases expressed higher percentages of type I (45% and P fimbriae (40% when compared to fecal isolates (25% and 8% respectively. Hemolytic group comprised of 60% of UPEC and only 2% of E. coli from feces. Additionally, we found that serum resistance and cell surface hydrophobicity were not significantly (p = 0.16/p = 0.51 associated with UPEC from clinical cases. Moreover, clinical isolates exhibited highest resistance against amoxicillin (67.3% and least against nitrofurantoin (57.3%. We also observed that 31.3% of UPEC were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers belonging to serotype O25, of which four were also positive for O25b subgroup that is linked to B2-O25b-ST131-CTX-M-15 virulent/multiresistant type. Furthermore, isolates from India and Germany (as well as global sources were found to be

  18. Distribution and characterization of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli from feedlot cattle fed subtherapeutic antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanke L Jay

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feedlot cattle in North America are routinely fed subtherapeutic levels of antimicrobials to prevent disease and improve the efficiency of growth. This practice has been shown to promote antimicrobial resistance (AMR in subpopulations of intestinal microflora including Escherichia coli. To date, studies of AMR in feedlot production settings have rarely employed selective isolation, therefore yielding too few AMR isolates to enable characterization of the emergence and nature of AMR in E. coli as an indicator bacterium. E. coli isolates (n = 531 were recovered from 140 cattle that were housed (10 animals/pen in 14 pens and received no dietary antimicrobials (control - 5 pens, CON, or were intermittently administered subtherapeutic levels of chlortetracycline (5 pens-T, chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine (4 pens-TS, or virginiamycin (5 pens-V for two separate periods over a 9-month feeding period. Phenotype and genotype of the isolates were determined by susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis and distribution of characterized isolates among housed cattle reported. It was hypothesized that the feeding of subtherapeutic antibiotics would increase the isolation of distinct genotypes of AMR E. coli from cattle. Results Overall, patterns of antimicrobial resistance expressed by E. coli isolates did not change among diet groups (CON vs. antibiotic treatments, however; isolates obtained on selective plates (i.e., MA,MT, exhibited multi-resistance to sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol more frequently when obtained from TS-fed steers than from other treatments. Antibiograms and PFGE patterns suggested that AMR E. coli were readily transferred among steers within pens. Most MT isolates possessed the tet(B efflux gene (58.2, 53.5, 40.8, and 50.6% of isolates from CON, T, TS, and V steers, respectively whereas among the MA (ampicillin-resistant isolates, the tem1-like determinant was predominant (occurring in 50, 66

  19. Efficient expression of the yeast metallothionein gene in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, T.; Shatzman, A.; Zimmerman, J.; Strickler, J.; Rosenberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The yeast metallothionein gene CUP1 was cloned into a bacterial expression system to achieve efficient, controlled expression of the stable, unprocessed protein product. The Escherichia coli-synthesized yeast metallothionein bound copper, cadmium, zinc, indicating that the protein was functional. Furthermore, E. coli cells expressing CUP1 acquired a new, inducible ability to selectively sequester heavy metal ions from the growth medium.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of peptidomimetics against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Franzyk, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli was assessed by testing an array comprising different types of cationic peptidomimetics obtained by a general monomer-based solid-phase synthesis protocol. Most of the peptidomimetics possessed high to moderate activity toward multidrug-resistant E. coli as opposed to the corresponding...

  1. Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on veal hides and carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associated with the most severe forms of foodborne illnesses. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has identified a higher percentage of non-O157 EHEC compared to E....

  2. High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area.

  3. {sup 99m}Technetium labelled Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, S.O.F.; Cardoso, V.N. [Radioisotope Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy/UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Resende, B.M.; Nunan, E.A. [Biological Control Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy/UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Simal, C.J.R. [Laboratory Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine/UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Samples of a culture of unlabeled Escherichia coli were incubated with different concentrations of stannous chloride for various time periods. {sup 99m}Tc (26.0 MBq) was added to each preparation and the results showed a labelling yield of 98% for E. coli. Since the bacterial viability of {sup 99m}Tc-E. coli and E. coli did not show any statistical differences, these results demonstrate that labelling of E. coli with {sup 99m}Tc does not modify the bacterial viability, and the radiolabelled bacteria may be a good model to study bacterial translocation.

  4. Escherichia coli Eyelid Abscess in a Patient with Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stratton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is a rare cause of ocular infections and has not yet been reported as a cause of an ocular abscess. We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis who presented with painful left lower eyelid swelling that did not improve with oral antibiotics. The abscess was drained and cultures were positive for E. coli. Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk for developing E. coli bacterial infections, but to our knowledge this is the first case of an E. coli eyelid abscess reported in the literature.

  5. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette Marie; Opintan, Japheth A; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC) were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP) E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%). Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3). The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20) was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats are potential

  6. Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates in Imported and Locally Produced Chicken Meat from Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Marie Rasmussen

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food animals is of public health concern, because resistant zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans. Furthermore, global trade with food may rapidly spread multi-resistant pathogens between countries and even continents. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether imported chicken meat and meat from locally reared chicken are potential sources for human exposure to multi resistant Escherichia coli isolates. 188 samples from imported and locally produced chicken meat were sampled and analyzed. 153 bacteria isolates were successfully cultured and identified as E. coli using MALDI-ToF. Of these 109 isolates were from meat whereas the remaining 44 were isolated from the cloaca of locally reared live chickens. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done on the identified E. coli isolates. Additionally, beta-lactamases production (ESBL and/or AmpC were phenotypically confirmed on all isolates showing resistance to cefpodoxime. Beta-lactamase producing (BLP E. coli meat isolates were further genotyped. Antimicrobial resistance to four antibiotic markers with highest resistance was detected more frequently in isolates from local chickens compared to imported chickens (tetracycline 88.9% vs. 57.5%, sulphonamide 75.0% vs. 46.6%, ampicillin 69.4% vs. 61.6% and trimethoprim 66.7% vs. 38.4%. Beta-lactamase production was found in 29 E. coli meat isolates, with 56.9% of them being multiple drug resistant (≥ 3. The predominant phylogroup identified was B1 followed by A and D, with similar distribution among the isolates from meat of locally reared chickens and imported chickens. Beta-lactamase producing genotype blaCTX-M-15 (50%; 10/20 was the most frequently drug resistant gene detected. More BLP E. coli isolates were found in imported chicken meat compared to locally reared chickens, demonstrating that these isolates may be spreading through food trade. In conclusion, both imported and locally produced chicken meats

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses ...

  8. Molecular Evolutionary Relationships of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Ruiting; Alles, M. Chehani; Donohoe, Kathy; Marina B Martinez; Reeves, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), a distinctive pathogenic form of E. coli causing dysentery, is similar in many properties to bacteria placed in the four species of Shigella. Shigella has been separated as a genus but in fact comprises several clones of E. coli. The evolutionary relationships of 32 EIEC strains of 12 serotypes have been determined by sequencing of four housekeeping genes and two plasmid genes which were used previously to determine the relationships of Shigella strains...

  9. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  11. Colonization of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in chickens and humans in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Nhung, Hoang Ngoc; Carrique-Mas, Juan J.; Mai, Ho Huynh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Campbell, James; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Minh, Van Pham; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Hieu, Thai Quoc; Schultsz, Constance; Hoa, Ngo Thi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an ou

  12. Free RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael; Dennis, Patrick P; Ehrenberg, Mans; Bremer, Hans

    2015-12-01

    The frequencies of transcription initiation of regulated and constitutive genes depend on the concentration of free RNA polymerase holoenzyme [Rf] near their promoters. Although RNA polymerase is largely confined to the nucleoid, it is difficult to determine absolute concentrations of [Rf] at particular locations within the nucleoid structure. However, relative concentrations of free RNA polymerase at different growth rates, [Rf]rel, can be estimated from the activities of constitutive promoters. Previous studies indicated that the rrnB P2 promoter is constitutive and that [Rf]rel in the vicinity of rrnB P2 increases with increasing growth rate. Recently it has become possible to directly visualize Rf in growing Escherichia coli cells. Here we examine some of the important issues relating to gene expression based on these new observations. We conclude that: (i) At a growth rate of 2 doublings/h, there are about 1000 free and 2350 non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules per average cell (12 and 28%, respectively, of 8400 total) which are in rapid equilibrium. (ii) The reversibility of the non-specific binding generates more than 1000 free RNA polymerase molecules every second in the immediate vicinity of the DNA. Of these, most rebind non-specifically to the DNA within a few ms; the frequency of non-specific binding is at least two orders of magnitude greater than specific binding and transcript initiation. (iii) At a given amount of RNA polymerase per cell, [Rf] and the density of non-specifically DNA-bound RNA polymerase molecules along the DNA both vary reciprocally with the amount of DNA in the cell. (iv) At 2 doublings/h an E. coli cell contains, on the average, about 1 non-specifically bound RNA polymerase per 9 kbp of DNA and 1 free RNA polymerase per 20 kbp of DNA. However some DNA regions (i.e. near active rRNA operons) may have significantly higher than average [Rf].

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Gram-negative bacteria, the production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In the Banja Luka region, there were no extensive researches on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates. Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates as the cause of the urinary tract infections in outpatients, the distribution of these ESBL isolates according to age and gender of patients and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Methods. Urine specimens obtained from outpatients were cultured on chromogenic CPS-ID3 media. All plates showing significant (>105 cfu/ml growth of E. coli in pure culture were further processed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on VITEK TWO Compact using AST-GN27 cards for testing Gram negative bacteria and detection of ESBL producers. Results. Out of 2,195 isolates, 177 (8.1% were ESBL producers. Ninety-two isolates were obtained from female patients (5% of E. coli isolated from women and 85 isolates from male patients (23% of E. coli isolated from men. High percentage of ESBL isolates was detected in the infant age group under one year (36.7% and in the age group over 60 years (28.8%. All ESBL isolates were susceptible to imipenem and resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime. There was a significant resistance to amikacin (79.1%, gentamicin (76.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (54.8% and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (45.8%. Resistance to nutrofurantoin was 13.6%. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated the presence of ESBL producing E. coli urinary isolates in outpatients, and their extensive susceptibility to imipenem and nitrofurantoin.

  14. 77 FR 31975 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Service 9 CFR Parts 416, 417, and 430 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), in addition to E. coli O157:H7, in raw beef manufacturing... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are adulterated within...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance: cost and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    There is growing evidence that antimicrobial resistance causes serious consequences for individuals as well as leading to increased healthcare costs. The containment of resistance is therefore a policy problem which will impact on all health systems in the next few years. Unfortunately, there is, as yet, no definitive evidence suggesting that particular control measures are successful in containing either the emergence or transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, few studies contain information about costs and even where there is such information it is generally inadequate because of the narrow perspectives from which analyses are conducted. In part, this is due to methodological problems associated with the inclusion of cost data: measuring and valuing what are often intangible costs; identifying costs associated with organizational change; and accounting for interaction between costs at levels from the individual to the international. Good quality research, including both economic evaluation and comprehensive economic modelling, is required to determine the most cost-effective combination of strategies to pursue in combating resistance, and to find ways around these methodological difficulties.

  16. The versatile strategies of Escherichia coli pathotypes: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Sousa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread species Escherichia coli includes a broad variety of different types, ranging from highly pathogenic strains to avirulent isolates. Few microorganisms are as versatile as E. coli. Pathogenic strains remain a leading cause of severe and persistent infant diarrhea in developing countries. They may be limited to colonization of a mucosal surface or can disseminate throughout the body and have been implicated in urinary tract infection, sepsis/meningitis and gastrointestinal infection. The human gastrointestinal tract is susceptible to diarrheagenic E. coli infections. Escherichia coli have effectively managed to subvert the host cytoskeleton for their own purposes causing substantial diarrheal disease, a major public health problem worldwide. This review deals with the different strategies regarding E. coli as a pathogen and the virulence traits of its pathotypes highlighting the species as a commensal, opportunistic and specialized pathogen.

  17. Distribution of pathogenicity island markers in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ali; Haghi, Fakhri; Zeighami, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates contain large genomic segments, termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs), that contribute to their virulence. A total of 150 UPEC and 50 commensal E. coli isolates from outpatients were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of eight PAI markers. One hundred ninety (95 %) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents. The most frequent resistance found against amoxicillin (68 %), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55 %), aztreonam (50 %), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46 %) and tetracycline (43.5 %). Antimicrobial resistance among UPEC isolates was higher than that of commensals. PAI markers were detected in substantial percentage of commensal (88 %) and UPEC isolates (98.6 %) (P > 0.05). The most prevalent PAI marker among UPEC and commensal isolates was PAI IV536 (98.7 % UPEC vs. 84 % commensal). We found a high number of PAI markers such as PAI ICFT073, PAI IICFT073, PAI I536, PAI II536, PAI III536 and PAI IIJ96 significantly associated with UPEC. PAI III536 (21.3 %) and PAI IIJ96 (8 %) were detected only in the uropathogenic isolates. Several different combinations of PAIs were found among UPEC isolates. Comparison of PAIs among UPEC and commensal isolates showed that many UPEC isolates (79.3 %) carried two or more PAI markers, while 6 % of commensals had two PAI markers (P UPEC isolates were PAI IV536 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %) and PAI IV536 + PAI ICFT073 + PAI IICFT073 (18 %). These results indicate that PAI markers are widespread among commensal and UPEC isolates and these commensal isolates may be reservoirs for transmission of these markers.

  18. The Ins and Outs of RND Efflux Pumps in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João eAnes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases remain one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Relevant authorities including the WHO and CDC have expressed serious concern regarding the continued increase in the development of multidrug resistance among bacteria. They have also reaffirmed the urgent need for investment in the discovery and development of new antibiotics and therapeutic approaches to treat multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria.The extensive use of antimicrobial compounds in diverse environments, including farming and healthcare, has been identified as one of the main causes for the emergence of MDR bacteria. Induced selective pressure has led bacteria to develop new strategies of defence against these chemicals. Bacteria can accomplish this by several mechanisms, including enzymatic inactivation of the target compound; decreased cell permeability; target protection and/or overproduction; altered target site/enzyme and increased efflux due to over-expression of efflux pumps.Efflux pumps can be specific for a single substrate or can confer resistance to multiple antimicrobials by facilitating the extrusion of a broad range of compounds including antibiotics, heavy metals, biocides and others, from the bacterial cell. To overcome antimicrobial resistance caused by active efflux, efforts are required to better understand the fundamentals of drug efflux mechanisms. There is also a need to elucidate how these mechanisms are regulated and how they respond upon exposure to antimicrobials. Understanding these will allow the development of combined therapies using efflux inhibitors together with antibiotics to act on Gram-negative bacteria, such as the emerging globally disseminated MDR pathogen Escherichia coli ST131 (O25:H4. This review will summarise the current knowledge on resistance-nodulation-cell division efflux mechanisms in E. coli, a bacteria responsible for community and hospital-acquired infections, as well as foodborne

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  20. Rapid Sterilization of Escherichia coli by Solution Plasma Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nina; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Baroch, Pavel; Saito, Nagahiro

    2012-12-01

    Solution plasma (SP), which is a discharge in the liquid phase, has the potential for rapid sterilization of water without chemical agents. The discharge showed a strong sterilization performance against Escherichia coli bacteria. The decimal value (D value) of the reduction time for E. coli by this system with an electrode distance of 1.0 mm was estimated to be approximately 1.0 min. Our discharge system in the liquid phase caused no physical damage to the E. coli and only a small increase in the temperature of the aqueous solution. The UV light generated by the discharge was an important factor in the sterilization of E. coli.

  1. Detection of Escherichia coli in wastewater based on enzyme immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Haiyan; CAI Qiang; HE Miao; SHI Hanchang

    2007-01-01

    This research describes a fast detection method on the basis of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)for Escherichia coli in drainage of wastewater treatment plants.Optimized conditions such as the reaction format(sandwich or direct),the concentrations of diluted horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-E.coli conjugate,and anti-HPR antibody and pretreatment of E.coli were studied.Those results showed that the linear range of detection for E.coli was 10 cfu/mL-6×104 cfu/mL.Compared with conventional methods,it is a convenient and sensitive detection method with low cost.

  2. Fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in food.

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    An assay procedure to screen for Escherichia coli in foods by using 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) incorporated into lauryl tryptose (LST) broth was evaluated. The beta-glucuronidase produced by E. coli cleaves the MUG substrate to yield a fluorescent end product. E. coli-negative samples can be identified by lack of fluorescence in LST-MUG within 24 h. MUG was not inhibitory to coliforms and E. coli. Over 1,400 food and dairy samples were tested to compare the standard three-t...

  3. Detection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains among rural chickens in the arid region of north-eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqub A Geidam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the prevalence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains among adult apparently healthy rural chickens slaughtered in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Cloacal swabs were examined by Gram staining, biochemical tests such as indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate (IMVC tests and serotype by standard slide agglutination test with antisera against somatic antigen using six monospecific “O” antisera to E. coli belonging to the avian pathogenic E. coli group namely O1, O2, O26, O78, O86 and O141. The sensitivity of the isolated APEC strains to 10 antibiotics of human and veterinary use was also determined. Results: Out of a total of 510 samples examined, 356 (69.8% were positive for E. coli. Of this number 20 (5.6% samples were positive for O1, 20 (5.6% for O2, 0 (0% for O26, 25 (7.0% for O78, 25 (7.0% for O86 and 24 (6.7% for O141 serotypes. The remaining 242 (68.0% E. coli isolates were non typable with the 6 sera of avian pathogenic E. coli strains used for the study. The sensitivity profile of the isolates showed complete resistance of all the isolates against ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime, while on the other hand all the isolates showed very high susceptibility to oxofloxacin followed by ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. In addition to animal health problems created by the resistant strains, there may also be potential danger posed to human health because these strains could easily infect humans through the food chain. Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that multiple-antimicrobial-resistant APEC isolates are present in rural chickens in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria. Consequently, introduction of surveillance programs to monitor antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic bacteria is strongly recommended in

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muktikesh Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001. Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8% was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%. Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.

  5. Phylogenetic and molecular insights into the evolution of multidrug-resistant porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Jordan, David; Gordon, David M; Groves, Mitchell D; Fairbrother, John M; Smith, Matthew G; Zhang, Ren; Chapman, Toni A

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of Australian porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates (n=70) by performing multilocus sequence typing (MLST), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, virulence gene analysis, plasmid, bacteriocin, integron and antimicrobial resistance gene typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotyping. Isolates of the most commonly observed O serogroup (O149) were highly clonal with a lower frequency of antimicrobial resistance compared with the less common O141 serogroup isolates, which were more genetically diverse and resistant to a greater array of antimicrobials. The O149 and O141 isolates belonged to sequence types (STs) ST100 and ST1260, respectively. A small number of new STs were identified for the least common serogroups, including O157 (ST4245), O138 (ST4244), O139 (ST4246) and O8 (ST4247). A high frequency of plasmid replicons was observed among all ETEC isolates. However, O149 isolates predominantly carried IncFIB, I1, HI1 and FIC, whereas O141 isolates carried a more varied array, including IncI1, FIB, FIC, HI1, I1, Y and, most significantly, A/C. O141 isolates also possessed a greater diversity of bacteriocins, with almost one-half of the isolates carrying colicin E3 (44.4%; 12/27) and E7 (48.1%; 13/27). This study shows that Australian porcine ETEC are distinct from isolates obtained in other parts of the world with respect to the MLST profile and the absence of resistance to critically important antimicrobials, including third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  6. Recurrent Hemolytic and Uremic Syndrome Induced by Escherichia Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commereuc, Morgane; Weill, Francois-Xavier; Loukiadis, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Gleizal, Audrey; Kormann, Raphaël; Ridel, Christophe; Frémeaux-Bacchi, Véronique; Rondeau, Eric; Hertig, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A widespread belief is that typical hemolytic and uremic syndrome (HUS) does not recur. We report the case of a patient infected twice with raw milk taken from his own cow and containing a Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 that induced recurrent HUS causing severe renal and cerebral disorders. A genomic comparison of the human and bovine Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O174:H21 isolates revealed that they were identical. Typical HUS may recur. Since milk from this animal was occasionally distributed locally, thereby posing a serious threat for the whole village, this particular cow was destroyed. PMID:26735524

  7. Obscured phylogeny and possible recombinational dormancy in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawyer Stanley A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is one of the best studied organisms in all of biology, but its phylogenetic structure has been difficult to resolve with current data and analytical techniques. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in chromosomes of representative strains to reconstruct the topology of its emergence. Results The phylogeny of E. coli varies according to the segment of chromosome analyzed. Recombination between extant E. coli groups is largely limited to only three intergroup pairings. Conclusions Segment-dependent phylogenies most likely are legacies of a complex recombination history. However, E. coli are now in an epoch in which they no longer broadly share DNA. Using the definition of species as organisms that freely exchange genetic material, this recombinational dormancy could reflect either the end of E. coli as a species, or herald the coalescence of E. coli groups into new species.

  8. Engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenjun; Li, Yanran; Tang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial aromatic polyketides are important therapeutic compounds including front line antibiotics and anticancer drugs. It is one of the last remaining major classes of natural products of which the biosynthesis has not been reconstituted in the genetically superior host Escherichia coli. Here, we demonstrate the engineered biosynthesis of bacterial aromatic polyketides in E. coli by using a dissected and reassembled fungal polyketide synthase (PKS). The minimal PKS of the megasynthase PKS4...

  9. Osmoprotection of Escherichia coli by ectoine: uptake and accumulation characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Jebbar, M; Talibart, R; Gloux, K; Bernard, T.; BLANCO, C.

    1992-01-01

    Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) is a cyclic amino acid, identified as a compatible solute in moderately halophilic bacteria. Exogenously provided ectoine was found to stimulate growth of Escherichia coli in media of inhibitory osmotic strength. The stimulation was independent of any specific solute, electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. It is accumulated in E. coli cells proportionally to the osmotic strength of the medium, and it is not metabolized. Its osmoprotect...

  10. Role of granulocytes and monocytes in experimental Escherichia coli endocarditis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meddens, M J; Thompson, J.; Bauer, W C; Furth, R. van

    1984-01-01

    The role of granulocytes and monocytes during the induction and course of Escherichia coli endocarditis was investigated in rabbits by selectively depleting monocytes from the circulation with the drug VP16-213 and granulocytes and monocytes with nitrogen mustard. For induction, the number of E. coli needed to infect the vegetations in 50% of the rabbits was significantly lower in rabbits with combined granulocytopenia and monocytopenia than in those with selective monocytopenia or in control...

  11. Arginine Catabolism and the Arginine Succinyltransferase Pathway in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Barbara L.; Kiupakis, Alexandros K.; Reitzer, Lawrence J.

    1998-01-01

    Arginine catabolism produces ammonia without transferring nitrogen to another compound, yet the only known pathway of arginine catabolism in Escherichia coli (through arginine decarboxylase) does not produce ammonia. Our aims were to find the ammonia-producing pathway of arginine catabolism in E. coli and to examine its function. We showed that the only previously described pathway of arginine catabolism, which does not produce ammonia, accounted for only 3% of the arginine consumed. A search...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from various samples by using a spiral gradient endpoint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Janak; Fullerton, Marjorie; Davis, Shurrita; Williams, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remains a major public health concern. Microbial resistance may be due to use of antimicrobial agents (AAs) as a growth promoter in food animals or overuse of AAs in humans. The objective of the current study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of STEC strains isolated from food, veterinary, and clinical sources against 14 AAs by using the spiral gradient endpoint method. One hundred ten isolates from three sources were characterized. Results of the current study showed that all strains were resistant to the folate pathway inhibiting AAs including tylosin tartrate (gradient minimum inhibitory concentration [GMIC] ranges from ≥180.00 to 256.00 μg/mL; end concentration [EC] ranges from ≥130.00 to 151.22 μg/mL; and tail-end concentration [TEC] ≥145.00 μg/mL). All the strains isolated from three sources were susceptible to the fluoroquinolone class of AAs (GMIC ranges from ≤1.00 to 64.30 μg/mL; EC ranges from ≤3.33 to 72.00 μg/mL; and TEC ranges from ≤12.13 to 45.00 μg/mL). Among the food isolates, less resistance was found within the aminoglycoside and amphenicol group (GMIC ≥256.00 μg/mL; EC=161.00 μg/mL). Eight strains were resistant to one to three, 44 strains were resistant to four to six, and two strains were resistant to seven or more AAs. All the clinical isolates (100%) were susceptible to the fluoroquinolones and gentamycin. Results also showed that antimicrobial resistance was observed between four and six AAs among the isolates. Some veterinary isolates were resistant to five AAs. Least AAs resistance was shown by 3.7% of isolates to gentamycin and 7.45% to chloramphenicol. This study showed an increasing trend of antimicrobial resistant strains of STEC, and we suggest that periodic surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility may be a useful measure to detect the antimicrobial resistant pathogens.

  13. Detection of virulence factors of Uropathoigenic Escherichia coli isolates from infertile women high vaginal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Safarpourdehkourdi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The high vaginal Escherichia coli harbored certain virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. The urinary tract infections should be treated well to diminish its upstream transfer into vagina. Some more investigation should be perform for identifying the epidemiological aspects of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in high vaginal part of infertile women.

  14. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service... methods for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  15. Cervical celullitis in broiler chickens for Escherichia coli/ Celulite cervical em frangos de corte causada por Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivens Gomes Guimarães

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was report the isolation of Escherichia coli in broiler chickens with cellulitis in the cervical region. It was carried through the isolation of E. coli of the lesion of cellulitis from broilers and carried through histopathological examination of skin that had characterized the lesion. Focal ulcerations of epidermis, fibrin in dermis and difuse infiltrated by lymphocytes and heterophils on subcutaneous tissues.Neste trabalho, relata-se o isolamento de Escherichia coli em frangos de corte apresentando lesão de celulite na região cervical. Foi realizado o isolamento de E. coli da lesão de celulite e realizado exames histopatológicos que caracterizaram a lesão. Na epiderme foram verificadas lesões ulcerativas, presença de fibrina na derme e infiltração difusa de linfócitos e heterófilos no tecido subcutâneo.

  16. Green tea as an effective antimicrobial for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda eReygaert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are a very most common type of infection worldwide, and result in billions of dollars in medical care costs. Escherichia coli is the infective agent for 80%-90% of all UTIs. Green tea, derived from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant has been shown to have various potential health benefits (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer. The major beneficial components of green tea have been characterized, and are now known to be polyphenolic catechins. The main catechins in green tea are (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epicatechin (EC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. EGCG and EGC have been shown to have antimicrobial effects, but only EGC has been shown to be excreted in urine. Isolates of E. coli from urinary tract infections collected between 2007-2008 were characterized for antimicrobial resistance to standard drugs. Then 80 of these isolates, representing a wide spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, were selected for testing using an extract of green tea.Results: The concentrations of green tea extract tested were 0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/ml. All of the strains tested, except one, had MICs of ≤4.0 mg/ml, with 40% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, 36% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.0 mg/ml, 18% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and 5% of the isolates having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml. Two control strains varied in susceptibility, one having an MIC of ≤2.5 mg/ml, another having an MIC of ≤3.5 mg/ml, and the third having an MIC of ≤4.0 mg/ml.Conclusion: Since EGC has been shown to have antimicrobial effects on E. coli, and EGC has been shown to be excreted in the urine in a high enough concentration to potentially be effective as an antimicrobial; these MIC results suggest that ingesting green tea could have potential antimicrobial effects on urinary tract infections caused by E. coli.

  17. Antimicrobial Non-Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from Outpatients and Patients Visiting Emergency Rooms in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Tay Wang

    Full Text Available Longitudinal nationwide surveillance data on antimicrobial non-susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs as well as AmpC β-lactamases producers among Escherichia coli from different sources in the community settings are limited. Such data may impact treatment practice. The present study investigated E. coli from outpatients and patients visiting emergency rooms collected by the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program. A total of 3481 E. coli isolates were studied, including 2153 (61.9% from urine and 1125 (32.3% from blood samples. These isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from a total of 28 hospitals located in different geographic regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using methods recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The prevalence and factors associated with the presence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were determined. Significant increases in non-susceptibility to most β-lactams and ciprofloxacin occurred during the study period. By 2012, non-susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin reached 21.1% and 26.9%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers also increased from 4.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in 2002-2004, to 10.7% for both in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M and CMY-types, respectively. Non-susceptibility of urine isolates to nitrofurantoin remained at around 8% and to fosfomycin was low (0.7% but to cefazolin (based on the 2014 CLSI urine criteria increased from 11.5% in 2002-2004 to 23.9% in 2010-2012 (P <0.001. Non-susceptibility of isolates from different specimen types was generally similar, but isolates from elderly patients were significantly more resistant to most antimicrobial agents and associated with the presence of ESBL- and AmpC- β-lactamases. An additional concern is that decreased ciprofloxacin

  18. Escherichia coli O26 IN RAW BUFFALO MILK: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    A. Rella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O26 is considered to be one of the most important food-borne pathogen. In this study, 120 buffalo milk samples collected in Lazio and in Apulia regions were tested for the presence of E. coli O26. One buffalo milk sample (0,8% tested positive for E. coli O26; the isolate was positive at the verocytotoxicity test and it showed resistance properties to different antimicrobial classes. These preliminary results highlight the need to monitor the foods of animal origin used for production and eaten by a wide range of persons, respect VTEC organism.

  19. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters.

  20. The use of third and fourth generation cephalosporins affects the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in Danish pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff Andersen, Vibe; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Vigre, Håkan;

    2015-01-01

    Extended-spectrum cephalosporinase resistance is currently the fastest emerging antimicrobial resistance problem worldwide; however, evidence documenting the effect of potential risk factors is limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using third and fourth...... generation cephalosporins on the occurrence of extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli (ESC-Ec) in Danish pig herds.Conventional, integrated, medium to large herds were selected based on information from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and two groups were formed based on the use...... of third and fourth generation cephalosporins within a specified period, namely, 20 herds with no cephalosporin use (non-exposed) and 19 herds with frequent use (exposed). Data on prescribed antimicrobials were obtained from the National database (VetStat). Management data were obtained through...

  1. Application of the Vertex Exchange Method to estimate a semi-parametric mixture model for the MIC density of Escherichia coli isolates tested for susceptibility against ampicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Stijn; Verbeke, Geert; Böhning, Dankmar; Aerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, considerable attention has been paid to the collection of antimicrobial resistance data, with the aim of monitoring non-wild-type isolates. This monitoring is performed based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values, which are collected through dilution experiments. We present a semi-parametric mixture model to estimate the entire MIC density on the continuous scale. The parametric first component is extended with a non-parametric second component and a new back-fitting algorithm, based on the Vertex Exchange Method, is proposed. Our data example shows how to estimate the MIC density for Escherichia coli tested for ampicillin and how to use this estimate for model-based classification. A simulation study was performed, showing the promising behavior of the new method, both in terms of density estimation as well as classification.

  2. Space-time clustering of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli isolated from Danish pigs at slaughter between 1997 and 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatih, E. N.; Ersbøll, A. K.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo;

    2009-01-01

    or clustered in space and time. Data on E coli isolates between 1997 and 2005 were obtained from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) whereas data on the quantity of ampicillin consumed was obtained from the Danish Register of Veterinary Medicines (Vet...

  3. Comparative analysis of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates from animals and humans from the UK, The Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.; Day, M.J.; Mafura, T.; Nunez-Garcia, J.; Fenner, J.J.; Sharma, M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Rodriguez, I.; Dierikx, C.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The putative virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene contents of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli (n=629) isolated between 2005 and 2009 from humans, animals and animal food products in Germany, The Netherlands and the UK were compared using a microarray approach to test the

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  5. Aging in Escherichia coli: stochasticity, individual heterogeneity and mortality plateaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2014-01-01

    are suggested to be involved in aging and senescence, but no mechanism or factor has been unambiguously identified. Here, we report on surprising patterns of aging and senescence from isogenic individual Escherichia coli bacteria grown under identical environmental conditions in a microfluidic device...

  6. Impact of antibiotic restriction on resistance levels of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Jonas Bredtoft; Andreasen, Viggo; Jarløv, Jens Otto

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effect of an antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) on the use of antibiotics and resistance levels of Escherichia coli using a method that allowed direct comparison between an intervention hospital and a control hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted...

  7. Chromosomal replication incompatibility in Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Ulrik Von

    1996-01-01

    Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells containing minichromosomes were constructed. Free plasmid DNA could not be detected in these cells and the minichromosomes were found to be integrated in multiple copies in the origin of replication (oriC) region of the host chromosome...

  8. FimH-mediated autoaggregation of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Christiansen, G.; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    Autoaggregation is a phenomenon thought to contribute to colonization of mammalian hosts by pathogenic bacteria. Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli that mediate D-mannose-sensitive binding to various host surfaces. This binding is conferred by the minor fimbrial component...

  9. DNA supercoiling depends on the phosphorylation potential in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Workum, M.; van Dooren, S.J.M; Oldenburg, N

    1996-01-01

    ATP/ADP ratios were varied in different ways and the degree of negative supercoiling was determined in Escherichia coli. Independent of whether the ATP/ADP ratio was reduced by a shift to anaerobic conditions, by addition of protonophore (dinitrophenol) or by potassium cyanide addition, DNA...

  10. Novel Aggregative Adherence Fimbria Variant of Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Rie; Struve, Carsten; Boisen, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) organisms belong to a diarrheagenic pathotype known to cause diarrhea and can be characterized by distinct aggregative adherence (AA) in a stacked-brick pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated 118 EAEC strains isolated from...

  11. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) antisense effects in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Good, L; Nielsen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) can be used to control cell growth, gene expression and growth phenotypes in the bacteria Escherichia coli. PNAs targeted to the RNA components of the ribosome can inhibit translation and cell growth, and PNAs targeted to mRNA can limit gene expression with gene...

  12. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  13. Suppressors of DnaAATP imposed overinitiation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Riber, Leise; Cohen, Malene

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is limited by the supply of DnaA associated with ATP. Cells deficient in RIDA (Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA) due to a deletion of the hda gene accumulate suppressor mutations (hsm) to counteract the overinitiation caused by an elevated DnaAATP level...

  14. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox...

  15. Molecular characterization of the Escherichia coli asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli 83972 is a clinical asymptomatia bacteriuric isolate that is able to colonize the human urinary bladder without inducing an immune response. Here we demonstrate that one of the mechanisms by which this strain has become attenuated is through the mutation of its genes encoding type...

  16. A stochastic killing system for biological containment of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, P.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria with a stochastic conditional lethal containment system have been constructed. The invertible switch promoter located upstream of the fimA gene from Escherichia coli was inserted as expression cassette in front of the Lethal gef gene deleted of its own natural promoter. The resulting...

  17. Binding of divalent magnesium by Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of binding of the substrates Mg x ATP and ribose 5-phosphate as well as Mg2+ to the enzyme 5-phospho-D-ribosyl (alpha-1-diphosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli has been analyzed. By use of the competive inhibitors of ATP and ribose 5-phosphate binding, alpha,beta-methylene ATP ...

  18. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presence...

  19. Transport of Escherichia coli in saturated porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    When wastewater infiltrates into the soil, groundwater may be contaminated. If the distance from source of pollution to point of groundwater abstraction is small, there is a real chance of abstracting pathogenic microorganisms. In this book, the transport of Escherichia coli in aquifers under satura

  20. A rapid differentiation method for enteroinvasive Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Hirota, Jiro; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Harada, Tomoyuki; Shiraiwa, Kazumasa; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) comprise 21 major serotypes defined by the presence of O and H antigens, and diagnosis depends on determining its invasive potential. Using HEp-2 cells infected with an EIEC strain, we developed a simple growth-dependent assay that differentiated EIEC strain from non-invasive strains 6 h after infection.

  1. Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae: Food poisoning and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Enterobactericeae consists of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria and also includes the food-borne pathogens, Cronobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. Illness caused by these pathogens is acquired...

  2. Escherichia coli as other Enterobacteriaceae: food poisoning and health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many Escherichia coli strains are harmless, and they are an important commensal in the intestinal microflora; however, pathogenic strains also exist. The pathogenic strains can be divided into diarrhea-inducing strains and strains that reside in the intestines but only cause disease in bodily sites...

  3. Characterization of Escherichia coli nucleoids released by osmotic shock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, A.S.; Alexeeva, S.; Odijk, T.; Woldringh, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoids were isolated by osmotic shock from Escherichia coli spheroplasts at relatively low salt concentrations and in the absence of detergents. Sucrose-protected cells, made osmotically sensitive by growth in the presence of ampicillin or by digestion with low lysozyme concentrations (50-5 μg/ml

  4. Characterization of Escherichia coli nucleoids released by osmotic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, S.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Odijk, T.; Woldringh, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoids were isolated by osmotic shock from Escherichia coli spheroplasts at relatively low salt concentrations and in the absence of detergents. Sucrose-protected cells, made osmotically sensitive by growth in the presence of ampicillin or by digestion with low lysozyme concentrations (50–5 µg/ml

  5. armA and aminoglycoside resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C; Moreno, Miguel A; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-06-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant.

  6. armA and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    González-Zorn, Bruno; Teshager, Tirushet; Casas, María; Porrero, María C.; Moreno, Miguel A.; Courvalin, Patrice; Domínguez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    We report armA in an Escherichia coli pig isolate from Spain. The resistance gene was borne by self-transferable IncN plasmid pMUR050. Molecular analysis of the plasmid and of the armA locus confirmed the spread of this resistance determinant.

  7. Combating enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S Donnenberg; Finlay, B. Brett

    2013-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains continue to cause severe and sometimes fatal infantile diarrhea, particularly in Africa. Increased efforts at diagnosis, defining the clinical spectrum of disease, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, and delineating immune responses are desperately needed to develop new strategies to combat EPEC.

  8. Antibiotic treatment of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Morten; Scheutz, Flemming; Villumsen, Steen;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A consensus has existed on not to treat verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC)-infected individuals with antibiotics because of possible subsequent increased risk of developing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The aim of this systematic review is to clarify the risk...

  9. Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Strains Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria; Schembri, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The virulence determinants of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been studied extensively over the years, but relatively little is known about what differentiates isolates causing various types of urinary tract infections. In this study, we compared the genomic profiles of 45 strains from a range...

  10. Stringent control of FLP recombinase in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Steven D; Palani, Nagendra P; Libourel, Igor G L

    2017-02-01

    Site specific recombinases are invaluable tools in molecular biology, and are emerging as powerful recorders of cellular events in synthetic biology. We have developed a stringently controlled FLP recombinase system in Escherichia coli using an arabinose inducible promoter combined with a weak ribosome binding site.

  11. Fragility of the permeability barrier of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haest, C.W.M.; Gier, J. de; Es, G.A. van; Verkleij, A.J.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1972-01-01

    An unsaturated fatty acid requiring auxotroph of Escherichia coli was grown with addition of various unsaturated fatty acids. The permeability of the cells for erythritol appeared to be strongly dependent on the fatty acid incorporated in the membrane lipid. Below certain temperatures, depending on

  12. Immunologic Control of Diarrheal Disease Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Classical Enteropathogenic (Serotyped) Escherichia coli Strains of Proven Pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 38:798-801, 1982. 8. Levine, M.M. Vacunas Contra...Microbiol., 18:808-815, 1983. 8 15. Levine, M.M., Lanata, C. Progresos en Vacunas Contra Diarrea Bacteriana. Adelantos Microbiol. Enferm. Inf., 2:67-117

  13. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, D

    1976-11-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency.

  14. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Michelsen, Ole

    1992-01-01

    The membrane-bound H+-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth...

  15. Plasmid cloning vehicle for Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, D.; Clayton, N.L.; Setlow, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A new plasmid cloning vehicle (pDM2) was used to introduce a library of Haemophilus influenzae chromosomal fragments into H. influenzae. Transformants of the higly recombination-defective rec-1 mutant were more likely to contain exclusively recombinant plasmids after exposure to ligated DNA mixtures than was the wild type. pDM2 could replicate in Escherichia coli K-12.

  16. EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1998-01-01

    The encyclopedia of Escherichia coli genes and metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of E.coli. The database describes 3030 genes of E.coli , 695 enzymes encoded by a subset of these genes, 595 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli, and the organization of these reactions into 123 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc can be thought of as an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as a (qualitative) computational model of E.coli metabolism. EcoCyc is available at URL http://ecocyc.PangeaSystems.com/ecocyc/

  17. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Morcatti Coura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A (P<0.001 and F (P=0.018 were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 (P<0.001 and E (P=0.002 were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 (P=0.003 and D (P=0.017 were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF UROVIRULENT MARKERS IN UROPATHOGE NIC ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the Department o f Microbiology, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences, Amalapuram, East Goda vari District from August 2011 to January 2012. Fifty Escherichia coli (E.coli strains isola ted from urine samples of different clinical entities and 25 feacal isolates were studied for th e detection of virulence markers of E.coli. There are 27 uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC isolates fr om 50 E.coli & 5 UPEC from 25 controls. Among isolates tested the most common virulent mark er is haemolysin 21 (42%, followed by Mannose resistant haemagglutination 16 (32%, cell surface hydrophobicity 13 (26%. In this, there are 14 cases with only one virulence marker, 8 with 2 marker combinations and 15 cases with combination of 3 markers.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Joost; Veldman, Kees; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Mevius, Dik

    2012-04-23

    Quinolone resistance is studied and reported increasingly in isolates from humans, food-producing animals and companion animals. Resistance can be caused by chromosomal mutations in topoisomerase genes, plasmid-mediated resistance genes, and active transport through efflux pumps. Cross sectional data on quinolone resistance mechanisms in non-pathogenic bacteria from healthy veal calves is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli isolates from veal calves, after more than 20 years of quinolone usage in veal calves. MIC values were determined for all isolates collected as part of a national surveillance program on antimicrobial resistance in commensal bacteria in food-producing animals in The Netherlands. From the strains collected from veal calves in 2007 (n=175) all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 0.125 mg/L (n=25) were selected for this study, and screened for the presence of known quinolone resistance determinants. In this selection only chromosomal mutations in the topoisomerase type II and IV genes were detected. The number of mutations found per isolate correlated with an increasing ciprofloxacin MIC. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were found. The contribution of efflux pumps varied from no contribution to a 16-fold increase in susceptibility. No correlation was found with the presence of resistance genes of other antimicrobial classes, even though all quinolone non-wild type isolates were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics other than quinolones. Over twenty years of quinolone usage in veal calves in The Netherlands did not result in a widespread occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, limiting the transmission of quinolone resistance to clonal distribution.

  20. Escherichia coli Overexpressing a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens Becomes Resistant to Imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Castrignanò, Silvia; Catucci, Gianluca; Medana, Claudio; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2015-10-12

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue currently resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year worldwide. Data present in the literature illustrate the emergence of many bacterial species that display resistance to known antibiotics; Acinetobacter spp. are a good example of this. We report here that Acinetobacter radioresistens has a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (Ar-BVMO) with 100% amino acid sequence identity to the ethionamide monooxygenase of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Both enzymes are only distantly phylogenetically related to other canonical bacterial BVMO proteins. Ar-BVMO not only is capable of oxidizing two anticancer drugs metabolized by human FMO3, danusertib and tozasertib, but also can oxidize other synthetic drugs, such as imipenem. The latter is a member of the carbapenems, a clinically important antibiotic family used in the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. Susceptibility tests performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method demonstrate that imipenem-sensitive Escherichia coli BL21 cells overexpressing Ar-BVMO become resistant to this antibiotic. An agar disk diffusion assay proved that when imipenem reacts with Ar-BVMO, it loses its antibiotic property. Moreover, an NADPH consumption assay with the purified Ar-BVMO demonstrates that this antibiotic is indeed a substrate, and its product is identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be a Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation product of the carbonyl moiety of the β-lactam ring. This is the first report of an antibiotic-inactivating BVMO enzyme that, while mediating its usual BV oxidation, also operates by an unprecedented mechanism of carbapenem resistance.

  1. Surveillance and Detection of Inhibitor-Resistant Beta-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Urban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as the widely-used cephalosporins and penicillins, has become a major challenge for disease therapy, particularly in common hospital-acquired infections. In the search for the mechanisms behind this increasingly prevalent form of resistance, microbiologists have identified a new type of beta-lactamase enzyme, called inhibitor-resistant TEMs (IRTs, which can withstand the effects of beta-lactamase inhibitor compounds, further reducing the arsenal of drugs available to physicians facing resistant bacteria. In this study, we examined the enzymatic and genetic basis of Escherichia coli isolates demonstrating such resistance to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Susceptibility trials played a major role in composing the experimental cohort for this project (n=50; each isolate was thoroughly tested to ensure that it was resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, an inhibitor combination, but susceptible to the third-generation cephalosporin ceftazidime. Subsequently, a number of samples were subjected to assay by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (n=18 and polymerase chain reaction (n=3 so that their genetic composition and relatedness might be known. In particular, the presence of genes coding for TEM-type beta-lactamases was investigated for each of the 3 isolates sequenced. Even though it was anticipated that the isolates would possess resistance to inhibitor combinations due to an IRT gene, this was not found to be the case. Instead, the mechanism of resistance turned out to be over-expression of a gene coding for a normal TEM enzyme. The results of these experiments have implications for ensuring successful therapy of bacterial infections and for preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  3. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Hidano, Arata; Kobayashi, Sota; Muroga, Norihiko; Ishikawa, Kiyoyasu; Ogura, Aki; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  4. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus delphini together comprise the S. intermedius group (SIG). Within the SIG, S. pseudintermedius represents the major pathogenic species and is involved in a wide variety of infections, mainly in dogs, but to a lesser degree also in other animal species and humans. Antimicrobial agents are commonly applied to control S. pseudintermedius infections; however, during recent years S. pseudintermedius isolates have been identified that are meticillin-resistant and have also proved to be resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents approved for veterinary applications. This review deals with the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance properties in S. pseudintermedius and other SIG members. A summary of the known resistance genes and their association with mobile genetic elements is given, as well as an update of the known resistance-mediating mutations. These data show that, in contrast to other staphylococcal species, S. pseudintermedius seems to prefer transposon-borne resistance genes, which are then incorporated into the chromosomal DNA, over plasmid-located resistance genes.

  6. Adhesive threads of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antão Esther-Maria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to adhere to host surfaces is by far the most vital step in the successful colonization by microbial pathogens. Colonization begins with the attachment of the bacterium to receptors expressed by cells forming the lining of the mucosa. Long hair like extracellular appendages called fimbriae, produced by most Gram-negative pathogens, mediate specific attachment to the epithelial cell surface. Associated with the fimbriae is a protein called an adhesin, which directs high-affinity binding to specific cell surface components. In the last couple of years, an enormous amount of research has been undertaken that deals with understanding how bacterial pathogens adhere to host cells. E. coli in all probability is one of the best studied free-living organisms. A group of E. coli called Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC including both human and animal pathogens like Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC, Newborn meningitic E. coli (NMEC and Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, have been found to harbour many fimbriae including Type 1 fimbriae, P fimbriae, curli fibres, S fimbriae, F1C fimbriae, Dr fimbriae, afimbrial adhesins, temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin and many novel adhesin gene clusters that have not yet been characterized. Each of these adhesins is unique due to the recognition of an adhesin-specific receptor, though as a group these adhesins share common genomic organization. A newly identified putative adhesin temporarily termed ExPEC Adhesin I, encoded by gene yqi, has been recently found to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of APEC infection, thus making it an interesting candidate for future research. The aim of this review is to describe the role of ExPEC adhesins during extraintestinal infections known till date, and to suggest the idea of investigating their potential role in the colonization of the host gut which is said to be a reservoir for ExPEC.

  7. Deuterium incorporation into Escherichia-coli proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, H.; May, R. P.; Kjems, Jørgen;

    1986-01-01

    Neutron small-angle scattering studies of single protein subunits in a protein-DNA complex require the adjustment of the neutron scattering-length densities of protein and DNA, which is attainable by specific deuteration of the protein. The neutron scattering densities of unlabelled DNA and DNA...... of the degree of deuteration and match point of any E. coli protein from the D2O content of the growth medium, taking the 2H incorporation into RNA polymerase amino acids to be representative for all amino acids in E. coli proteins. The small-angle scattering results, on which the calculation of the degree...

  8. Diversity and distribution of commensal fecal Escherichia coli bacteria in beef cattle administered selected subtherapeutic antimicrobials in a feedlot setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjana; Munns, Krysty; Alexander, Trevor; Entz, Toby; Mirzaagha, Parasto; Yanke, L Jay; Mulvey, Michael; Topp, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Escherichia coli strains isolated from fecal samples were screened to examine changes in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics including antimicrobial susceptibility, clonal type, and carriage of resistance determinants. The goal of this 197-day study was to investigate the influence of administration of chlortetracycline alone (T) or in combination with sulfamethazine (TS) on the development of resistance, dissemination of defined strain types, and prevalence of resistance determinants in feedlot cattle. Inherent tetracycline resistance was detected in cattle with no prior antimicrobial exposure. Antimicrobial administration was not found to be essential for the maintenance of inherently ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) E. coli in control animals; however, higher Tet(r) E. coli shedding was observed in animals subjected to the two treatments. At day 0, high tetracycline (26.7%), lower sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (19.2%), and several other resistances were detected, which by the finishing phase (day 197) were restricted to ampicillin-tetracycline (47.5%), tetracycline (31.7%), and ampicillin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (20.8%) from both treated and untreated cattle. Among the determinants, bla(TEM1), tet(A), and sul2 were prevalent at days 0 and 197. Further, E. coli from day 0 showed diverse antibiogram profiles and strain types, which by the finishing phase were limited to up to three, irrespective of the treatment. Some genetically identical strains expressed different phenotypes and harbored diverse determinants, indicating that mobile genetic elements contribute to resistance dissemination. This was supported by an increased linked inheritance of ampicillin and tetracycline resistance genes and prevalence of specific strains at day 197. Animals in the cohort shed increasingly similar genotypes by the finishing phase due to animal-to-animal strain transmission. Thus, characterizing inherent resistance and propagation of cohort

  9. The use of molecular typing to evaluate the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative rods in Brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraci Tosin

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance has increased rapidly in Brazil and worldwide during the past few years, giving rise to a growing necessity for antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. These programs have been instituted in order to monitor bacterial resistance in various regions, and to guide empirical antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the use of molecular typing in multicenter surveillance programs. We also studied the dissemination modes of selected resistance profiles. Antimicrobial susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents was evaluated by the reference broth microdilution method. Bacterial isolates with selected susceptibility patterns were characterized by pulsed field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A total of 119 Gram-negative bacteria were molecularly typed, including 22 imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, 27 cefoxitin-resistant-ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, 33 Enterobacter spp., 8 Citrobacter spp., and 3 S. marcescens isolates resistant to ceftazidime. The isolates were from clinically apparent bacteremia of patients hospitalized in medical centers located in 13 cities of 11 Brazilian states. Our molecular typing results revealed a great genetic diversity among isolates of the same species. However, some major PFGE patterns were found in more than one isolate. All repeated PFGE patterns were detected in only 2 isolates, which were isolated within the same institutions or in different medical centers. We conclude that the ability to characterize organisms phenotypically and genotypically is a powerful epidemiologic tool and it provides unique information that is very important for multicenter surveillance programs.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from breeding dogs housed in kennels with differing neonatal mortality and use of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, C; Corrò, M; Drigo, M; Rota, A

    2012-10-01

    This work examines the antimicrobial resistance of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus canis, Escherichia coli) found in the vaginal tract in prepartum mammary secretions and postpartum milk of bitches housed in breeding kennels (N = 20; 92 bitches). The kennels were divided into three categories: no routine antimicrobial administration around parturition (category 1); routine administration of one antibiotic around parturition (category 2); routine administration of multiple antimicrobials around parturition (category 3). Bacteriological cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on vaginal specimens, prepartum mammary secretions, and postpartum milk. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths were recorded for each whelping and analyzed as "within-litter stillbirths" and "within-litter neonatal deaths" according to kennel category, by Pearson χ(2) test and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, respectively. The frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were analyzed according to kennel category by Pearson χ(2) test. Kennel category was not significantly associated with differing numbers of stillbirths or neonatal death events, nor was the frequency of isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the three kennel categories significantly different. Kennel category 3 had a significantly higher frequency of isolation of multiresistant gram-positive bacterial strains. Our results show that intense administration of antibiotics to breeding bitches does not effectively reduce neonatal mortality; on the contrary, it induces multiresistance in potentially pathogenic bacteria. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of the risk of selecting pathogenic bacteria by uncontrolled treatment in prepartum bitches.

  11. Infectious endocarditis caused by Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine Kiilerich; Arpi, Magnus; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a severe mitral endocarditis. E. coli DNA was identified from the mitral valve and the vegetation, and no other pathogen was found. The case was further complicated by spondylodiscitis and bilateral endophthalmitis. Extra...

  12. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative Colonization in Hospitalized Cambodian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Sreymom; Soeng, Sona; Sar, Poda; Neou, Leakhena; Chea, Phal; Day, Nicholas PJ; Cooper, Ben S.; Turner, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. Methods: During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge. Swabs were taken also from 7 environmental sites. Swabs were cultured to identify 3GC or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The study included 333 infants with a median age at NU admission of 10 days (range, 0–43). Colonization by ≥1 3GC-resistant organism was detected in 85.9% (286/333). Admission swabs were collected in 289 infants: 61.9% were colonized by a 3GC-resistant organism at the time of admission, and a further 23.2% were colonized during hospitalization, at a median of 4 days [95% confidence interval: 3–5]. Probiotic treatment (hazard ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.35–0.98) was associated with delayed colonization. Colonization by a carbapenem-resistant organism occurred in 25 (7.5%) infants. Six infants had NU-associated K. pneumoniae bacteremia; phenotypically identical colonizing strains were found in 3 infants. Environmental colonization occurred early. Conclusions: Colonization by antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative organisms occurred early in hospitalized Cambodian infants and was associated with subsequent invasive infection. Trials of potential interventions such as probiotics are needed. PMID:27124686

  13. Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products.

  14. Biosynthesis of Two Flavones, Apigenin and Genkwanin, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Bong Gyu; Kim, Mihyang; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    The flavonoid apigenin and its O-methyl derivative, genkwanin, have various biological activities and can be sourced from some vegetables and fruits. Microorganisms are an alternative for the synthesis of flavonoids. Here, to synthesize genkwanin from tyrosine, we first synthesized apigenin from p-coumaric acid using four genes (4CL, CHS, CHI, and FNS) in Escherichia coli. After optimization of different combinations of constructs, the yield of apigenin was increased from 13 mg/l to 30 mg/l. By introducing two additional genes (TAL and POMT7) into an apigenin-producing E. coli strain, we were able to synthesize 7-O-methyl apigenin (genkwanin) from tyrosine. In addition, the tyrosine content in E. coli was modulated by overexpressing aroG and tyrA. The engineered E. coli strain synthesized approximately 41 mg/l genkwanin.

  15. Engineered synthetic pathway for isopropanol production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, T; Atsumi, S; Liao, J C

    2007-12-01

    A synthetic pathway was engineered in Escherichia coli to produce isopropanol by expressing various combinations of genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, E. coli K-12 MG1655, Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B593, and Thermoanaerobacter brockii HTD4. The strain with the combination of C. acetobutylicum thl (acetyl-coenzyme A [CoA] acetyltransferase), E. coli atoAD (acetoacetyl-CoA transferase), C. acetobutylicum adc (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and C. beijerinckii adh (secondary alcohol dehydrogenase) achieved the highest titer. This strain produced 81.6 mM isopropanol in shake flasks with a yield of 43.5% (mol/mol) in the production phase. To our knowledge, this work is the first to produce isopropanol in E. coli, and the titer exceeded that from the native producers.

  16. EcoCyc: Enyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, P D; Riley, M; Paley, S M; Pellegrini-Toole, A; Krummenacker, M

    1997-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc) is a database that combines information about the genome and the intermediary metabolism of Escherichia coli. It describes 2970 genes of E.coli, 547 enzymes encoded by these genes, 702 metabolic reactions that occur in E.coli and the organization of these reactions into 107 metabolic pathways. The EcoCyc graphical user interface allows scientists to query and explore the EcoCyc database using visualization tools such as genomic-map browsers and automatic layouts of metabolic pathways. EcoCyc spans the space from sequence to function to allow scientists to investigate an unusually broad range of questions. EcoCyc can be thought of as both an electronic review article because of its copious references to the primary literature, and as an in silicio model of E.coli metabolism that can be probed and analyzed through computational means.

  17. Alterations induced in Escherichia Coli cells by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, J.; Schelin, H.R.; Paschuk, S.A.; Denyak, V.; Silva, E.R. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: jaquekap@yahoo.com.br; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; sergei@utfpr.edu.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Carlin, N.; Toledo, E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: nelson.carlin@dfn.if.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Modifications occurred in Escherichia coli cells exposed to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co source) were investigated. The irradiations were done at the LIN-COPPE laboratory of the UFRJ and the analysis at the Biology Department of the UTFPR. The E. coli cells were irradiated with 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 480, 600 e 750 Gy doses. The samples were analyzed with Gram-stain, biochemical tests in EPM, MIO and Lysine Broth, Simmons Cytrate Medium and Rhamnose Broth, antibiogram and isolation of auxotrophic mutants. It was observed that for the received doses the E. coli did not show morphological alterations in the tests. Some E. Coli cells showed to be able to deaminade the L-tryptophan or they changed their sensibility for amoxillin and cephaloonine after the irradiation. The existence of aauxotrophic mutants after irradiation was also verified. (author)

  18. Effect of Genetic Database Comprehensiveness on Fractional Proteomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    EFFECT OF GENETIC DATABASE COMPREHENSIVENESS ON FRACTIONAL PROTEOMICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ECBC-TR-1154...Database Comprehensiveness on Fractional Proteomics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...are characterizing the extracellular, fimbriae, and whole cell proteins produced by the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.

  20. Viabilidad de Escherichia coli en presencia De diferentes contaminantes

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rivera T,; Edith Chávez B.; Gisela Rendón A.; Silvia Giono C

    2006-01-01

    La contaminación en ríos condiciona la presencia de microorganismos adaptados al ecosistema entre ellos a pató-genos de importancia en salud pública. Objetivo: Determinar la viabilidad de Escherichia coli en presencia de nitrato de plata, carbonato de amonio, fenol y formaldehído. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de agua del río Alseseca, que luego se sembró en medios de cultivo selectivos para enterobacterias, seleccionándose las colonias del género Escherichia, las cuales fueron se...

  1. Characterization of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26 isolated from human in Poland between 1996 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A; Wołkowicz, T; Chróst, A; Szych, J

    2015-06-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26 infections can be comparable with STEC O157 infections in severity of the acute haemolytic-uremic syndrome HUS and long-term sequelae. Among O26 STEC isolates, highly virulent clone O26:H11/H- Sequence Type 29 (ST 29) emerged in Germany in mid-1990s and spread to European countries. However, up to date, no STEC O26:H11/H- belonging to ST29 has been documented in Poland. In this study, we determined the relationship and clonal structure, stx genotypes, plasmid gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine human STEC O26:H11/H- strains from human patients in Poland between 1996 and 2014. Of the 9 human STEC O26:H11/H- strains, two belonged to ST29 and were isolated from two children with HUS and renal failure with sepsis respectively. These strains showed the molecular characteristics of the emerging human-pathogenic ST29 clone (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+, ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). The remaining STEC O26:H11/H- strains examined in this study, belonged to ST21, with plasmid genes profiles frequently reported in ST21 strains in Europe. STEC O26 infections with serious human health consequences highlight the need of continuous surveillance of non-O157 STEC and implementation of the diagnostic approaches focused on their detection. Significance and impact of the study: These study provides the first data on the occurrence of emerging Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 ST 29 clone in human patients in Poland. Those strains show the molecular characteristics of highly virulent new ST29 pathotype (stx1-, stx2a+, eae+ ehxA+, etpD+, katP-, espP-). These results demonstrated prompt efforts to implement diagnostic approaches detection of those pathogen in the European countries.

  2. Multidrug resistant commensal Escherichia coli in animals and its impact for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ama eSzmolka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After the era of plentiful antibiotics we are alarmed by the increasing number of antibiotic resistant strains. The genetic flexibility and adaptability of E. coli to constantly changing environments allows to acquire a great number of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Commensal strains of E. coli as versatile residents of the lower intestine are also repeatedly challenged by antimicrobial pressures during the lifetime of their host. As a consequence, commensal strains acquire the respective resistance genes, and/or develop resistant mutants in order to survive and maintain microbial homeostasis in the lower intestinal tract. Thus, commensal E. coli strains are regarded as indicators of antimicrobial load on their hosts. This chapter provides a short historic background of the appearance and presumed origin and transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal intestinal E. coli of animals with comparative information on their pathogenic counterparts. The dynamics, development and ways of evolution of resistance in the E. coli populations differ according to hosts, resistance mechanisms and antimicrobial classes used. The most frequent tools of E. coli against a variety of antimicrobials are the efflux pumps and mobile resistance mechanisms carried by plasmids and/or other transferable elements. The emergence of hybrid plasmids (both resistance and virulence among E. coli is of further concern. Co-existence and co-transfer of these bad genes in this huge and most versatile in vivo compartment may represent an increased public health risk in the future. Significance of multidrug resistant (MDR commensal E. coli seem to be highest in the food animal industry, acting as reservoir for intra- and interspecific exchange and a source for spread of MDR determinants through contaminated food to humans. Thus, public health potential of MDR commensal E. coli of food animals can be a concern and needs monitoring and more molecular analysis in the

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in eight US hospitals along the US-Mexico border, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, S R; Ellingson, K D; Waterman, S H; Pearson, M L

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a growing problem worldwide and international travel, cross-border migration, and antimicrobial use may contribute to the introduction or emergence of AR. We examined AR rates and trends along the US-Mexico border by analysing microbiology data from eight US hospitals in three states bordering Mexico. Microbiology data were ascertained for the years 2000-2006 and for select healthcare and community pathogens including, three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) pathogens and 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Resistance was highest in S. aureus (oxacillin resistance 45·7%), P. aeruginosa (quinolone resistance 22·3%), and E. coli (quinolone resistance 15·6%); six (60%) of the 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations studied had a significantly increasing trend in resistance over the study period. Potential contributing factors in the hospital and community such as infection control practices and antimicrobial use (prescription and non-prescription) should be explored further in the US-Mexico border region.

  4. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Ss; Paes, Rcs; Santoro, Pn; Mauro, Ra; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  5. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  6. Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douarche, Carine; Salin, Dominique; Collaboration between Laboratory FAST; LPS Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The successive run and tumble of Escherichia coli bacteria provides an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering and instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analyzing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume.

  7. Inducible repair of oxidative DNA damage in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demple, B; Halbrook, J

    Hydrogen peroxide is lethal to many cell types, including the bacterium Escherichia coli. Peroxides yield transient radical species that can damage DNA and cause mutations. Such partially reduced oxygen species are occasionally released during cellular respiration and are generated by lethal and mutagenic ionizing radiation. Because cells live in an environment where the threat of oxidative DNA damage is continual, cellular mechanisms may have evolved to avoid and repair this damage. Enzymes are known which evidently perform these functions. We report here that resistance to hydrogen peroxide toxicity can be induced in E. coli, that this novel induction is specific and occurs, in part, at the level of DNA repair.

  8. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    M. Regina F. Toledo; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Sonia R.T.S. RAMOS; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various ente...

  9. Circular dimers of lambda DNA in infected, nonlysogenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifelder, D.; Baran, N.; Folkmanis, A.; Freifelder, D.L.R.

    1977-09-01

    Covalently closed circular dimerss of phage lambda DNA have been found in Escherichia coli infected with lambda. These dimers can be formed by either the lambda Red or Int systems, by a nonrecombinational replicative mechanism requiring the activity of the lambda O and P genes or by joining of the cohesive ends. Dimers mediated by the E. coli Rec system have not been observed. Those formed by the Int system often result from recombination between different DNA molecules; however, the Red-mediated dimer may be a result of replicative extension of a single DNA molecule. Trimers have also been observed but studied only briefly.

  10. ESCHERICHIA COLI: AN IMPORTANT PATHOGEN IN PATIENTS WITH HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli (E. coli is a pathogen of great concern in immunosuppressed patients.  While antimicrobial prophylactic therapy has become the standard, the emergence of resistant pathogens has some questioning its use.  This study describes our experience with E.coli as a pathogen in neutropenic patients with a hematologic malignancy, and addresses future directions of treatment for this patient population. Methods A retrospective chart review of 245 E.coli bacteremia patients at Moffitt Cancer Center from 05/18/02 – 05/15/12 was conducted. Patients were identified via microbiology laboratory computerized records. Results The included patients experienced clinically significant E.coli bacteremia resulting in a median hospital stay of 14.7 days.  Several patients developed severe sepsis requiring the use of pressor and ventilator therapy. Conclusions E.coli is a major pathogen in these patient populations resulting in extended hospital stays and specialized treatment to overcome their E.coli bacteremia. The data supports the use of fluoroquinolone prophylactic therapy, however, earlier detection and treatment of neutropenic infection is needed.

  11. Comparison of 61 Sequenced Escherichia coli Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Wassenaar, T. M.; Ussery, David

    2010-01-01

    MLST was performed, many of the various strains appear jumbled and less well resolved. The predicted pan-genome comprises 15,741 gene families, and only 993 (6%) of the families are represented in every genome, comprising the core genome. The variable or 'accessory' genes thus make up more than 90......% of the pan-genome and about 80% of a typical genome; some of these variable genes tend to be co-localized on genomic islands. The diversity within the species E. coli, and the overlap in gene content between this and related species, suggests a continuum rather than sharp species borders in this group...

  12. Tranformasi Fragmen Dna Kromosom Xanthomonas Campestris ke dalam Escherichia Coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Mangunwardoyo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on DNA transformation of Xanthomonas campestris into Escherichia coli DH5αα using plasmid vector Escherichia coli (pUC19. was carried out. DNA chromosome was isolated using CTAB method, alkali lysis method was used to isolate DNA plasmid. Both of DNA plasmid and chromosome were digested using restriction enzyme EcoRI. Competent cell was prepared with CaCl2 and heat shock method for transformation procedure. The result revealed transformation obtain 5 white colonies, with transformation frequency was 1,22 x 10-8 colony/competent cell. Electrophoresis analysis showed the DNA fragment (insert in range 0.5 – 7,5 kb. Further research should be carried out to prepare the genomic library to obtain better result of transformant.

  13. Biogenesis of inner membrane proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirink, Joen; Yu, Zhong; Wagner, Samuel; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2012-06-01

    The inner membrane proteome of the model organism Escherichia coli is composed of inner membrane proteins, lipoproteins and peripherally attached soluble proteins. Our knowledge of the biogenesis of inner membrane proteins is rapidly increasing. This is in particular true for the early steps of biogenesis - protein targeting to and insertion into the membrane. However, our knowledge of inner membrane protein folding and quality control is still fragmentary. Furthering our knowledge in these areas will bring us closer to understand the biogenesis of individual inner membrane proteins in the context of the biogenesis of the inner membrane proteome of Escherichia coli as a whole. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes.

  14. Plasmolysis during the division cycle of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Olijhoek, A J; Eden, C G; Trueba, F J; Pas, E; Nanninga, N

    1982-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli were plasmolyzed with sucrose. They were classified according to length by way of electron micrographs taken from samples prepared by agar filtration. The percentage of plasmolyzed cells increased about two- and threefold between mean cell sizes of newborn and separating cells. However, dividing cells were less frequently plasmolyzed than nondividing cells of the same length class. Analysis of cell halves (prospective daughters) in dividing cells showed that they beh...

  15. DNA microarray analysis of fim mutations in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Ussery, David; Workman, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is often mediated by complex polymeric surface structures referred to as fimbriae. Type I fimbriae of Escherichia coli represent the archetypical and best characterised fimbrial system. These adhesive organelles mediate binding to D-mannose and are directly associated with viru...... the number of fimbriae expressed on the cell surface. The use of high-resolution oligonucleotide arrays for defining points of transcription initiation and termination is also demonstrated....

  16. Complementation analysis of eleven tryptophanase mutations in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M K; Yudkin, M D

    1979-10-01

    Nine independent mutants deficient in tryptophanase activity were isolated. Each mutation was transferred to a specialized transducing phage that carries the tryptophanase region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The nine phages thus produced, and a tenth carrying a previously characterized tryptophanase mutation, were used to lysogenize a bacterial strain harbouring a mutation in the tryptophanase structural gene and also a suppressor of polarity. In no case was complementation observed; we conclude that there is no closely linked positive regulatory gene for tryptophanase.

  17. Characterization of Aspergillus oryzae aspartyl aminopeptidase expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Tanaka, Hisaki; Akagawa, Takumi; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo

    2007-10-01

    To characterize aspartyl aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae, the recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme cleaves N-terminal acidic amino acids. About 30% activity was retained in 20% NaCl. Digestion of defatted soybean by the enzyme resulted in an increase in the glutamic acid content, suggesting that the enzyme is potentially responsible for the release of glutamic acid in soy sauce mash.

  18. Effect of cobalt on Escherichia coli metabolism and metalloporphyrin formation

    OpenAIRE

    Majtan, Tomas; Frerman, Frank E.; Kraus, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity in Escherichia coli resulting from high concentrations of cobalt has been explained by competition of cobalt with iron in various metabolic processes including Fe–S cluster assembly, sulfur assimilation, production of free radicals and reduction of free thiol pool. Here we present another aspect of increased cobalt concentrations in the culture medium resulting in the production of cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX), which was incorporated into heme proteins including membrane-bound c...

  19. Role for the female in bacterial conjugation in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, D

    1967-08-01

    Hfr and F' Lac male strains of Escherichia coli were mated with purine-requiring females which had been starved for purine. These females formed mating pairs with the males. However, a mating in the absence of purine markedly reduced the yield of recombinants. Transfer of F' Lac or of lambda prophage also occurred infrequently. It was concluded that deoxyribonucleic acid transfer from male to female requires some, as yet unknown, function of the female.

  20. Maturation of the Escherichia coli divisome occurs in two steps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarsman, M.E.G.; Piette, A.; Fraipont, C.; Vinkenvleugel, T.M.F.; Nguyen-Distèche, M.; den Blaauwen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Cell division proteins FtsZ (FtsA, ZipA, ZapA), FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL/B, FtsW, PBP3, FtsN and AmiC localize at mid cell in Escherichia coli in an interdependent order as listed. To investigate whether this reflects a time dependent maturation of the divisome, the average cell age at which FtsZ, F

  1. Multiple defects in Escherichia coli mutants lacking HU protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, O; Faelen, M; Girard, D; Jaffé, A; Toussaint, A; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1989-01-01

    The HU protein isolated from Escherichia coli, composed of two partially homologous subunits, alpha and beta, shares some of the properties of eucaryotic histones and is a major constituent of the bacterial nucleoid. We report here the construction of double mutants totally lacking both subunits of HU protein. These mutants exhibited poor growth and a perturbation of cell division, resulting in the formation of anucleate cells. In the absence of HU, phage Mu was unable to grow, to lysogenize,...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Adithan, C; Harish, B N; Sujatha, S; Roy, Gautam; Malini, A

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses the situational analysis of antimicrobial resistance with respect to its problem, determinants and challenges ahead with strategies required in future to reduce the burden in India. Recent data from Google search, Medline and other sources were collected which was reviewed and analyzed by the authors. Hospital based studies showed higher and varied spectrum of resistance in different regions while there are limited number of community based studies at country level. There exists lacunae in the structure and functioning of public health care delivery system with regard to quantification of the problem and various determining factors related to antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need to develop and strengthen antimicrobial policy, standard treatment guidelines, national plan for containment of AMR and research related to public health aspects of AMR at community and hospital level in India.

  3. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore;

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  4. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): Zoonotic risks associated with psittacine pet birds in home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia-Di Chiacchio, R M; Cunha, M P V; Sturn, R M; Moreno, L Z; Moreno, A M; Pereira, C B P; Martins, F H; Franzolin, M R; Piazza, R M F; Knöbl, T

    2016-02-29

    Psittacidae are frequently bred as pets worldwide, but little is known about the zoonotic risks of these animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the feces of psittacine birds housed as pets. A total of 171 fecal samples (67 cockatiels, 59 budgerigars, and 45 agapornis) were cultured. Forty-two (E. coli) strains were identified, and the presence of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes was determined using PCR. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the STEC strains were determined using the disk diffusion method and phylogenetic analysis according to the new Clermont phylotyping method. Using these methods, 19.4% (8/42) of the STEC strains were determined to be positive for the eae and stx2 genes. The results revealed a STEC frequency of 4.6% in the birds (8/171), with a percentage of 8.47% in budgerigars (5/59), 4.47% in cockatiels (3/67), and 0% in agapornis (0/45). None of the STEC isolates belonged to the O157 serogroup. Most of the strains were classified as sensitive to the 18 antibiotics tested. None of the strains exhibited a multiresistance profile. In the phylogenetic analysis, two strains were classified as non-typeable, three were classified as B2, two were classified as F, and one was classified as Clade I. Seven of the eight STEC strains showed a clonal profile using AFLP. E. coli strains that are stx2(+) plus eae(+) are usually associated with severe human diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The STEC-positive results indicate the zoonotic risk of breeding psittacidae in home environments.

  5. High prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing O25b-ST131 Escherichia coli clone in Bulgarian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana; Schneider, Ines; Ivanova, Dobrinka; Keuleyan, Emma; Stoeva, Temenuga; Sredkova, Mariya; Markova, Boyka; Bojkova, Kalina; Gergova, Raina; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System project results, Bulgaria has become one of the European countries with dramatically increasing rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Bulgaria, collected from seven clinical centers in three towns, during two study periods: 2002-2003 and 2006-2009. For 193 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, phylogenetic typing, and screening for O25b-ST131 isolates were carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility, ESBL-type and transferability of resistance determinants were analyzed. Four different ESBL-types, namely TEM-139, SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found. CTX-M-15 dominated, being found in 88% of the isolates. RAPD-typing revealed 35 types, among which type A dominated, comprising 65% of the isolates. Sixty-eight percent of the 193 isolates belonged to the O25b-ST131 clone, to the phylogenetic group B2, mostly showed RAPD-type A (92%) and were found in all participating hospitals. O25b-ST131 isolates predominantly produced CTX-M-15 (96%), and less SHV-12 (n=3) or TEM-139 (n=2). In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time the country-wide dissemination of a highly resistant B2 O25b-ST131 CTX-M-15 producing E. coli clone in Bulgaria.

  6. PROFILE OF RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM CANINE PYOMETRA

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    Fernanda Santana Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial pyometra is a disease that affects more frequently reproductively active adult females. Characterized by inflammation and accumulation of exudate in the uterine cavity, generally associated with bacterial infections. The present study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolates from 42 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra, seen at the Department of Small Animal Surgery, Hospital of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Bahia. To perform the bacteriological analysis, a sample of the contents of the uterus was obtained immediately after surgery of ovariosalpingohisterectomy therapy (OSH and sent to the laboratory. Microbiological analysis showed a predominance of the bacterium Escherichia coli in 40.5% (15/37. Strains of Escherichia coli isolates showed higher rates of resistance to antimicrobial erythromycin (93.3 %, azithromycin (80 %, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin (40% each. This study reinforces the need to perform the microbiological examination for epidemiological purposes and the correct therapeutic application, thereby avoiding the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and the potential emergence of multidrug-resistant  strains. Keywords: bacteria; multiresistant;  uterus.

  7. Epigenetic Influence of Dam Methylation on Gene Expression and Attachment in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Stacy Ann-Marie; Brown, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently encountered infections in clinical practice globally. Predominantly a burden among female adults and infants, UTIs primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in high morbidity and fiscal health strains. During pathogenesis, colonization of the urinary tract via fimbrial adhesion to mucosal cells is the most critical point in infection and has been linked to DNA methylation. Furthermore, with continuous exposure to antibiotics as the standard therapeutic strategy, UPEC has evolved to become highly adaptable in circumventing the effect of antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Hence, the need for alternative treatment strategies arises. Since differential DNA methylation is observed as a critical precursor to virulence in various pathogenic bacteria, this body of work sought to assess the influence of the DNA adenine methylase (dam) gene on gene expression and cellular adhesion in UPEC and its potential as a therapeutic target. To monitor the influence of dam on attachment and FQ resistance, selected UPEC dam mutants created via one-step allelic exchange were transformed with cloned qnrA and dam complement plasmid for comparative analysis of growth rate, antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm formation, gene expression, and mammalian cell attachment. The absence of DNA methylation among dam mutants was apparent. Varying deficiencies in cell growth, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, alongside low-level increases in gene expression (recA and papI), and adherence to HEK-293 and HTB-9 mammalian cells were also detected as a factor of SOS induction to result in increased mutability. Phenotypic characteristics of parental strains were restored in dam complement strains. Dam's vital role in DNA methylation and gene expression in local UPEC isolates was confirmed. Similarly to dam-deficient Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), these findings suggest unsuccessful therapeutic use of

  8. The asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli strain 83972 outcompetes uropathogenic E. coli strains in human urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Viktoria; Ulett, G.C.; Schembri, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common organism associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). In contrast to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which causes symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI), very little is known about the mechanisms by which these strains colonize the human urinary tract....... The prototype ABU E. coli strain 83972 was originally isolated from a girl who had carried it asymptomatically for 3 years. Deliberate colonization of UTI-susceptible individuals with E. coli 83972 has been used successfully as an alternative approach for the treatment of patients who are refractory...... to conventional therapy. Colonization with strain 83972 appears to prevent infection with UPEC strains in such patients despite the fact that this strain is unable to express the primary adhesins involved in UTI, viz. P and type 1 fimbriae. Here we investigated the growth characteristics of E. coli 83972 in human...

  9. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  10. Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids

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    SUHARTONO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Suhartono (2010 Examination of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains conferring large plasmids. Biodiversitas 11: 59-64. Of major uropathogens, Escherichia coli has been widely known as a main pathogen of UTIs globally and has considerable medical and financial consequences. A strain of UPEC, namely E. coli ST131, confers a large plasmid encoding cephalosporinases (class C β-lactamase or AmpC that may be disseminated through horizontal transfer among bacterial populations. Therefore, it is worth examining such large plasmids by isolating, purifying, and digesting the plasmid with restriction enzymes. The examination of the large plasmids was conducted by isolating plasmid DNA visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis as well as by PFGE. The relationship of plasmids among isolates was carried out by HpaI restriction enzyme digestion. Of 36 isolates of E. coli ST 131, eight isolates possessed large plasmids, namely isolates 3, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 26 and 30 with the largest molecular size confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and PFGE was ~42kb and ~118kb respectively. Restriction enzyme analysis revealed that isolates 9, 10, 12, 17 and 18 have the common restriction patterns and those isolates might be closely related.

  11. Biochemical characteristic of biofilm of uropathogenic Escherichia coli Dr(+) strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Piątek, Beata; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Bruździak, Piotr; Piątek, Rafał; Kur, Józef

    2013-07-19

    Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli are very common health problem in the developed countries. The virulence of the uropathogenic E. coli Dr(+) IH11128 is determined by Dr fimbriae, which are homopolymeric structures composed of DraE subunits with the DraD protein capping the fiber. In this study, we have analyzed the structural and biochemical properties of biofilms developed by E. coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae with or without the DraD tip subunit and the surface-exposed DraD protein. We have also demonstrated that these E. coli strains form biofilms on an abiotic surface in a nutrient-dependent fashion. We present evidence that Dr fimbriae are necessary during the first stage of bacterial interaction with the abiotic surface. In addition, we reveal that the DraD alone is also sufficient for the initial surface attachment at an even higher level than Dr fimbriae and that chloramphenicol is able to reduce the normal attachment of the analyzed E. coli. The action of chloramphenicol also shows that protein synthesis is required for the early events of biofilm formation. Additionally, we have identified reduced exopolysaccharide coverage in E. coli that express only Dr fimbrial polyadhesins at the cell surface with or without the DraD capping subunit.

  12. Measuring Escherichia coli Gene Expression during Human Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) evolved by acquisition of pathogenicity islands, phage, plasmids, and DNA segments by horizontal gene transfer. Strains are heterogeneous but virulent uropathogenic isolates more often have specific fimbriae, toxins, and iron receptors than commensal strains. One may ask whether it is the virulence factors alone that are required to establish infection. While these virulence factors clearly contribute strongly to pathogenesis, bacteria must survive by metabolizing nutrients available to them. By constructing mutants in all major metabolic pathways and co-challenging mice transurethrally with each mutant and the wild type strain, we identified which major metabolic pathways are required to infect the urinary tract. We must also ask what else is E. coli doing in vivo? To answer this question, we examined the transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 in the murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) as well as for E. coli strains collected and analyzed directly from the urine of patients attending either a urology clinic or a university health clinic for symptoms of UTI. Using microarrays and RNA-seq, we measured in vivo gene expression for these uropathogenic E. coli strains, identifying genes upregulated during murine and human UTI. Our findings allow us to propose a new definition of bacterial virulence. PMID:26784237

  13. Fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, L J

    1985-12-01

    An assay procedure to screen for Escherichia coli in foods by using 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) incorporated into lauryl tryptose (LST) broth was evaluated. The beta-glucuronidase produced by E. coli cleaves the MUG substrate to yield a fluorescent end product. E. coli-negative samples can be identified by lack of fluorescence in LST-MUG within 24 h. MUG was not inhibitory to coliforms and E. coli. Over 1,400 food and dairy samples were tested to compare the standard three-tube most-probable-number procedure with the MUG-containing or non-MUG-containing LST procedure. LST-MUG testing detected a greater number of E. coli, with a lower false-positive rate (1.4%) and in a shorter time, than did the standard procedure. All false-positive results in the LST-MUG testing were attributable to beta-glucuronidase-producing staphylococci. No false-negative result was encountered. Use of MUG in LST broth obviates the EC broth step, allowing a 2.5-day procedure to a completed E. coli test versus the present 4- to 6-day standard most-probable-number method.

  14. Production of isopropanol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    A genetically engineered strain of Escherichia coli JM109 harboring the isopropanol-producing pathway consisting of five genes encoding four enzymes, thiolase, coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, acetoacetate decarboxylase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from C. beijerinckii NRRL B593, produced up to 227 mM of isopropanol from glucose under aerobic fed-batch culture conditions. Acetate production by the engineered strain was approximately one sixth that produced by a control E. coli strain bearing an expression vector without the clostridial genes. These results demonstrate a functional isopropanol-producing pathway in E. coli and consequently carbon flux from acetyl-CoA directed to isopropanol instead of acetate. This is the first report on isopropanol production by genetically engineered microorganism under aerobic culture conditions.

  15. Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishihama, Y.; Schmidt, T.; Rappsilber, J.

    2008-01-01

    PAI approach which takes into account the number of sequenced peptides per protein. The values of abundance are within a broad range and accurately reflect independently measured copy numbers per cell. As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal...... sample. Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. A measure of abundance is presented for each of the identified proteins, based on the recently developed em...... protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. Conclusion: Abundance measurements for more than 1000 E. coli proteins presented in this work represent the most complete study of protein abundance in a bacterial cell so far. We show significant associations between the abundance of a protein and its...

  16. The Escherichia coli transcriptome linked to growth fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-Wen Ying

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of Escherichia coli strains with varied genomic sequences were subjected to high-density microarray analyses to elucidate the fitness-correlated transcriptomes. Fitness, which is commonly evaluated by the growth rate during the exponential phase, is not only determined by the genome but is also linked to growth conditions, e.g., temperature. We previously reported genetic and environmental contributions to E. coli transcriptomes and evolutionary transcriptome changes in thermal adaptation. Here, we describe experimental details on how to prepare microarray samples that truly represent the growth fitness of the E. coli cells. A step-by-step record of sample preparation procedures that correspond to growing cells and transcriptome data sets that are deposited at the GEO database (GSE33212, GSE52770, GSE61739 are also provided for reference.

  17. Escherichia coli portador de betalactamasas de espectro extendido: resistencia

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    Mª C. Miranda García

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Escherichia coli es el microorganismo que con más frecuencia se encuentra implicado en infecciones nosocomiales y comunitarias, patógeno responsable en la etiología de infecciones de vías respiratorias altas, infecciones del tracto urinario, heridas quirúrgicas, sangre o gastroenteritis. En los últimos años ha experimentado importantes cambios encontrándose un aumento de infecciones por cepas de éstos microorganismos productores de betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Objetivos: Se decide hacer este estudio retrospectivo de las muestras procesadas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital Básico de la Defensa San Carlos (San Fernando, para conocer la frecuencia y el patrón de sensibilidad en nuestra población por gérmenes productores de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en este caso por Escherichia coli, dada la importancia de las infecciones causadas por esta bacteria y la repercusión que tiene por todo el mundo los mecanismos de resistencia. Material y Método: Se recogieron los datos de resultados obtenidos en las muestras procesadas en el Laboratorio de Microbiología durante 36 meses (Enero 2009 a Diciembre 2011, en las que se hubieran identificado cepas de Escherichia coli y de éstas las productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido. Resultados: Se aislaron 34 cepas de Escherichia coli productoras de betalactamasas de espectro extendido lo que supone una tasa del 5,10%. Se encontró una frecuencia mayor en el año 2010 (6,9% que en el 2009 (2,61%, pero similar al 2011 (5,98%. Conclusión: La frecuencia de cepas Escherichia coli con betalactamasas de espectro extendido encontrada es similar a la de otros estudios realizados en España, pero la tasa de resistencia de algunos antimicrobianos como Amoxicilina/clavulánico, Cotrimoxazol y Fluorquinolonas en nuestra población es elevada.

  18. Frequent combination of antimicrobial multiresistance and extraintestinal pathogenicity in Escherichia coli isolates from urban rats (Rattus norvegicus in Berlin, Germany.

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    Sebastian Guenther

    Full Text Available Urban rats present a global public health concern as they are considered a reservoir and vector of zoonotic pathogens, including Escherichia coli. In view of the increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains and the on-going discussion about environmental reservoirs, we intended to analyse whether urban rats might be a potential source of putatively zoonotic E. coli combining resistance and virulence. For that, we took fecal samples from 87 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus and tested at least three E. coli colonies from each animal. Thirty two of these E. coli strains were pre-selected from a total of 211 non-duplicate isolates based on their phenotypic resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes, thus fulfilling the definition of multiresistance. As determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST, these 32 strains belonged to 24 different sequence types (STs, indicating a high phylogenetic diversity. We identified STs, which frequently occur among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, such as STs 95, 131, 70, 428, and 127. Also, the detection of a number of typical virulence genes confirmed that the rats tested carried ExPEC-like strains. In particular, the finding of an Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing strain which belongs to a highly virulent, so far mainly human- and avian-restricted ExPEC lineage (ST95, which expresses a serogroup linked with invasive strains (O18:NM:K1, and finally, which produces an ESBL-type frequently identified among human strains (CTX-M-9, pointed towards the important role, urban rats might play in the transmission of multiresistant and virulent E. coli strains. Indeed, using a chicken infection model, this strain showed a high in vivo pathogenicity. Imagining the high numbers of urban rats living worldwide, the way to the transmission of putatively zoonotic, multiresistant, and virulent strains might not be far ahead. The unforeseeable consequences of such an emerging public

  19. Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2010-0138 Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay Edward S...31 Jul 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Five Jet Fuels in the Salmonella-Escherichia coli / Microsome Plate Incorporation Assay 5a...the Salmonella typhimurium-Escherichia coli/ microsome plate incorporation assay. The assay was performed using the plate incorporation procedure

  20. Presence of multi-drug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli in the San Pedro River located in the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico.

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    Flor Yazmin Ramirez Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surface waters in developing countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks and may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes. In this study, the water quality of San Pedro River, the main river and pluvial collector of the Aguascalientes State, Mexico was assessed. Thirty sample locations were tested throughout the River. The main physicochemical parameters of water were evaluated. Results showed high levels of fecal pollution as well as inorganic and organic matter abundant enough to support the heterotrophic growth of microorganisms. These results indicate poor water quality in samples from different locations. One hundred and fifty Escherichia coli were collected and screened by PCR for several virulence genes. Isolates were classified as either pathogenic (n = 91 or commensal (n = 59. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to 13 antibiotics. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent and 30.6% were multi-resistant. Eighteen E. coli strains were quinolone resistant of which 16 were multi-resistant. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were detected in 12 isolates. Mutations at the Ser-83→Leu and/or Asp-87→Asn in the gyrA gene were detected as well as mutations at the Ser-80→Ile in parC. An E. coli microarray (Maxivirulence V 3.1 was used to characterize the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profiles of the fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. Antimicrobial resistance genes such as blaTEM, sulI, sulII, dhfrIX, aph3 (strA and tet (B as well as integrons were found in fluoroquinolone resistance E. coli strains. The presence of potential pathogenic E. coli and antibiotic resistance in San Pedro River such as fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli could pose a potential threat to human

  1. Unusual "flesh-eating" strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Hila; Samra, Zmira; Paul, Michal; Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Cohen, Jonathan; Pitlik, Silvio; Bishara, Jihad

    2012-12-01

    Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis (type II) is typically caused by group A streptococcus alone or in combination with Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli has been isolated from polymicrobial or Fournier's gangrene but has rarely been reported in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. We describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of seven cases of monomicrobial E. coli necrotizing fasciitis and/or severe soft tissue infection diagnosed at a single institution during an 18-month period. Four isolates from three patients and two isolates from two patients with type I polymicrobial severe soft tissue infection (controls) were assayed by the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for fingerprinting and PCR amplification of primers in order to detect cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 and 2 (cnf1 and cnf2) genes. All patients had some type of immune suppression. The limb was the most commonly involved organ. In all cases, E. coli was isolated as a monomicrobial pathogen from blood, fascia, or both. All patients died during hospitalization, three within the first 48 h. The RAPD amplification assay showed a high degree of genetic diversity among the "flesh-eating" strains and controls. The cnf1 toxin gene was identified in two out of three cases, but not in the controls. cnf2 was not detected in any of the patients. E. coli may be responsible for life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis. Further research is needed to reveal relevant risk factors, reservoirs, and modes of transmission of cnf1 E. coli.

  2. Escherichia coli exports cyclic AMP via TolC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Klaus; Winkler, Karin; Schultz, Joachim E

    2011-03-01

    In Escherichia coli more than 180 genes are regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. However, more than 90% of cAMP that is made by intracellular adenylyl cyclases is found in the culture medium. How is cAMP exported from E. coli? In a tolC mutant, 0.03 mM IPTG (isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside) was sufficient to induce β-galactosidase compared to 0.1 mM IPTG in the parent strain. In a cya mutant unable to produce cAMP about 1 mM extracellular cAMP was required to induce β-galactosidase, whereas in a cya tolC mutant 0.1 mM cAMP was sufficient. When cAMP in E. coli cya was generated intracellularly by a recombinant, weakly active adenylyl cyclase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, the critical level of cAMP necessary for induction of maltose degradation was only achieved in a tolC mutant and not in the parent strain. Deletion of a putative cAMP phosphodiesterase of E. coli, CpdA, resulted in a slightly similar, yet more diffuse phenotype. The data demonstrate that export of cAMP via TolC is a most efficient way of E. coli to lower high concentrations of cAMP in the cell and maintain its sensitivity in changing metabolic environments.

  3. The genetic basis of Escherichia coli pathoadaptation to macrophages.

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    Migla Miskinyte

    Full Text Available Antagonistic interactions are likely important driving forces of the evolutionary process underlying bacterial genome complexity and diversity. We hypothesized that the ability of evolved bacteria to escape specific components of host innate immunity, such as phagocytosis and killing by macrophages (MΦ, is a critical trait relevant in the acquisition of bacterial virulence. Here, we used a combination of experimental evolution, phenotypic characterization, genome sequencing and mathematical modeling to address how fast, and through how many adaptive steps, a commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli acquire this virulence trait. We show that when maintained in vitro under the selective pressure of host MΦ commensal E. coli can evolve, in less than 500 generations, virulent clones that escape phagocytosis and MΦ killing in vitro, while increasing their pathogenicity in vivo, as assessed in mice. This pathoadaptive process is driven by a mechanism involving the insertion of a single transposable element into the promoter region of the E. coli yrfF gene. Moreover, transposition of the IS186 element into the promoter of Lon gene, encoding an ATP-dependent serine protease, is likely to accelerate this pathoadaptive process. Competition between clones carrying distinct beneficial mutations dominates the dynamics of the pathoadaptive process, as suggested from a mathematical model, which reproduces the observed experimental dynamics of E. coli evolution towards virulence. In conclusion, we reveal a molecular mechanism explaining how a specific component of host innate immunity can modulate microbial evolution towards pathogenicity.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains isolated from human samples

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    Abdollah Derakhshandeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that E. coli is composed of four main phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Group A and B1 are generally associated with commensals, whereas group B2 is associated with extra-intestinal pathotypes. Most enteropathogenic isolates, however, are assigned to group D. In the present study, a total of 102 E. coli strains, isolated from human samples, were used. Phylogenetic grouping was done based on the Clermont triplex PCR method using primers targeted at three genetic markers, chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2. Group A contained the majority of the collected isolates (69 isolates, 67.64%, followed by group B2 (18 isolates, 17.64% and D (15 isolates, 14.7% and no strains were found to belong to group B1. The distribution of phylogenetic groups in our study suggests that although the majority of strains were commensals, the prevalence of enteropathogenic and extra-intestinal pathotypes was noteworthy. Therefore, the role of E. coli in human infections including diarrhea, urinary tract infections and meningitis should be considered.

  5. Attachment of Escherichia coli and enterococci to particles in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Michelle L; Mostaghimi, Saied; Dillaha, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Association of Escherichia coli and enterococci with particulates present in runoff from erodible soils has important implications for modeling the fate and transport of bacteria from agricultural sources and in the selection of management practices to reduce bacterial movement to surface waters. Three soils with different textures were collected from the Ap horizon (silty loam, silty clay loam, and loamy fine sand), placed in portable box plots, treated with standard cowpats, and placed under a rainfall simulator. Rainfall was applied to the plots until saturation-excess flow occurred for 30 min, and samples were collected 10, 20, and 30 min after initiation of the runoff event. The attachment of E. coli and enterococci to particles present in runoff was determined by a screen filtration and centrifugation procedure. Percentage of E. coli and enterococci attached to particulates in runoff ranged from 28 to 49%, with few statistically significant differences in attachment among the three soils. Similar partitioning release patterns were observed between E. coli and enterococci from the silty loam (r = 0.57) and silty clay loam soils (r = 0.60). At least 60% of all attached E. coli and enterococci were associated particles within an 8- to 62-microm particle size category. The results indicate that the majority of fecal bacteria attach to and are transported with manure colloids in sediment-laden flow regardless of the soil texture.

  6. Paper-based ELISA to rapidly detect Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Min; Chang, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Min-Yen; Lin, Jyun-Yu; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Huang, Chun-Te; Chung, Mu-Chi; Huang, Kui-Chou; Hsu, Cheng-En; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Shen, Ying-Cheng; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2015-12-01

    Escherichia coli is a generic indicator of fecal contamination, and certain serotypes cause food- and water-borne illness such as O157:H7. In the clinic, detection of bacteriuria, which is often due to E. coli, is critical before certain surgical procedures or in cases of nosocomial infection to prevent further adverse events such as postoperative infection or sepsis. In low- and middle-income countries, where insufficient equipment and facilities preclude modern methods of detection, a simple, low-cost diagnostic device to detect E. coli in water and in the clinic will have significant impact. We have developed a simple paper-based colorimetric platform to detect E. coli contamination in 5h. On this platform, the mean color intensity for samples with 10(5)cells/mL is 0.118±0.002 (n=4), and 0.0145±0.003 (Ppaper-based ELISA is an innovative point-of-care diagnostic tool to rapidly detect E. coli, and possibly other pathogens when customized as appropriate, especially in areas that lack advanced clinical equipment.

  7. Pulsed-Plasma Disinfection of Water Containing Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kohki; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Woolsey, Gerry A.; Fouracre, R. Anthony

    2007-03-01

    The disinfection of water containing the microorganism, Escherichia coli (E. coli) by exposure to a pulsed-discharge plasma generated above the water using a multineedle electrode (plasma-exposure treatment), and by sparging the off-gas of the pulsed plasma into the water (off-gas-sparging treatment), is performed in the ambient gases of air, oxygen, and nitrogen. For the off-gas-sparging treatment, bactericidal action is observed only when oxygen is used as the ambient gas, and ozone is found to generate the bactericidal action. For the plasma-exposure treatment, the density of E. coli bacteria decreases exponentially with plasma-exposure time for all the ambient gases. It may be concluded that the main contributors to E. coli inactivation are particle species produced by the pulsed plasma. For the ambient gases of air and nitrogen, the influence of acidification of the water in the system, as a result of pulsed-plasma exposure, may also contribute to the decay of E. coli density.

  8. Nonthermal atmospheric argon plasma jet effects on Escherichia coli biomacromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Memariani, Hamed; Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Valinataj Omran, Azadeh

    2013-12-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric plasma jet, a promising technology based on ionized gas at low temperatures, can be applied for disinfection of contaminated surfaces. In this study, Escherichia coli cells and their macromolecules were exposed to the nonthermal atmospheric argon plasma jet for different time durations. Total protein, genomic DNA, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of E. coli were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining; agarose gel electrophoresis; and measurement of absorbance at 534 nm, respectively. After exposure, the spectroscopic results of liquid samples indicated that the survival reduction of E. coli can reach to 100 % in an exposure time of 600 s. Moreover, inactivation zones of E. coli, DNA degradation, and MDA levels were significantly increased. Additionally, banding patterns of total protein were changed and amino acid concentrations increased following ninhydrin test. The experimental results suggest that the nonthermal plasma could serve as an effective instrument for both sterilizing E. coli and degrading macromolecules from the surface of the objects being sterilized.

  9. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Koga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry. A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs- producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  10. Comparison of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulence Factors among Escherichia coli Isolated from Conventional and Free-Range Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Vanessa L; Scandorieiro, Sara; Vespero, Eliana C; Oba, Alexandre; de Brito, Benito G; de Brito, Kelly C T; Nakazato, Gerson; Kobayashi, Renata K T

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological contamination in commercial poultry production has caused concerns for human health because of both the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and the increase in antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains that can cause treatment failure of human infections. The aim of our study was to analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of E. coli isolates from chicken carcasses obtained from different farming systems (conventional and free-range poultry). A total of 156 E. coli strains were isolated and characterized for genes encoding virulence factors described in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for 15 antimicrobials, and strains were confirmed as extended spectrum of β-lactamases- (ESBLs-) producing E. coli by phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results indicated that strains from free-range poultry have fewer virulence factors than strains from conventional poultry. Strains from conventionally raised chickens had a higher frequency of antimicrobial resistance for all antibiotics tested and also exhibited genes encoding ESBL and AmpC, unlike free-range poultry isolates, which did not. Group 2 CTX-M and CIT were the most prevalent ESBL and AmpC genes, respectively. The farming systems of poultries can be related with the frequency of virulence factors and resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria.

  11. Presence of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in isolates from avian organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazal, Luís Eduardo S; Puño-Sarmiento, Juan J; Medeiros, Leonardo P; Cyoia, Paula S; da Silveira, Wanderlei D; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Nakazato, Gerson

    2015-12-01

    Poultry litter is commonly used as fertilizer in agriculture. However, this poultry litter must be processed prior to use, since poultry have a large number of pathogenic microorganisms. The aims of this study were to isolate and genotypically and phenotypically characterize Escherichia coli from avian organic fertilizer. Sixty-four E. coli isolates were identified from avian organic fertilizer and characterized for ExPEC virulence factors, pathogenicity islands, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Sixty-three isolates (98.4%) showed at least one virulence gene (fimH, ecpA, sitA, traT, iutA, iroN, hlyF, ompT and iss). The predominant phylogenetic groups were groups A (59.3%) and B1 (34.3%). The pathogenicity island CFT073II (51.5%) was the most prevalent among the isolates tested. Thirty-two isolates (50%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Approximately 90% of isolates adhered to HEp-2 cells, and the predominant pattern was aggregative adherence (74.1%). In the biofilm assay, it was observed that 75% of isolates did not produce biofilm. These results lead us to conclude that some E. coli isolates from avian organic fertilizer could be pathogenic for humans.

  12. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induced antimicrobial gene expression in the male reproductive tract of rat: evaluation of the potential of Defensin 21 to limit infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, B; Bhushan, S; Rajesh, A; Suraj, S K; Lu, Y; Meinhardt, A; Yenugu, S

    2015-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common pathogen in epididymitis, which represents a prevalent entity in male reproductive tract infections (RTI). Although current treatment regimens using antibiotics are satisfactory, development of antimicrobial resistance by the pathogen represents a challenge in the management of RTI. Hence, identification of antimicrobial peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has gained importance. We demonstrate that in a rat epididymo-orchitis model induced with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strain MTCC 729, the expression of defensins and defensin-like Spag11 genes are induced in the epididymis and testes. The induction of antimicrobial gene expression is paralleled by phosphorylation of the NF-kB subunit p65 and the inhibitor of NFkB (IkB-alpha), decreased levels of histone deacetylase 1 and increased methylation of Histone 3, indicating the role of classical Toll-like receptor mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation. Recombinant Defensin 21, when administered to UPEC-infected rats, substantially reduced the bacterial load in the epididymis and testis and proved to be more effective than gentamycin. The ability of Defensin 21 to limit RTI provides support that antibacterial proteins of the male reproductive tract may be used as potential alternatives to antibiotics in treatment of this disease.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Seok; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Ji; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Mu-sang; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2015-08-17

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables. A total of 189 RTE vegetable samples (91 sprouts and 98 mixed salads) were collected in a retail market in South Korea from October 2012 to February 2013. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 10.1%. Of these, 94.7% were from the sprout samples. All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, and many of the ESBL producers were also resistant to non-β-lactam antibiotics, including gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin (73.7%, 63.2%, and 26.3% respectively). TEM-1, SHV-1, -2, -11, -12, -27, -28 and -61, and CTX-M-14, -15 and -55 β-lactamases were detected alone or in combination. The genetic platforms of all CTX-M producing isolates were ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-orf477 and ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-IS903 in CTX-M groups 1 and 9, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the prevalence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from RTE vegetables. The results of this study indicate that RTE vegetables, sprouts, in particular, may play a role in spreading antimicrobial resistant bacteria and ESBL genes to humans.

  14. Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections: are there distinct uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) pathotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Carl F; Zhang, Lixin; Foxman, Betsy

    2005-11-15

    A variety of virulence genes are associated with Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections. Particular sets of virulence factors shared by bacterial strains directing them through a particular pathogenesis process are called a "pathotype." Comparison of co-occurrence of potential urinary tract infection (UTI) virulence genes among different E. coli isolates from fecal and UTI collections provides evidence for multiple pathotypes of uropathogenic E. coli, but current understanding of critical genetic differences defining the pathotypes is limited. Discovery of additional E. coli genes involved in uropathogenesis and determination of their distribution and co-occurrences will further define UPEC pathotypes and allow for a more detailed analysis of how these pathotypes might differ in how they cause disease.

  15. The pangenome structure of Escherichia coli: comparative genomic analysis of E. coli commensal and pathogenic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasko, David A; Rosovitz, M J; Myers, Garry S A; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Fricke, W Florian; Gajer, Pawel; Crabtree, Jonathan; Sebaihia, Mohammed; Thomson, Nicholas R; Chaudhuri, Roy; Henderson, Ian R; Sperandio, Vanessa; Ravel, Jacques

    2008-10-01

    Whole-genome sequencing has been skewed toward bacterial pathogens as a consequence of the prioritization of medical and veterinary diseases. However, it is becoming clear that in order to accurately measure genetic variation within and between pathogenic groups, multiple isolates, as well as commensal species, must be sequenced. This study examined the pangenomic content of Escherichia coli. Six distinct E. coli pathovars can be distinguished using molecular or phenotypic markers, but only two of the six pathovars have been subjected to any genome sequencing previously. Thus, this report provides a seminal description of the genomic contents and unique features of three unsequenced pathovars, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli. We also determined the first genome sequence of a human commensal E. coli isolate, E. coli HS, which will undoubtedly provide a new baseline from which workers can examine the evolution of pathogenic E. coli. Comparison of 17 E. coli genomes, 8 of which are new, resulted in identification of approximately 2,200 genes conserved in all isolates. We were also able to identify genes that were isolate and pathovar specific. Fewer pathovar-specific genes were identified than anticipated, suggesting that each isolate may have independently developed virulence capabilities. Pangenome calculations indicate that E. coli genomic diversity represents an open pangenome model containing a reservoir of more than 13,000 genes, many of which may be uncharacterized but important virulence factors. This comparative study of the species E. coli, while descriptive, should provide the basis for future functional work on this important group of pathogens.

  16. Bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli producing AmpC β-lactamases: epidemiology and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, V; Alonso, N; Simó, M; Ortiz, G; Garcia, M C; Xercavins, M; Rivera, A; Morera, M A; Miró, E; Espejo, E; Navarro, F; Gurguí, M; Pérez, J; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M; Garau, J; Calbo, E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology and clinical features of bloodstream infections due to Escherichia coli producing AmpC β-lactamases (AmpC-Ec-BSI). In a multi-centre case-control study, all third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli BSI (3GC-Ec-BSI) isolates were analysed. Acquired bla AmpC (bla ac-AmpC) detection was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Chromosomal bla AmpC (bla c-AmpC) expression was quantified by real-time PCR. Cases were patients with AmpC-Ec-BSI. Controls were patients with cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli BSI, matched 1:1 by sex and age. Demographics, comorbidities, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for antimicrobial resistance, clinical presentation and outcomes were investigated. Among 841 E. coli BSI, 17 were caused by AmpC-Ec (2 %). Eleven isolates (58.8 %) had bla ac-AmpC and six were bla c-AmpC overproducers. T