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Sample records for antimicrobial susceptibility profiles

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at STI clinic

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    Shilpee C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 consecutive patients who attended a sexually transmitted infections clinic were studied. Thirteen had gonococcal urethritis, of which 10 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP method and beta lactamase production by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Four patients were co-infected with each of the following: HIV, HBV and Chlamydia trachomatis . Gonococcal urethritis (13% was found more in male patients. Ten percent gonococcal isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae , and another 10% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae .

  2. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

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    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  3. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

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    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  4. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  5. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

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    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and <5% were non-susceptible to AMC, cefalexin, gentamicin and norfloxacin. Amoxicillin use increased by 35% during winter/spring compared with summer/autumn, and AMC use increased by 21%. No seasonal variation in quinolone use or resistance was detected. The low levels of antimicrobial resistance identified may relate to Tasmania's isolated geographical location. Significant seasonal variation in amoxicillin and AMC use is likely to be due to increased use of these antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. PMID:26187365

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in Maluti Adventist Hospital patients, 2011

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    Phillip Mubanga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are amongst the most common infections encountered globally and are usually treated empirically based on bacterial resistance to antibiotics for a given region. Unfortunately in Lesotho, no published studies are available to guide doctors in the treatment of UTIs. Treatment protocols for Western countries have been adopted, which may not be applicable for this region.Aim: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in outpatients at the Maluti Adventist Hospital.Setting: The study was conducted at the outpatient department of the Maluti Adventist Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study using consecutive sampling of patients with clinical symptoms of UTI. Midstream urine samples were screened through chemistry and microscopy, then positive urine samples were cultured. The isolated uropathogens underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inclusion continued until 200 culture samples were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis.Results: The top five cultured uropathogens were Escherichia coli (61.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (14%, Pseudomonasspecies (6.5%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.5% and Streptococcus agalactiae (5%. The isolated uropathogens showed low sensitivity to cotrimoxazole (32.5% – 75.0% and amoxicillin (33.2% – 87.5% and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (84.0% – 95.1% and nitrofurantoin (76.9% – 100%.Conclusion: In the Maluti setting, cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin should be avoided as first-line drugs for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. We recommend the use of nitrofurantoin as first choice.

  8. Prevalence of uropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in outpatient from Jataí-GO

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    Dayane Moraes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs affect people worldwide. Escherichia coli is the main agent of UTI, however the etiology may vary according to the age and sex of the patient. Regional variations in the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance should be considered for therapy choice. Objectives: This study aimed to conduct a survey on the main agents of UTI, and assess the resistance of these microorganisms, during the period of March 2010 to June 2012 in the city of Jataí-GO. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study were performed, collecting data on the prevalence of uropathogens and their sensitivity profiles which were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: During this period, 2,181 urine cultures were evaluated, of which 510 (23.4% were positive, predominantly female (81.4% and aged between 21 and 64 years old (59.7%. The most frequently isolated microorganism was E. coli (61%, followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (9.4%, and Proteus (9.4%. The prevalence of these bacteria according to the patient sex has suffered a statistically significant change (p < 0.05. It was possible to detect high resistance rate of E. coli to some antibiotics of choice for UTI treatment, such as ampicillin (57.9 %, pipemidic acid (50.5 %, nalidixic acid (48.6 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (44.8%. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the need to know the reality of each region in order to establish an appropriate empirical therapy, when it is not possible to perform culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  9. Bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in catheter related nosocomial infections.

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    Tullu M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study was carried out over a period of 6 months in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The aim of the study was to determine the organisms causing catheter related nosocomial infections in the PICU and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Patients with endotracheal intubation, indwelling urinary catheters and central venous catheters (CVC/venous cutdown catheters were included in the study. Colonization of the endotracheal tube, urinary catheter related infections (UCRI and colonization of the CVC/venous cutdown catheters was studied. E. coli was the commonest organism colonizing the endotracheal tube tip with maximum susceptibility to cefotaxime and amikacin. E. coli was also was the commonest organism causing UCRI with maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin. Acinetobacter was the commonest organism colonizing the CVC/venous cutdown catheters with maximum susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. All these sites of catheter related infections considered together, E. coli and Klebsiella were the commonest nosocomial organisms. Both had maximum susceptibility to amikacin. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was isolated only from one culture. All the organisms had a poor susceptibility to cefazolin and amoxycillin. A knowledge of the resident microbial flora and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern is necessary for formulating a rational antibiotic policy in an ICU.

  10. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

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    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  11. Etiologic profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired urinary tract infection in two Cameroonian towns

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    Akoachere Jane-Francis Tatah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI represents one of the most common diseases encountered in community medical practice. In resource poor settings, treatment is usually empiric due to the high cost and long duration required for reporting diagnosis by culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. With the growing problem of drug resistance knowledge of antibiotic susceptibility pattern is pertinent for successful eradication of invading pathogens. Our study, the first of its kind in Cameroon, analyzed the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing community-acquired urinary tract infection (CAUTI in two towns (Bamenda and Buea with a large number of young and middle aged persons, to provide data that could guide empiric treatment. Findings We cultured 235 urine specimens and analyzed the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates by the disc diffusion technique. Uropathogens were recovered from 137 (58.3%, with prevalence rates in Buea and Bamenda being 65.9% and 54% respectively. Predominant pathogens were Escherichia coli (31.4%, Klebsiella oxytoca (25.5% and Staphylococcus spp (24.1%. Geographic variation in uropathogen distribution and antibiotic susceptibility was observed, and a significant difference in pathogen distribution with respect to gender. The 20–39 years age group had the highest prevalence of infection. All pathogens isolated were detected in this group. Isolates exhibited low susceptibility to antibiotics tested. Bamenda isolates generally exhibited lower susceptibility compared to those from Buea. Conclusion Regional variation in etiology of CAUTI and antibiotic susceptibility observed in our study emphasizes the need to establish local and national antimicrobial resistance monitoring systems in Cameroon to provide information for the development of CAUTI treatment guidelines.

  12. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China

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    Jian-ping LI; Hai-jian ZHOU; Lin YUAN; Ting HE; Song-hua HU

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcusaureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Zhejiang Province, China. Out of 3178 quarter milk samples from 846 lactating cows, among which 459 cows (54.3%) were found HMT positive, 890 quarters (28%) were found having subclinical mastitis. From 75 representative S. aureus isolates, 16 distinct types were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major PFGE types (A, B, C, and D) accounted for 82.7% of all isolates, and type A (41.3%) was observed in multiple herds across the studied areas. Each region was found to have a predominant type: Hangzhou type A (64.1%), Ningbo type C (34.5%) and type B (23.1%), Jinhua type D (53.3%), and Taizhou type C (62.5%). Results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that 90.7% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Resistance to penicillin and ampicillin (77.3%), tetracycline (60.0%), or erythromycin (48.0%) was observed. The bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were commonly found. The information obtained from this study is useful for designing specific control programs for bovine S. aureus mastiffs in this region.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Clostridium difficile.

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    Shuttleworth, R; Taylor, M.; Jones, D M

    1980-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 78 strains of Clostridium difficile isolated from patients with and without gastrointestinal symptoms were determined and compared. Strains from patients with symptoms were more likely to show resistance to antibiotics. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains were found to be similar.

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

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    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genomic diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: A study in western Iran.

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic non-motile Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is resistant to most antibiotics. Carbapenems are the most common antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. Mechanisms of antibiotic-resistance in A. baumannii are mainly mediated by efflux pumps-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility, the possibility of existence of OXAs genes and fingerprinting by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected from Kermanshah hospitals.One hundred and four isolates were collected from patients attending Imam Reza, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini hospitals of Kermanshah (Iran. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests and API 20NE kit. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was assessed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. PCR was performed for detection of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-51 and bla OXA-58 beta-lactamase genes. Clonal relatedness was estimated by PFGE (with the restriction enzyme Apa I and DNA patterns were analyzed by Gel compare II 6.5 software.All isolates showed high-level of resistance to imipenem, meropenem as well as to other antimicrobial agents, while no resistance to polymyxin B, colistin, tigecylcine and minocycline was observed. The bla OXA-23like and bla OXA-24 like were found among 77.9% and 19.2% of the isolates, respectively. All isolates were positive for bla OXA-51, but none produced any amplicon for bla OXA-58. PFGE genotype analysis suggested the existence of eight clones among the 104 strains [A (n = 35, B (n = 29, C (n = 19, D (n = 10, E (n = 4, F (n = 3, G (n = 3, H (n = 1]. Clone A was the dominant clone in hospital settings particularly infection wards so that the isolates in this group, compared to the other clones, showed higher levels of resistance to antibiotics.The bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-23like were the predominant mechanisms of resistance to imipenem in A

  16. Comparison between automated system and PCR-based method for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of clinical Enterococcus spp.

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    Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Rocha, Kátia Real; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin) was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg), gentamicin (120 µg), tetracycline (30 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg) were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30). For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%), vancomycin (80.0%), tetracycline (43.35) and gentamicin (33.3%). The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A) gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.

  17. COMPARISON BETWEEN AUTOMATED SYSTEM AND PCR-BASED METHOD FOR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF CLINICAL Enterococcus spp

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    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci are increasingly responsible for nosocomial infections worldwide. This study was undertaken to compare the identification and susceptibility profile using an automated MicrosScan system, PCR-based assay and disk diffusion assay of Enterococcus spp. We evaluated 30 clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. Isolates were identified by MicrosScan system and PCR-based assay. The detection of antibiotic resistance genes (vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and erythromycin was also determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to vancomycin (30 µg, gentamicin (120 µg, tetracycline (30 µg and erythromycin (15 µg were tested by the automated system and disk diffusion method, and were interpreted according to the criteria recommended in CLSI guidelines. Concerning Enterococcus identification the general agreement between data obtained by the PCR method and by the automatic system was 90.0% (27/30. For all isolates of E. faecium and E. faecalis we observed 100% agreement. Resistance frequencies were higher in E. faecium than E. faecalis. The resistance rates obtained were higher for erythromycin (86.7%, vancomycin (80.0%, tetracycline (43.35 and gentamicin (33.3%. The correlation between disk diffusion and automation revealed an agreement for the majority of the antibiotics with category agreement rates of > 80%. The PCR-based assay, the van(A gene was detected in 100% of vancomycin resistant enterococci. This assay is simple to conduct and reliable in the identification of clinically relevant enterococci. The data obtained reinforced the need for an improvement of the automated system to identify some enterococci.

  18. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and risk factors associated with bovine mastitis in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco

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    Carina C. Krewer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to study the etiology of mastitis, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in dairy cows in the states of Bahia and Pernambuco, Brazil. From the 2,064 milk samples analyzed, 2.6% were associated with cases of clinical mastitis and 28.2% with subclinical mastitis. In the microbiological culture, Staphylococcus spp. (49.1% and Corynebacterium spp. (35.3% were the main agents found, followed by Prototheca spp. (4.6% and Gram negative bacilli (3.6%. In the antimicrobial susceptibility testing, all 218 Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to rifampicin and the least effective drug was amoxicillin (32.6%. Multidrug resistance to three or more drugs was observed in 65.6% of Staphylococcus spp. The risk factors identified for mastitis were the extensive production system, not providing feed supplements, teat drying process, not disinfecting the teats before and after milking, and inadequate hygiene habits of the milking workers. The presence of multiresistant isolates in bovine milk demonstrates the importance of the choice and appropriate use of antimicrobial agents. Prophylactic and control measures, including teat antisepsis and best practices for achieving hygienic milking should be established in order to prevent new cases of the disease in herds.

  19. Disinfectant and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of the Big Six Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains from Food Animals and Humans.

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    Beier, Ross C; Franz, Eelco; Bono, James L; Mandrell, Robert E; Fratamico, Pina M; Callaway, Todd R; Andrews, Kathleen; Poole, Toni L; Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2016-08-01

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 138 non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains (STECs) from food animals and humans were determined. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was moderate (39.1% of strains) in response to 15 antimicrobial agents. Animal strains had a lower AMR prevalence (35.6%) than did human strains (43.9%) but a higher prevalence of the resistance profile GEN-KAN-TET. A decreasing prevalence of AMR was found among animal strains from serogroups O45 > O145 > O121 > O111 > O26 > O103 and among human strains from serogroups O145 > O103 > O26 > O111 > O121 > O45. One animal strain from serogroups O121 and O145 and one human strain from serogroup O26 had extensive drug resistance. A high prevalence of AMR in animal O45 and O121 strains and no resistance or a low prevalence of resistance in human strains from these serogroups suggests a source other than food animals for human exposure to these strains. Among the 24 disinfectants evaluated, all strains were susceptible to triclosan. Animal strains had a higher prevalence of resistance to chlorhexidine than did human strains. Both animal and human strains had a similar low prevalence of low-level benzalkonium chloride resistance, and animal and human strains had similar susceptibility profiles for most other disinfectants. Benzyldimethylammonium chlorides and C10AC were the primary active components in disinfectants DC&R and P-128, respectively, against non-O157 STECs. A disinfectant FS512 MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml was more prevalent among animal O121 strains (61.5%) than among human O121 strains (25%), which may also suggest a source of human exposure to STEC O121 other than food animals. Bacterial inhibition was not dependent solely on pH but was correlated with the presence of dissociated organic acid species and some undissociated acids.

  20. Prevalence of community acquired urinary tract infections in silchar medical college, Assam, India and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile

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    Indu Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to know the rate of prevalence of community acquired UTI infections in both males and females, Assam, North-East India. Materials and Methods: A 50 μl of urine sample from each of the subjects was streaked on cystine lactose electrolyte-deficient agar medium. The plates were incubated overnight at 37°C. Pure, isolated colonies of each type was separately cultured and characterized. The susceptibility of the clinical isolates to routinely prescribed antibiotics in the hospital was performed against various antibiotics. Results: Of the total 40 patients, 26 positive samples were obtained of which 19 females (73.07% and 7 male (26.92% patients were shown to be urine culture positive. The most commonly isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli with a frequency rate of (33.3% followed by Staphyloccous aureus (22.2%, Klebsiella pnemoniae (11.1%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS (7.4%, Pseudomonas sp. (7.4%, Proteus myxofaciens (3.7%, Proteus mirabilis (3.7%, Edwardsiella tarda (3.7%, Morganella morganii (3.7%, and Citrobacter fruendii (3.7%. Analysis of the samples showed that UTI was more common in females of younger age group as compared with males. It was also observed that the patients responded effectively to imepenem (IE, cepefime, amikacin, norfloxacin, and co-trimoxazole antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative bacilli. Furthermore, the most effective antibiotics against Gram-positive cocci was found to be ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, IE, and penicillin G (benzyl penicillin. Conclusions: Antibiotics have been in use for a long period and more often the misuse of antimicrobial drugs has today led to a general rise in the emergence of resistant bacteria.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Helicobacter suis strains.

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    Vermoote, Miet; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Van Deun, Kim; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2011-12-15

    Helicobacter suis is a very fastidious porcine gastric pathogen, which is also considered to be of zoonotic importance. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility cannot be determined using standard assays, as this agent only grows in a biphasic medium with an acidic pH. Therefore, a combined agar and broth dilution method was used to analyse the activity of nine antimicrobial agents against nine H. suis isolates. After 48 h microaerobic incubation, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by software-assisted calculation of bacterial growth. Only for enrofloxacin a bimodal distribution of MICs was demonstrated, indicating acquired resistance in one strain, which showed an AGT→AGG (Ser→Arg) substitution at codon 99 of gyrA. In conclusion, the assay developed here is suitable for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of H. suis isolates, although activity of acid sensitive antimicrobial agents may be higher than predicted from MIC endpoints. PMID:21733643

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

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    Khameneh Zakieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%, Klebsiella (5.48%, Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available.

  3. Panton-Valentine leukocidin and some exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of staphylococci isolated from milks of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Nilgün; Askar, Şinasi; Macun, Hasan Ceyhun; Sakarya, Fatma; Altun, Belgin; Yıldırım, Murat

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the existence of pvl gene, some toxin genes, and mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from sheep milk and to examine antimicrobial resistance profiles in staphylococci from sheep and goats' milk. The milk samples were collected from 13 different small ruminant farms in Kirikkale province from February to August 2009. A total of 1,604 half-udder milk samples from 857 ewes and 66 half-udder milk samples from 33 goats were collected. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated and identified from the samples. Toxin genes and mecA gene among S. aureus strains were determined by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci was examined by the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar, and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The prevalence of subclinical intramammary infection in both ewes and goats was 5.2%. The most prevalent subclinical mastitis agents were coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus with prevalences 2.8% (n:46) and 1.3% (n = 21), respectively. The prevalence of resistances in isolated Staphylococcus spp. to penicilin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and enrofloxacin were found as 26.9% (18), 7.5% (5), 6.0% (4), 3.0% (2), and 1.5% (1), respectively. Only 3 of the 21 S. aureus ewe isolates (13.4%) were shown to harbor enterotoxin genes being either seh, sej or sec. However, fourteen (66.6%) of the 21 S. aureus isolates had pvl gene while none of the isolates harbored mecA gene. In conclusion, Staphylococci were shown to be the most prevalent bacteria isolated from subclinical mastitis of ewes and goats and these isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics. In addition, S. aureus strains isolated from ewes were harboring few staphylococcal enterotoxin genes. However, Panton-Valentine leukocidin produced by S. aureus could be an important virulence factor and contribute to subclinical mastitis pathogenicity. PMID:21800213

  4. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R.; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings......., introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  5. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements. PMID:26623676

  6. Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases Based on Antimicrobial Peptide Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J.; Enciso-Moreno, J. Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases. PMID:19703980

  7. Susceptibility to infectious diseases based on antimicrobial peptide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Serrano, Carmen J; Enciso-Moreno, J Antonio

    2009-11-01

    In the last few years, the great impact of antimicrobial peptides on infectious disease susceptibility and natural resistance has been reported. In some cases, susceptibility to diseases is related to antimicrobial peptide polymorphisms and gene copy numbers, but for the vast majority of infectious diseases, these phenomena need to be elucidated. This review is focused on the current knowledge about susceptibility and resistance conferred by genetic variations in antimicrobial peptide expression in infectious diseases.

  8. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  9. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clinical Sources of Dolosigranulum pigrum Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    LaClaire, L.; Facklam, R

    2000-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibilities of 27 clinical isolates of Dolosigranulum pigrum were determined. All were susceptible to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, clindamycin, levofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Fifteen of the isolates were intermediate to chloramphenicol. One isolate was resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Two isolates were susceptible, 10 were intermediate, and 15 were resistant to erythromycin.

  11. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48 h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial. PMID:27005459

  12. Susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents: applications to clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelaifia, S; Drancourt, M

    2012-09-01

    We herein review the state of knowledge regarding the in vitro and in vivo susceptibility of archaea to antimicrobial agents, including some new molecules. Indeed, some archaea colonizing the human microbiota have been implicated in diseases such as periodontopathy. Archaea are characterized by their broad-spectrum resistance to antimicrobial agents. In particular, their cell wall lacks peptidoglycan, making them resistant to antimicrobial agents interfering with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Archaea are, however, susceptible to the protein synthesis inhibitor fusidic acid and imidazole derivatives. Also, squalamine, an antimicrobial agent acting on the cell wall, proved effective against human methanogenic archaea. In vitro susceptibility data could be used to design protocols for the decontamination of complex microbiota and the selective isolation of archaea in anaerobic culture. PMID:22748132

  13. In vitro susceptibility of Citrobacter species to various antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Samonis, G.; Ho, D H; Gooch, G F; Rolston, K V; Bodey, G P

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro activities of 16 antimicrobial agents against 14 clinical isolates of Citrobacter diversus and 27 isolates of Citrobacter freundii were studied. C. freundii isolates were more resistant, being susceptible only to amikacin, netilmicin, gentamicin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and enoxacin. C. diversus isolates were susceptible to many more of the agents tested.

  14. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    the State of Rio de Janeiro. The test used was diffusion of disks in agar Müller Hinton, according to recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS. There were tested disks with ampicillin (10mg, cefalotin (30mg, cefotaxime (30mg, cefoxitin (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromycin (15mg, gentamycin (10mg, nitrofurantoin (300mg, norfloxacin (10mg, penicillin (10 IU, tetracyclin (30mg and vancomycin (30mg. The results showed that with Lactococcus garvieae, the most efficient antimicrobial was nitrofurantoin, revealing 85.71% sensibility, followed by cefotaxime (61.90%, vancomycin (52.38%, norfloxacin (47.62& and cefalotin (47.62%. The highest resistance was developed against penicillin and ampicillin, with 95.24% resistance for the two antimicrobials. The susceptibility profile developed by the strains of Enterococcus gallinarum showed low sensibility against the tested antimicrobials; the highest resistance observed was against eritromycin and gentamycin, with 33.34% sensibility for both. The antimicrobial evaluation showed 100% resistance against vancomycin and tetracyclin, followed by cloranfenicol, penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxim, norfloxacin and nitrofurantoin; all of them showed a resistance of 83.33% with the samples tested.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of listeria monocytogenes from food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knöchel, Susanne; Hasman, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food products to antimicrobial agents commonly used for treatment of infections with gram-positive bacteria, and to disinfectants. A total of 114 L. monocytogenes retail isolates were tested for susce......This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from food products to antimicrobial agents commonly used for treatment of infections with gram-positive bacteria, and to disinfectants. A total of 114 L. monocytogenes retail isolates were tested...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. PMID:25348540

  17. High-Throughput Intracellular Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative opportunistic human pathogen that causes a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Notably, in the human host, the organism is believed to replicate solely within an intracellular compartment, predominantly within pulmonary macrophages. Consequently, successful therapy is predicated on antimicrobials penetrating into this intracellular growth niche. However, standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods test solely for extracellular growth inhibition. Here, we make use of a high-throughput assay to characterize intracellular growth inhibition activity of known antimicrobials. For select antimicrobials, high-resolution dose-response analysis was then performed to characterize and compare activity levels in both macrophage infection and axenic growth assays. Results support the superiority of several classes of nonpolar antimicrobials in abrogating intracellular growth. Importantly, our assay results show excellent correlations with prior clinical observations of antimicrobial efficacy. Furthermore, we also show the applicability of high-throughput automation to two- and three-dimensional synergy testing. High-resolution isocontour isobolograms provide in vitro support for specific combination antimicrobial therapy. Taken together, findings suggest that high-throughput screening technology may be successfully applied to identify and characterize antimicrobials that target bacterial pathogens that make use of an intracellular growth niche. PMID:26392509

  18. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct an

  19. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community acquired and nosocomial isolates ofEscherichiacoli from clinical blood culture specimens at a Nigerian university teaching hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jombo GTA; Akpan S; Epoke J; Denen Akaa P; Eyong KI; Gyuse AN

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To ascertain the antibiotic susceptibility patterns ofEscherichia coli recovered from blood culture specimens in Calabar, Nigeria.Methods: The study was retrospective in nature and was carried out at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital(UCTH)Calabar. Data generated from blood culture specimens over a five year period (Feb.2004-Feb.2009) was compiled, relevant information such as age, sex, organism recovered and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were obtained from patients records. Samples were collected, transported, stored and processed using standard laboratory procedures. Data obtained was analysed using Epi Info6 statistical software.Results:Escherichia coli was responsible for15.3% (31/203) of the blood infections being the third most common microorganism encountered. The community acquired(CA) isolates of the organism were significantly less resistant (P0.05). Majority(>95.0%) of theNC isolates ofEscherichia coli were resistant to six of the antibiotics tested.Conclusions: Control mechanisms for hospital acquired infections should be stepped up so as to limit the spread of the highly resistant bacterial strains. Also the sale and consumption of antibiotics by the public need to be regulated.

  1. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains determined by disk diffusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Caballero, R; Acosta Giraldo, J C; Sosa Puente, J; Guzmán Hernández, D; Gutiérrez González, O; Llop Hernández, A

    1999-01-01

    The Gonoccocus Laboratory of "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute carried out a study of in vitro susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime ceftriaxone, cefotaxine and ciprofoxacin by means of a disk diffusion method with the culture medium agar base GC plus supplement. In the first phase, the method was standardized and the reference N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 strain was used whereas in the second phase, 50 gonococcal strains isolated in 8 provinces during 1995 and 1996 were examined. The results of such standardization confirmed that the antimicrobial susceptibility values were within the allowable limits. 52 and 34% of strains were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline respectively and all of them showed susceptibility to the rest of evaluated antimicrobial drugs. We recommend the use of the disk diffusion method for surveillance of gonococci resistance to these drugs in our country. PMID:10887570

  2. Susceptibility of bifidobacteria of animal origin to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Mair, Christiane; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin) or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin) concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics. PMID:22312561

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci Isolated From Patients in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enterococci are one of the most common nosocomial pathogens and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been increasing. Objectives We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from different clinical specimens of patients in Tehran. Materials and Methods From the beginning of April 2013 to the end of June 2013, a total of 146 enterococci were isolated from the Pars General Hospital in Tehran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates against ampicillin, clindamaycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI. Results The rates of resistance were high to clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin (97.2%, 89%, and 74.5%, respectively; moderate to ciprofloxacilin and levofloxacilin (40.6% and 36.4%, respectively; and low to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin (13.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All isolates were linezolid sensitive. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE accounted for 9.6% of the isolates. Conclusions VRE and a high rate of resistance to some of antimicrobial agents were found among the enterococci isolated from patients in Tehran. These findings highlight the importance of regular supervision of antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  4. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolone-Resistant or -Susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Ian; Farrell, David J.; Bakker, Sarah; Buckridge, Sylvie; Felmingham, David

    2003-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Hong Kong as part of Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin 1999/2000 was found to be due to the spread of the Spain23F-1 clone (mainly a Spain23F-1-14 variant). All the isolates were multidrug resistant but were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and telithromycin. The Spain23F-1 clone also occurred among antimicrobial-susceptible isolates, which suggests th...

  5. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Annet; Reugebrink, Constance; Mars, Jet

    2016-06-30

    Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n=56), mastitis milk (n=27), and synovial fluid (n=12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90 values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting M. bovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance. PMID:27259820

  7. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E;

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the o......CelloScope system, to perform rapid AST. The oCelloScope system demonstrated a very high accuracy (96 % overall agreement) when determining the resistance profiles of four reference strains, nine clinical isolates, including multi-drug-resistant isolates, and three positive blood cultures. AST of clinical isolates...

  8. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, E.; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema-Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilenbaum, W; Veras, M; Blum, E; Souza, G N

    2000-07-01

    Samples were obtained from 65 unmedicated adult dogs, processed for isolation of Staphylococcus species and tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin and rifampin. Forty-four isolates were obtained, which represents 67.7% of samples. Coagulase-negative species were most commonly found, and the most frequently isolated staphylococcus species were Staph. epidermidis and Staph. aureus. Other species, such as Staph. simulans, Staph. haemolyticus, Staph. saprophyticus and Staph. intermedius were also isolated. Resistance to antibiotics was frequently observed, with 90.9% of the isolates showing resistance to at least one drug. The most active antimicrobial agents against staphylococci isolated from otitis externa of dogs were rifampin and oxacillin. Multidrug resistance was a common finding, and one strain of Staph. haemolyticus species, was resistant to all tested antimicrobial agents. Resistance to three or more different drugs was a common finding, observed in 16 strains (36.4%) of both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. This study highlights the emergence of cases of otitis externa determined by coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains and once more emphasizes the need for bacterial culture with species identification and susceptibility testing of swab specimens from the ear canal in order to choose appropriate antimicrobial agents.

  11. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Sheep 2011 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Marshall, Katherine L; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Erdman, Matthew M; Kopral, Christine A

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of foodborne illness and can cause clinical disease in animals. Understanding the on-farm ecology of Salmonella will be helpful in decreasing the risk of foodborne transmission. An objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella among fecal samples collected on sheep operations in the United States. Another objective was to compare the use of composite fecal samples with fecal samples collected from individual sheep as a tool for screening sheep flocks for Salmonella. Sheep fecal samples (individual and composite) were collected on operations in 22 states. Salmonella isolates were characterized with regard to species, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Most operations (72.1%) had at least one positive sample and overall 26.9% of samples were positive. The percentage of positive samples varied by animal age class. Composite and individual samples gave similar results. The majority of the isolates (94%) were Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serotype 61:-:1,5,7. Nearly all of the isolates (91.2%) tested for antimicrobial susceptibility were susceptible to all antimicrobials in the panel. The findings suggest that salmonellae typically associated with foodborne disease transmission are infrequently found on sheep operations in the United States.

  12. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility analyses distinguish clinical from bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Tsoi, Sarah; Medihala, Prabhakara; Liu, Juxin; Wylie, John L; Levett, Paul N; Korber, Darren R

    2013-07-01

    A population-based study combining (i) antimicrobial, (ii) genetic, and (iii) virulence analyses with molecular evolutionary analyses revealed segregative characteristics distinguishing human clinical and bovine Escherichia coli O157 strains from western Canada. Human (n = 50) and bovine (n = 50) strains of E. coli O157 were collected from Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2006 and were analyzed by using the six-marker lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA6), antimicrobial susceptibility analysis, the colicin assay, plasmid and virulence profiling including the eae, ehxA, espA, iha, stx1, stx2, stx2c, stx2d, stx2d-activatable, stx2e, and stx2f virulence-associated genes, and structure analyses. Multivariate logistic regression and Fisher's exact test strongly suggested that antimicrobial susceptibility was the most distinctive characteristic (P = 0.00487) associated with human strains. Among all genetic, virulence, and antimicrobial determinants, resistance to tetracycline (P coli O157 strains. Among 11 virulence-associated genes, stx2c showed the strongest association with E. coli O157 strains of bovine origin. LSPA6 genotyping showed the dominance of the lineage I genotype among clinical (90%) and bovine (70%) strains, indicating the importance of lineage I in O157 epidemiology and ecology. Population structure analysis revealed that the more-diverse bovine strains came from a unique group of strains characterized by a high degree of antimicrobial resistance and high frequencies of lineage II genotypes and stx2c variants. These findings imply that antimicrobial resistance generated among bovine strains of E. coli O157 has a large impact on the population of this human pathogen.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  14. Isolation of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa and susceptibility to five antimicrobial drugs in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Otth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world population thus, it is considered an important cause of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation frequency of H. pylori in Southern Chile from patients with symptomatology compatible with gastritis or gastric ulcer and to correlate these findings with demographic parameters of infected patients and the susceptibility profiles of the isolated strains to the antimicrobial drugs used in the eradication treatments. A total of 240 patients were enrolled in the study. Each gastric biopsy was homogenized and seeded onto blood agar plates containing a selective antibiotics mixture (DENT supplement. Plates were incubated at 37° C in a microaerophilic environment for five days. The susceptibility profiles to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, tetracycline and metronidazole were determined using the E-test method. H. pylori was isolated from 99 patients (41.3% with slightly higher frequency in female (42% positive cultures than male (40.2% positive cultures. With regard to age and educational level, the highest isolation frequencies were obtained in patients between 21-30 (55% and 41-50 (52.6% years old, and patients with secondary (43.9% and university (46.2% educational levels. Nineteen (21.6% strains showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Tetracycline was the most active antimicrobial in vitro, whereas metronidazole was the less active. One strain (5.3% showed resistance to amoxicillin, clarithomycin and metronidazole, simultaneously.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  16. Susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobial agents in Hyogo and Osaka, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shigemura, K; Okada, H.; Shirakawa, T.; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, S.; Kinoshita, S; Gotoh, A; Kamidono, S

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Decreasing susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fluoroquinolones has been reported in several countries. Knowledge of local N gonorrhoeae susceptibilities to various antimicrobials is important for establishing a rational treatment strategy in each region.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in biofilm-growing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macià, M D; Rojo-Molinero, E; Oliver, A

    2014-10-01

    Biofilms are organized bacterial communities embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix attached to living or abiotic surfaces. The development of biofilms is currently recognized as one of the most relevant drivers of persistent infections. Among them, chronic respiratory infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients is probably the most intensively studied. The lack of correlation between conventional susceptibility test results and therapeutic success in chronic infections is probably a consequence of the use of planktonically growing instead of biofilm-growing bacteria. Therefore, several in vitro models to evaluate antimicrobial activity on biofilms have been implemented over the last decade. Microtitre plate-based assays, the Calgary device, substratum suspending reactors and the flow cell system are some of the most used in vitro biofilm models for susceptibility studies. Likewise, new pharmacodynamic parameters, including minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration, minimal biofilm-eradication concentration, biofilm bactericidal concentration, and biofilm-prevention concentration, have been defined in recent years to quantify antibiotic activity in biofilms. Using these parameters, several studies have shown very significant quantitative and qualitative differences for the effects of most antibiotics when acting on planktonic or biofilm bacteria. Nevertheless, standardization of the procedures, parameters and breakpoints, by official agencies, is needed before they are implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories for routine susceptibility testing. Research efforts should also be directed to obtaining a deeper understanding of biofilm resistance mechanisms, the evaluation of optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models for biofilm growth, and correlation with clinical outcome.

  18. [Recommendations for the analysis of cumulated data in antimicrobial susceptibility in health institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Due to the great variability in antimicrobial resistance patterns, local reports of cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility data are necessary in every health center. The purpose is to guide clinical decisions and the early detection of patterns that allow preventive measures to avoid dissemination of resistant strains. The main objective of this guide is to provide recommendations for the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility data and elaboration of a local report. Recommendations provided in this guide are based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document "Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data" (3). Key aspects related to information gathering and data processing, analysis and presentation are described.

  19. 21 CFR 866.1700 - Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. 866.1700 Section 866.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....1700 Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (a) Identification. A culture medium...

  20. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    .76% and Gram-negative bacilli 2 (2.38%. From total of Staphylococcus spp. isolates, 67.86% were sensitive to all antibiotics tested. Resistance to penicillin G was evidenced in 25% of the strains, to ampicillin in 28.57% and 10.71% to neomycin. It was also observed that 3.57% of strains tested were resistant to all antibiotics. The isolation of multidrug-resistant strains presents risks to the health of the animal and the consumer because they can be transmitted through milk products. The identification of pathogens and the performance of antimicrobial susceptibility profile are essential for monitoring and control of multidrug-resistant strains.

  1. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  2. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manjula; Sharma, Jyoti; Bhardwaj, Sonia

    2016-03-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM) and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome. PMID:27275323

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarieh, Parvin; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Feizabadi, Mohamad Mehdi; Bostanabad, Saeed Zaker; Nobar, Mostafa Ghalami; Hashemi Shahraki, Abodolrazagh

    2016-03-01

    Many species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have long been identified as important causes of human disease, the incidence of which is rising. Several reports have suggested increasing trend of both in vitro and in vivo resistance to available treatment regimes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of clinically relevant NTM isolates using standard microbroth dilution test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards methods for NTM isolates, including 85 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 39 Mycobacterium chelonae, and 30 Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus as rapidly growing mycobacteria and 48 Mycobacterium simiae and 40 Mycobacterium kansasii as slowly growing mycobacteria. All isolates were recovered from various types of clinical samples and identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ), amikacin, tobramycin, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and imipenem showed better activity against M. fortuitum rather than meropenem, ciprofloxacin, cefoxitin, and doxycycline. Amikacin was active against 93% of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus. Linezolid, clarithromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, tobramycin, TMP-SMZ, doxycycline, and meropenem showed some activities on M. abscessus subsp. abscessus as well. The majority of M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. chelonae strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 40 isolates of M. kansasii, all were susceptible to ethambutol, isoniazid, clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, and linezolid. These isolates were also resistant to doxycycline and 50% were resistant to rifampicin and ciprofloxacin. M. simiae was resistant to clarithromycin, doxycycline, isoniazid, and TMP-SMZ, and the majority of isolates showed high levels of resistance to linezolid, ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and rifampicin. The majority of M. simiae isolates were multidrug resistant. Our data

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber P Arêas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10 and iMLSB (4. The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81 were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7. There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from horses with synovial sepsis: A cross-sectional study of 95 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C S; Timofte, D; Singer, E R; Rimmington, L; Rubio-Martínez, L M

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of septic synovial samples allows instigation of targeted antimicrobial therapy; however, bacterial culture takes more than 24 h and has low sensitivity. This study aimed to identify the most frequently cultured bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile from septic synovial samples in our referral equine hospital, to allow recommendations regarding appropriate initial antimicrobial therapy prior to culture results. Hospital records for all horses with synovial sepsis and a synovial sample submitted to the microbiology laboratory between 2004 and 2013 were retrieved (n= 379 samples). One horse had positive cultures from more than one synovial structure, and two horses had positive cultures obtained from repeat samples. Overall, 114 bacterial isolates were obtained. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 75% of cases, of which 22% were haemolytic Staphylococcus spp., and 52% were Staphylococcus aureus including two multidrug-resistant isolates. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 25% of cases. Anaerobic Clostridium spp. was isolated in 3% of cases. Of the first line antimicrobials, oxytetracycline and doxycycline were effective against 70-100% of the Gram-positive bacteria and 20-100% of the Gram-negative organisms, whilst trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and gentamicin efficacy ranged between 50% and 88% for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Of the equine protected antimicrobials, ceftiofur was effective against 70-90% of all bacterial isolates whilst 80% of isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin. These results indicate that tetracyclines, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole or gentamicin may be suitable first-line antimicrobials for treatment of synovial sepsis cases while awaiting laboratory results, findings which support current recommendations for antimicrobial stewardship in equine medicine. PMID:27687937

  6. Spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection from the samples received at AFIP Rawalpindi. Place and duration of study. The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from January 2010 to June 2010. Material and Method: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 500 bacterial isolates out of 2050 urine culture samples, for a period of six month were included in the study. Indentification was carried out by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated organisms were performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Results Out of the culture positive cases, gram-negative bacteria constituted the largest group with a total of 434 (87%) isolates, while gram-positive bacteria constituted only 44 (8.8%) isolates. E. coli was the most common isolate accounting for 63% of the total positive bacterial cultures followed by Klebsiella spp (9%) and P. aernginosa (7%). Susceptibility pattern of E. coli revealed that 96% of isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 91% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 87% to Nitrofurantoin. For Klebsiella spp, 86% of Isolates were susceptible to Imipenem and 71 % to piperacillin-tazobactam. As regards acinetobacter spp, 94% of Isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and 70 % to Imipenem an piperacilline-sulbactam. Antibiogram of P. aeruginosa revealed that 94% of isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and 86% to imipenem. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective urinary antibiotic in case of enterococcus spp as 85% of isolates were susceptible to this compound. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in our set up. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli revealed that majority of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacilline

  7. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  8. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional. PMID:18847380

  11. The Evaluation of the Distribution and Antimcrobial Susceptibility Profile of the Strains Isolated at Anesthesiology Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ece

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hospital infections are important uptodate health problems because of high mortality and increased cost. The increment in antimicrobial resistance is progressing though new antimicrobial agents are arising. This leads to an increase in hospital infections and difficulty in treatment. In our study we aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains isolated at Anesthesiology Intensive Care Unit. Material and Method: The antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains isolated at Anesthesiology Intensive Care Unit between April 1st 2012- October 25th 2012 were included. The identification and the antimicrobial susceptibility were studied by automatized Vitek version 2.0 (Biomerieux, France. Results: A total of 155 strains isolated from wound, blood, tracheal secretion, sputum and urine samples were included. They are consisted of 40 A. baumannii, 24 E.coli, 25 P. aeruginosa, 20 K.pneumoniae, 12 Methicilin Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRCoNS, nine Methiciline Susceptible S.aureus (MSSA, eight C.albicans, four Methicilin Resistant S.aureus (MRSA, one C.famata, one C.tropicalis, three E.faecalis, two E.faecium, three S.marsecens, two P. mirabilis and one H.influenzae. Clinical samples were 81 tracheal secretions, 25 wound specimen, 23 blood culture, 18 urine, seven sputum, and one BAL. All the Gram positive strains were susceptible to glycopeptides. Enterobacteriaceae members were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. Discussion: Antimicrobial resistance is an important issue worldwide. Multidiciplinary approach is needed as in ICUs where the complicated patients are followed. Monitoring antibiotic resistance profile contributes to treatment and decreasing resistance rates. The resistance profile will guide the antibiotic use policy. Increment in number of isolates in future will help to obtain the antimicrobial resistance profile.

  12. Preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility: possibility of early and effective therapy during treatment of septic patients

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    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood cultures have the drawback of requiring long time to be carried out. Our study was designed with the aim of early reports on both causing agents and preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility. We carried out a direct antimicrobial susceptibility on 79 positive blood cultures (42 for Gram-negative bacteria of which 21 MDRO; 22 for staphylococci of which 15 S. aureus; and 15 Enterococci/Streptococci employing E-test strips deposited on Müller-Hinton Agar for staphylococci and Gram-negative bacteria, and Müller-Hinton Agar + 5% of blood for enterococci/streptococci. MICs were compared to the antimicrobial susceptibility tests carried out using Vitek2. On the basis of the interpretative criteria (SIR, the comparison between the direct antimicrobial susceptibility and the routine antimicrobial susceptibility, showed a concordance from 92.6% up to 100% for Gram-negative bacteria; from 90.0% up to 100% for staphylococci; from 86.7% up to 100% for streptococci/enterococci, respectively. With regard to MICs comparison, good concordance was detected on the basis of ± 1 doubling dilution. Moreover, this work allowed, in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, either the early identification of multidrug-resistant organisms or providing the MIC evaluation in a broader interval than it would be possible by the reference antimicrobial susceptibility.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL Escherichia coli isolated from community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections

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    Najwa Al Mously

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study highlights the source and current antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESBL E. coli. Since bacterial multidrug resistance is an increasingly existing problem, periodical monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility, rotating the use of effective antimicrobial drugs, and research for finding novel drugs and their rational use should be considered.

  14. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  15. Use of Aeromonas spp. as General Indicators of Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Bacteria in Aquatic Environments in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Tagaki, Chie; Fukuda, Akira; Okubo, Torahiko; Boonla, Chanchai; Suzuki, Satoru; Seki, Kanako; Takada, Hideshige; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya River, 2 sites at the mouth of Chao Phraya River, 3 sites in Ta Chin River, and 5 sites at city canals) and 12 sites (6 sites at city canals; 2 sites at chicken farms; 2 sites at pig farms; and 2 samples from sites at pig farms, which were subsequently treated at a biogas plant) in Thailand in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In total, 117 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the water samples, and these organisms exhibited various antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Notably, there was a significant correlation between the environmental concentration of tetracyclines and the rates of tetracycline resistance in the isolated Aeromonas spp.; however, both the concentration and rates of tetracycline resistance in samples derived from pig farms were higher than those of samples harvested from other aquatic environments. These findings suggest that the high concentrations of antimicrobials observed in these aquatic environments likely select for ARGs. Furthermore, they indicate that Aeromonas spp. comprise an effective marker for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. PMID:27433156

  16. Correlation between Group B Streptococcal Genotypes, Their Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles, and Virulence Genes among Pregnant Women in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Hannoun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 76 Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci [GBS] isolates from vaginal specimens of pregnant women near term were correlated to their genotypes generated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis and their virulence factors encoding genes cylE, lmb, scpB, rib, and bca by PCR. Based on the distribution of the susceptibility patterns, six profiles were generated. RAPD analysis detected 7 clusters of genotypes. The cylE gene was present in 99% of the isolates, the lmb in 96%, scpB in 94.7%, rib in 33%, and bca in 56.5% of isolates. The isolates demonstrated a significant correlation between antimicrobial resistance and genotype clusters denoting the distribution of particular clones with different antimicrobial resistance profiles, entailing the practice of caution in therapeutic options. All virulence factors encoding genes were detected in all seven genotypic clusters with rib and bca not coexisting in the same genome.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Eschericia coli isolates from Arieş river (Romania

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    Andreea BODOCZI FLOREA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR and multiple antimicrobial resistances (MAR among the faecal bacteria found in the Arieş river (Romania affected by strong anthropogenic pressures. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for 12 antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ceftazidin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ticarcycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and norfloxacin. The data of the antimicrobial susceptibility reviled that all the studied E. coli strains were resistant to most of the tested antibiotics. The analysis of antibiotic resistance frequencies has showed an incidence of 46.66% strains resistant to more than 4 different antibiotics. Moreover, a high incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances was detected in each of the studied samples.

  18. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) epidemiological minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cut-off values in a routine setting. Metronidazole and vancomycin zone diameters from 2702 isolates were recorded. Fifteen isolates had a metronidazole zone diameter below...... the published breakpoint (vancomycin zone diameter below the published breakpoint (

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of standard strains of nontuberculous mycobacteria by microplate Alamar Blue assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilian Li

    Full Text Available In this study, 24 standard nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species strains including 12 slowly growing mycobacteria strains and 12 rapidly growing mycobacteria strains were subjected to drug susceptibility testing using microplate Alamar Blue assay-based 7H9 broth. The most active antimicrobial agents against the 24 NTM strains were streptomycin, amikacin, the fluoroquinolones, and the tetracyclines. Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium bolletii, and Mycobacterium simiae are resistant to most antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility results of this study from 24 NTM standard strains can be referenced by clinicians before susceptibility testing for clinical isolates is performed or when conditions do not allow for susceptibility testing. The application of broth-based methods is recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the documentation of the susceptibility patterns of standard strains of mycobacteria can improve the international standardization of susceptibility testing methods.

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni from Kuwait to tigecycline & other antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M John Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is an increasing frequency of resistance of Campylobacter jejuni to antimicrobial agents making treatment difficult. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of C. jejuni isolates collected over an eight year period was tested against tigecycline, a glycylcycline, the previously tested antimicrobial agents in Kuwait, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline, and other antimicrobial agents not previously tested in Kuwait, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, imipenem and meropenem. Methods: A total of 97 C. jejuni isolates from diarrhoeal stools of Kuwaiti patients during 2002-2010 were studied for susceptibility to the above antimicrobial agents by E test. Results: Erythromycin resistance increased from 5.0 per cent in 2002-2003 to 13.8 per cent in 2007-2010. The figures for ciprofloxacin resistance for the same periods were 53 and 65.5 per cent, respectively. Tetracycline resistance increased from 40.0 per cent in 2003-2006 to 62.1 per cent in 2007-2010 (P=0.05. However, all isolates were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline and other antimicrobial agents. Interpretation & conclusions: There was a progressive increase in the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. As all isolates were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline, this antimicrobial agent can be considered as a potential candidate for treatment in clinical studies.

  1. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired. PMID:27199926

  2. Virulence Genes, Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Phylogenetic Background of Escherichia coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The epidemiology of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC in urban and rural communities in Iran was never investigated prior to this study. Objectives The aims of this study were to detect the frequency of virulence genes and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic background of Escherichia coli isolates collected from urban and rural communities. Materials and Methods A total of 100 E. coli isolates were collected from urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs residing in two different locations, and confirmed by current biochemical tests. The phylogenetic groups were determined by the triplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method, and multiplex PCRs were used to detect eight Vf genes (fimH, iucD, irp2, hlyA, ompT, iha, iroN, and cnf1. The susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Results Ninety-five percent of UPEC showed at least one of the virulence genes, the most prevalent being fimH (95%, followed by irp2 (89%, iucD (69%, ompT (67%, iroN (29%, and iha (29%. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. Phylogenetic groups, B2 (55% and D (22%, comprised the majority of isolated strains. Phenotypic tests showed that 92%, 74% and 71% of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftizoxime and cefixime, respectively. Conclusions These findings indicate that the UPEC isolates had eight virulence factors with high frequencies. Moreover, these results suggest a direct connection between virulence factors, gene diversity, phylogenetic background, and antimicrobial resistance in UPEC isolates.

  3. Multiple isolates from Aids patients: aspects of an analysis by a genotypic marker and antimicrobial susceptibilities variations

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    Maria Helena Féres Saad

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one Mycobacterium avium multisolates, from ten human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism using as marker the IS1245 and characterized by minimum inhibitory concentration for nine different antibiotics. Two out of four patients harboring multisolates with different fingerprint profile, were therefore considered as having a polyclonal infection, since their isolates were taken from sterile site. This result confirms that polyclonal infection caused by M. avium occurs with a nonnegligenciable frequency. Analyzing the multisolates susceptibility profile of each patient it was observed that most of them were infected with strains having appreciably different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, no matter what the genotypic pattern of the strains was. These results have strong implication for the treatment of the patients.

  4. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  5. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Animals including food animals play a significant role in the epidemiology of Salmonella enterica. The control requires identification of sources and institution of targeted interventions. This study investigates the diversity of S. enterica serovars, antimicrobial susceptibility, and occurrence...... of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain....... Other PMQR genes were not detected. Pigs constitute an important source of diverse Salmonella serovars in Ibadan. The isolates were more resistant to old antimicrobials with some multiple resistant. Control measures and regulation of antimicrobials are warranted....

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella paratyphi A: An Impact of Biofield Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducte...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in Clostridium difficile strains isolated from animals and humans in Brazil. The 54 C. difficile strains used were isolated from stool samples from piglets (n=16, dogs (n=13, humans (n=13, foals (n=8 calves (n=2, an ocelot (n=1 and a maned wolf (n=1. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the serial plate agar dilution method for penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, metronidazole and tylosin. The C. difficile strains assessed were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Florfenicol resistance was rarely observed; 52 (96.4% strains were sensitive to this antimicrobial. Five (9.3%, five (9.3%, 14 (25.9% and 20 (37.0% strains were resistant to oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin and erythromycin respectively.

  10. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains. PMID:26181775

  11. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and plasmid carrying in Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from two estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R; Dominguez, M; Gonzalez, C; Mondaca, M A; Zemelman, R

    1992-01-01

    Susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents and the presence of plasmids was investigated in eleven strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from samples of sea water and these strains isolated from Aulacomya ater. Transference of resistance to Escherichia coli was attempted by conjugation and transformation experiments. The strains showed multiple resistance toward beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptibility to other antimicrobial agents. Five strains harboured plasmids with molecular weights below 5.7 MD. It was not possible to relate the resistance of the strains with the presence of their plasmids. PMID:1593967

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

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    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  13. Distinct Profiling of Antimicrobial Peptide Families

    KAUST Repository

    Khamis, Abdullah M.

    2014-11-10

    Motivation: The increased prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens heightens the need to design new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit broad-spectrum potent activity against MDR pathogens and kills rapidly, thus giving rise to AMPs being recognized as a potential substitute for conventional antibiotics. Designing new AMPs using current in-silico approaches is, however, challenging due to the absence of suitable models, large number of design parameters, testing cycles, production time and cost. To date, AMPs have merely been categorized into families according to their primary sequences, structures and functions. The ability to computationally determine the properties that discriminate AMP families from each other could help in exploring the key characteristics of these families and facilitate the in-silico design of synthetic AMPs. Results: Here we studied 14 AMP families and sub-families. We selected a specific description of AMP amino acid sequence and identified compositional and physicochemical properties of amino acids that accurately distinguish each AMP family from all other AMPs with an average sensitivity, specificity and precision of 92.88%, 99.86% and 95.96%, respectively. Many of our identified discriminative properties have been shown to be compositional or functional characteristics of the corresponding AMP family in literature. We suggest that these properties could serve as guides for in-silico methods in design of novel synthetic AMPs. The methodology we developed is generic and has a potential to be applied for characterization of any protein family.

  14. In Vitro Susceptibility of Equine-Obtained Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to Gallium Maltolate and 20 Other Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, M.; Lawhon, S. D.; Zhang, S.; Kuskie, K. R.; Swinford, A. K.; Bernstein, L. R.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  15. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete;

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries...... observed identifying other enterococcal species. This study showed a good performance and agreement in antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the 12 participating laboratories and that surveillance data covering susceptibility test results of E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella from animals in the Nordic...... using routine methodology. In addition, the 25 Enterococcus strains were identified to species level. A total of 22,598 (97.2%) out of 23,259 test results were in accordance when the data were categorized as susceptible or resistant. When the reported results were categorized according to the National...

  16. Longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in healthy horses in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Staempfli, H. R.; Arroyo, L. G.;

    2012-01-01

    were to investigate and molecularly characterize isolates of Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella, collected sequentially over a one year period, and to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile for E. coli. Fecal samples were collected monthly from 25 adult horses for...... one year. Selective cultures were performed for all above bacteria. C. difficile isolates were characterized via PCR toxin gene profiling and ribotyping. Broth microdilution was performed to assess antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of E. coli. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile was isolated from 15....... Resistance to =1 and = 3 antimicrobials was present in 31/232 (13.4%) and 6/232 (2.6%) respectively. Only two horses shed the same strain of toxigenic C. difficile for more than one month, indicating that shedding is transient. The high number of ribotype 078 is consistent with recent emergence of this...

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Two Regions of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    DRITON SYLEJMANI; AVNI ROBAJ; AFRIM HAMIDI

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of 26 strains of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) and 18 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from samples of dairy cows with clinical mastitis. The isolates species of staphylococci were identified by using coagulase test (using rabbit plasma) and API Staph system (bioMėrieux SA) which differentiates S. aurues from other staphylococci. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility on Mueller Hinton...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae over 6 years at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belay Anagaw; Chandrashekhar Unakal; Mucheye Gezachew; Fantahun Biadgelgene; Berhanu Anagaw; Tariku Geleshe; Birke Taddese; Birhanu Getie; Mengistu Endris; Andargachew Mulu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the magnitude and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from various clinical specimens. Methods:A record based on retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Teaching Hospital from September 2007 to January 2012. All patients who visited Gondar University Hospital and provided clinical specimens (body fluids, discharge, swab and blood) for routine bacteriological culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were taken for analysis. Clinical specimens were processed for bacterial culture according to the standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for isolated organisms was done using agar disk diffusion method. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version 16 package. Results: One hundred and fifty three Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated from patients who visited Gondar University Teaching Hospital bacteriology laboratory for culture. Majority of the pneumococcal isolates were from inpatients [111(72.5%)], and 74(48.4%) were from body fluids. Out of the total isolates, 93(61%) were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic used for susceptibility testing. Forty eight (43.2%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (resistant to two or more drugs). The resistance rate noted for both ciprofloxacin 17(11.1%) and ceftriaxone 15(9.8%) were alarming. Conclusions: High proportions of the isolates tend to be increasingly resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs. The recommended drug of choice like ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone were found to be less susceptible in the study area. Based on the findings, we therefore recommend that antimicrobial agents should be inspected for acceptable activity before they are prescribed and administered empirically. Further study with a better design and survey of antimicrobial susceptibility at large scale shoule be performed to draw advanced information.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B

  20. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study analysed the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and phage types from pigs in Denmark from 1997 to 2006. Methods: Salmonella isolates collected through the Salmonella surveillance programme in pigs were serotyped and phage-typed, and susceptibilities t...

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens;

    1997-01-01

    . coil isolates originated from humans (7), broilers (17), and pigs (99); and the C. lari isolates originated from broilers (5) and cattle (1), All isolates were susceptible to apramycin, neomycin, and gentamicin, Only a few C.jejuni isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, Resistance...

  2. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  3. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown. PMID:21491069

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus parasuis and Histophilus somni from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Angen, Øystein

    2004-01-01

    A total of 52 Haemophilus parasuis and 80 Histophilus somni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC-determinations. None of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florphenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin, or...... tilmicosin. Two H. parasuis isolates were resistant to trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole. Six H. parasuis isolates had reduced susceptibility (0.06-0.5 mug/ml) to ciprofloxacin and 10 reduced susceptibility to TMP + sulfamethoxazole (1-2 mug/ml). This study showed that Danish isolates of H. parasuis and H...

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Pregnant Women in Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belard, Sabine; Toepfner, Nicole; Capan-Melser, Mesküre; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Groger, Mirjam; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Agnandji, Selidji T; Adegnika, Ayôla A; González, Raquel; Kremsner, Peter G; Menendez, Clara; Ramharter, Michael; Berner, Reinhard

    2015-11-25

    Neonatal invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae is life threatening and preventive strategies suitable for resource limited settings are urgently needed. Protective coverage of vaccine candidates based on capsular epitopes will relate to local epidemiology of S. agalactiae serotypes and successful management of critical infections depends on timely therapy with effective antibiotics. This is the first report on serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. agalactiae in pregnant women from a Central African region. Serotypes V, III, and Ib accounted for 88/109 (81%) serotypes and all isolates were susceptible to penicillin and clindamycin while 13% showed intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility profile of cryptic species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    The use of molecular tools has led to the description of new cryptic species among different Aspergillus species complexes. Their frequency in the clinical setting has been reported to be between 10 and 15%. The susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of many of these species is low, and some of them, such as Aspergillus calidoustus or Aspergillus lentulus, are considered multi-resistant. The changing epidemiology, the frequency of cryptic species, and the different susceptibility profiles make antifungal susceptibility testing an important tool to identify the optimal antifungal agent to treat the infections caused by these species.

  7. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K;

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  8. Metabolic profiling as a tool for prioritizing antimicrobial compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Changsheng; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that allows scientists to globally profile low molecular weight metabolites between samples in a medium- or high-throughput environment. Different biological samples are statistically analyzed and correlated to a bioactivity of interest, highlighting differentially produced compounds as potential biomarkers. Here, we review NMR- and MS-based metabolomics as technologies to facilitate the identification of novel antimicrobial natural products from microb...

  9. Staphylococcus aureus: incidência e resistência antimicrobiana em abscessos cutâneos de origem comunitária Staphylococcus aureus: etiology and susceptibility profile to antimicrobial agents of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses from community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zavadinack Netto

    2002-03-01

    profilaxia ou tratamento de infecções por S.aureus, mesmo aqueles de origem comunitária.An analysis of Staphylococcus aureus (Monera, an etiological agent of community infections, is provided. Staphylococcus aureus causes the formation of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Susceptibility profile to antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of these cutaneous infections will be given. One hundred and seven samples of secretions were collected from January 1996 through July 1997 at the emergency sector of University Hospital of the State University of Maringá, Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, from infected patients with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses. Microbiological evaluation was carried out according to Bayle and susceptibility to antimicrobial was evaluated in vitro through the technique of diffusion in agar according to Kirby. Sixteen antimicrobials used in prophylaxis or therapy of skin and subcutaneous cell tissue infections were evaluated. From the one hundred and seven clinical samples collected from patients complaining of infections with skin and subcutaneous cell tissue abscesses, 71 (66.35% were positive to S.aureus and 36 (33,65% were either positive for other microorganisms, or tested negative. In the evaluation of susceptibility to S.aureus a higher sensitivity to vancomycin (100%, teicoplanin (100%, amikacin (100%, cefoxitin (100%, cephalothin (98.53%, lincomycin (98.53%, gentamicin (98.53%, oxacillin (96,4%, norfloxacin (95.77% and sulfazotrin (95.77% was found when compared to penicillin G (08.45%, ampicillin (08.45%, kanamycin (81,69%, erythromycin (88.41%, tetracycline (90.14 and chloramphenicol (94,36%. Results show that S.aureus is the most frequently isolated microorganism from community infections with skin and subcutaneous tissue abscesses. The susceptibility profile evidences high resistance to penicillins, which restricts the use of these antimicrobials as an alternative in the prophylaxis or treatment of S

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy. PMID:8333204

  11. Microbiological study and antimicrobial susceptibilities of brucella isolates in serologic diagnosed cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abtin Heidarzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 25 Nov, 2008 ; Accepted 4 Mar, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution that is endemic in Iran. Worldwide, brucellosis remains a major cause of morbidity in humans and domesticated animals. The disease has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestation and can affect a variety of organs and systems. This study focused on blood culture of serologic diagnosed brucellosis and antimicrobial susceptibility test.Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study, microbiologic survey was done on a total of 30 serum samples with STA titer of 1:160 or greater and 2ME titer of 1:40 or greater, which were presumptive for brucellosis. Blood cultures were done by lysis centrifugation and antimicrobial susceptibility test, against 9 antimicrobial agents by disk method. The data was analyzed by stata V8.0 software.Results: At the end this study, the blood culture isolation rate was 23.3 %( 7 cases out of 30 patients and all of the isolates were brucella melitensis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed high in vitro activity of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline and also, low in vitro activity of streptomycin and cotrimoxazole.Conclusion: Brucellosis is endemic in Iran. Brucella melitensis was the most common strain of brucella in our patients. Except cotrimoxazole and streptomycin, high in vitro activity was found with other antibrucella agents, especially with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and doxycycline. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68: 74-78 (Persian

  12. Population structure and antimicrobial profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Yuchen; Bao, Hongduo; Wei, Ruicheng; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen associated with bovine mastitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and characterize of S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in the mid-east of China. Among the 200 milk samples analyzed, 58 were positive for S. aureus, of these isolates, 11 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All of the 58 S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I, while seven different sequence type (ST) patterns were identified and among them the most common was ST630 followed by ST188. All of the S. aureus isolates belonging to ST630 were resistant to more than four antimicrobials, and 22.2% of isolates belonging to ST188 were resistant to eight antimicrobials. Interestingly, while strong biofilm producers demonstrated higher resistance to multiple antimicrobials, they exhibited lower intracellular survival rates. The results of this study illustrated the distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, genotype, and the ability of biofilm production and mammary epithelial cells invasion of these S. aureus isolates. This study can provide the basis for the development of a disease prevention program in dairy farms to reduce the potential risk in both animal and human health.

  13. Population structure and antimicrobial profile of Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Li, Yuchen; Bao, Hongduo; Wei, Ruicheng; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen associated with bovine mastitis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and characterize of S. aureus strains isolated from the milk of cows suffering from mastitis in the mid-east of China. Among the 200 milk samples analyzed, 58 were positive for S. aureus, of these isolates, 11 isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All of the 58 S. aureus strains were classified in agr group I, while seven different sequence type (ST) patterns were identified and among them the most common was ST630 followed by ST188. All of the S. aureus isolates belonging to ST630 were resistant to more than four antimicrobials, and 22.2% of isolates belonging to ST188 were resistant to eight antimicrobials. Interestingly, while strong biofilm producers demonstrated higher resistance to multiple antimicrobials, they exhibited lower intracellular survival rates. The results of this study illustrated the distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, genotype, and the ability of biofilm production and mammary epithelial cells invasion of these S. aureus isolates. This study can provide the basis for the development of a disease prevention program in dairy farms to reduce the potential risk in both animal and human health. PMID:27265679

  14. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte;

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates ...... G2032A and high levels of tiamulin and lincomycin MICs was found, suggesting an increasing importance of this mutation in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of B. hyodysenteriae.......The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates...... by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance profiling and molecular subtyping of Campylobacter spp. from processed turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Julie S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is a major cause of human disease worldwide and poultry are identified as a significant source of this pathogen. Most disease in humans is associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry or cross-contamination with other foods. The primary drugs of choice for treatment of human campylobacteriosis include erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkey carcasses at two processing plants in the Upper Midwest US. Further analysis of a subset of isolates was carried out to assess resistance and genotype profiles. Results Campylobacter isolates from plant A (n = 439; including 196 C. coli and 217 C. jejuni and plant B (n = 362, including 281 C. coli and 62 C. jejuni were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin using agar dilution. C. coli were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni in both plants, including resistance to ciprofloxacin (28% of C. jejuni and 63% of C. coli, plant B; and 11% of C. coli, plant A. Erythromycin resistance was low among C. jejuni (0% plant A and 0.3% plant B compared to C. coli (41%, plant A and 17%, plant B. One hundred resistant and susceptible isolates were selected for additional antimicrobial susceptibility testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA gene (fla typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Fla-PFGE types obtained (n = 37 were associated with a specific plant with the exception of one type that was isolated from both plants. C. coli isolates (n = 65 were grouped into 20 types, while C. jejuni isolates (n = 35 were grouped into 17 types. Most isolates with identical fla-PFGE patterns shared identical or very similar antimicrobial resistance profiles. PFGE alone and composite analysis using fla-PFGE with resistance profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into distinct groups. Conclusion

  16. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, Juliana M. A.; Andressa de Souza; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P.; Beraldo, Lívia G.; Borges, Clarissa A.; Fernando A. Ávila; José M. Marin

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth ...

  17. Prevalence of Gram-negative Pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in bacterial meningitis in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Pal Chugh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and spectrum of Gram negative pathogens causing bacterial meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (3-5 ml was collected from 638 admitted children clinically suspected of septic meningitis. Bacterial isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Of the 638 samples tested 102 (15.99% were culture positive. Male to female (M:F ratio was 1.62:1. The maximum incidence of 45 (44.12% cases was found in children (1-12 yrs; in institutional deliveries the incidence was 58 (56.86% cases. Further, the incidence of 51 cases was found from May to August. Escherichia coli (E. coli were commonest, seen in 9 (25% cases followed by Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. with 6 (16.67% cases each. Enterobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in 3 (8.33% cases each. E. coli, Acinetobacter spp, Citrobacter spp and Klebsiella spp isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam and 100% resistant to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline. All strains of Neisseria spp, Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas spp. were 100% susceptible to meropenem followed by gatifloxacin. These were 100% resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Neisseria spp. were also 100% susceptible to pristinamycin. In septic meningitis Gram negative organisms are less common (35.29%. Of the isolates, more common Gram negative isolates included E. coli, Acinetobacter Spp., Citrobacter Spp., and Klebsiella spp. and these isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobacatam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Hence, empirical therapy should be formulated according to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter clinical isolates and emerging antibiogram trends for nosocomial infection management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months. The Acinetobacter isolates were identified using API 20E, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The isolation rate of Acinetobacter was high from the respiratory specimens, followed by wound samples. Antibiotic susceptibility analyses of the isolates revealed that the resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was the most common, in 710 (99.2% specimens each, followed by the resistance to gentamicin in 670 (93.6% isolates, and to imipenem in 651 (90.9% isolates. However, almost all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the alarming trends of resistance of Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens to the various classes of antimicrobials. The improvement of microbiological techniques for earlier and more accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatments.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clonality of Clinical Ureaplasma Isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Karau, Melissa J; Cunningham, Scott A; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are pathogens involved in urogenital tract and intrauterine infections and also in systemic diseases in newborns and immunosuppressed patients. There is limited information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and clonality of these species. In this study, we report the susceptibility of 250 contemporary isolates of Ureaplasma (202 U. parvum and 48 U. urealyticum isolates) recovered at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MICs of doxycycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were determined by broth microdilution, with MICS of the last three interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Levofloxacin resistance was found in 6.4% and 5.2% of U. parvum and U. urealyticum isolates, respectively, while 27.2% and 68.8% of isolates, respectively, showed ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. The resistance mechanism of levofloxacin-resistant isolates was due to mutations in parC, with the Ser83Leu substitution being most frequent, followed by Glu87Lys. No macrolide resistance was found among the 250 isolates studied; a single U. parvum isolate was tetracycline resistant. tet(M) was found in 10 U. parvum isolates, including the single tetracycline-resistant isolate, as well as in 9 isolates which had low tetracycline and doxycycline MICs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) performed on a selection of 46 isolates showed high diversity within the clinical Ureaplasma isolates studied, regardless of antimicrobial susceptibility. The present work extends previous knowledge regarding susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, resistance mechanisms, and clonality of Ureaplasma species in the United States. PMID:27246773

  20. Comparison of the CLSI guideline and ISO/IDF standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Sigrid; Zitz, Ulrike; Birru, Firew H; Gollan, Dagmar; Gołoś, Aleksandra K; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Domig, Konrad J

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacilli play a crucial role as probiotics and as starter cultures in the production of fermented foods. Although lactobacilli are a technologically useful and beneficial group of bacteria, a few members of them have been rarely correlated with bacterial infections. Correspondingly, clinicians are interested in the antimicrobial susceptibility of lactobacilli. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is also relevant for commercially applied lactobacilli as bacterial strains harboring transferable antibiotic resistance genes should not be used in fermented and probiotic foods. Therefore, two methods were developed by different organizations, which were compared within this study. For this purpose, 22 Lactobacillus-type strains were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 16 antibiotics following the procedures of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the International Organization of Standardization (ISO)/International Dairy Federation (IDF). Crucial discrepancies between both procedures were detected mainly due to the different AST media. Hence, half of the strains tested did not consistently grow in the CLSI medium, whereas all showed evaluable growth in the ISO/IDF medium. However, some antibiotics were influenced by the latter medium. In particular, low levels of essential agreement between both methods were obtained with seven antibiotics. Accordingly, different interpretative criteria are needed for both procedures to distinguish resistant from susceptible strains.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Marguerite; Saab, Matthew; Heider, Luke; McClure, J Trenton; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: (1) Streptococcus uberis (n = 70), (2) Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28), (3) other Streptococci spp. (n = 35), (4), Lactococcus spp. (n = 32), and (5) Enterococcus spp. (n = 27). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible S. uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin) to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin), with a median of 82%. All S. dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible) and tetracycline (18% susceptible). The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline) to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin) to 97% (for erythromycin), median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the minimum inhibitory concentrations were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice

  3. [The annual changes in antimicrobial susceptibility test results of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Kinki district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Saori; Komatsu, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatuya; Jikimoto, Takumi; Nishio, Hisaaki; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Satoh, Kaori; Toda, Hirofumi; Orita, Tamaki; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kita, Machiko; Nishi, Isao; Akagi, Masahiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Kofuku, Tomomi; Nakai, Isako; Ono, Tamotsu; Kida, Kaneyuki; Ohama, Masanobu; Watari, Hideo; Shimura, Satoshi; Niki, Makoto; Kuchibiro, Tomokazu; Wada, Yasunao

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted of the 1,225 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains that were isolated at 20 medical institutions in the Kinki district between 2011 and 2013 to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility and to characterize the strains of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) and the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) -producing strains. The MIC50/MIC90 values (μg/mL) of the various antimicrobial agents were as follows: imipenem, 2/>8; meropenem, 1/>8; doripenem, 0.5/8; biapenem, 1/>8; tazobactam/piperacillin, 8/>64; piperacillin, 8/>64; sulbactam/cefoperazone, 8/64; cefepime, 4/16; cefozopran, 2/>16; aztreonam, 8/>16; amikacin, 4/16; levofloxacin, 1/>4; and ciprofloxacin, 0.25/>2. From the viewpoint of the annual changes in the susceptibility rates (according to the CLSI guidelines [M100-S22]), the susceptibility to tazobactam/piperacillin, piperacillin, cefepime, cefozopran and aztreonam decreased in 2013. On the other hand, two antimicrobial agents showed high susceptibility rates each year; amikacin (94.0-95.6%) showed the highest rate, followed by doripenem (80.3-82.6%). With the exception of amikacin, there were substantial inter-institutional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. In comparison to the previous CLSI guidelines (M100-S21), the new CLSI guidelines (M100-S22) on the use of carbapenems and penicillins show that the MIC80 has been affected. The MDRP detection rates in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 1.8% (8 strains), 1.8% (8 strains), and 2.8% (10 strains), respectively. The MBL detection rates were as follows: bla(VIM-2), 0.2% (1 strain) in 2011; bla(IMP-1), 0.9% (4 strains) in 2012, and 1.7% (6 strains, including bla(IMP-1) [3 strains], bla(IMP-2) [2 strains] and bla(VIM-2) [1 strain]) in 2013. PMID:27544978

  4. Antimicrobial resistance profiles and genetic characterisation of macrolide resistant isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila AM Nakamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 100 clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae recovered from genitourinary tract specimens of non-pregnant individuals living in Rio de Janeiro were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of macrolide resistance genes and evaluation of the genetic diversity of erythromycin-resistant isolates. By agar diffusion method, all isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, penicillin and vancomycin. Isolates were resistant to levofloxacin (1%, clindamycin (5%, erythromycin (11% and tetracycline (83% and were intermediated to erythromycin (4% and tetracycline (6%. Erythromycin-resistant and intermediated isolates presented the following phenotypes: M (n = 3, constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS B, n = 5 and inductive MLS B (n = 7. Determinants of macrolide resistance genes, erm and mef, were detected in isolates presenting MLS B and M phenotypes, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA profiles of erythromycin-resistant isolates were clustered into two major groups of similarity.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Orofacial Infections

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    Sinan TOZOĞLU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine an effective antimicrobial therapy ofcausative agents for orofacial abscesses. In order to do that, bacterial strains isolated from patientsamples were identified based on “bacterial fatty acid profiles” and determined the antimicrobialsusceptibilities by using disc diffusion test for aerobic bacteria, and E test for anaerobic bacteria.Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 71 patients with a diagnosis oforofacial infections in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Atatürk University. Aerobic andanaerobic bacteria were isolated from 71 clinical specimens by Microbial Identification Systemand their antibiotic sensitivity was tested. Results: The most frequently isolated species were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.and Bacteroides spp. The highest rate of resistance was detected in the aerobic strains againstpenicillin (58.4%, followed by eriythromycin (46.7%, clindamycin (35.1%, tetracycline(32.5%, amoxycillin/clavulonic acid (31.1% and cefazoline (27.3%, respectively. The highestrate of resistance was detected in the anaerobic strains against to penicillin (60%, clindamycin(53.3%, metronidazole (30%, cefoxitin (20% piperacillin/tazobactam (11.6% and imipenem(0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In order to treat orofacial infections more effectively, and to prevent antimicrobialresistance which has increased recently, antibiotic susceptility tests should be performedroutinely in regions where antibacterial resistance is high like our area.

  6. Ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes nos resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário brasileiro e perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Occurrence of clinically relevant bacteria in health service waste in a Brazilian sanitary landfill and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago César Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos de serviços de saúde suscitam polêmica quanto a importância para a saúde humana, animal e ambiental. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes na pilha de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Alíquotas de chorume foram processadas para isolamento seletivo de Staphylococcus sp, bastonetes Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae e não fermentadores. Resistência bacteriana a todos os antimicrobianos testados foi observada em todos os grupos microbianos, além de resistência a mais de uma droga. Os resultados permitem sugerir que bactérias viáveis nos resíduos de serviços de saúde representam riscos à saúde humana e animal. Além disso, a ocorrência de linhagens multirresistentes sustenta a hipótese dos resíduos de serviços de saúde atuarem como reservatórios de marcadores de resistência, com impacto ambiental. A falta de legislação regional de segregação, tratamento e destino de resíduos podem expor diferentes populações a riscos de transmissão de doenças infecciosas associadas a microrganismos multirresistentes.Health service waste gives rise to controversy regarding its importance for human, animal and environmental health. Occurrences of clinically relevant bacteria in piles of health service waste in a sanitary landfill and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile were evaluated. Aliquots of leachate were processed for selective isolation of Staphylococcus sp, Gram-negative rods of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenters. Bacterial resistance to all the antimicrobials tested was observed in all microbial groups, including resistance to more than one drug. The results make it possible to suggest that viable bacteria in health service waste represent risks to human and animal health. Furthermore, occurrences of multiresistant strains support the hypothesis that health service waste acts as a

  7. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  8. Survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Ontario

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    Vivian G Loo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin were determined for 300 consecutive strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from physicians’ offices in Ontario. Only four isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. Of the remaining 296 isolates, five (1.7% had penicillin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 78 (26.3% had tetracycline MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 13 (4.4% had cefoxitin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L and 43 (14.5% had erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L. Two isolates (0.7% had high level tetracycline resistance with MICs greater than or equal to 16 mg/L. All N gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and to spectinomycin.

  9. Metabolic profiling as a tool for prioritizing antimicrobial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-03-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that allows scientists to globally profile low molecular weight metabolites between samples in a medium- or high-throughput environment. Different biological samples are statistically analyzed and correlated to a bioactivity of interest, highlighting differentially produced compounds as potential biomarkers. Here, we review NMR- and MS-based metabolomics as technologies to facilitate the identification of novel antimicrobial natural products from microbial sources. Approaches to elicit the production of poorly expressed (cryptic) molecules are thereby a key to allow statistical analysis of samples to identify bioactive markers, while connection of compounds to their biosynthetic gene cluster is a determining step in elucidating the biosynthetic pathway and allows downstream process optimization and upscaling. The review focuses on approaches built around NMR-based metabolomics, which enables efficient dereplication and guided fractionation of (antimicrobial) compounds. PMID:26335567

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-01-01

    from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates...... are collected and presented in a more harmonized way to allow more precise comparison of susceptibility patterns between studies. One way to accomplish this would be through systematic surveillance either at the country-level or at a larger scale across countries e.g. EU level....

  11. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

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    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  13. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

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    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  14. Salmonella enterica Serotype Bredeney: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Diversity of Isolates from Ireland and Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cormican, Martin; DeLappe, Niall; O’Hare, Colette; Doran, Geraldine; Morris, Dearbhaile; Corbett-Feeney, Geraldine; Fanning, Séamus; Daly, Mairead; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Moore, John

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Bredeney has emerged as the third most commonly identified serotype among human clinical isolates referred to the Irish National Salmonella Reference Laboratory in the years 1998 to 2000. A collection of 112 isolates of S. enterica serotype Bredeney collected during the period 1995 to 1999 from animal, food, and human sources from both Ireland and Northern Ireland were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and DNA ...

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynab Golshani; Ali Mohammad Ahadi; Ali Sharifzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this article as: Golshani Z, Ahadi AM, Sharifzadeh A. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2):48-53. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to detect and survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan (located in central Iran) hospitals. Materials & Methods : A Total of 50 clinical isola...

  16. Campylobacter MLST Subtypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Broiler Cecal Isolates: A Two Year Study from 142 Commercial Flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Campylobacter spp. are recognized as important agents of human foodborne gastroenteritis. To monitor trends in food safety and public health, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter derived from poultry products and infected patients has become common practice in both r...

  17. A rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test based on single-cell morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Yoo, Jungheon; Lee, Mincheol; Kim, Eun-Geun; Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seungok; Joo, Seik; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Eui-Chong; Lee, Jung Chan; Kim, Hee Chan; Jung, Yong-Gyun; Kwon, Sunghoon

    2014-12-17

    A rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) is desperately needed in clinical settings for fast and appropriate antibiotic administration. Traditional ASTs, which rely on cell culture, are not suitable for urgent cases of bacterial infection and antibiotic resistance owing to their relatively long test times. We describe a novel AST called single-cell morphological analysis (SCMA) that can determine antimicrobial susceptibility by automatically analyzing and categorizing morphological changes in single bacterial cells under various antimicrobial conditions. The SCMA was tested with four Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard bacterial strains and 189 clinical samples, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci from hospitals. The results were compared with the gold standard broth microdilution test. The SCMA results were obtained in less than 4 hours, with 91.5% categorical agreement and 6.51% minor, 2.56% major, and 1.49% very major discrepancies. Thus, SCMA provides rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility data that satisfy the recommended performance of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. PMID:25520395

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing for Escherichia coli Strains to Fluoroquinolones, in Urinary Tract Infections

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    FA Nakhjavani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed all over the world. Meanwhile most episode of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (up to 85% and frequently fluoroquinolones are preferred as initial agents for empiric therapy of UTIs. Widespread use of fluoroquinolones has resulted in an increasing incidence of resistance these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from UTI patients against common fluoroquinolones. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disk agar diffusion (DAD and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration methods as described by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Results: One hundred sixty four clinical isolates of E. coli were collected by urine cultures from patients with UTI. The extent of resistant to nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, by disk diffusion method was 49.3%, 44.5%, 41.4% and 40.2%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin by MIC method was 4.9%. Conclusion: This study represents high level resistant of E. coli isolates from UTI patients. It is because of inappropriate and incorrect administration of antimicrobial agents in blind cases. This problem remarks significance of performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing before empiric antibiotic therapy. To overcome this problem use of unnecessary antibiotics therapy should be limited.

  19. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates is essential for clinical diagnosis, to detect emerging problems and to guide empirical treatment. Current phenotypic procedures are sometimes associated with mistakes and may require further genetic testing. Whole-genome sequ......Objectives: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates is essential for clinical diagnosis, to detect emerging problems and to guide empirical treatment. Current phenotypic procedures are sometimes associated with mistakes and may require further genetic testing. Whole...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and bacteriological characteristics of bovine Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens isolates from mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Mamoru; Sawada, Takuo; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Sato, Reiichiro; Hayashimoto, Mizuki; Hata, Eiji; Yonezawa, Chizuko; Kato, Hajime

    2011-12-29

    The presence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains among bovine isolates of Gram-negative bacilli, and O-serotypes of bovine Serratia marcescens and P. aeruginosa isolates have been reported rarely. The aims of this study were to (1) elucidate antimicrobial susceptibilities and O-serotypes of P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates from bovine mastitis and the presence of MBL-producers and MDRP strains among them and (2) evaluate their relationships to human isolates. We investigated the MICs of 24 antimicrobials and O-serotypes for 116 P. aeruginosa and 55 S. marcescens isolates in Japan, primarily in 2006. A total of 171 isolates exhibited high antimicrobial susceptibilities with the exception of a partial drug. P. aeruginosa isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 95.7% to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, cefoperazone/sulbactam, amikacin, tobramycin, and gentamicin; however, they exhibited a susceptibility of only 69.8% to aztreonam. They exhibited substantial resistances to ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, cefotaxime, and moxalactam. S. marcescens isolates exhibited high susceptibilities of ≥ 90.9% to kanamycin, ceftiofur, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and the 15 aforementioned drugs, but exhibited resistance to minocycline. Neither MBL-producers nor MDRP strains were detected among the 171 strains. The dominant serotypes of P. aeruginosa isolates were OG, OA, OB, OI, OF, OE, and OK; those of S. marcescens isolates were O6 and O5. Every S. marcescens isolate was pigmented. These findings suggest that bovine P. aeruginosa and S. marcescens isolates differ from human isolates from both antibiogram and phenotypic perspectives, and could help to evaluate differences in bacteriological characteristics between bovine and human isolates.

  1. Comparison of adhesin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities between uropathogenic and intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaohua; Hu, Fupin; Wu, Shi; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Minggui

    2013-01-01

    The presence of adhesins is arguably an important determinant of pathogenicity for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by agar dilution method, fifteen adhesin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was analyzed in 70 UPEC isolates and 41 commensal E. coli strains. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was determined with confirmatory test. The prevalence of ESBL-producers in UPEC (53%, 37/70) was higher than the commensal intestinal isolates (7%, 3/41), and 97% (36/37) of the ESBL-producing UPEC harbored bla CTX-M genes. afa was present in 36% (10/28) UPEC isolates from recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI), and none in the acute pyelonephritis, acute uncomplicated cystitis or commensal strains (PUPEC isolates, while 5% (2/41) of the commensal strains were papG positive (P = 0.0025), and the prevalence of papG was significantly higher in acute pyelonephritis group (71%) than the other two UTI groups (PUPEC isolates than in the commensal strains. ESBL-producing UPEC showed a lower prevalence of adhesin genes compared with non-ESBL-producing strains. The MLST profiles were different between UPEC and commensal strains, with ST131 (19%, 13/70) and ST10 (20%, 8/41) being the most common MLSTs, respectively. This study demonstrated that several adhesin genes were more prevalent in UPEC isolates than in commensal E. coli, and afa may be associated with recurrent lower UTI whereas papG is more frequently associated with acute pyelonephritis.

  2. [Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Morganella morganii strains isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Wróblewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of M morganii rods isolated from clinical samples. This study included 201 strains isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Department of Dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in 2008-2010. Identification to species was carried out on the basis of the results of biochemical reactions included in the tests ID 32E and VITEK2 GN. Antimicrobial susceptibility of M. morganii rods was determined by the disk-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton II Agar. Strains of M morganii most commonly isolated from skin and soft tissue, and material taken from the urinary tract, mainly from patients of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Department of General and Vascular Surgery and Department of General Surgery and Endocrinology. All of M morganii strains isolated during the three years were susceptible to carbapenems. We reported decrease of strains susceptible to piperacillin and chloramphenicol. In 2010 we showed a higher percentage of strains intermediate to tigecycline, compared with 2009. We observed increase in the percentage of strains resistant to cefoperazone with sulbactam and reported decrease in the percentage of strains resistant and intermediate to aminoglycosides. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases were produced by 13 (6,5%) of M morganii strains.

  3. A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies. Methods Here we compare microbiological, clinical and epidemiological data from patients with shigellosis over three different periods in southern Vietnam spanning14 years. Results Our data demonstrates a shift in dominant infecting species (S. flexneri to S. sonnei and resistance profile of the organisms circulating in southern Vietnam. We find that there was no significant variation in the syndromes associated with either S. sonnei or S. flexneri, yet the clinical features of the disease are more severe in later observations. Conclusions Our findings show a change in clinical presentation of shigellosis in this setting, as the disease may be now more pronounced, this is concurrent with a change in antimicrobial resistance profile. These data highlight the socio-economic development of southern Vietnam and should guide future vaccine development and deployment strategies. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55945881

  4. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, and L. welshimeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Johnnie A; Jackson, Charlene R

    2009-03-01

    The current study compared antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. monocytogenes isolated from various sources. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a microbroth procedure with Sensititre minimum inhibitory concentration plates containing 18 antimicrobials. Resistant isolates were analyzed for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes using PCR. The majority of L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to oxacillin (99%, 89/90) and ceftriaxone (72%, 65/90), while few isolates were resistant to clindamycin (21%, 19/90) and ciprofloxacin (2%, 2/90). When selected sources of L. monocytogenes are compared, resistance to ceftriaxone, clindamycin, and oxacillin ranged from 27% to 86%, 7% to 43%, and 96% to 100%, respectively. Resistance to ciprofloxacin (6%, 2/34), quinupristin/dalfopristin (7%, 1/14), and tetracycline (7%, 1/15) was observed with L. monocytogenes isolated from food, animal, and environmental sources, respectively. All L. welshimeri isolates (6/6) were resistant to streptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, oxacillin, penicillin, and clindamycin, while most isolates (67%, 4/6) were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. All L. innocua isolates (4/4) were resistant to oxacillin and penicillin, whereas 75% (3/4) of isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ceftriaxone, and clindamycin. Resistant isolates were negative for aadA, strA-B, sul I-II, penA, vat(A-E), vga(A-B), and vgb(A-B). However, tetM was detected among tetracycline-resistant isolates. L. welshimeri was resistant to more of the tested antimicrobials than the other two Listeria species tested, but resistance was not attributed to selected resistance genes. These data demonstrate the variability in resistance among Listeria species. However, the human pathogen L. monocytogenes appears to be the least resistant among the tested species. PMID:19216646

  5. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  6. Clinical significance, antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular identification of Nocardia species isolated from children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrán, Ana; Villuendas, M Cruz; Rezusta, Antonio; Pereira, Javier; Revillo, M José; Rodríguez-Nava, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology, clinical significance and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from eight children with cystic fibrosis. The isolated species were identified as Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia transvalensis, Nocardia pneumoniae, Nocardia veterana and Nocardia wallacei. N. farcinica was isolated in three patients and all of them presented lung affectation with a chronic colonization and pneumonia. N. farcinica showed resistance against gentamicin, tobramycin, cefotaxime, but was susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and amikacin. N. transvalensis, which was isolated from two patients, showed an association with chronic colonization. N. transvalensis was resistant to tobramycin and amikacin, but susceptible to ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cefotaxime. N. veterana, N. pneumoniae and N. wallacei were isolated from three different patients and appeared in transitory lung colonization. N. veterana and N. pneumoniae were susceptible to imipenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tobramycin, and cefotaxime. N. wallacei was resistant to amikacin, tobramycin, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and susceptible to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. All the isolates were identified up to species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence of Nocardia in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis is not always an indication of an active infection; therefore, the need for a treatment should be evaluated on an individual basis. The detection of multidrug-resistant species needs molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. PMID:27155949

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and clarithromycin resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Camelia; Pham, Son T; Tran, Kieu T; Pham, Binh T; Huynh, Loc V; Luu, Ngan B L; Le, Thao K T; Quek, Kelly; Pham, Van H

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that causes several gastroduodenal disorders such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.  Eradication efforts of H. pylori are often hampered by antimicrobial resistance in many countries, including Vietnam.  Here, the study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori clinical isolates across 13 hospitals in Vietnam.  The study further evaluated the clarithromycin resistance patterns of H. pylori strains.  In order to address the study interests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, epsilometer test and PCR-based sequencing were performed on a total of 193 strains isolated from patients, including 136 children (3-15 years of age) and 57 adults (19-69 years of age).  Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the overall resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline was 10.4%, 85.5%, 24.4%, 37.8%, and 23.8% respectively.  The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin-resistant strains was 85.5% with MIC >0.5 μg/mL.  The majority of the clarithromycin resistant isolates (135 of 165 subjects) have MICs ranging from 2 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL.  Furthermore, sequencing detection of mutations in 23S rRNA gene revealed that strains resistant and susceptible to clarithromycin contained both A2143G and T2182C mutations.  Of all isolates, eight clarithromycin-resistant isolates (MIC >0.5 μg/mL) had no mutations in the 23S rRNA gene.  Collectively, these results demonstrated that a proportion of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains, which are not related to the 23S rRNA gene mutations, could be potentially related to other mechanisms such as the presence of an efflux pump or polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene.  Therefore, the present study suggests that providing susceptibility testing prior to treatment or alternative screening strategies for antimicrobial resistance is important for future clinical

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli recovered from organic turkey farms in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, Hosny; Ahmed, Marwa F E; Hotzel, Helmut; Tomaso, Herbert; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hartung, Joerg; Neubauer, Heinrich; Hafez, Hafez M

    2015-11-01

    The popularity of food produced from animals kept under an organic regimen has increased in recent years. In Germany, turkey meat consumption has increased. Despite several studies assessing the susceptibility of campylobacters to various antibiotics in poultry, no sufficient data exists regarding the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacters in organic-reared turkeys. This study provides information about antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter isolated from turkeys reared on organic farms in Germany. Ninety-six Campylobacter strains (41 C. jejuni and 55 C. coli) were isolated from different free-range turkey flocks. In vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done using a broth microdilution test, and the presence of resistance genes to antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline) was investigated. All Campylobacter isolates from organic turkeys (n = 96) were phenotypically sensitive to gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, and chloramphenicol. In this study, the antibiotic susceptibilities of C. jejuni to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and naladixic acid were 56.0%, 51.3%, and 56.0%, respectively. In contrast, 44.0%, 73.0%, and 74.6% of C. coli isolates were resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, respectively. Replacement of the Thr-86→Ile in the gyrA gene, and the presence of the tet(O) gene were the mainly identified resistance mechanisms against fluoroquinolones and tetracycline, respectively.These results also reinforce the need to develop strategies and implement specific control procedures to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26371330

  9. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. PMID:27387734

  10. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  11. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by Use of Laser Light Scattering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Lascols, Christine; Sue, David; Weigel, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Rapid methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility would assist in the timely distribution of effective treatment or postexposure prophylaxis in the aftermath of the release of bacterial biothreat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, or Burkholderia pseudomallei Conventional susceptibility tests require 16 to 48 h of incubation, depending on the bacterial species. We evaluated a method that is based on laser light scattering technology that measures cell density in real time. We determined that it has the ability to rapidly differentiate between growth (resistant) and no growth (susceptible) of several bacterial threat agents in the presence of clinically relevant antimicrobials. Results were available in 10 h of incubation. Use of laser scattering technology decreased the time required to determine antimicrobial susceptibility by 50% to 75% for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and B. pseudomallei compared to conventional methods. PMID:26984973

  12. Antimicrobial Non-Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from Outpatients and Patients Visiting Emergency Rooms in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Tay Wang

    Full Text Available Longitudinal nationwide surveillance data on antimicrobial non-susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs as well as AmpC β-lactamases producers among Escherichia coli from different sources in the community settings are limited. Such data may impact treatment practice. The present study investigated E. coli from outpatients and patients visiting emergency rooms collected by the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program. A total of 3481 E. coli isolates were studied, including 2153 (61.9% from urine and 1125 (32.3% from blood samples. These isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from a total of 28 hospitals located in different geographic regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using methods recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The prevalence and factors associated with the presence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were determined. Significant increases in non-susceptibility to most β-lactams and ciprofloxacin occurred during the study period. By 2012, non-susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin reached 21.1% and 26.9%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers also increased from 4.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in 2002-2004, to 10.7% for both in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M and CMY-types, respectively. Non-susceptibility of urine isolates to nitrofurantoin remained at around 8% and to fosfomycin was low (0.7% but to cefazolin (based on the 2014 CLSI urine criteria increased from 11.5% in 2002-2004 to 23.9% in 2010-2012 (P <0.001. Non-susceptibility of isolates from different specimen types was generally similar, but isolates from elderly patients were significantly more resistant to most antimicrobial agents and associated with the presence of ESBL- and AmpC- β-lactamases. An additional concern is that decreased ciprofloxacin

  13. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.;

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the...

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PhoP, a Two-Component Response Regulator, Involved in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Liu

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a gram-negative bacterium, has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is well-known for resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents including cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (CAPs. Resistance to polymyxin B, a kind of CAPs, is known to be controlled by the two-component system PhoPQ. To unravel the role of PhoPQ in polymyxin B resistance of S. maltophilia, a phoP mutant was constructed. We found MICs of polymyxin B, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin decreased 2-64 fold in the phoP mutant. Complementation of the phoP mutant by the wild-type phoP gene restored all of the MICs to the wild type levels. Expression of PhoP was shown to be autoregulated and responsive to Mg2+ levels. The polymyxin B and gentamicin killing tests indicated that pretreatment of low Mg2+ can protect the wild-type S. maltophilia from killing but not phoP mutant. Interestingly, we found phoP mutant had a decrease in expression of SmeZ, an efflux transporter protein for aminoglycosides in S. maltophilia. Moreover, phoP mutant showed increased permeability in the cell membrane relative to the wild-type. In summary, we demonstrated the two-component regulator PhoP of S. maltophilia is involved in antimicrobial susceptibilities and low Mg2+ serves as a signal for triggering the pathway. Both the alteration in membrane permeability and downregulation of SmeZ efflux transporter in the phoP mutant contributed to the increased drug susceptibilities of S. maltophilia, in particular for aminoglycosides. This is the first report to describe the role of the Mg2+-sensing PhoP signaling pathway of S. maltophilia in regulation of the SmeZ efflux transporter and in antimicrobial susceptibilities. This study suggests PhoPQ TCS may serve as a target for development of antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant S. maltophilia.

  15. In vitro biofilm formation by uropathogenic Escherichia coliand their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poovendran Ponnusamy; Vidhya Natarajan; Murugan Sevanan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To detect in vitro biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli(E. coli)(UPEC) strains isolated from urine specimens and also to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using 13 commonly used antibiotics.Methods: The present study comprised of166 urine specimens collected from tertiary care hospitals in and around Coimbatore, South India. All the specimens were subjected to gram staining, bacterial culture and theE. coli strains were screened for biofilm formation using Tube Method(TM), Congo Red Agar(CRA) and Tissue Culture Plate method(TCP) respectively. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion method for the biofilm and non-biofilm producingE. colistrains.Results: Of the100 (60.2 %)E. coli strains,72 strains displayed a biofilm positive phenotype under the optimized conditions in the Tube Method and the strains were classified as highly positive(17, 23.6%), moderate positive(19, 26.3 %) and weakly positive(36, 50.0 %), similarly under the optimized conditions on Congo Red agar medium, biofilm positive phenotype strains were classified as highly positive(23, 23 %), moderate positive(37, 37 %)and weakly positive (40, 40%). While inTCP method, the biofilm positive phenotype strains were also classified as highly positive(6, 6 %), moderate positive (80, 80 %)and weakly positive(14, 14 %), it didn’t not correlate well with the tube method for detecting biofilm formation in E. coli. The rates of antibiotic resistance of biofilm producingE. coliwere found to be 100 % for chloramphenicol and amoxyclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid),86% for gentamicin and cefotaxime,84% for ceftazidime,83% for cotrimoxazole and piperacillin/tazobactam,75% for tetracycline and70% for amikacin.Conclusions: This study reveals the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of biofilm and non-biofilm producing uropathogenic E. coli strains.

  16. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Silveira Castellano-Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  17. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SALMONELLA GALLINARUM ISOLATED FROM FOWL TYPHOID OUTBREAK IN BACKYARD VANARAJA FOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From a disease outbreak among Vanaraja fowl, an indigenous Indian Breed reared by backyard system in Jhargram, West Bengal, Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated and characterised. The outbreak occurred among 6-8 day old chicks. A total of 150 birds died in a span of 5 days. Salmonella Gallinarum were identified and confirmed by standard bacteriological methods and presence of invasion ( invA gene was detected by PCR. The isolates were susceptible to 15 common antimicrobials in vitro. Although chemotherapy may be effective, outbreaks of fowl typhoid in backyard poultry warranted precise control policy

  18. Serotyping, Genotyping, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale Isolates from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Vargas, Edgar Rafael; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Morales-Erasto, Vladimir; Trujillo-Ruíz, Héctor Hugo; Talavera-Rojas, Martín; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-09-01

    The bacterium Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is associated with respiratory disease and septicemia in poultry. In this study, 9 reference strains and a total of 23 isolates of O. rhinotracheale from respiratory diseased poultry from Mexico were serotyped and genotyped. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates and reference strains of O. rhinotracheale were determined. All isolates belong to serotype A and showed a clonal relationship. All reference strains and isolates were resistant to colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These results should eventually be helpful in planning strategies for the control of O. rhinotracheale infections in poultry in Mexico. PMID:27610728

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in staphylococci from poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Ahrens, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    to ciprofloxacin. Only six (7%) S. aureus isolates and one Staphylococcus saprophyticus were penicillin resistant. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed among 16 (19%) of S. aureus isolates and two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). Twenty (24%) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin...... of conventional biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (83), Staphylococcus hyicus (11), Staphylococcus xylosus (9) and Staphylococcus cohnii (6). The isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. A high frequency of S. aureus (30%) was resistant...

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.;

    2001-01-01

    and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  1. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  2. Genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from Tinamidae, Cracidae and Ramphastidae species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, genotype and evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens found in species Tinamidae, Cracidae and Ramphastidae in Brazil. C. perfringens was isolated in 13 (5% out of 260 swab samples and five (8.3% out of 60 stool samples. All strains were classified as C. perfringens type A, and nine (50% were positive for the beta-2 toxin-encoding gene. No strains were positive for the necrotic enteritis toxin B-like (NetB-encoding gene. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, metronidazole and vancomycin, whereas four (22.2%, five (27.8% and 13 (72.2% strains were considered resistant to erythromycin, oxytetracycline and lincomycin, respectively.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Udder Pathogens Isolated from Dairy Herds in the West Littoral Region of Uruguay

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    Franklin A

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 522 strains belonging to streptococci, enterococci and staphylococci isolated from sub-clinical and clinical cases of bovine mastitis from the west littoral region of Uruguay were analysed for their susceptibility to several antimicrobial agents. The susceptibility patterns were studied by agar disk diffusion methods (ADDM and broth micro-dilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The concentration that inhibits 90% (MIC90 of the analysed strains reported in micrograms per millilitre, for Staphylococcus aureus were > 8, 8, ≤ 0.5, ≤ 4, ≤ 1, ≤ 0.5, > 64, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, ≤ 1 and ≤ 1 to penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxitetracycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, and clindamycin, respectively. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS had different values for penicillin (4 and ampicillin (2, while the other antimicrobial agents had the same MIC90 values as reported for S. aureus. The MIC90 values for streptococci were 0.12, 0.25, ≤ 4, 16, ≤ 0.25, 0.5, 0.25 for penicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, whereas MIC90 for enterococci were 4, 4, 4, ≤ 0.5, 2, > 8 for penicillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Of 336 strains of S. aureus, 160 (47.6% were resistant to penicillin. For 41 CNS strains, 10 (27% presented penicillin-resistance. All the streptococcal strains were susceptible to penicillin, while 3 (7% of the 43 enteroccocal strains were resistant. Non significant statistical differences were found between the results obtained by ADDM and broth micro-dilution for classifying bacterial isolates as susceptible or resistant according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-enterococcal intrinsic glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Carlos; Cittadini, Roxana; Barberis, Claudia; Hernán Rodríguez, Carlos; Perez Martínez, Herminia; Genero, Fabiana; Famiglietti, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Non-enterococcal Gram-positive bacteria that are intrinsically vancomycin-resistant have been infrequently isolated in association with serious infections. However, well-documented infections have lately been reported with increasing frequency. Because these organisms may be pathogens, we tested the MICs of 19 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method for predicting susceptibility. The activity of these antimicrobial agents was assessed against 28 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 6; Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1; Lactobacillus casei, 1; Lactobacillus fermentum, 2; Lactobacillus brevis, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1; Weissella confusa, 2; Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 7; Leuconostoc lactis, 4; Pediococcus acidilactici, 2; Pediococcus pentosaceus, 1), isolated from clinical specimens in an Argentinian university hospital from 1997 to 2003. The MICs of penicillin for 67% of the Lactobacillus strains and 100% of the Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. strains tested were in the 0.25-2 microg/mL range. Erythromycin was the most active antimicrobial overall. Multiresistance was observed in 2 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1).

  5. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients in the United States in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornsberry Clyde

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infections are associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns should guide the choice of empiric antimicrobial regimens for patients with bacteremia. Methods From January to December of 2002, 82,569 bacterial blood culture isolates were reported to The Surveillance Network (TSN Database-USA by 268 laboratories. Susceptibility to relevant antibiotic compounds was analyzed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (42.0%, Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%, Enterococcus faecalis (8.3%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%, and Enterococcus faecium (3.5% were the most frequently isolated bacteria from blood cultures, collectively accounting for >80% of isolates. In vitro susceptibility to expanded-spectrum β-lactams such as ceftriaxone were high for oxacillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (98.7%, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (99.8%, E. coli (97.3%, K. pneumoniae (93.3%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (97.2%. Susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones were variable for K. pneumoniae (90.3–91.4%, E. coli (86.0–86.7%, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (84.0–89.4%, oxacillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (72.7–82.7%, E. faecalis (52.1%, and E. faecium (11.3%. Combinations of antimicrobials are often prescribed as empiric therapy for bacteremia. Susceptibilities of all blood culture isolates to one or both agents in combinations of ceftriaxone, ceftazdime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam or ciprofloxacin plus gentamicin were consistent (range, 74.8–76.3% but lower than similar β-lactam or ciprofloxacin combinations with vancomycin (range, 93.5–96.6%. Conclusion Ongoing surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility remains essential, and will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  7. The Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Uropathogens Isolated from Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ranjbar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered as the most common bacterial infectious disease seen among the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial uropathogens isolated from the pediatric patients with urinary tract infections."nMethods: This descriptive study was conducted in Children Medial Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2006 to Feb 2007. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were obtained from the patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by standard biochemical and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI guidelines."nResults: From 14199 urine specimens, 16.2% had positive results for bacterial cultures. Nine hundred twenty one strains were identified as Escherichia coli; 412 as Klebsiella spp., 285 as Coagulase negative Staphylocococci, 202 as Enterococcus spp., 158 as Pseudomonas spp., and 83 as Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli isolates showed high resistance to carbenicillin (68%, ampicillin (96%, trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazol (70% and kanamycin (65%. More than 30% of isolates of Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. have shown high degree of resistance to commonly used antibiotics."nConclusion: Our findings reinforce the need for ongoing investigation to show trends in antibiotic resistance, which can help to prescribing of antibiotics in clinics.

  8. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine. PMID:26919137

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from food animals on farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitaram, S N; Frank, J F; Siragusa, G R; Bailey, J S; Dargatz, D A; Lombard, J E; Haley, C A; Lyon, S A; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2016-06-16

    Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. C. difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmission to humans is possible. As a result of the complexity and cost of testing, C. difficile is rarely tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 376 C. difficile strains (94 each from swine and dairy feces, and 188 from beef cattle feces) were isolated from healthy food animals on farms during studies conducted by the National Animal Health Monitoring System. Using the Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden), samples were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobials implicated as risk factors for CDAD (linezolid, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, rifampicin, and vancomycin). Vancomycin was active against all isolates of C. difficile (MIC90=3.0μg/ml) while almost all isolates (n=369; 98.1%) were resistant to levofloxacin. With the exception of vancomycin, resistance varied by animal species as follows: linezolid (8.5% resistance among swine versus 2.1 and 1.1% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), clindamycin (56.4% resistance among swine versus 80% and 90.9% resistance among dairy and beef, respectively), and rifampicin (2.1% and 0% resistance among swine and dairy cattle isolates, respectively versus 14.3% resistance among beef isolates). Regardless of species, multiple drug resistance was observed most often to combinations of clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=195; 51.9%) and ampicillin, clindamycin and levofloxacin (n=41; 10.9%). The reason for the variability of resistance between animal species is unknown and requires further research. PMID:27043382

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of Antimicrobial Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Ariane; Schniederjans, Monika; Pohl, Sarah; Rainer, Roman; Bodenhofer, Ulrich; Xia, Boyang; Klawonn, Frank; Bruchmann, Sebastian; Preusse, Matthias; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Dötsch, Andreas; Häussler, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Emerging resistance to antimicrobials and the lack of new antibiotic drug candidates underscore the need for optimization of current diagnostics and therapies to diminish the evolution and spread of multidrug resistance. As the antibiotic resistance status of a bacterial pathogen is defined by its genome, resistance profiling by applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies may in the future accomplish pathogen identification, prompt initiation of targeted individualized treatment, and the implementation of optimized infection control measures. In this study, qualitative RNA sequencing was used to identify key genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in 135 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from diverse geographic and infection site origins. By applying transcriptome-wide association studies, adaptive variations associated with resistance to the antibiotic classes fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and β-lactams were identified. Besides potential novel biomarkers with a direct correlation to resistance, global patterns of phenotype-associated gene expression and sequence variations were identified by predictive machine learning approaches. Our research serves to establish genotype-based molecular diagnostic tools for the identification of the current resistance profiles of bacterial pathogens and paves the way for faster diagnostics for more efficient, targeted treatment strategies to also mitigate the future potential for resistance evolution. PMID:27216077

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  12. Bacteremia among Jordanian children at Princess Rahmah Hospital: Pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate microorganisms causing bacteremia in Jordanian children and to assess their sensitivity to various groups of antimicrobials."nMethods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures taken from 378 children aged below 15 year, who sought medical attention at Princess Rahmah Hospital between January and December/2008."nResults: Out of 4475 tested blood samples, 378 isolates were recovered from blood cultures. The male to female isolate ratio was (1.26:1.0. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus (86.2%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (9%, Escherichia coli (1.9%, Streptococcus spp. (1.9%, Pseudomonas spp. (0.8%, and Acinetobacter sp. was found in only one culture (0.3%. The susceptibility rate of S. aureus was recorded the highest (99.6% for vancomycin, and the lowest susceptibility rate (3.2% was recorded for aztreonam."nConclusions: Staphylococcus aureus was the main isolate in bacteremic children, with all isolates demonstrating susceptibility to vancomycin. Overall, aztreonam resistance was near 97%, and this rate was not affected by sex and blood isolate type. This information should be considered when empirical therapy is recommended or prescribed for children with bacteremia.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho, Iraq

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    Reem Fouad Polse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in uropathogenic E. coli is of major concern worldwide due to its increasing resistance to several commonly prescribed antibiotics. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and to evaluate the presence and antibiogram pattern of uropathogenic E. coli among people in Zakho city, Iraq. Methods: 1120 urine samples were collected from people. Samples were screened for E. coli isolates and their susceptibility to different antibiotics was analyzed. Results: Diagnoses tests showed that only 106 (9.4% isolates were E. coli. Females (90, 85% were more susceptible to urinary tract infections (UTIs than males (16, 15% (p <0.05. The age 11-21 years old (23, 21.7% was the most affected group (p <0.05. All isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and aztreonam. While, all these isolates were sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Conclusions: The incidence of uropathogenic E. coli among people is comparable with reports from elsewhere. E. coli isolates are highly susceptible towards imipenem, and meropenem antibiotics, and highly resistant towards beta-lactam and cephalosporins antibiotics. Education programs and improving the hygienic measures are necessary to prevent contaminations with E. coli and minimize the use of beta-lactam and cephalosporin antibiotics. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1219-1223

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

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    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and rRNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus intermedius from healthy dogs and from dogs suffering from pyoderma or otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Wegener, H C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 60 Staphylococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). Fifteen isolates were from healthy dogs, 9 with otitis externa, and 36 with pyoderma, including 10 strains from a previous study. Sixty per cent of the 50 strains tested for antibiotic susceptibility demonstrated resistance to penicillin, 24% to spiramycin, 20% to tetracycline, 16% to chloramphenicol, and 2% to fucidic acid. All isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin with clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and sulphonamides with trimethoprim. There were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed among isolates from pyoderma, otitis externa or healthy dogs. Among the 60 strains studied by ribotyping, 10 different ribotypes were identified: 6 different ribotypes among isolates from otitis externa, 8 among isolates from pyoderma, and 5 among isolates from healthy dogs. One ribotype (profile C) was dominant among the isolates from healthy dogs while another ribotype (profile A) was dominant among strains from dogs suffering from pyoderma. This profile was not demonstrated in any of the strains from healthy dogs. From 5 different dogs suffering from pyoderma, 2 different clones were demonstrated based on their plasmid profile and antibiogram. In these dogs 1 of the clones always belonged to ribotype A. The results concerning strains of S. intermedius isolated from furunculosis suggest the existence of distinct subpopulations with different pathogenicity to dogs.

  16. Serotype Distribution, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Molecular Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolated from Children in Shanghai, China.

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    Fen Pan

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common pathogenic cause of pediatric infections. This study investigated the serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of pneumococci before the introduction of conjugate vaccines in Shanghai, China.A total of 284 clinical pneumococcal isolates (270, 5, 4,3, and 2 of which were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, and ear secretions, respectively from children less than 14 years of age who had not been vaccinated with a conjugate vaccine, were collected between January and December in 2013. All isolates were serotyped by multiplex polymerase chain reaction or quellung reactions and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method. The molecular epidemiology of S.pneumoniae was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST.Among the 284 pneumococcal isolates, 19F (33.5%, 19A (14.1%, 23F (12.0%, and 6A (8.8% were the most common serotypes and the coverage rates of the 7-, 10-, and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were 58.6%, 59.4% and 85.1%, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that the prevalence rates of S.pneumoniae resistance to penicillin were 11.3% (32/284. Approximately 88.0% (250/284 of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. MLST analysis revealed a high level of diversity, with 65 sequence types (STs among 267 isolates. Specifically, the four predominant STs were ST271 (24.3%, 65/267, ST320 (11.2%, 30/267, ST81 (9.7%, 26/267, and ST3173 (5.2%, 14/267, which were mainly associated with serotypes 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A, respectively.The prevalent serotypes among clinical isolates from children were 19F, 19A, 23F, and 6A and these isolates showed high resistance rates to β-lactams and macrolides. The Taiwan19F-14 clone played a predominant role in the dissemination of pneumococcal isolates in Shanghai, China. Therefore, continued and

  17. Contaminação bacteriana em concentrados plaquetários: identificação, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e sepse associada à transfusão Bacterial contamination on platelet concentrates: identification, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and transfusion-related sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiéli Martini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Devido à sepse bacteriana associada à transfusão de concentrados plaquetários (CPs ter sérias consequências clínicas para os pacientes, alguns procedimentos têm sido incorporados na preparação e no controle de qualidade dos componentes sanguíneos para reduzir o risco da contaminação bacteriana. Este artigo descreve a prevalência da contaminação bacteriana dos CPs que foram transfundidos, o espectro bacteriano detectado com seu perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e as reações transfusionais nos receptores. MÉTODOS: Um total de 292 CPs (278 randômicos e 14 por aférese, proveniente do Hemocentro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (HEMORGS de Santa Maria foi testado. As quantidades de 100μL e 200μL foram coletadas da porção tubular da bolsa de plaquetas e semeadas utilizando dois tipos de metodologias. RESULTADOS: Em cinco unidades(1,7%; 5/292 foram isoladas bactérias pela metodologia qualitativa e apenas uma pela quantitativa. Staphylococcus epidermidis foi o microrganismo identificado em todas as amostras. Dois pacientes apresentaram sepse associada à transfusão com desfecho fatal. CONCLUSÕES: A contaminação bacteriana pelas transfusões de CPs constitui-se num importante problema de saúde pública devido a sua associação com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade. Neste estudo, somente microrganismos gram-positivos foram isolados sendo que nenhuma amostra obtida por aférese apresentou contaminação.INTRODUCTION: Bacterial sepsis associated with the transfusion of platelet concentrates (PCs results in serious clinical implications for patients. Given these implications, certain procedures have been integrated into the preparation and quality control of blood components to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. This article describes the prevalence of bacterial contamination on transfused PCs, the bacterial spectrum detected and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and transfusion

  18. Susceptibility of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents in children with sepsis at the Tamale Teaching Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Acquah, Samuel EK; Quaye, Lawrence; Sagoe, Kenneth; Juventus B. Ziem; Bromberger, Patricia I; Amponsem, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections in neonates and infants are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common bacteria causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study is aimed at determining the susceptibilities of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents for empirical treatment of suspected bacterial septicaemia in children. Methods This is a hospital based retrospective anal...

  19. Presence and antimicrobial profile of gram-negative facultative anaerobe rods in patients with chronic periodontitis and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Fredy; García, Dabeiba-Adriana; Acosta, Adriana; Mizrahi, Deborah; Paz, Andreína; Martínez, Diana; Arévalo, Azucena; Aristizabal, Fabio; Abba, Martín

    2013-01-01

    therapies in which antimicrobial susceptibility profile reports should be considered as part of periodontal treatment.

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility among Clostridium difficile isolated from an integrated human and swine population in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Keri N; Scott, Harvey M; Harvey, Roger B; Norby, Bo; Hume, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    Clostridium difficile can be a major problem in hospitals because the bacterium primarily affects individuals with an altered intestinal flora; this largely occurs through prolonged antibiotic use. Proposed sources of increased community-acquired infections are food animals and retail meats. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial resistance patterns of C. difficile isolated from a closed, integrated population of humans and swine to increase understanding of the bacterium in these populations. Swine fecal samples were collected from a vertically flowing swine population consisting of farrowing, nursery, breeding, and grower/finisher production groups. Human wastewater samples were collected from swine worker and nonworker occupational group cohorts. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 523 C. difficile strains from the population using the commercially available agar diffusion Epsilometer test (Etest(®)) for 11 different antimicrobials. All of the swine and human strains were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin. In addition, all of the human strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The majority of the human and swine strains were resistant to cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin. Statistically significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found among the swine production groups for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and clindamycin. No significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility were found across human occupational group cohorts. We found that 8.3% of the swine strains and 13.3% of the human strains exhibited resistance to metronidazole. The finding of differences in susceptibility patterns between human and swine strains of C. difficile provides evidence that transmission between host species in this integrated population is unlikely.

  1. Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: antimicrobial sensitivity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Kelie Souza de Almeida Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive quantitative study aimed to analyze the prevalence of microorganisms and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile from urine cultures of patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection. We reviewed 394 medical records of adults hospitalized in the Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, from April to December 2011. The prevalence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection was of 34.0% (134 and 2.2% (3 of these patients developed sepsis. The most common microorganisms found in the urine cultures were Candida sp (44.4%, Acinetobacter baumannii (9.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.2%. This last one showed resistance of 86.7% to third-generation cephalosporins and the Acinetobacter baumannii showed resistance of 83.3% to carbapenems. Klebsiella pneumonia had 87.5% of resistance to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and 75.0% to carbapenems. We concluded that bacterial resistance is frequent in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and that we should emphasize the control measures.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serovars of Salmonella from chickens and humans in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, K; Ogunsola, F; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2010-01-01

    in 2007. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Thirty-nine (4%) Salmonella isolates were obtained from human blood and 70 (11%) from chicken fecal samples. The human isolates revealed nine different serovars; 82% were non-typhoidal Salmonella and......BACKGROUND: This study determines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella serovars from humans and chickens in Ibadan, Nigeria, in 2004-2007. METHODOLOGY: A total of 991 blood samples were collected from patients in 2004 to 2005 and 641 fecal samples were collected from poultry farms....... Mouschaui, S. Jukestown, S. Oritamerin, and S. Onireke were isolated from both humans and chickens. Identical serovars were not found among human and chicken isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that chickens are not a reservoir of Salmonella causing bacteraemia among humans in Ibadan, Nigeria...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and capsular types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in children in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz-Aviles, G; Velázquez-Meza, M E; Carnalla-Barajas, M N; Soto-Noguerón, A; Solórzano-Santos, F; Pérez Miravete, A; Gatica-Marquina, R; di Fabio, J L

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA) initiative, we conducted a surveillance study to determine the relative prevalence of capsular types of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates in children less than 5 years old. We collected 220 isolates and found 33 of the 90 known types, with type 23F as the most common followed by types 6A+B, 14, 19F, and 19A. High penicillin resistance was found in 49 strains (22.2%), 31 belonging to type 23F. Twenty-nine (13.1%) were resistant to erythromycin, 95 (43.1%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, and 24 (10.9%) were resistant to cefotaxime. No strains were resistant to vancomycin.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility survey of pathogens isolated from selected patients in Northern Italy

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    Elisabetta Maioli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the University of Genoa participated, during the year 2003, in an international antimicrobial surveillance program.The collection of isolates was done according to the site of infection and/or type of patient. Four hundred twenty (420 clinical isolates were analyzed during this year and the frequencies of the different pathogens were investigated. A reference centre carried out susceptibility tests. Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus represented 47.6% of all S. aureus isolates from blood stream infections and 33.3% of all S. aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalised patients.These strains showed resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents evaluated, except vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid which registered 100% of susceptibility. Some isolates from blood stream infections such as E. coli demonstrated resistance to ciprofloxacin (23.3%, levofloxacin (20%, and gatifloxacin (16.6%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant (18% to all fluoroquinolones tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa manifested resistance to ciprofloxacin (16.6%, while 27.7% of these strains were resistant both to levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. All the Enterobacter cloacae isolated from blood were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from community-acquired respiratory tract infections were all inhibited by ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections in hospitalised patients were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin (2.7%. All Salmonella spp. collected from samples of patients affected by infections of the gastro-intestinal tract were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones. Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in 21.4% of isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections. Fluoroquinolone resistance was

  6. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in live and dressed chicken in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Akhras, Rani R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim. PMID:21988398

  8. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Zhang; Wei-Hong Wang; Yu Tian; Wen Gao; Jiang Li

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  9. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  10. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Staphylococcus aureus from healthcare institutions in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Sørum, Marit;

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and clonal diversity of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ghana. A total of 308 S. aureus isolates from six healthcare institutions located across Northern, Central and Southern Ghana were characteri...

  11. Comparison of M.I.C.E. and Etest with CLSI agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing against oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

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    Eloiza H Campana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate the performance of M.I.C.E. and Etest methodologies to that of agar dilution for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. METHODS: A total of 100 oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected from hospitalized patients at a teaching hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid was performed using the reference CLSI agar dilution method (2009, Etest and M.I.C.E. methodologies. The MIC values were interpreted according to CLSI susceptibility breakpoints and compared by regression analysis. RESULTS: In general, the essential agreement (±1-log2 between M.I.C.E. and CLSI agar dilution was 93.0%, 84.0% and 77.0% for linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin, respectively. Essential agreement rates between M.I.C.E. and Etest were excellent (>90.0% for all antibiotics tested. Both strips (M.I.C.E. and Etest yielded two very major errors for linezolid. Unacceptable minor rates were observed for teicoplanin against CoNS and for vancomycin against S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, linezolid and teicoplanin MICs against all staphylococci and S. aureus, respectively, were more accurately predicted by M.I.C.E. strips. However, the Etest showed better performance than M.I.C.E. for predicting vancomycin MICs against all staphylococci. Thus, microbiologists must be aware of the different performance of commercially available gradient strips against staphylococci.

  12. Relative efficacy of cefuroxime versus dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Bjarke; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arpi, Magnus;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of cefuroxime with that of dicloxacillin as definitive antimicrobial therapy in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (MS-SAB) using a Danish bacteraemia database, information on the indication....... Information including demographics, antimicrobial therapy and clinical condition was obtained. The physician's note detailing the indication for starting empirical antimicrobial therapy was given special attention. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for 30 day and 90 day mortality were calculated using PS...... were identified and grouped into eight categories. There was no statistically significant difference in 30 day mortality between the two groups (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.68-1.52). Definitive antimicrobial therapy with cefuroxime was associated with increased 90 day mortality in a PS-adjusted multivariate...

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Trinidad & Tobago

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    Monteil Michele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. The prevalence however, varies markedly in hospitals in the same country, and from one country to another. We therefore sought to document comprehensively the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods All Staphylococcus aureus isolates encountered in routine clinical specimens received at major hospitals in the country between 2000 and 2001 were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedures including latex agglutination test (Staphaurex Plus; Murex Diagnostics Ltd; Dartford, England; tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma (Becton, Dickinson & Co; Sparks, MD, USA, and DNase test using DNase agar (Oxoid Ltd; Basingstoke, Hampshire, England. MRSA screening was performed using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 6 μg oxacillin and 4% NaCl, latex agglutination test (Denka Seiken Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan and E-test system (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method while methicillin MICs were determined with E-test system. Results Of 1,912 S. aureus isolates received, 12.8% were methicillin (oxacillin resistant. Majority of the isolates were recovered from wound swabs (86.9% and the least in urine (0.4% specimens. Highest number of isolates was encountered in the surgical (62.3% and the least from obstetrics and gynaecology (1.6% facilities respectively. Large proportions of methicillin sensitive isolates are >85% sensitive to commonly used and available antimicrobials in the country. All MRSA isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, gentamicin and penicillin but were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, rifampin and chloramphenicol. Conclusion There is a progressive increase in MRSA prevalence in the country but

  14. Antimicrobial profiles of bacterial clinical isolates from the Gabonese National Laboratory of Public Health: data from routine activity

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    Léonard Kouegnigan Rerambiah

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The antimicrobial resistance profiles seen here are of concern. To control the spread of drug-resistant bacteria, clinicians should be cognizant of their local antimicrobial resistance patterns.

  15. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

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    Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  16. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

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    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 isolates of Acinetobacter spp yielded from various clinical specimens during the study period were included Routine conventional methods were used to identify various species of Acinetobacter and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing. Out of total 276 isolates, 176 (63.8%) turned out to be Acinetobacter baumannii and 100 (36.2%) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Overall sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp against piperacillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, sulbactam/cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin were 64%,63%, 48%, 47%, 41%,39%,35%, 34%, 32%, 31 %, 29%, 19%, 18% and 5% respectively. Out of 276 isolates, 181 (66 %) were multidrug resistant while 33 (18 %) isolates were pan-drug resistant. (author)

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococci Isolated from Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows in Two Regions of Kosovo

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    DRITON SYLEJMANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate antibiotic susceptibility of 26 strains of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS and 18 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from samples of dairy cows with clinical mastitis. The isolates species of staphylococci were identified by using coagulase test (using rabbit plasma and API Staph system (bioMėrieux SA which differentiates S. aurues from other staphylococci. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility on Mueller Hinton agar by dick diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI/NCCLS. The findings of this study showed that the most effective in vitro drugs for S. aureus strains isolated from cows with clinical mastitis were amoxycillin/clavulanic acid (83.3%, tetracycline (77.8%, gentamycin (77.8% and trimethoprim (66.7% and for CNS strains trimethoprim (88.5%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (84.6%, tetracycline (77% and gentamicin (69.2% while the isolates of S. aureus and CNS were found to be more resistant to penicillin (55.5% and 53.8%, respectively, streptomycin (50% and 46.1%, respectively and ampicillin (38.9% and 46.1%, respectively.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production

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    Dora Bučan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile using EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values and disk diffusion correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, L T; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Kahlmeter, G;

    2012-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C. difficile by ......Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: With the emergence of reduced susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to metronidazole and vancomycin the value of antimicrobial susceptibility testing has increased. The aim of our study was to evaluate disk diffusion for susceptibility testing of C...... University Hospitals, Denmark. Furthermore, ten clinical isolates of C. difficile from the Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, with known reduced susceptibility to either metronidazole or vancomycin, were included. Isolates were tested with Etest gradient strips and disk diffusion...... towards metronidazole, vancomycin and moxifloxacin on Brucella Blood Agar supplemented with hemin and vitamin K. We found an excellent agreement between inhibition zone diameter and MICs. For each MIC value, the inhibition zones varied from 0 to 8 mm, with 93% of values within 6 mm for metronidazole, 95...

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Golshani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Golshani Z, Ahadi AM, Sharifzadeh A. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2:48-53. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to detect and survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan (located in central Iran hospitals. Materials & Methods : A Total of 50 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from urine, wound, trachea, ear swab, and pus, and then were confirmed by standard tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Susceptibility data were compared by chi-square test using SPSS version 15. Results: Among the isolated strains, resistance to oxacillin was seen in 100%, ceftriaxone in 76%, amikacin in 70%, ceftazidime in 68%, cefepime in 68%, tobramycin in 62%, gentamicin in 60%, ciprofloxacin in 58%, and imipenem in 58% of the isolates. Conclusions: Comparison of the results showed that, patterns of antibiotic resistance are different from one hospital to another in various areas. Therefore, it is suggested that such studies should be performed in different hospitals. Also, prescribing correct medications is essential to prevent further increases in resistant bacteria. References: 1. Pagani L, Mantengoli E, Migliavacca R, Nucleo E, Pollini S, Spalla M, et al. Multifocal Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing the PER-1 Extended- Spectrum β-Lactamase in Northern Italy. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(6:2523–9. 2. Ling TKW, Xiong J, Yu Y, Lee CC, Ye H, Hawkey PM, et al. Multicenter Antimicrobial Susceptibility Survey of Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Community-Acquired Infections in the People's Republic of China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50(1:374–8. 3. Gupta V, Datta P, Agnihotri N, Chander J. Comparative in vitro Activities of Seven

  2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  3. Data Mining Validation of Fluconazole Breakpoints Established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Laguna, Fernando; Rodriguez-Pardo, Dolors; Almirante, Benito; Pahissa, Albert; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2009-01-01

    European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints classify Candida strains with a fluconazole MIC ≤ 2 mg/liter as susceptible, those with a fluconazole MIC of 4 mg/liter as representing intermediate susceptibility, and those with a fluconazole MIC > 4 mg/liter as resistant. Machine learning models are supported by complex statistical analyses assessing whether the results have statistical relevance. The aim of this work was to use supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used to produce EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints. Five supervised classifiers (J48, Correlation and Regression Trees [CART], OneR, Naïve Bayes, and Simple Logistic) were used to analyze two cohorts of patients with oropharyngeal candidosis and candidemia. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variables consisted of values for the MIC or the proportion between the dose administered and the MIC of the isolate (dose/MIC). Statistical power was assessed by determining values for sensitivity and specificity, the false-positive rate, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). CART obtained the best statistical power for a MIC > 4 mg/liter for detecting failures (sensitivity, 87%; false-positive rate, 8%; area under the ROC curve, 0.89; MCC index, 0.80). For dose/MIC determinations, the target was >75, with a sensitivity of 91%, a false-positive rate of 10%, an area under the ROC curve of 0.90, and an MCC index of 0.80. Other classifiers gave similar breakpoints with lower statistical power. EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints have been validated by means of machine learning methods. These computer tools must be incorporated in the process for developing breakpoints to avoid researcher bias, thus enhancing the statistical power of the model. PMID:19433568

  4. Assessment of Etest as an alternative to agar dilution for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi; Taylor, Thomas H; Pettus, Kevin; Trees, David

    2014-05-01

    We studied whether the Etest can be used as an alternative to agar dilution to determine antimicrobial susceptibilities of ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime in Neisseria gonorrhoeae surveillance. One hundred fifteen clinical and laboratory isolates of N. gonorrhoeae were tested following the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-approved CLSI standard agar dilution method and, separately, by the Etest according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The MICs were determined and compared. Ten laboratory-generated mutants were used to simulate substantially nonsusceptible specimens. The Etest and agar dilution methods were well correlated. Statistical tests produced regression R2 values of 88%, 82%, and 85% and Pearson correlation coefficients of 92%, 91%, and 92% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. When paired comparisons were made, the two tests were 88.7%, 80%, and 87% within 1 log2 dilution from each other for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. The within-2-log2 agreements were 99.1%, 98.3%, and 94.8% for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, respectively. Notwithstanding the good correlations and the within-2-log2 general agreement, the Etest results produced slightly lower MICs than the agar dilution results. In conclusion, we found that the Etest can be effectively used as an alternative to agar dilution testing to determine the susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime, although we recommend further research into extremely resistant isolates. For isolates within the typical range of clinical MICs, reexamination of the Etest interpretation of susceptible and nonsusceptible categories would likely allow for successful transition from agar dilution to the Etest.

  5. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320 isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185 toxR-positive isolate exhibit the TDH-related hemolysin (trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%, chloramphenicol (95%, trimethoprim-sulfamet (93%, gentamicin (85%, levofloxacin (83% and tetracycline (82%. The chloramphenicol (catA2 and kanamycin (aphA-3 resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine and human Staphylococcus aureus collected in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J E; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of infection in people and is increasingly recognized in dogs. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is complicating the treatment of these infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic syndromes in people may be partially responsible for the rise of MRSA. Canine and human S. aureus from the same geographic area are genetically similar, indicating a common population and likely transmission. The implications of increasing antimicrobial resistance complicated by interspecies transmission, necessitates including both dogs and humans in S. aureus resistance surveillance studies. A collection of 126 S. aureus isolates from people (n = 99) and dogs (n = 27) were included, minimum inhibitor concentrations to a panel of 33 antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine were determined. No resistance to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin or nitrofurantoin was found. A wide range of antibiograms were found; including resistance to 0-12 drugs (0-6 drug classes). Outstanding antibiograms included a canine MRSA resistant to rifampin and a human MRSA resistant to chloramphenicol. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found among 78% and 4% of canine and human MRSA and 17% and 25% of canine colonizing and human methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. Resistance to mupirocin was only found among human isolates including 20% of MRSA and 4% of MSSA. While no canine isolates were PVL positive, 39% of human MRSA and 2% of MSSA carried the gene. The bidirectional transmission of S. aureus between people and dogs necessitates the inclusion of isolates from both species in future studies. PMID:21824346

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields. PMID:25688239

  9. Experimental study of the impact of antimicrobial treatments on Campylobacter, Enterococcus and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles of the gut microbiota of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Jouy, Eric; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Dheilly, Alexandra; Kérouanton, Annaëlle; Zeitouni, Salman; Kempf, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the impact of antimicrobial treatments on the susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, and on the diversity of broiler microbiota. Specific-pathogen-free chickens were first orally inoculated with strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus faecium. Birds were then orally treated with recommended doses of oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim, amoxicillin or enrofloxacin. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after antimicrobial treatment. The susceptibility of Campylobacter, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated on supplemented or non-supplemented media was studied and PCR-capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) profiles of the gut microbiota were analysed. Enrofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter were selected in the enrofloxacin-treated group and showed the Thr86Ile mutation in the gyrA gene. Acquisition of the tetO gene in Campylobacter coli isolates was significantly more frequent in birds given oxytetracycline. No impact of amoxicillin treatment on the susceptibility of Campylobacter could be detected. Ampicillin- and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim-resistant Enterococcus faecium were selected in amoxicillin-treated broilers, but no selection of the inoculated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium could be detected, although it was also resistant to tetracycline and sulfadimethoxine/trimethoprim. PCR-CE-SSCP revealed significant variations in a few peaks in treated birds as compared with non-treated chickens. In conclusion, antimicrobial treatments perturbed chicken gut microbiota, and certain antimicrobial treatments selected or co-selected resistant strains of Campylobacter and Enterococcus.

  10. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections in a general hospital: patient characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment outcome.

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    George Samonis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is acquiring increasing importance as a nosocomial pathogen. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the characteristics and outcome of patients with any type of S. maltophilia infection at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece, between 1/2005-12/2010. S. maltophilia antimicrobial susceptibility was tested with the agar dilution method. Prognostic factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (median age: 70.5 years; 64.7% males with S. maltophilia infection, not related to cystic fibrosis, were included. The 68 patients were hospitalized in medical (29.4%, surgical (26.5%, hematology/oncology departments (23.5%, or the intensive care units (ICU; 20.6%. The most frequent infection types were respiratory tract (54.4%, bloodstream (16.2%, skin/soft tissue (10.3%, and intra-abdominal (8.8% infection. The S. maltophilia-associated infection was polymicrobial in 33.8% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility was higher to colistin (91.2%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and netilmicin (85.3% each, and ciprofloxacin (82.4%. The empirical and the targeted treatment regimens were microbiologically appropriate for 47.3% and 63.6% of the 55 patients with data available, respectively. Most patients received targeted therapy with a combination of agents other than trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The crude mortality and the mortality and the S. maltophilia infection-related mortality were 14.7% and 4.4%, respectively. ICU hospitalization was the only independent prognostic factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: S. maltophilia infection in a general hospital can be associated with a good prognosis, except for the patients hospitalized in the ICU. Combination reigmens with fluoroquinolones, colistin, or tigecycline could be alternative treatment options to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

  11. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

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    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Microorganisms Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Units

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    Emine Küçükateş

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate microorganism growth in blood cultures of hospitalized patients in our intensive care units and to determine appropriate antimicrobial agents for treatment. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the blood cultures obtained from the patients hospitalized in the Coronary and Surgical Intensive Care Units at the Institute of Cardiology, İstanbul University, between July 2013 and December 2014. All microorganisms were identified using the conventional methods. Results: A total of 1034 blood cultures were obtained from 324 patients. Microbial growth was detected in 174 (16.8% blood cultures of 68 patients. Among all microbial growth, 113 (58.55% were gram-positive bacteria, 69 (35.75% were gram-negative rods and 11 (5.7% were fungi. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent microorganism (48; 24.87%, followed by coagulasenegative Staphylococci (35; 18,13%, Enterococcus spp. (30; 15,54%, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. 60.4% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin-resistant and 65.7% of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were also methicillin-resistant. All Staphylococci and Enterococci were not resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline. All the gram-negative rods were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, followed by imipenem (71.6% and meropenem (70.7%. Conclusions: We assume that infection control measures must be increased due to high antibiotic resistance and besides, antibiotic policies should be improved.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  14. Characterization of Toxin Genes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Fishery Products in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfatahery, Noushin; Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Abedimohtasab, Taranehpeimaneh

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne diseases worldwide, which are attributable to the contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 206 (34.3%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained from 600 fish and shrimp samples and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We assessed the prevalence of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) genes. The results indicated that 34% of aqua food samples were contaminated with S. aureus, and 23.8% of these isolates were mec-A-positive. Sixty-four percent of the strains isolated from contaminated seafood was enterotoxigenic S. aureus, and 28.2% of SEs were MRSA-positive. The most prevalent genotype was characterized by the presence of the sea gene (45.2%), followed by the seb gene (18.5%), and the tst gene encoding TSST-1 was found in eight strains (3.9%). Of the 206 S. aureus isolates, 189 strains (84.9%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Given the frequent outbreaks of enterotoxigenic MRSA, it is necessary to make revisions to mandatory programmes to facilitate improved hygiene practices during fishing, aquaculture, processing, and sales to prevent the contamination of fishery products in Iran.

  15. The frequency of Neisseria gonorrhoeae endocervical infection among female carrier and changing trends of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Kashan, Iran.

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    Shima Afrasiabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the second most sexually transmitted diseases agents in developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance strains have created serious health concern. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of endocervical gonococcal infection and antimicrobial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae in Kashan, Iran.In this study, 294 endocervical swabs were collected from married women referred to the obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Kashan from December 2012 to May 2013. The samples were cultured in modified Thayer Martin in 37°C with 5-10% CO2 for 72 hours. Gram staining, oxidase, catalase and carbohydrate utilization tests were used to identify the isolated species. All isolates were tested for their susceptibilities to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion techniques.N. gonorrhoeae was detected in 2.38% of studied cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-3.26%. All isolates were resistance to ceftriaxone, penicillin G, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, and two isolate (28.5% showed intermediate sensitivity to tetracycline.Continued monitoring of prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae is important for preventing the dissemination of this microorganism. The present study emphasizes the importance of surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of N. gonorrhoeae in order to manage the rate of resistant strains and to revise the treatment policies.

  16. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulasenegative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms from Tolima, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    María del Pilar Sánchez Bonilla; Norma Patricia Gutiérrez Murillo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial presence and susceptibility of the coagulase-negative staphylococci group (ECN, for its initials in Spanish) in some cattle farms from Tolima, Colombia. Materials and methods: Using the California test for the diagnosis of mastitis (CMT, for its initials in Spanish), 484 quarters belonging to 121 cows from five small production ranches from a region of central Tolima were evaluated. CMT positive samples were cultivated for bacterial isolation. The ECN...

  17. Evaluation of the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genomic relations of Yersinia enterocolitica strains from food and human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero-Estrada, Cecilia S M; Soria, José Miguel; Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Escudero, María Esther

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis with occasional postinfection sequels. This study was aimed to determinate the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genomic relationships of Y. enterocolitica strains of different bioserotypes (B/O) isolated from foods and human samples in San Luis, Argentina. Strains obtained by culture were bioserotyped and characterized by phenotypic and genotypic virulence markers, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Yersinia enterocolitica was detected in 9.2% of 380 samples, with a distribution of 10.6% (30/284) for food products and 5.2% (5/96) for human samples. Regarding the pathogenic potential, B1A strains of different serotypes were virF(-) ail(-), of which 72.0% (13/18) were ystB(+) with virulence-related phenotypic characteristics. Among B2/O:9 isolates, 75.0% (9/12) exhibited the genotype virF(+) ail(+) ystB(-) along with phenotypic traits associated with virulence; the same genotype was observed in 80.0% (4/5) of B3/O:3 and B3/O:5 strains. By PFGE, it was possible to separate Y. enterocolitica biotypes into 4 clonal groups (A to D) with 23 genomic types, generating a discriminatory index of 0.96. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials used for clinical treatment. This study highlights the presence of pathogenic bioserotypes and the high genomic diversity of the Y. enterocolitica strains isolated in our region. PMID:26370735

  18. The second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Hosobe, Takahide; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Matsumura, Masaru; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Takayama, Kazuo; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sumii, Toru; Kadena, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Shirane, Takeshi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Akiyama, Kikuo; Imai, Toshio; Kano, Motonori

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of bacterial pathogens isolated from respiratory tract infections in dogs and cats across Europe: ComPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Moyaert, Hilde; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2016-08-15

    ComPath is a pan-European resistance monitoring programme collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats. We present data for respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. Antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined and susceptibility calculated following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standards for veterinary medicine. The main pathogen from dogs was Staphylococcus intermedius Group (49/215, 22.8%) which was >90% susceptible to most antimicrobials (including oxacillin - 93.9%; 3 isolates confirmed mecA-positive) but only 59.2%, 73.5% and 87.8% susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin. Bordetella bronchiseptica (48/215, 22.3%), streptococci (36/215, 16.7%), Escherichia coli (24/215, 11.2%) and Pasteurella multocida (23/215, 10.7%) were also found in dog RTI. There are no breakpoints for Bordetella bronchiseptica. Most streptococci were penicillin- chloramphenicol-, ampicillin- and pradofloxacin-susceptible. None were enrofloxacin-resistant but 6 isolates (16.7%) were of intermediate susceptibility. The least active agent against streptococci was tetracycline (47.2% susceptible). For E. coli, 37.5% were ampicillin-susceptible but 83.3% were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-susceptible. Only chloramphenicol showed susceptibility>90% against E. coli, with 66.7% tetracycline-susceptible and 79.2% to 87.5% susceptibility to enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pradofloxacin. P. multocida were susceptible to pradofloxacin (no other breakpoints are available). The main pathogen from cats was P. multocida (82/186, 44.1%), where only pradofloxacin has breakpoints (100% susceptible). Streptococci were also collected from cats (25/186, 13.4%) and were >90% susceptible to all antimicrobials except tetracycline (36% susceptible). Most susceptibility was calculated with human-derived breakpoints and some antimicrobials had no breakpoints. Therefore predictions of clinical utility

  20. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

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    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  1. The antimicrobial profile of extracts of a Phormidium-like cyanobacterium changes with phosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Semary, Nermin Adel

    2012-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity of lipophilic extracts of mat-forming Phormidium-like cyanobacterium isolated from Egypt was investigated under different phosphate concentrations. The antimicrobial profile changed with different phosphate levels indicating metabolic changes under stressful conditions. The fractions that resulted in highest antimicrobial activity from the three different phosphate concentrations were chosen for further analyses. The bioactive compounds were identified using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques including UV, FTIR, GC-MS and proton-NMR. The chemical analyses indicated that the compound at standard phosphate concentration was eugenol whereas the bioactive compound at half phosphate concentration was 4-tert-butylcyclohexanol. The third bioactive compound at quarter phosphate concentration was octadecanoic acid. The eugenol is known for its antimicrobial as well as pain relief properties and can be used in many pharmaceutical preparations whereas the octadecanoic acid and cyclohexanol derivative are used in some antimicrobial pharmaceuticals. The study highlights the change in antimicrobial profile of bioactive compounds derived from cyanobacteria through manipulating the concentration of a key nutrient in growth medium. This strategy can be employed for mass production of these compounds and others for future biotechnological applications.

  2. A 5 year (2005-2009 review of antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from pediatric patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Al-Shara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during a five year period from 2005-2009. A total of 1023 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Main findings: Overall, high susceptibility rate was recorded for ciprofloxacin (90.5%, followed by norfloxacin (84.8%, imipenem (69.9%, nalidixic acid (66.6%, and cefixime (63.9%. Low susceptibility rate was recorded for ampicillin (16.6%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5%, tobramycin (28.6%, amikacin (31.4%, cotrimoxazole (37.3%, and aztreonam (39.3%, Conclusion: most of β-lactam antibiotics as well as tobramycin, amikacin, cotrimoxazole, and aztreonam, should not be used in treating infections caused by pathogenic K. pneumoniae and other related bacteria in Jordan. However, quinolone compounds and imipenem seem to be effective in treatment of infections caused by pathogenic K. pneumoniae in children.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan and Bhutan in 2007–2011

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    Sethi Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007–2011. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40, Pakistan (n=18 and Bhutan (n=7 using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST was performed for molecular epidemiology. Results The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%, followed by penicillin G (68%, erythromycin (62%, tetracycline (55%, and azithromycin (7.7%. All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin. Thirty-four (52% of the isolates were producing β-lactamase. No penA mosaic alleles or A501-altered alleles of penicillin-binding protein 2 were identified. Forty-nine NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 42 STs have not been previously described worldwide. Conclusions Based on this study, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin can be used as an empirical first-line therapy for gonorrhoea in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan, whereas ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin should not be. It is imperative to strengthen the laboratory infrastructure in this region, as well as to expand the phenotypic and genetic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, emergence of new resistance, particularly, to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular epidemiology.

  4. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles for group B streptococci isolated from neonates, 1995-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, FYC; Azimi, PH; Weisman, LE; Philips, JB; Regan, J; Clark, P; Rhoads, GG; Clemens, J; Troendle, J; Pratt, E; Brenner, RA; Gill, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were analyzed for 119 invasive and 227 colonizing strains of group B streptococci isolated from neonates at 6 US academic centers, All strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime, The rate of resistance to erythromycin was 20

  5. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria and yeasts isolated from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyskova, P; Vydrzalova, M; Mazurova, J

    2007-12-01

    The bacterial and fungal flora of the external ear canal of dogs with otitis externa and of healthy dogs were studied. The most frequently isolated microorganism from otitic ears was Staphylococcus intermedius (58.8%), followed by Malassezia pachydermatis (30.9%), Streptococcus canis (29.9%), Proteus spp. (14.4%) and Escherichia coli (10.3%). A statistical analysis of our results showed that the prevalence of these microorganisms is significant in dogs with otitis externa. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated strains were determined. Majority of all bacterial isolates were most susceptible to gentamicin. Malassezia pachydermatis, the most prevalent yeast in this study, showed an excellent level of susceptibility to all antifungal agents tested.

  6. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from invasive infections during a Portuguese multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Ramos, I; Neves-Maia, J; Ricardo, E; Santos-Antunes, J; Silva, A T; Costa-de-Oliveira, S; Cantón, E; Rodrigues, A G; Pina-Vaz, C

    2014-12-01

    This is the first Portuguese multicenter observational and descriptive study that provides insights on the species distribution and susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from fungemia episodes. Ten district hospitals across Portugal contributed by collecting yeast isolates from blood cultures and answering questionnaires concerning patients' data during a 12-month period. Molecular identification of cryptic species of Candida parapsilosis and C. glabrata complex was performed. The susceptibility profile of each isolate, considering eight of the most often used antifungals, was determined. Both Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) protocols were applied. The incidence of 240 episodes of fungemia was 0.88/1,000 admissions. Fifteen different species were found, with C. albicans (40 %) being the most prevalent, followed by C. parapsilosis (23 %) and C. glabrata (13 %). Most isolates were recovered from patients admitted to surgical wards or intensive care units, with 57 % being males and 32 % aged between 41 and 60 years. For both the CLSI and EUCAST protocols, the overall susceptibility rates ranged from 74 to 97 % for echinocandins and from 84 to 98 % for azoles. Important resistance rate discrepancies between protocols were observed in C. albicans and C. glabrata for echinocandins and in C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis for azoles. Death associated with fungemia occurred in 25 % of the cases, with more than half of C. glabrata infections being fatal. The great number of Candida non-albicans is noteworthy despite a relatively low antifungal resistance rate. Studies like this are essential in order to improve empirical treatment guidelines.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in outpatients

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    Marković Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Gram-negative bacteria, the production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In the Banja Luka region, there were no extensive researches on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates. Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates as the cause of the urinary tract infections in outpatients, the distribution of these ESBL isolates according to age and gender of patients and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Methods. Urine specimens obtained from outpatients were cultured on chromogenic CPS-ID3 media. All plates showing significant (>105 cfu/ml growth of E. coli in pure culture were further processed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on VITEK TWO Compact using AST-GN27 cards for testing Gram negative bacteria and detection of ESBL producers. Results. Out of 2,195 isolates, 177 (8.1% were ESBL producers. Ninety-two isolates were obtained from female patients (5% of E. coli isolated from women and 85 isolates from male patients (23% of E. coli isolated from men. High percentage of ESBL isolates was detected in the infant age group under one year (36.7% and in the age group over 60 years (28.8%. All ESBL isolates were susceptible to imipenem and resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime. There was a significant resistance to amikacin (79.1%, gentamicin (76.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (54.8% and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (45.8%. Resistance to nutrofurantoin was 13.6%. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated the presence of ESBL producing E. coli urinary isolates in outpatients, and their extensive susceptibility to imipenem and nitrofurantoin.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Yang Qiwen; Xiao Meng; Chen Minjun; Robert E.Badal; Xu Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    Background The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide.Methods In 2011,1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected.All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents,and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs,Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated,followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%),and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%).Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates.Among the antimicrobial agents tested,ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae,with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%,followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%).Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone,cefotaxime,ceftazidime,and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%,38.3%,61.1%,and 50.8%,respectively.The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%).The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E.coli,K.pneumoniae,Klebsiella oxytoca,and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%,38.1%,41.2%,and 57.7%,respectively.Conclusions Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs,and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem,imipenem,and amikacin.Including the carbapenems,most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  9. Temporal profile of antimicrobial resistance exhibited by strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of bovine mastitis for 20 years (1992-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Paula Kowalski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Records of in vitro susceptibility tests performed between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed in order to evaluate the dynamic profiles of possible changes in antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from milk samples of cows with mastitis during two decades. The results of 2,430 isolates tested by disk diffusion technique for susceptibility to oxacillin, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, sulfazotrim, gentamicin, and neomycin were analysed. Comparisons were performed between the percentages of resistance to antimicrobials and their classes and also between the decades studied. Additionally, the possible tendency or changes in the behaviour of these pathogens against the major drugs used in the last two decades were evaluated using regression analysis. The highest rates of resistance (P<0.0001 were observed for the beta-lactams (34.3%, with exception of cephalexin (6.9%, and for the tetracyclines (28%. Similar resistance rates (7.6% to 15.7% were observed among the other drugs. Regression analysis showed a reduction in resistance to penicillin and ampicillin throughout the period, whilst for oxacillin and neomycin a decrease in the resistance was observed during the first decade, followed by an increase. A trend towards decreased resistance was found for sulfazotrim, whereas for the other antimicrobials no decrease was observed. The results indicated no trend towards increased resistance for most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, it is necessary to monitor the resistance patterns of these pathogens in order to save these drugs as a therapeutic reserve

  10. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J N; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials. PMID:7790424

  11. Polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infections in patients with AIDS: variations in antimicrobial susceptibilities of different strains of M. avium isolated from the same patient.

    OpenAIRE

    von Reyn, C F; Jacobs, N J; Arbeit, R D; Maslow, J.N.; Niemczyk, S

    1995-01-01

    Broth microdilution MICs were determined for pairs of strains isolated from five AIDS patients with polyclonal Mycobacterium avium infection. Four (80%) of the five patients were infected simultaneously with strains having different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. These findings have implications for the interpretation of susceptibility data in M. avium prophylaxis and treatment trials.

  12. Rapid Inhibition Profiling in Bacillus subtilis to Identify the Mechanism of Action of New Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsa, Anne; Lopez-Garrido, Javier; Quach, Diana; Riley, Eammon P; Pogliano, Joe; Pogliano, Kit

    2016-08-19

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance has become a major public health crisis. New antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action (MOA) are desperately needed. We previously developed a method, bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which utilizes fluorescence microscopy to rapidly identify the MOA of antimicrobial compounds. BCP is based upon our discovery that cells treated with antibiotics affecting different metabolic pathways generate different cytological signatures, providing quantitative information that can be used to determine a compound's MOA. Here, we describe a system, rapid inhibition profiling (RIP), for creating cytological profiles of new antibiotic targets for which there are currently no chemical inhibitors. RIP consists of the fast, inducible degradation of a target protein followed by BCP. We demonstrate that degrading essential proteins in the major metabolic pathways for DNA replication, transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis, and peptidoglycan biogenesis in Bacillus subtilis rapidly produces cytological profiles closely matching that of antimicrobials targeting the same pathways. Additionally, RIP and antibiotics targeting different steps in fatty acid biosynthesis can be differentiated from each other. We utilize RIP and BCP to show that the antibacterial MOA of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory antibiotics differs from that proposed based on in vitro data. RIP is a versatile method that will extend our knowledge of phenotypes associated with inactivating essential bacterial enzymes and thereby allow for screening for molecules that inhibit novel essential targets. PMID:27193499

  13. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran from 2011-2012

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    Jalal Mardaneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, glucose-nonfermenting aerobic bacterium. It is widespread in natural environments and it is an opportunistic pathogen for humans that can lead to a broad spectrum of disease such as urinary, burn, respiratory infections, and septicemia. The aim of this study was to determe antibiotic resistance profile of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 111 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: The more P. aeruginosa strains were from wound specimens (48.6%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest anti-Pseudomonas activity (78.3%. Isolates demonstrated resistance to beta-lactam antimicrobials such as antipseudomonal penicillins, including piperacillin and carbenicillin. Conclusion: The spread of these bacteria in hospital personnel and wet areas could be a suitable reservoir of resistance genes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the effect of hospital equipment and personnel in the dissemination route of resistance genes.

  14. Meat industry wastewater: microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolates, case study in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Milena; Čučak, Dragana; Kovačević, Srđan; Perović, Marija; Radonić, Jelena; Turk Sekulić, Maja; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Radnović, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from meat processing industries is a fusion of compounds with a high load of organic matter, and pathogen microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. The aim of this research was to determine microbiological characteristics of the wastewater discharged from the meat processing industry in order to get a more detailed insight into meat industry wastewater pollution, and to evaluate the resistance of bacterial strains E. coli and Salmonella sp. to antibiotics. The evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 37 strains of E. coli and eight strains of Salmonella sp. to nine different antibiotics. The number of faecal pollution indicators was very high in all samples. From a total of 37 strains of E. coli, a moderate degree of resistance was shown to tetracycline (37.83%); a low degree of resistance to ampicillin (21.62%), streptomycin (24.32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (18.92%) and nalidixic acid (16.22%); and very low to: chloramphenicol (13.51%), ciprofloxacin (2.7%), gentamicin and cefotaxime (0.0%). The results for eight strains of Salmonella sp. show that all eight isolates had some degree of susceptibility to nine tested antimicrobial agents and six strains were fully susceptible to all tested antibiotics.

  15. Study on phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella gallinarum and Sallmonella pullorum isolates based on biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradi Bidhendi, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a very important disease of avian species because of its huge economic impact, worldwide distribution and difficulty posed in its control. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, is caused by Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum and Pullorum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum. A total of 13 Salmonella isolates, identified by biochemical tests and specific antisera including Salmonella gallinarum (n=10 and Salmonella pullorum (n=3. All were found to be susceptible to gentamicin. Also 7 (53.8 %, 6 (46.1% and 5 (38.4% isolates were resistant to streptomycin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid respectively. Multidrug resistance to three or more antibiotics was observed in 6 (46.1% isolates and overall 9 antibiotic resistance patterns were recorded. The results showed that poultries as a source of antimicrobial resistance could pose a serious risk to public health via food chain transfer. Hence more epidemiological surveillance programs and antibiotic susceptibility investigations are advised.

  16. Technological characterisation, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of wild-type Leuconostoc strains isolated from North Italian traditional cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stefano; Cremonesi, Paola; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena

    2013-11-01

    Genotypic and technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of 35 Leuconostoc strains, isolated from different Italian raw milk cheeses, were investigated. RAPD-PCR was used to study genetic variability and to distinguish closely related strains. The results showed a high degree of heterogeneity among isolates. All the strains had weak acidifying activity and showed low proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Reduction activity, was generally low. All the Leuconostoc were susceptible to ampicillin, mupirocin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and tetracycline. Many strains were classified as resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantonin, while all isolates were found resistant to vancomycin. PCR-based detection did not identify any of the common genetic determinants for vancomycin (vanA, vanB, vanC1, vanC2, vanC3, vanD, vanE, vanG) or erythromycin (ermB and ermC). Tetracycline resistance genes were detected in 25 tetracycline susceptible strains, the most frequent one being tetM. One strain, belonging to Ln. pseudomesenteroides species, was positive for the presence of the int gene of the Tn916/Tn1545 trasposon family. This is the first time the conjugative transposon Tn916 has been detected inside the Leuconostoc species. All strains showed antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Ent. faecium. The presence of genes encoding amino-acid decarboxylases (hdc and tdc) was not detected. Some strains are interesting in view of their use in cheese production as starter and non starter cultures. PMID:24067095

  17. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard;

    2015-01-01

    of the percentage of bacterial isolates that are covered by the most commonly used antibiotics in the area of Copenhagen and to provide clinicians with a practical tool to help chose the right antimicrobial treatment for their patients. METHODS: We conducted a study of all bacteria isolates tested for antimicrobial...... susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...... in resistance patterns were noted up to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive and manageable inventory of the resistance patterns of the major bacteria covering the 2004-2008 period is presented. Clinicians are encouraged to use the pocket-size table as guidance when choosing antibiotic treatment. FUNDING: none...

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Michigan White-Tailed Deer during the 2009 Hunting Season

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    Scott D. Fitzgerald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Michigan has had an ongoing outbreak of endemic Mycobacterium bovis which has been recognized within and sustained by its free-ranging white-tailed deer population since 1994. Worldwide, organisms within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have exhibited the ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents, resulting in both the multidrug-resistant (MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR strains of human tuberculosis. Michigan's Bovine Tuberculosis Working Group has conducted active antimicrobial susceptibility testing on wildlife isolates of the endemic M. bovis organism at five-year intervals to detect any emerging drug resistance patterns. The results of 33 white-tailed deer origin isolates collected from the 2009 hunting season are reported here. There continues to be no evidence of any drug resistance except for pyrazinamide resistance. These results are likely due to the lack of antibacterial treatment applied to either wildlife or domestic animals which would provide selection pressure for the development of drug resistance.

  19. Count, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria recovered from dental solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristina Dutra; de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Alvarez-Leite, Maria Eugênia; dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Renata Maria da Fonseca; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Farias, Luiz de Macêdo

    2011-06-01

    In Brazil, few studies on microbial content of dental solid waste and its antibiotic susceptibility are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. Six samples of solid waste were collected at different times and seasons from three dental health services. The microbial content was evaluated in different culture media and atmospheric conditions, and the isolates were submitted to antibiotic susceptibility testing. A total of 766 bacterial strains were isolated and identified during the study period. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent morphotype isolated (48.0%), followed by Gram-negative rods (46.2%), Gram-positive rods (5.0%), Gram-negative-cocci (0.4%), and Gram-positive coccobacillus (0.1%). Only two anaerobic bacteria were isolated (0.3%). The most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (29.9%), followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (8.2%), and Enterococcus faecalis (6.7%). High resistance rate to ampicillin was observed among Gram-negative rods (59.4%) and Gram-positive cocci (44.4%). For Gram-negative rods, high resistance was also noted to aztreonam (47.7%), cefotaxime (47.4%), ceftriaxone and cefazolin (43.7%), and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (38.2%). Against Gram-positive cocci penicillin exhibit a higher resistance rate (45.0%), followed by ampicillin, erythromycin (27.2%), and tetracycline (22.0%). The present study demonstrated that several pathogenic bacteria are present in dental solid waste and can survive after 48 h from the waste generation time and harbor resistance profiles against several clinical recommended antibiotics.

  20. Analysis of quorum sensing-dependent virulence factor production and its relationship with antimicrobial susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatuna, O; Yagci, A

    2010-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe respiratory infections. The pathogenesis of these infections is multifactorial and the production of many virulence factors is regulated by quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication mechanism. The two well defined QS systems in P. aeruginosa, the las and rhl systems, rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone signal molecules, also termed autoinducers. We assessed the activity of QS-dependent virulence factors (including elastase, alkaline protease, pyocyanin and biofilm production) in respiratory isolates of P. aeruginosa and their relationship with antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified sixteen isolates displaying impaired phenotypic activity; among them, eleven isolates were also defective in autoinducer production, and therefore considered QS-deficient. Six of the QS-deficient isolates failed to amplify one or more of the four QS regulatory genes (lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR) with PCR: one isolate was negative for rhlR, two isolates were negative for rhlI and rhlR and three isolates were negative for all four genes. The isolates that were negative for virulence factor production were generally less susceptible to the antimicrobials and statistically significant correlations were observed between the lack of elastase production and resistance to piperacillin and ceftazidime; between failure in alkaline protease production and resistance to tobramycin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, imipenem and ciprofloxacin; and between failure in pyocyanin production and resistance to amikacin, tobramycin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The results obtained indicate that, despite the pivotal role of QS in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa respiratory infections, QS-deficient strains are still capable of causing infections and tend to be less susceptible to antimicrobials. PMID:20132256

  1. Metabolic profiling as a tool for prioritizing antimicrobial compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Changsheng; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an analytical technique that allows scientists to globally profile low molecular weight metabolites between samples in a medium- or high throughput environment. Different biological samples are statistically analyzed and correlated to a bioactivity of interest, highlighting different

  2. MOLECULAR PROFILING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BACTERIOCIN FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS

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    Berlina Dhas S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of multi drug resistant organism has been high due to improper use of antibiotics. That made the necessity to develop new drug molecules. In this study an effort was made to find a new alternative. A wild type microorganism was isolated from soil and was identified as Bacillus and confirmed as Bacillus subtilis species by 16S r RNA sequencing. The strain was identified to have the ability to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was produced in nutrient broth and that was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform and further purification was carried out by HPLC and the molecular weight of the bacteriocin was analysed by SDSPAGE. Antimicrobial activity was analysed on four strains Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Klebsiella sp and Proteus sp. and was found to be sensitive towards the analyzed strains.

  3. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

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    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Diversity in Salmonella from Humans and Cattle, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afema, J A; Mather, A E; Sischo, W M

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understand source and transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) and Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans and cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST and SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST and SN from humans (P Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, and this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans and cattle, the expected and observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella and associated resistance from humans and cattle may not be wholly derived from a common population.

  5. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne V Gautier-Bouchardon

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma (M. bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50 was: i substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Plasmid Replicon Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates recovered from Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Kentucky has become the predominate serotype recovered from broiler slaughter in the United States and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has increased dramatically in this serotype. Relationships between AMR, genotype, and plasmid replicon types were characterized for 600 ...

  7. Nosocomial Gram-negative bacteremia in intensive care: epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Irene Sligl

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: ICU-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia is associated with high mortality. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and carbapenems was common. Coronary artery disease, immune suppression, and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with increased mortality.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants are susceptible to light activated antimicrobial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Tubby, S.; Wilson, M.; Wright, J A; Zhang, P.; Nair, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic therapy can select for small colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus that are more resistant to antibiotics and can result in persistent infections, necessitating the development of more effective antimicrobial strategies to combat small colony variant infections. Photodynamic therapy is an alternative treatment approach which utilises light in combination with a light-activated antimicrobial agent to kill bacteria via a non-specific mechanism of action. In...

  9. Intravascular catheter related infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh

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    F J Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of bacterial colonisation and catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI together with the antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a tertiary care hospital. CRBSI was detected with semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. The antimicrobial susceptible patterns of the isolated organisms were performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. The rate of catheter colonisation and CRBSI were 42.1% and 14% (16.1/1000 catheter days respectively. The most common causative pathogens were Pseudomonas sp. (23.7%, Acinetobacter sp. (18.4%, Staphylococcus aureus (13.2% and Enterobacteriaceae (10.5%. The rate of isolation of methicillin resistance S. aureus, imipenem resistant Pseudomonas sp. and extended spectrum β lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae were 60%, 44.0% and 100%. The result of this study would be useful for control and treatment of CRBSI.

  10. Vertical susceptibility profiles : its use in magnetic pollution screening

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    In this work magnetic methods were used for systematic and high-resolution investigation of industrially polluted soils, where soil pollution is caused by heavy metal bearing air-borne particulate matter. The focus of the study is on the characteristic magnetic signals determined from ultra-shallow (~0.5 m) vertical profiles acquired in areas of

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

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    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  12. Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Madoroba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23 and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400, carcass sponges (n = 100, intestinal contents (n = 62, hides (n = 67, and water from the abattoirs (n = 75 were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81. Eleven faecal samples (2.75% tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%, which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving

  13. Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoroba, Evelyn; Kapeta, Daniel; Gelaw, Awoke K

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23) and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400), carcass sponges (n = 100), intestinal contents (n = 62), hides (n = 67), and water from the abattoirs (n = 75) were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81). Eleven faecal samples (2.75%) tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%), which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving implementation

  14. Drug susceptibility profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates at Mangalore

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    Sevitha Bhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the major causes of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. Its resurgence in 1990s is primarily due to co-infection with HIV and the emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR strains. Our objectives in this study were demonstration and grading of acid-fast bacilli in smears from sputum specimens of clinically newly diagnosed pulmonary TB patients, isolation of the organism, speciation and drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to isoniazid (H, rifampicin (R, streptomycin (S, and ethambutol (E. Materials and Methods: Sputum specimens were collected from 150 patients. Smear examination was done after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The specimens were cultured onto Lowenstein Jensen media after Petroff′s method of concentration. The growth was identified as M. tuberculosis with standard tests. Sensitivity of 50 isolates of tubercle bacilli to anti-TB drugs H, R, S, E were determined by Resistance-Ratio method. Results: Out of 150 sputum specimens examined, 62(41.3% were smear positive. Out of these 62,56 grew on culture. 50 isolates of M. tuberculosis were picked up for drug susceptibility testing. Total of 31 (62% were resistant to S, 14(28% to H, 9(18% to R, 6(12% were resistant to E and 2 strains (4% were resistant to H and R. Conclusion: From the small cohort, incidence of primary MDR-TB was found to be 4% in this region, which is within the expected range.

  15. Proteases (caseinase and elastase, hemolysins, adhesion and susceptibility to antimicrobials of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates obtained from clinical specimens

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    Garcia Doroti de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six S. maltophilia isolates obtained from hospital clinical specimens were studied for protease (caseinase and elastase production, hemolytic activity, adhesion to HEp-2 cells, plastic and glass. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was also evaluated. The majority of isolates were obtained from respiratory tract secretions of patients using medical devices. All the isolates grown overnight were able to hydrolyze casein at 30masculineC and 37masculineC. After 72h, all the isolates hydrolyzed elastase at 30masculineC and 40 isolates (87% at 37masculineC. Most of the isolates presented hemolytic activity after 96h of incubation at both temperatures. Rabbit blood showed the hightest hemolytic activity, after 96h 61% and 98% of tested isolates presented beta-hemolysis at 30masculineC and 37masculineC, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole and were resistant to most beta-lactams tested. By the dilution method, S. maltophilia showed a high susceptibility to ticarcillin-clavulanate and a lower susceptibility to ciprofloxacin than the agar diffusion. The isolates showed adhesion to HEp-2 cells, plastic and glass. The proteolytic activities and adhesion to inanimate surfaces detected in S. maltophilia can be related to the pathogenesis of this bacterium and/or medical device colonization which favors the development of nosocomial infections.

  16. Screening probiotic strains for safety: Evaluation of virulence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci from healthy Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fen; Jiang, Meiling; Wan, Cuixiang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xiaoyong; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of enterococci isolated from Chinese infants and screen out potential probiotic candidates. One hundred eight strains were isolated from feces of 34 healthy infants, and 38 strains of Enterococcus spp. were categorized as follows: E. faecalis (22), E. faecium (10), E. hirae (3), E. durans (2), and E. casseliflavus (1). Of these, 72.7% of E. faecalis came from infants delivered by cesarean and 62.5% of E. faecium from infants delivered vaginally. For safety evaluation of strains, we determined presence of virulence genes; production of hemolysin, gelatinase, and biofilm; and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci. Six out of 14 virulence genes were detected with a distribution of gelE (26.3%), cylA (39.4%), esp (15.8%), efaA (63.2%), asa1 (50.0%), and ace (50.0%). In phenotype analysis, 36.8% of the strains exhibited positive hemolytic activity and 17.5% were positive for production of gelatinase. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility showed that different percentages of the strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (5.2%), vancomycin (7.8%), rifampicin (10.5%), erythromycin (52.6%), and gentamycin (52.6%); remarkably, none of the strains were resistant to ampicillin or chloramphenicol. In total, 10 strains, including 6 E. faecium, which are free of virulence determinants and sensitive to common antimicrobial agents (e.g., ampicillin and vancomycin), were further assessed for their probiotic properties. All strains survived well in simulated gastric fluid and intestinal tract, with maximum reductions of 0.600 and 0.887 log cfu/mL, respectively. Six strains of E. faecium could resist 0.3 to 1.0% bile salt, of which E. faecium WEFA23 presented the highest growth (75.06%) at 1.0% bile salt. All strains showed bile salt hydrolase activity on glycodeoxycholic acid, but only 3 of E. faecium showed activity on taurodeoxycholic acid. These results deliver useful information on the safety of enterococci in infants in

  17. NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hongning; Li, Caiwu; He, Yongguo; Jin, SenYan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Pengyan; Xu, Yuesong; Xu, Changwen; Fan, Chengyun; Xu, Lulai; Huang, Shan; Qu, Chunmao; Li, Guo

    2016-06-01

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. PMID:27468049

  18. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese

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    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne disease caused by microorganisms is a problem of public health. Minas soft cheese is a national product manufactured using simple technology; it has high level of acceptance in the country making its production an important economic activity. Many microorganisms may be present in foods including the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli. Overall, E. coli is a harmless commensal bacterium; however, some strains may have a pathogenic potential. Several outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with consumption of contaminated cheese have been reported, and the presence of pathogenic strains of E. coli has increased. The objective of this study was to isolate, evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterize, by Multiplex PCR, the pathogenic E. coli strains isolated from Minas cheese commercialized in Rio de Janeiro. Thirty samples were analyzed and five strains of E. coli (EPEC were identified. The assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility revealed 40% of the isolates resistant to ampicillin and 40% with intermediate resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam combination. These findings are a warning signal to health authorities since Minas cheese is a ready to eat food product, and therefore should not pose health risks to the population.

  19. Streptococcus peumoniae in an Egyptian urban community:incidence of erythromycin-resistance determinants and antibiotic susceptibility profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatma Abdelaziz Amer; Eman Mohamed Elbehedy; Mohamed Elahmady

    2008-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the incidence of resistance of Streptococcus (Strep).pneumoniae isolated in our lo-cality to erythromycin,to screen for the two resistance determinants erm(B)and mef(A)genes,and to identi-fy the susceptibility profile to commonly used antibiotics.Methods:Samples were collected from patients at-tending the Outpatient Department of Zagazig University Hospital,Zagazig,Egypt,between February 2006 and March 2007.Strep.pneumoniae was identified by conventional procedures.Susceptibilities to erythromycin and 15 antibiotics were identified by disc diffusion method,as outlined by CLSI.E-test was used for MIC de-termination of erythromycin.erm(B)and mef(A)genes were detected by PCR.Results:Eighty-one Strep. pneumoniae strains were identified.Fifty-one of them (63 %)were erythromycin-resistant,and mef(A)gene was the predominant resistance determinant.Vancomycin,imipenem and gatifloxacin had the best activity a-gainst the isolates,whereas tetracycline had the least.Forty-two (51.85%)out of the 81 Strep.pneumoniae strains were multidrug-resistant.Conclusions:High incidence of resistance to erythromycin and multiple anti-microbials existed.mef(A)was the principal erythromycin-resistance gene.

  20. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult® Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice.METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate...

  1. Prevalence, Molecular Characterization, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Milk and Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ashmawy, Maha Abdou; Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2016-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk and dairy products in Mansoura City, Egypt. MRSA was detected in 53% (106/200) among all milk and dairy products with prevalence rates of 75%, 65%, 40%, 50%, and 35% in raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream, and yogurt samples, respectively. The mean S. aureus counts were 3.49, 3.71, 2.93, 3.40, and 3.23 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g among tested raw milk, Damietta cheese, Kareish cheese, ice cream and yogurt, respectively, with an overall count of 3.41 log10 CFU/g. Interestingly, all recovered S. aureus isolates were genetically verified as MRSA strains by molecular detection of the mecA gene. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec) were detected in all isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of recovered MRSA isolates against 13 tested antimicrobials revealed that the least effective drugs were penicillin G, cloxacillin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin with bacterial resistance percentages of 87.9%, 75.9%, 65.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. These findings suggested that milk and dairy products represent a potential infection risk threat of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt due to neglected hygienic practices during production, retail, or storage stages. These findings highlighted the crucial importance of applying more restrictive hygienic measures in dairy production in Egypt for food safety. PMID:26836943

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyang-Mi; Lee, Ae-Li; Jung, Suk-Chan; Kim, Mal-Nam; Jang, Geum-Chan; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2011-02-01

    A total of 402 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis milk collected during 2003-2009 in Korea were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to 11 of 20 antimicrobials tested; no resistance was observed against pirlimycin, telithromycin, novobiocin, penicillin/novobiocin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, clindamycin, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, trimethprim/sulfamethoxazol, vancomycin, and linezolid. Over 66% of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin. Resistance was also seen for gentamicin (11.9%), erythromycin (7.7%), methicillin (oxacillin and cefoxitin, 6.2%), and tetracycline (4.2%). No noticeable change was observed in penicillin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance over the 7-year period. Tetracycline resistance appeared to decrease consistently, whereas methicillin resistance was observed from 2005. About 2.7% (11/402) were resistant to three or more antimicrobials. Genotyping of the 17 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from each cow revealed two staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (IV and IVa), three spa types (t286, t324, and untypable), and two sequence types (ST1 and ST72). Eleven of 17 (64.7%) MRSA strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t324-ST72. The rest of strains belonged to SCCmec IVa-t286-ST1 (n = 3) and SCCmec IV-untypable-ST72 (n = 3). None of the MRSA carried the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene. These characteristics are the same as those found in community-acquired (CA) MRSA strains prevalent in humans in Korea. Three pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types (A-C) were observed among the 17 MRSA strains examined, and 14 strains belonged to the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern regardless of their geographical origin and year of isolation. The results of this study provide evidence of CA-MRSA infection in dairy cattle for the first time in Korea. PMID:21034263

  3. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children hospitalized with respiratory infections in Suzhou, China.

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    Qian Geng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dissemination of antibiotic resistant clones is recognized as an important factor in the emergence and prevalence of resistance in pneumococcus. This study was undertaken to survey the antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes distribution of pneumococci and to explore the circulating clones in hospitalized children in Suzhou, China. METHODS: The pneumococci were isolated from the nasopharyngeal aspirates of children less than 5 years of age admitted to Soochow-University-Affiliated-Children's-Hospital with respiratory infections. The capsular serotypes were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by E-test. The presence of ermB, mefA/E genes were detected by PCR and the genotypes were explored by Multilocus sequence typing (MLST. RESULTS: From July 2012 to July 2013, a total of 175 pneumococcal isolates were collected and all strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin, about 39.4% strains were non-susceptible to penicillin G. Overall, 174 (99.4% isolates were resistant to ≥ 3 types of antibiotics. Serotypes 19F (28.1%, 6B (19.7%, 19A (18.0%, and 23F (17.4% were the most common serotypes in all identified strains. The serotypes coverage of PCV7 and PCV13 were 71.9% and 89.9%, respectively. Four international antibiotic-resistant clones, including Taiwan19F-14 (n = 79, Spain23F-1(n = 25, Taiwan23F-15(n = 7 and Spain6B-2(n = 7, were identified. The Taiwan19F-14 clones have a higher non-susceptibility rate in β-lactams than other clones and non-clone isolates (p<0.001. In addition, 98.7% Taiwan19F-14 clones were positive of both ermB and mefA/E genes, compare to 33.3% in other clones and non-clone strains. CONCLUSIONS: The spread of international antibiotic-resistant clones, especially Taiwan19F-14 clones, played a predominant role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant isolates in Suzhou, China. Considering the high prevalence of PCV7 serotypes and

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella spp. from Agricultural Environments in Fruit Production Systems.

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    Gomba, Annancietar; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-09-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks involving fresh produce have increased in recent years. The risk of infection from contaminated food is worsened by the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This study evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates (n = 263) from agricultural production systems through to the final packed product. Salmonella isolates were preliminarily identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) and API 20E and identities confirmed by invA gene polymerase chain reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed with 15 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Of the 263 Salmonella isolates assessed, 59.3% were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most frequently detected resistance was against chloramphenicol and kanamycin (46.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (28%), and streptomycin (14%), and the less frequently detected resistance was toward ampicillin (1.14%), amikacin (0.76%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (0.38%). Multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics) was found in 48.7% (76/156) isolates. The most common MAR phenotype was to chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-kanamycin (43.6%). Resistance to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was only observed in MAR phenotypes. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, and tetracycline. This study confirms the importance of fresh produce production environments as potential reservoirs and fresh produce as carriers of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. with significant clinical importance. Further studies to evaluate the actual level of health risk from these pathogens should include characterization of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates. PMID:27294335

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence characteristics of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Gurung, Mamata; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Moon, Dong Chan; Jang, Geum-Chan; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalence of virulence genes in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolated from healthy and diseased pigs in Korea. A total of 456 Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from healthy (n = 238) and diseased (n = 218) pigs between 1998 and 2011 were investigated. In total, 93.4% of the Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. The isolates were most often resistant to tetracycline (85.7%), followed by streptomycin (83.6%), nalidixic acid (67.3%), ampicillin (49.3%), chloramphenicol (42.8%), and gentamicin (37.1%). Moreover, multidrug resistance phenotype and resistance to ampicillin, florfenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline were significantly higher (P invA, spiA, msgA, sipB, prgH, spaN, tolC, lpfC, sifA, sitC, and sopB virulence genes. The prevalence of orgA, pagC, and iroN were 50.2, 74.1, and 91.0%, respectively, whereas isolates carrying cdtB (1.5%), pefA (7.0%), and spvB (14.9%) were identified much less frequently. Furthermore, the prevalence of invA, lpfC, orgA, pagC, and iroN was significantly higher (P < 0.01) among the isolates from the diseased pigs than in isolates from the healthy pigs. Our results demonstrated that, among diseased pigs, there was significantly higher resistance to some antimicrobials and greater prevalence of some virulence genes than in healthy pigs, indicating the role these factors play in pathogenesis. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates that carry virulence-associated genes are potentially more dangerous and constitute a public health concern. Thus, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence characteristics in Salmonella is essential.

  6. NFECTIONS BY MULTIDRUG RESISTANT ORGANISMS IN A NEUROSURGICAL AND NEUROPSYCHIATRIC CARE CENTRE AND THE CHANGING ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS.

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    Ravikumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Infections contribute to major morbidity and morta lity in the developing countries. Antimicrobial resistance is an other major problem with the increasing infections and non availability of ideal antimicrob ial agent. Despite the advances in antimicrobial therapy, infections remain a serious b urden. This study was designed t o assess the increasing infection rates and antimicrobial su sceptibility patterns in neurosurgical and neuropsychiatric patients. Over a period of three years and six months from Jan uary 2009 to June 2012, various samples were processed, isolated the infectious agent and identified. The different samples included samples like CSF, urine, pus, tracheal aspira tes, shunt & catheter tips, tissue and blood. These were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility patterns by conventional and automated culture and sensitivity systems. The results were t hen statistically analyzed. This study found that in general, there is a trend towards increased rates of infections, the majority of which were caused by Multi Drug Res istant Gram Negative Bacilli (MDRGNB, followed by Candida species and Cryptococcus species, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection rates, from January 2009 to June 2012, were 3.7% to 5.1% for MDRGNB, 2.89% to 4.24% for Candida, 2.93% to 3.13% for Cryptococcus, 2.8% to 2.1%(till June 2012 for MRSA and 1.3% to 5.7% for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Also, a trend towards increasing resi stance among the isolates to the carbapenem antibiotics was observed. The increasing trend of infections is a cause for c oncern throughout the country. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics, hospital personnel not adhering to safety precautions etc are the main reasons for the increased infection rates. Newer therapeutic agents and strict antibiotic policies are required to effectively cont rol the issue of emerging infections.

  7. Extended Spectrum β-lactamases and antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the West Bank, Palestine

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    Tamer Essawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Class D oxacillinases are frequently acquired by gram negative bacteria in general and P. aeruginosa in particular.P. aeruginosa is commonly implicated in causing nosocomial infections. The evolution of antibiotic resistance inP. aeruginosa and the acquisition of blaOXA genes interfere with successful treatment.Methods: A total of 49 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained from Rafidia Hospital, West Bank, Palestine.Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following theguidelines of CLSI. The prevalence of class D β-lactamases (OXA groups I, II and III as well as the pseudomonas specificenzymes (CARB-3 were determined by PCR.Results: Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to carbapenems was the highest 89%, and lowest to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid70%. This study revealed that P. aeruginosa produced oxacillinase enzymes at rates of: OXA-10 (40.8%, OXA-2 (20.4%and OXA-1 (18.4%. All ceftazidime resistant strains expressed OXA-1 and OXA-2, 18.4%. PSE group was expressed in10.2%.Conclusions: This is the first research conducted to investigate the correlation between OXA genes (blaOXA-1, bla-OXA-2 and blaOXA-10 and antimicrobial resistance among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates in Palestine. The results obtainedcould contribute to better treatment and reduction of the evolution of resistant strains. In addition, it will provideimportant information regarding the geographical distribution of class D β-lactamases. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(2:56-60Key words: P. aeruginosa, β-lactamase, susceptibility, oxacillinases, blaOXA genes

  8. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Juliana M A; de Souza, Andressa; Schocken-Iturrino, Ruben P; Beraldo, Lívia G; Borges, Clarissa A; Avila, Fernando A; Marin, José M

    2014-01-01

    Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼ 50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans. PMID:24734047

  9. Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from the Uteri Horn, Mouth, and Rectum of Bitches Suffering from Pyometra: Virulence Factors, Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, and Clonal Relationships among Strains

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    Juliana M. A. Agostinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch, and Escherichia coli is the major pathogen associated with this disease. In this study, 70 E. coli isolates from the uteri horn, mouth, and rectum of bitches suffering from the disease and 43 E. coli isolates from the rectum of clinically healthy bitches were examined for the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. DNA profiles of isolates from uteri horn and mouth in bitches with pyometra were compared by REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR. Virulence gene frequencies detected in isolates from canine pyometra were as follows: 95.7% fim, 27.1% iss, 25.7% hly, 18.5% iuc, and 17.1% usp. Predominant resistance was determined for cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid among the isolates from all sites examined. Multidrug resistance was found on ∼50% pyometra isolates. Using the genotypic methods some isolates from uteri, pus, and saliva of the same bitch proved to have identical DNA profiles which is a reason for concern due to the close relationship between household pets and humans.

  10. Impact of restriction of cefepime use on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli related to healthcare-associated infections in an orthopedic hospital

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    Rossi F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Priscila R Oliveira1, Adriana P Paula1, Karine Dal-Paz1, Cassia S Felix1, Flavia Rossi2, Jorge S Silva1, Ana Lucia M Lima11Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, 2Pathology Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilIntroduction: In recent decades, antimicrobial resistance has become a public health problem, particularly in cases of healthcare-associated infections. Interaction between antibiotic consumption and resistance development is of particular interest regarding Gram-negative bacilli, whose growing resistance has represented a great challenge.Objective: Assess the impact of restriction of cefepime use on antimicrobial susceptibility among the Gram-negative bacilli (GNB most frequently involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAI.Methods: Data relating to hospital occupancy and mortality rates, incidence of HAI, incidence of GNB as causative agents of HAI, antimicrobial consumption at the hospital and antimicrobial susceptibility of GNB related to HAI were compared between two periods: a 24-month period preceding restriction of cefepime use and a 24-month period subsequent to this restriction.Results: There was a significant drop in cefepime consumption after its restriction. Susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumanii improved relating to gentamicin, but it worsened in relation to imipenem, subsequent to this restriction. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there was no change in antimicrobial susceptibility. For Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, there were improvements in susceptibility relating to ciprofloxacin.Conclusion: Restriction of cefepime use had a positive impact on K. pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp, given that after this restriction, their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin improved. However, for A. baumanii, the impact was negative, given the worsening of susceptibility to imipenem.Keywords: ecological studies, cross infection, drug resistance, microbial, Gram-negative bacilli, cefepime

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from food animals on farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. Clostridium difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmi...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genotyping analysis of Hungarian Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes-Nikodém, Éva; Brunner, Alexandra; Pintér, Dóra; Mihalik, Noémi; Lengyel, György; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Szabó, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter

    2014-12-01

    Emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. The current study aims to determine the antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae and associated molecular typing to enhance gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance in Hungary. In the National N. gonorrhoeae Reference Laboratory of Hungary 187 N. gonorrhoeae infections were detected in 2013, antibiograms were determined for all the isolated strains, and 52 (one index strain from every sexually contact related group) of them were also analysed by the N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) method. Twenty-two different NG-MAST sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 8 STs had not been previously described. In Hungary, the highly diversified gonococcal population displayed high resistance to penicillin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline (the antimicrobials previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment). Resistance to the currently recommended extended spectrum cephalosporines were rare: only two of the expected strains, an ST 1407 and an ST 210, had cefixime MIC above the resistance breakpoint. By the revision of our National Treatment Guideline, it must be considered, that the azithromycin resistance is about 60% among the four most frequently isolated STs in Hungary.

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and analysis of plasmid profiles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from human, animal and plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Ajetunmobi, Olabayo; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Odutayo, Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) constitute a major public health threat globally. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most studied MDROs however there is paucity of information regarding the susceptibility of its animal and plants isolates to antipseudomonas drug in Nigeria. From a total of 252 samples consisting of plants, animals and clinical samples, 54, 24 and 22 P. aeruginosa were isolated from vegetables, animals and clinical sources respectively. All the isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the 100 P. aeruginosa isolates against 7 antipseudomonal drugs was carried out by disk diffusion method, the phenotypic detection of ESBL was done by double disk synergy test (DDST) while plasmid extraction on 20 selected isolates based on their resistance to 2 or more classes of antibiotics was carried out by alkaline lysis method and analysed with Lambda DNA/Hind lll marker respectively. The AST results revealed highest resistance of 91 and 55 % to ceftazidime and carbenicillin respectively while highest susceptibilities of 99 % for piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem were recorded in overall assay. Fifteen out of 100 isolates specifically (10) from vegetables, (3) clinical and (2) poultry isolates showed synergy towards the beta-lactamase inhibitor indicating production of ESBL by DDST method. Detection of plasmids was among vegetable (n = 4), poultry (n = 4), cow (n = 3) and clinical isolates (n = 1). Plasmid profile for the selected isolates revealed 6 of the strains had one plasmids each while 5 strains possessed 2-4 plasmids and 1 strain had 5 plasmids. The sizes of the plasmid range from animal isolates of P. aeruginosa harbouring multiple mechanisms of resistance is of concern due to the danger it poses on the public health. PMID:27610300

  14. Transcription profiling of immune genes during parasite infection in susceptible and resistant strains of the flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Mei-Hui; Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-05-01

    The flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an intermediate host for the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and has become an important genetic model to explore immune responses to parasite infection in insect hosts. The present study examined the immune responses to tapeworm infection in resistant (TIW1) and susceptible (cSM) strains of the red flour beetle, T. castaneum, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on 29 immunity-related genes that exhibit antimicrobial properties. Thirteen of the 29 genes showed constitutive differences in expression between the two strains. Fourteen to fifteen of the 29 genes exhibited significant differences in transcription levels when beetles were challenged with tapeworm parasite in the resistant and susceptible strains. Nine genes (GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2 and serpin29) in cSM and 13 genes (lysozyme2, proPO1, GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2, proPO2/3, PGRP-LE and PGRP-SB) in TIW1 were up-regulated by infections or showed parasite infection-induced expression. Seven genes (attacin2, coleoptericin1, defensin1, defensin2, lysozyme2, PGRP-SA and PGRP-SB) were more than 10 folds higher in the resistant TIW1 strain than in the susceptible cSM strain after exposure to tapeworm parasites. This study demonstrated the effects of genetic background, the transcription profile to parasite infection, and identified the immunity-related genes that were significantly regulated by the infection of tapeworms in Tribolium beetles.

  15. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dongdong; LI Fuhua; LI Shihao; WEN Rong; XIANG Jianhai

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs),as key immune effectors,play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates.Different types of AMPs,including Penaeidin,Crustin,ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however,systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited.In this study,we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps,Fenneropenaeus chinensis,simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive,G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative,G).Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium,and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria.Furthermore,the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles,suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp.An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AM Ps.The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp.Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp.These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  16. Expression profiles of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their regulation by Relish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as key immune effectors, play important roles in the innate immune system of invertebrates. Different types of AMPs, including Penaeidin, Crustin, ALF (antilipopolysaccharide factor) have been identified in different penaeid shrimp; however, systematic analyses on the function of different AMPs in shrimp responsive to different types of bacteria are very limited. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of AMPs in the Chinese shrimps, Fenneropenaeus chinensis, simultaneously by real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) when shrimp were challenged with Micrococcus lysodeikticus (Gram-positive, G+) or Vibrio anguillarium (Gram-negative, G-). Different AMPs showed different expression profiles when shrimp were injected with one type of bacterium, and one AMP also showed different expression profiles when shrimp were challenged with different bacteria. Furthermore, the expression of these AMPs showed temporal expression profiles, suggesting that different AMPs function coordinately in bacteria-infected shrimp. An RNA interference approach was used to study the function of the Relish transcription factor in regulating the transcription of different AMPs. The current study showed that Relish could regulate the transcription of different AMPs in shrimp. Differential expression profiles of AMPs in shrimp injected with different types of bacteria indicated that a complicated antimicrobial response network existed in shrimp. These data contribute to our understanding of immunity in shrimp and may provide a strategy for the control of disease in shrimp.

  17. Decline in Decreased Cephalosporin Susceptibility and Increase in Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, I; Sawatzky, P; Liu, G; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Hoang, L; Drews, S; Horsman, G; Wylie, J; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Ratnam, S; Wong, T; Archibald, C; Mulvey, M R

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Canada during 2010-2014. The proportion of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins declined significantly between 2011 and 2014, whereas azithromycin resistance increased significantly during that period. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial drug susceptibilities is imperative to inform treatment guidelines.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.;

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated...... for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds...... at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.;

    2000-01-01

    (123), Switzerland (69), United States (53), and Zimbabwe (6). The antimicrobial agents tested were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanate, penicillin + novobiocin, enrofloxacin, premafloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, lincomycin, pirlimycin, neomycin......, lincomycin + neomycin, and sulfamethazine. The MIC90 for these antimicrobial agents for all strains were 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 1.0, less than or equal to 0.06, 0.125, 0.125, less than or equal to 0.0078, 0.5, 1.0, 16.0, 1.0, 2.0, 0.5, and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. Overall, only small variations between...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  1. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  2. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Débora Paula; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Guimarães, Danielle Aparecida; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Farias, Luiz Macêdo; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Diniz, Claudio Galuppo

    2010-07-01

    Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110) and non-diarrheic (n=65) fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic), and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  3. Susceptibilidad in vitro de Arcobacter butzleri a seis drogas antimicrobianas In vitro susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri to six antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Otth

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad de 50 cepas de A. butzleri mediante el método del E-test. Ninguna cepa fue resistente a gentamicina y tetraciclina, pero, hubo cepas resistentes a eritromicina (2% y ciprofloxacina (2%. Además, el 90 y el 98% de las cepas fueron resistentes a ampicilina y cloramfenicol respectivamente. Solamente dos de las 45 cepas ampicilina-resistentes fueron productoras de ß-lactamasa. Palabras clave: Arcobacter butzleri, susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, bacterias emergentes, E-test, ß-lactamasaThe susceptibility patterns of 50 A. butzleri strains to six antimicrobial agents were determined using the E-test method. No strain was found to be resistant to gentamicin and tetracycline, but two different strains (2% were resistant to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. Ninety and 98% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and chloramphenicol, respectively. Only two of the 45 ampicillin resistant strains were able to produce ß-lactamase.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Vietnam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern worldwide. In Vietnam, knowledge regarding N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and AMR is limited, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae is totally lacking. Herein, we investigated the phenotypic AMR (previous, current and possible future treatment options, genetic resistance determinants for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs, and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolated in 2011 in Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam isolated in 2011 (n = 108 were examined using antibiograms (Etest for 10 antimicrobials, Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST, and sequencing of ESC resistance determinants (penA, mtrR and penB. Results The levels of in vitro resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 98%, tetracycline 82%, penicillin G 48%, azithromycin 11%, ceftriaxone 5%, cefixime 1%, and spectinomycin 0%. The MICs of gentamicin (0.023-6 mg/L, ertapenem (0.002-0.125 mg/L and solithromycin (penA mosaic alleles were found, however, 78% of the isolates contained an alteration of amino acid A501 (A501V (44% and A501T (34% in the encoded penicillin-binding protein 2. A single nucleotide (A deletion in the inverted repeat of the promoter region of the mtrR gene and amino acid alterations in MtrR was observed in 91% and 94% of the isolates, respectively. penB resistance determinants were detected in 87% of the isolates. Seventy-five different NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 59 STs have not been previously described. Conclusions In Vietnam, the highly diversified gonococcal population displayed high in vitro resistance to antimicrobials previously recommended for gonorrhoea treatment (with exception of spectinomycin, but resistance also to the currently recommended ESCs were found. Nevertheless, the MICs of three potential future treatment options were low. It is

  5. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  6. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  7. Cell-on-hydrogel platform made of agar and alginate for rapid, low-cost, multidimensional test of antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Han; Liu, Zhengzhi; Hu, Chong; Ren, Kangning

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rapidly increasing threat to the effective treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The two major remedies include: (1) using narrow-spectrum antibiotics based on rapid diagnosis; and (2) developing new antibiotics. A key part of both remedies is the antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). However, the current standard ASTs that monitor colony formation are costly and time-consuming and the new strategies proposed are not yet practical to be implemented. Herein, we report a strategy to fabricate whole-hydrogel microfluidic chips using alginate-doped agar. This agar-based microfabrication makes it possible to prepare inexpensive hydrogel devices, and allows a seamless link between microfluidics and conventional agar-based cell culture. Different from common microfluidic systems, in our system the cells are cultured on top of the device, similar to normal agar plate culture; on the other hand, the microfluidic channels inside the hydrogel allow precise generation of linear gradient of drugs, thus giving a better performance than the conventional disk diffusion method. Cells in this system are not exposed to any shear flow, which allows the reliable tracking of individual cells and AST results to be obtained within 2-3 hours. Furthermore, our system could test the synergistic effect of drugs through two-dimensional gradient generation. Finally, the platform could be directly implemented to new drug discovery and other applications wherein a fast, cost-efficient method for studying the response of microorganisms upon drug administration is desirable. PMID:27452345

  8. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulasenegative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms from Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez Bonilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial presence and susceptibility of the coagulase-negative staphylococci group (ECN, for its initials in Spanish in some cattle farms from Tolima, Colombia. Materials and methods: Using the California test for the diagnosis of mastitis (CMT, for its initials in Spanish, 484 quarters belonging to 121 cows from five small production ranches from a region of central Tolima were evaluated. CMT positive samples were cultivated for bacterial isolation. The ECN found were tested for susceptibility to the antibiotics. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: 252 (52% quarters did not show any type of reaction to the CMT, nor did they show any clinical signs of mastitis, therefore they were considered free of the disease. From the quarters, 73 (15% turned positive for CMT and bacteriological culture. From these, 36 strains of ECN were isolated (7.4% of the total of quarters; S. aureus-ECP, 28 (5.8%; Streptococcus spp., 6 (1.2%.; Escherichia coli, 2 (0.4%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 (0.2%. The clinical and subclinical mastitis in the quarter occurred in 1.4% and 13.6%, respectively. In 5 (1.0% of the quarters, clinical mastitis caused by ECN was found and subclinical mastitis in 31 (6.4%. 61% of the ECN strains were resistant to penicillin, and 58%, to tetracycline; 97% were sensitive to cefoperazone. Conclusion: The ECN group, considered a global emergent of mastitis, is evidenced with high frequency in ranches from Tolima, Colombia, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis with varied response to antimicrobials.

  9. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA ISOLATES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. This prospective study was undertaken to know the prevalence of MRSA, to study antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from the indoor patients of a tertiary care hospital in Punjab. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All the iso lates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from various clinical specimens were identified by standard methods. MRSA was detected using 30ug cefoxitin disc by disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines, 2007. Each isolate was tested for other anti - staphyloc occal antibiotics by Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method. Additionally, inducible clindamycin resistance was studied by disc induction test (D test. RESULTS : During a period of one year, a total of 252 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were obtained. Eighty six (34.1% isolates were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and the remaining 166 (65.8% isolates were methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. MRSA isolates were significantly less sensitive to common anti - staphylococcal anti biotics as compared to MSSA isolates. However, MRSA isolates showed relatively better sensitivity to some of the antibiotics like netilmicin, levofloxacin, tetracycline and clindamycin. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (19.8% and MRSA (9.3%. None of the isolate of Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to vancomycin, linezolid and teicoplanin. Inducible clindamycin resistance was present in 17 (19.7% MRSA isolates as against 8 (4.8% MSSA isolates. CONCLUSION : Robust antimicrobial stewa rdship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance

  10. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  11. OCIMUM BASILICUM AND MENTHA PIPERITA ESSENTIAL OILS INFLUENCE THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihaiescu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted by microwave assisted hydrodistillation technique from Ocinum basilicum and Mentha piperita were characterized by GC-MS. An adapted diffusion method was used in order to assess the potentiator effect of the essential oils on the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus clinical and reference strains to some of the currently used antibiotics, i.e. clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin and erythromycin.. The Ocimum basilicum and Mentha piperita essential oils, exhibited a strong, strain specific influence on the antibiotic susceptibility of the tested strains.

  12. [Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Mutations in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates from Human and Meat Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Akira; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Horikawa, Kazumi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in Campylobacter species isolated from meat and human subjects in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Between 2011 and 2013, 55 and 64 isolates were collected from meat (chicken meat and beef liver) and humans, respectively, in this prefecture. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted using the agar dilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, using the following 11 antimicrobial agents : cephalexin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, minocycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to three quinolones (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) were 43.7%, 41.2%, 40.3%, respectively. All the isolates were multidrug resistant. Whereas 46.9%-51.6% of the human isolates were resistant to one or more of the quinolones, only 32.7%-34.5% of the meat isolates were resistant to one or more of the drugs. DNA sequencing showed that of the 50 quinolone resistant isolates 44 had position 86 isoleucine (Ile) substituted for threonine (Thr) in the GyrA protein (Thr86Ile). This amino acid substitution resulted from ACA to ATA and ACT to ATT mutations of codon 86 in C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Furthermore, two of the four C. jejuni isolates lacking the Thr86Ile mutation had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser substitutions, while the remaining two isolates had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser-Ala 206Val substitutions. These four isolates also had cmeABC sequences that differed from the quinolone sensitive C. jejuni ATCC33560(T) strain. In conclusion, C. jejuni and C. coli have relatively high quinolone resistance, and are resistant to other antibiotics. The new combination of amino acid

  13. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.;

    2001-01-01

    , the most frequent being O2 (11.0%). O78 (11.0%), O153 (7.1%). O25 (5.7%). O6 (4.8%). and O15 (4.8%). but diarrhoea was not associated with specific serogroups. All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin and colistin. In contrast, considerable variations in susceptibility were found...

  14. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bace­rial Septic Arthritis and Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the distribution and resistance of the pathogens responsible for septic arthritis and osteomyelitis over a 10 years period in children admitted to Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Methods: Microbiologic and clinical presentation reports from 145 cases of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis from March 1995 to February 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 145 cases, 71(49% had positive culture: 71.8%(51/71 of organisms were isolated from synovial fluid alone, 8.4%(6/71 from blood culture alone and 19.7% (14/71 from both synovial fluids and blood cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated, making up 60.5% of all positive cultures, followed by Klebsiella spp. (14% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.4%. Thirty eight percent of S. aureus and 84% of coagulase-negative staphylo­cocci isolates were resistant to cloxacillin. All isolates of S. aureus were susceptible to clindamycin and also, 89% were susceptible to vancomycin. Among Klebsiella spp., amikacin was shown to be very effective, with susceptibility rates of 100%. Haemophilus influenzae was identified in only 2% of all patients.Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of characterizing the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility of organ­isms causing septic arthritis or osteomylitis in children.

  15. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile Toward Antimicrobial Agents Used as Feed Additives for Food Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Tvede, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A total of 65 toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were tested for susceptibility to avilamycin, flavomycin, monensin, and salinomycin. Except for flavomycin the substances showed in vitro efficacy comparable to reports of the currently...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (Pcephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  17. Evaluation of the automated system Vitek2 for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brazilian Gram-positive cocci strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves d'Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Automated instruments offer many advantages for clinical laboratories. Nevertheless, they can have problems identifying and determining susceptibilities of some pathogens. Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux is an automated system that was recently introduced to Brazil. We evaluated the performance of this equipment for Brazilian isolates that had been characterized using reference identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Ninety-nine strains of Gram-positive cocci from a local reference center collection were analyzed, consisting of 50 coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (CoNS and 49 Enterococcus and related species. Vitek® 2 correctly identified 79.8% (79/99 of the isolates. Oxacillin resistance was detected in 76% (19/25 of resistant S. epidermidis strains and in 88% (22/25 of other resistant CoNS species strains. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 100% (20/20 of resistant Enterococcus and related species strains. Vitek® 2 performed very well for the identification of S. epidermidis and non-epidermidis staphylococci, and for the detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus and related species. However, the system needs improvement in order to provide reliable results for the characterization of some CoNS species, identification of Enterococcus and related species and for detecting oxacillin resistance in CoNS.

  18. Prevalence, serovars, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from blue land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ross; Hariharan, Harry; Matthew, Vanessa; Chappell, Sam; Davies, Rob; Parker, Regina; Sharma, Andravindra

    2013-07-01

    Samples of intestine and hepatopancreas from 65 blue land crabs (Cardisoma guanhumi), a crustacean commonly consumed as a food item in Grenada, were collected from six geographic sites in Grenada and tested for Salmonella by enrichment and selective culture. The individual animal prevalence of Salmonella based on isolation was 17% (11 of 65), and all infected crabs were from three of the six sampled locations. Isolates were identified by serotyping as Salmonella enterica serovars Saintpaul (n = 6), Montevideo (n = 4), and Newport (n = 1). The intestines of all 11 infected crabs were positive for Salmonella, but only 7 of 11 hepatopancreas samples were positive for Salmonella, and these isolates were the same serovar as isolated from the matching intestine. These three Salmonella serovars are known to cause human illness in many countries, and in the Caribbean Salmonella Saintpaul has been frequently isolated from humans. In a disc diffusion assay, all isolates were susceptible to all 11 drugs tested: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To our knowledge, this report is the first concerning isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella serotypes from the blue land crab.

  19. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella species Isolated from Washing and Rinsed Water of Broilers in Pluck Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin-Al-Ferdous

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed with a view to isolate, identifies and characterizes Salmonella species from washing and rinsed water of broilers in pluck shops at Sreepur of Gazipur district in Bangladesh during the period from December 2011 to May 2012. A total of 30 samples collected from the different layers of drums of pluck shops’ were subjected to bacterial isolation and identification by using cultural and biochemical techniques. Furthermore, the isolated Salmonella species were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Among the 27 positiveSalmonella isolates 11.11% (n = 3 were Salmonella pullorum, 29.83% isolates (n = 8 were Salmonella gallinarum and the rest 59.26% isolates (n = 16 were Salmonella typhimurium. In case of motility test performed by MIU media and hanging drop slide method, 40.74% isolates were non-motile and 59.26% isolates were motile. Salmonella spp. were resistant to doxycyclin and erythromycin. However, most of the Salmonella spp. were susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and gentamicin. Out of 27 Salmonella isolates, 75% Salmonella typhimurium, 100% Salmonella gallinarum and 100% Salmonella pullorum were detected as multidrug resistant. The findings of the study revealed the presence of multidrug resistant Salmonella species in washing and rinsed water of broilers in Pluck shops at Sreepur of Gazipur district in Bangladesh.

  20. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates to Propolis Extract Alone or in Combination with Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Sajewicz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro combined effect of EEPP and 10 antibacterial drugs was investigated using disk diffusion method-based assay. Addition of EEPP to cefoxitin (FOX, clindamycin (DA, tetracycline (TE, tobramycin (TOB, linezolid (LIN, trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT, penicillin (P, erythromycin (E regimen, yielded stronger, cumulative antimicrobial effect, against all tested S. aureus strains than EEPP and chemotherapeutics alone. In the case of ciprofloxacin (CIP and chloramphenicol (C no synergism with EEPP was observed.

  1. Recombinant human DNase I decreases biofilm and increases antimicrobial susceptibility in staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jeffrey B; LoVetri, Karen; Cardona, Silvia T; Madhyastha, Srinivasa; Sadovskaya, Irina; Jabbouri, Saïd; Izano, Era A

    2012-02-01

    Extracellular DNA is an adhesive component of staphylococcal biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity of recombinant human DNase I (rhDNase) against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Using a 96-well microtiter plate crystal-violet binding assay, we found that biofilm formation by S. aureus was efficiently inhibited by rhDNase at 1-4 μg l⁻¹, and preformed S. aureus biofilms were efficiently detached in 2 min by rhDNase at 1 mg l⁻¹. Pretreatment of S. aureus biofilms for 10 min with 10 mg l⁻¹ rhDNase increased their sensitivity to biocide killing by 4-5 log units. rhDNase at 10 mg l⁻¹ significantly inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis in medium supplemented with sub-MICs of antibiotics. We also found that rhDNase significantly increased the survival of S. aureus-infected Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes treated with tobramycin compared with nematodes treated with tobramycin alone. We concluded that rhDNase exhibits potent antibiofilm and antimicrobial-sensitizing activities against S. aureus and S. epidermidis at clinically achievable concentrations. rhDNase, either alone or in combination with antimicrobial agents, may have applications in treating or preventing staphylococcal biofilm-related infections. PMID:22167157

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Multiantigen Sequence Typing Profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neeraj; Sood, Seema; Singh, Rajendra; Kapil, Arti; Das, Bimal Kumar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kar, Hemanta Kumar; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Molecular epidemiology of 100 consecutive gonococcal isolates collected between April 2010 and October 2013 from New Delhi was investigated using Neisseria gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) along with its association with antimicrobial resistance profiles. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates were assigned into 60 different sequence types and 43 (71.6%) were novel. Sole representation was seen in 76.6% sequence types. There was significant association between ST6058 and resistance to penicillin (P = 0.00) and tetracycline (P = 0.002). PMID:27414684

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pyogenes collected in Austria and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Rainer; Sauermann, Robert; Lagler, Heimo; Stich, Karin; Buxbaum, Astrid; Graninger, Wolfgang; Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2004-09-01

    A total of 341 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from Vienna, Austria and three Hungarian cities were tested for susceptibility to four macrolides and 12 other antibiotics. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin and the other beta-lactams tested. A high level of tetracycline resistance was found in Austria (26.7%) and in Hungary (30.5%). The rate of resistance to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin was 4.7% in Vienna and 3.7% in the Hungarian communities. In both countries, the MIC(90) values of erythromycin and clarithromycin were 0.12 mg/L and the MIC(90) of josamycin was 0.5mg/L. The M phenotype of resistance conferred by the mefA genes was predominant (n = 9) among the macrolide-resistant isolates (n = 14).

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A;

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Mechanisms of Fosfomycin Resistance in Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates in Mainland China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial and community-acquired infections in humans. Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis responsible for bacterial cell wall formation. Although low, the exact E. coli susceptibility to fosfomycin as well as the mechanisms of resistance in the population from Mainland China are mostly unknown. 1109 non-duplicate clinical E. coli strains isolated from urine, sputum, blood and pus samples in 20 widely dispersed tertiary hospitals from Mainland China were collected from July 2009 to June 2010, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of fosfomycin. Detection of the murA, glpT, uhpT, fosA, fosA3 and fosC genes was performed in fosfomycin non-susceptible E. coli strains and conjugation experiments were employed to determine the mobility of fosA3 gene. In this study, 7.8% (86/1109 E. coli strains were fosfomycin non-susceptible. Amino acid substitutions in GlpT and MurA were found in six and four E.coli strains, respectively, while the uhpT gene was absent in eighteen E.coli strains. Twenty-nine isolates carried the transferable plasmid with the fosA3 gene at high frequencies of around 10(-6 to 10(-7 per donor cell in broth mating. The majority of isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, showing that the drug is still viable in clinical applications. Also, the main mechanism of E. coli resistance in Mainland China was found to be due to the presence of the fosA3 gene.

  6. OCIMUM BASILICUM AND MENTHA PIPERITA ESSENTIAL OILS INFLUENCE THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Mihaiescu; Crina Saviuc; Ioana Marinaş; Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc; Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu; Veronica Lazǎr

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by microwave assisted hydrodistillation technique from Ocinum basilicum and Mentha piperita were characterized by GC-MS. An adapted diffusion method was used in order to assess the potentiator effect of the essential oils on the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus clinical and reference strains to some of the currently used antibiotics, i.e. clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin and erythromycin.. The Ocimum basilicum and Mentha piperit...

  7. Heterogeneity among Virulence and Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Profiles of Extraintestinal Escherichia coli Isolates of Animal and Human Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Christine; Bekal, Sadjia; Sanschagrin, François; Levesque, Roger C.; Brousseau, Roland; Masson, Luke; Larivière, Serge; Harel, Josée

    2004-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates collected from different infected animals and from human patients with extraintestinal infections in 2001 were characterized for their phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles, genotypes, and key virulence factors. Among the 10 antimicrobial agents tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides was most frequent. Multiresistant strains were found in both the animal and the human groups of isolates...

  8. Sporulation properties and antimicrobial susceptibility in endemic and rare Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Increased sporulation and antibiotic resistance have been proposed to be associated with certain Clostridium difficile epidemic strains such as PCR ribotype 027. In this study we examined these properties in another widespread PCR ribotype, 014/020, in comparison to prevalent PCR ribotype 002 and a group of rarely represented PCR ribotypes. Highest sporulation was observed in 014/020 strains at 24 h, while after 72 h PCR ribotype 002 and rare PCR ribotypes formed higher total number of spores. PCR ribotype 014/020 strains exhibited slightly higher resistance to tested antimicrobials, followed by group of rare PCR ribotypes and less common PCR ribotype 002. Neither sporulation properties nor antibiotic resistance clearly differed in endemic and rare strains.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Haemophilus parainfluenzae by a kinetic killing-curve method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemsek, J G; Martin, R R; Greenberg, S B; Gentry, L O

    1980-03-01

    A kinetic killing-curve method, designed to mimic several aspects of clinical therapy in endocarditis, was used to test 10 strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae against 28 antibiotic regimens. In an effort to simulate changing in vivo levels of antibiotic in serum, concentrations of three penicillins, three cephalosporins, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were sequentially adjusted over a 12-hr period. Against six beta-lactamase-negative strains, gentamicin in combination with penicillin or cephalosporin invariably resulted in an additive or synergistic effect. Chloramphenicol and a penicillin or cephalosporin usually displayed an indifferent effect, but chloramphenicol was often antagonistic when combined with gentamicin. With four beta-lactamase-positive strains, variable responses were noted to penicillin-aminoglycoside combinations; cephalosporin-aminoglycoside combinations were usually synergistic. This dynamic approach to killing-curve studies may be more appropriate than a static system for in vitro examination of the effect of antimicrobial combinations against selected organisms.

  10. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals is of increasing interest, raising questions about the presence of MRSA in food of animal origin and potential sources of transmission to humans via the food chain. In this study, the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA isolates from 200 retail raw chicken samples in Egypt were determined. MRSA was detected by positive amplification of the mecA gene in 38% (76 of 200) of chicken samples analyzed. This represents a potential public health threat in Egypt, as this contamination rate seems to be the highest among other studies reported worldwide. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, and sec) were detected in all of the 288 MRSA isolates. Nonetheless, none of the strains tested carried tst, the gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Antimicrobial resistance of MRSA isolates was most frequently detected against penicillin (93.4%), ampicillin (88.9%), and cloxacillin (83.3%). These results suggest that retail chicken might be a significant potential source for transmission of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt. This underlines the need for stricter hygienic measures in chicken production in Egypt to minimize the risk of transmission of these strains to consumers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the isolation and molecular characterization of MRSA in retail chicken samples in Egypt.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of invasive pneumococcal isolates in North West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Iliyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An alarming increase in infections due to penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci (PNSP has been documented in nearly all countries. Increasingly, PNSP are also resistant to other antibiotics, and a growing number of clinical failures following the use of these agents have been reported. Aims: To determine the resistance pattern of pneumococcal isolates from patients with invasive pneumococcal infection in North West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study clinical specimens were obtained from patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP, meningitis and bacteraemia over a 2 year period. Pneumococcus strains were identified. Isolates were tested against a panel of antibiotics using E-test strips, and interpreted according to the CLSI criteria. 0.06 ΅g/ml was used as break point for penicillin. Analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics; relationships determined using chi-squared or Fisher′s exact tests, with P < 0.05 regarded as significant. Results: Total number of isolates was 132. Twenty-two (16.7% of the isolates were fully sensitive to penicillin while 73 (55.3% and 37 (28.0% were intermediately and fully resistant, respectively. One hundred and twenty-seven (96.2% of the isolates were fully resistant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Eleven (8.5% were fully resistant to amoxicillin and 104 (78.8% and 17 (12.9% were intermediately resistant and fully susceptible. One hundred and six (80.3% of the isolates were fully susceptible to chloramphenicol. Resistance to penicillin was shown to infer resistance to other antibiotics. Conclusions: Pneumococcal resistance is common in North West Nigeria. Ceftriaxone retains excellent activity against most of the invasive isolate, while trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole is almost uniformly resistant.

  13. CLINICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROFILE OF ACINETOBACTER SPECIES AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA

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    Apoorva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter are the “superbugs” of the modern hospital environment causing significant proportion of infections and in particular nosocomial infections with high mortality rates. The aim of this study was to isolate Acinetobacter species from clinical specimens and to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter isolates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred and four clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species were processed for species identification by standard microbiological procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. RESULTS: Out of 204 Acinetobacter isolates, 125(61.27% isolates were from ICU and 79(38.72% were from general wards. A baumannii was the most common species isolated (74.50%, followed by A.lwoffii (24.50% and A.haemolyticus (0.98%. A.baumannii showed maximum sensitivity to IPM (52.63% followed by MRP(36.18%, AK(28.28%, PIT(26.31%, TCC(21.71%, CIP(21.05% G(17.76% and COT(05.26%. Maximum resistance was observed to CTX(1.31% followed by CAZ(1.97%, CTR(1.97% and CPM(1.97% respectively. A.lwoffii showed maximum sensitivity to IPM(94% followed by AK(90%, and MRP(84%. Statistically significant difference (p value <0.001 was noticed between antibiotic resistance of A.baumannii and A.lwoffii. CONCLUSION: Continued surveillance of drug resistant strains in ICUs, combined with preventive measures remains absolutely essential to prevent or limit the spread of Acinetobacter species in hospital.

  14. Pharmacodynamic profiling of commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli isolates from urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Trova Cuba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens against current first line agents has affected the management of severe urinary tract infection, we determined the likelihood that antibiotic regimens achieve bactericidal pharmacodynamic exposures using Monte Carlo simulation for five antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam, ertapenem, and meropenem commonly prescribed as initial empirical treatment of inpatients with severe community acquired urinary tract infections. Minimum inhibitory concentration determination by Etest was performed for 205 Brazilian community urinary tract infection Escherichia coli strains from 2008 to 2012 and 74 E. coli bloodstream strains recovered from a surveillance study. Pharmacodynamic exposure was modeled via a 5000 subject Monte Carlo simulation. All isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem. Piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin showed 100%, 97.5% and 83.3% susceptibility among outpatient isolates and 98.6%, 75.7% and 64.3% among inpatient isolates, respectively. Against outpatient isolates, all drugs except ciprofloxacin (82.7% in aggressive and 77.6% in conservative scenarios achieved high cumulative fraction of response: car-bapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam cumulative fraction of responses were close to 100%, and ceftriaxone cumulative fraction of response was 97.5%. Similar results were observed against inpatients isolates for carbapenems (100% and piperacillin/tazobactam (98.4%, whereas ceftriaxone achieved only 76.9% bactericidal cumulative fraction of response and ciprofloxacin 61.9% (aggressive scenario and 56.7% (conservative scenario respectively. Based on this model, standard doses of beta-lactams were predicted to deliver sufficient pharmacodynamic exposure for outpatients. However, ceftriaxone should be avoided for inpatients and ciprofloxacin empirical prescription should be avoided in both inpatients and outpatients with complicated

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.;

    2003-01-01

    towards ampicillin (1.8%), chloramphenicol (1.6%), florphenicol (0.4%), nalidixic acid (1.6%), neomycin (0.6%), streptomycin (4.4%), sulfamethoxazole (4.2%), tetracycline (4.0%) and trimethoprim (1.4%), whereas all isolates were susceptible to co-amoxiclav, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, colistin...... and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...

  16. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L;

    2008-01-01

    to species level, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid were determined by the agar dilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The majority of isolates were identified as Finegoldia magna...... and Parvimonas micra (formerly Peptostreptococcus micros), isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid. Twenty-one isolates (7%) were resistant to penicillin (n=13) and/or to clindamycin (n=12). Four isolates were resistant...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and characterization of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

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    Lin Johnson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA continues to be a problem for clinicians worldwide. However, few data on the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolates in South Africa have been reported and the prevalence of MRSA in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province is unknown. In addition, information on the characterization of S. aureus in this province is unavailable. This study investigated the susceptibility pattern of 227 S. aureus isolates from the KZN province, South Africa. In addition, characterization of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA are reported in this survey. Methods The in-vitro activities of 20 antibiotics against 227 consecutive non-duplicate S. aureus isolates from clinical samples in KZN province, South Africa were determined by the disk-diffusion technique. Isolates resistant to oxacillin and mupirocin were confirmed by PCR detection of the mecA and mup genes respectively. PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene was employed in the characterization of MSSA and MRSA. Results All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and fusidic acid, and 26.9% of isolates studied were confirmed as MRSA. More than 80% of MRSA were resistant to at least four classes of antibiotics and isolates grouped in antibiotype 8 appears to be widespread in the province. The MSSA were also susceptible to streptomycin, neomycin and minocycline, while less than 1% was resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and mupirocin. The inducible MLSB phenotype was detected in 10.8% of MSSA and 82% of MRSA respectively, and one MSSA and one MRSA exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. There was good correlation between antibiotyping and PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene in the characterization of MRSA in antibiotypes 1, 5 and 12. Conclusion In view of the high resistance rates of MRSA to gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin and

  18. Meningococcal disease: History, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevention

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    Manchanda V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningoccocal disease has repeatedly caused outbreaks worldwide. There has been sudden surge of cases of meningococcemia and meningococcal meningitis in early 2005 in Delhi, India and neighboring states of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. As of June 17, 2005, 429 probable cases of meningococcal disease have been reported in Delhi out of which 128 cases have revealed microbiological evidence of Neisseria meningitidis . It is possible that the number of cases was in excess of the numbers notified. During this episode drug susceptibility testing by MIC method (E-test using break points recently recommended by NCCLS/CLSI, revealed that all isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, rifampicin and ceftriaxone. As regards to ciprofloxacin, about two third of the isolates tested were found to be ′non-susceptible′ (MIC =0.03µg/mL- 0.190µg/mL. All the isolates were found resistant to cotrimoxazole (MIC> 16µg/mL. Repeated outbreaks, decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, which is commonly used for chemoprophylaxis of meningococcal disease, highlights the need for a constant surveillance system. Present review deals with various aspects of Neisseria meningitidis and meningococcal disease in view of recent episode.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Valéria Maria; Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1)), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 2909 μg mL(-1)), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL(-1); MBC mean = 4800 μg mL(-1)) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL(-1). Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

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    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  2. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Aeromonas Species Isolated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

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    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas species isolated from Alice and Fort Beaufort wastewater treatment plant in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of antibiotics resistance genes. Variable susceptibilities were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, minocycline, among others. Aeromonas isolates from both locations were 100% resistant to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, and vancomycin. Higher phenotypic resistance was observed in isolates from Fort Beaufort compared to isolates from Alice. Class A pse1 β-lactamase was detected in 20.8% of the isolates with a lower detection rate of 8.3% for blaTEM gene. Class 1 integron was present in 20.8% of Aeromonas isolates while class 2 integron and TetC gene were not detected in any isolate. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes observed in the isolates and the presence of β-lactamases genes detected in some isolates are of clinical and public health concern as this has consequences for antimicrobial chemotherapy of infections associated with Aeromonas species. This study further supports wastewater as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance determinants in the environment.

  3. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from canine chronic otitis externa

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    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swab samples obtained from 96 dogs with chronic otitis externa were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus species. Of 57 staphylococcal strains, 41 (72% were coagulase-negative (CNS. The identification of staphylococci strains was made by standard procedures for the routine identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. S. sciuri was the most frequent species isolated (22.8% from chronic otitis externa in dogs followed by S. intermedius (12.3%, S. auricularis (10.5% and S. aureus (8.8%. Three (5.2% CNS strains could not be identified. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. Resistance was most common to penicillin G, oxacillin and ampicillin.

  4. Genomic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine intrauterineEscherichia coli and its relationship with postpartum uterine infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ming; WANG Yi-hao; PENG Yu; MIN Jiang-tao; HANG Su-qin; ZHU Wei-yun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the roles ofEscherichia coli in the pathogenesis of postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows, a total of 145E. coli isolates were recovered from 18 healthy cows (61 isolates) and 25 cows with clinical endometritis (84 isolates) at 25–35 days after parturition. Genomic characteristics including phylogenetic grouping, genetic diversity and virulence genes of E. coli isolates were screened to proifle the characteristics related to uterine infections. The susceptibility of the bacteria against 23 antibiotics was also evaluated to support prevention and treatment of clinical cases. Genetic diversity ofE. coli identiifed by random ampliifcation of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed 103 clonal types, including 3 common types to unaffected cows and endometritis cows, 39 types speciifc to healthy cows and 61 types in endometritis subjects. In addition, the isolates from endometritis uteri showed more genetic variability compared with that of healthy cows. Ac-cording to the ifndings of phylogenetic grouping, theE. coli isolates were assigned to group A (35.9%), B1 (59.3%) and D (4.8%). The expression of 10 of 20 virulence gens were detected positively, and onlyifmH gene was revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) associated with endometritis. From antimicrobial susceptibility test,E. coli was found highly resistant to tetracy-cline, ampicilin, carbenicilin and amoxicilin, but sensitive to amikacin, netilmicin, tobramycin, cefepime and ceftazidime. In conclusion,E. coliwere extensively observed in both healthy and endometritis cows, and presented a large clonal types, however, ifmH was the only gene observed associated with clinical endometritis. Our results suggest that the drugs like amikacin, netilmicin, tobramycin and cefepime could be considered for preventing and treating clinical endometritis in the practical management of dairy cow.

  5. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Infection and Asymptomatic Carriers in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayepola, Olayemi O; Olasupo, Nurudeen A; Egwari, Louis O; Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Few reports from Africa suggest that resistance pattern, virulence factors and genotypes differ between Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection. We therefore compared antimicrobial resistance, selected virulence factors and genotypes of S. aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection in Southwest Nigeria. Non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were obtained from infection (n = 217) and asymptomatic carriers (n = 73) during a cross sectional study in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria from 2010-2011. Susceptibility testing was performed using Vitek automated systems. Selected virulence factors were detected by PCR. The population structure was assessed using spa typing. The spa clonal complexes (spa-CC) were deduced using the Based Upon Repeat Pattern algorithm (BURP). Resistance was higher for aminoglycosides in clinical isolates while resistances to quinolones and tetracycline were more prevalent in carrier isolates. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was more frequently detected in isolates from infection compared to carriage (80.2 vs 53.4%; p<0.001, chi2-test). Seven methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates were associated with spa types t002, t008, t064, t194, t8439, t8440 and t8441. The predominant spa types among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were t084 (65.5%), t2304 (4.4%) and t8435 (4.1%). spa-CC 084 was predominant among isolates from infection (80.3%, n = 167) and was significantly associated with PVL (OR = 7.1, 95%CI: 3.9-13.2, p<0.001, chi2-test). In conclusion, PVL positive isolates were more frequently detected among isolates from infection compared to carriage and are associated with spa-CC 084. PMID:26348037

  6. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Infection and Asymptomatic Carriers in Southwest Nigeria.

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    Olayemi O Ayepola

    Full Text Available Few reports from Africa suggest that resistance pattern, virulence factors and genotypes differ between Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection. We therefore compared antimicrobial resistance, selected virulence factors and genotypes of S. aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection in Southwest Nigeria. Non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were obtained from infection (n = 217 and asymptomatic carriers (n = 73 during a cross sectional study in Lagos and Ogun States, Nigeria from 2010-2011. Susceptibility testing was performed using Vitek automated systems. Selected virulence factors were detected by PCR. The population structure was assessed using spa typing. The spa clonal complexes (spa-CC were deduced using the Based Upon Repeat Pattern algorithm (BURP. Resistance was higher for aminoglycosides in clinical isolates while resistances to quinolones and tetracycline were more prevalent in carrier isolates. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL was more frequently detected in isolates from infection compared to carriage (80.2 vs 53.4%; p<0.001, chi2-test. Seven methicillin resistant S. aureus isolates were associated with spa types t002, t008, t064, t194, t8439, t8440 and t8441. The predominant spa types among the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates were t084 (65.5%, t2304 (4.4% and t8435 (4.1%. spa-CC 084 was predominant among isolates from infection (80.3%, n = 167 and was significantly associated with PVL (OR = 7.1, 95%CI: 3.9-13.2, p<0.001, chi2-test. In conclusion, PVL positive isolates were more frequently detected among isolates from infection compared to carriage and are associated with spa-CC 084.

  7. Bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in Otukpo Benue state of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okwori EE; Nwadioha SI; Nwokedi EOP; Odimayo M; Jombo GTA

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate bacterial pathogens and test for their antibiotic susceptibility. Methods:A total of 20 000 samples from 9 different clinical sites were processed in the laboratory between 1987 to 2000. The specimens were inoculated on the appropriate media for the isolation of the bacteria. Biochemical and serology tests were carried out on the organisms to confirm the type of bacteria isolated. Antibiotic susceptibility test was also carried out on each of the bacteria isolated. Results:A total of 18 520 bacteria were isolated from the specimens. The specimens were from nine different clinical sites, i.e. wound accounted for 22.84%, urine 31.67%, blood 12.38%, genital 7.70%, sputum 6.81%, stool 6.28%, cerebrospinal fluid 5.98%, aspirates 3.85%and ear/throat swabs were 2.49%. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 76%of isolates. The main species were Pseudomonas 2 238 (12.08%), Escherichia coli (E. coli) 2 073 (11.19%) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which accounted for 2 511 (13.56%) of the total isolates. S. aureus showed 70%and 65%resistance to penicillin and ampicillin, respectively. Surprisingly, 40%of the organism was resistant to cloxacillin. E. coli showed 47%and 42%resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin, respectively. 49%of Salmonella typhi was resistant to chloramphenicol while 37%of Neisseria meningitidis was resistant to penicillin. Conclusions: The rate of bacteria isolated from the clinical specimens is high and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the organisms vary from one antibiotic to the other.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and mecA characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and non-S. aureus of beef meat origin in Egypt

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    Kamelia Mahmoud Osman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in theirphenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterisation in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB and grlA. Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%, while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%, S. intermedius (33.3%, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100% and S. lentus (100% were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7% carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius and S. lentus. Although global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which could

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance, Biofilm Formation and mecA Characterization of Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus and Non-S. aureus of Beef Meat Origin in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Helmy, Nashwa M; Elhelw, Rehab A; Orabi, Ahmed; Bakry, Magdy; Saad, Aalaa S A

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been found in various farm animal species throughout the world. Yet, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), methicillin-susceptible non-S. aureus (MS-NSA), and methicillin-resistant non-S. aureus (MR-NSA) were not investigated. Therefore, we persued to determine the diversity in their phenotypic virulence assay, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance profile and molecular characterization in one of the food chains in Egypt. Samples were collected during 2013 from beef meat at retail. Twenty seven isolates comprising five species (S. hyicus, S. aureus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus) were characterized for their antibiotic resistance phenotypic profile and antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA). Out of the 27 Staphylococcus isolates only one isolate was resistant to the 12 antibiotics representing nine classes. Raw beef meat sold across the Great Cairo zone, contains 66.7% of MRS, with highest prevalence was reported in S. aureus (66.7%), while the MRS non-S. aureus strains constituted 66.7% from which S. hyicus (60%), S. intermedius (33.3%), S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans (100%), and S. lentus (100%) were MRS. Seven S. aureus, six S. hyicus, four S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, three S. intermedius, and one S. lentus isolates although being resistant to oxacillin yet, 11/27 (40.7%) carried the mecA gene. At the same time, the cfr gene was present in 2 of the nine S. aureus isolates, and totally undetectable in S. hyicus, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. intermedius, and S. lentus. Although, global researches largely focused into MRSA and MR-NSA in animals on pigs, the analysis of our results stipulates, that buffaloes and cattle could be MRSA dispersers and that this theme is not specific to pigs. Detection of MSSA virulence determinants is a must, as although oxacillin resistance may be absent yet, the MSSA may carry the virulence determinants which

  10. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

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    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  11. Streptococcus suis in employees and the environment of swine slaughterhouses in São Paulo, Brazil: Occurrence, risk factors, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Lacouture, Sonia; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Pantoja, José Carlos de Figueiredo; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This article is the first to report the occurrence, risk factors, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis recovered from employees and environmental samples of swine slaughterhouses in Brazil. Tonsillar swabs from all 139 pig-slaughtering employees and 261 environmental swabs were collected for detection of S. suis and serotyping by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk-diffusion method. Although S. suis was not detected in any of the tested employees, it was isolated from 25% of the environmental samples. Significant differences (P cephalexin (75%) were observed. However, multidrug resistance was observed in all the isolates. Because S. suis is present in the environment of swine slaughterhouses, on carcasses and knives, as well as on the hands of employees in all areas, all employees are at risk of infection. PMID:26424907

  12. New consensus guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently isolated or fastidious bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H; Hindler, Janet F

    2007-01-15

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recently published a new laboratory guideline for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of infrequently encountered or fastidious bacteria not covered in previous CLSI publications. The organisms include Aeromonas species, Bacillus species, and Vibrio species that may cause infections following environmental exposure. Fastidious organisms that may cause endocarditis or medical device infections include Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species; coryneform bacteria; Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella group gram-negative rods; and the instrinsically vancomycin-resistant gram-positive organisms Erysipelothrix, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus species. Organisms not previously covered in depth in CLSI guidelines include Branhamella catarrhalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Listeria species, and Pasteurella species. Clinically important drug resistance has been reported for each of these organisms. The guidelines provide recommendations for when it may be important to test these organisms, how standard methods may be easily adapted for testing, and appropriate interpretive criteria for results. Communication with infectious diseases clinicians prior to performing such testing is emphasized.

  13. Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor Junco, María Teresa; Gonzalez-Martin, Margarita; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Noe Francisco; Gutierrez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Enterococcus spp. strains in camel faeces, their virulence factors, and resistance to the antibiotics commonly used as therapy of enterococcal infections. One hundred and seventy three Enterococcus strains were isolated and identified to species level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Susceptibility to 11 antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, gentamicin, and streptomycin were all determined. Genes encoding resistance to vancomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin as well as genes encoding some virulence factors were identified by PCR. Enterococcus hirae (54.3%) and Enterococcus faecium (25.4%) were the species most frequently isolated. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin or showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). Strains resistant to rifampicin (42.42%) were those most commonly found followed those resistant to trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole (33.33%). The genes tetM, tetL, vanC1, and vanC2-C3 were detected in some strains. Virulence genes were not detected. Monitoring the presence of resistant strains of faecal enterococci in animal used with recreational purposes is important to prevent transmission of those strains to humans and to detect resistance or virulence genes that could be transferred to other clinically important bacteria.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide against Propionibacterium acnes assessed by a novel susceptibility testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kazuaki; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Nakajima, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Umehara, Masatoshi; Gotoh, Naomasa; Hayashi, Naoki; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a therapeutic agent for acne vulgaris, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes using a novel broth microdilution testing that improved BPO solubility. We searched for a suitable culture medium to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BPO against P. acnes and finally found the Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) broth supplemented with 0.1(v/v)% glycerol and 2(v/v)% Tween 80, in which BPO dissolved up to 1250 μg/mL and P. acnes grew well. The MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of BPO against 44 clinical isolates of P. acnes collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris were determined by our testing method using the supplemented GAM broth. The MICs of BPO were 128 or 256 μg/mL against all isolates of P. acnes regardless of susceptibility to nadifloxacin or clindamycin. The MBCs of BPO were also 128 or 256 μg/mL against the same isolates. Moreover, BPO at the MIC showed a rapid bactericidal activity against P. acnes ATCC11827 in time-kill assay. In conclusion, we could develop a novel assay for the MIC and MBC determinations of BPO against P. acnes, which is reliable and reproducible as a broth microdilution testing and the present results suggest that BPO has a potent bactericidal activity against P. acnes.

  15. Distribution of strain type and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates causing meningitis in a large urban setting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Hillary; Barberino, Maria Goreth; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Riley, Lee; Reis, Joice N

    2014-05-01

    The clinical management of meningitis caused by Escherichia coli is greatly complicated when the organism becomes resistant to broad-spectrum antibiotics. We sought to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibilities, sequence types (ST), and presence of known drug resistance genes of E. coli isolates that caused meningitis between 1996 and 2011 in Salvador, Brazil. We then compared these findings to those for E. coli isolates from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) that occurred during the same time period and in the same city. We found that 19% of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis and less than 1% of isolates from UTI were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. The sequence types of E. coli isolates from cases of meningitis included ST131, ST69, ST405, and ST62, which were also found among isolates from UTI. Additionally, among the E. coli isolates that were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, we found genes that encode the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases CTX-M-2, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-15. These observations demonstrate that compared to E. coli strains isolated from cases of community-acquired UTI, those isolated from cases of meningitis are more resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, even though the same sequence types are shared between the two forms of extraintestinal infections.

  16. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Diabetic Patients with Controlled and Uncontrolled Glycemia in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sewify

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of glycemic control in diabetic patients on UTI prevalence, type of strains, and their antimicrobial drugs susceptibility. This study was conducted on urine samples from 722 adult diabetic patients from which 252 (35% samples were positive for uropathogens. Most UTI cases occurred in the uncontrolled glycemic group (197 patients versus 55 patients with controlled glycemia. Higher glycemic levels were measured in uncontrolled glycemia group (HbA1c = 8.3 ± 1.5 and 5.4 ± 0.4, resp., P<0.0001. Females showed much higher prevalence of UTI than males in both glycemic groups (88.5% and 11.5%, resp., P<0.0001. In the uncontrolled glycemia group 90.9% of the UTI cases happened at ages above 40 years and a clear correlation was obtained between patient age ranges and number of UTI cases (r=0.94; P=0.017, whereas in the group with controlled glycemia no trend was observed. Escherichia coli was the predominant uropathogen followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and they were together involved in 76.2% of UTI cases. Those species were similarly present in both diabetic groups and displayed comparable antibiotic resistance pattern. These results highlight the importance of controlling glycemia in diabetic patients to reduce the UTI regardless of age and gender.

  17. Phenotypic, molecular characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility and draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium argentoratense strains isolated from clinical samples

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    I. Fernández-Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a 12-year period we isolated five Corynebacterium argentoratense strains identified by phenotypic methods, including the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was determined, and genome sequencing for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes was performed. The organisms were isolated from blood and throat cultures and could be identified by all methods used. All strains were resistant to cotrimoxazole, and resistance to β-lactams was partly present. Two strains were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin. The draft genome sequences of theses isolates revealed the presence of the erm(X resistance gene that is embedded in the genetic structure of the transposable element Tn5423. Although rarely reported as a human pathogen, C. argentoratense can be involved in bacteraemia and probably in other infections. Our results also show that horizontal transfer of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance is occurring in this species.

  18. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial susceptibility of abscess samples from adults and children from the Kaleida Health System in western New York State, 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Dryja, Diane; Abbatessa, Laurie; Patel, Pravin H

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common etiologic agent of skin abscesses. The regional rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) abscesses may reflect the prevalence of local community-acquired MRSA (CAMRSA). A retrospective study was conducted to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolates recovered from abscesses from 2003 to 2006 from patients at hospitals of the Kaleida Health System in western New York. S. aureus susceptibility information was obtained from a Vitek Legacy system, and the location and source of each isolate were identified. EpiInfo software was used to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibilities of all isolates and the trends in the rates of MRSA. A total of 2,848 S. aureus abscesses were identified by the Kaleida Health Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Of those, 978 S. aureus abscess events occurred in four hospitals, including three adult facilities (547 episodes with 62 cases of bacteremia) and one children's facility (431 episodes with 2 cases of bacteremia). The MRSA rates in adults increased from 56% (2003) to 71% (2006), and that in children increased from 26% (2003) to 64% (2006). Of the MRSA isolates in the children's samples, more than 92% were susceptible to clindamycin. Of the MRSA isolates in the adult samples, 50% were susceptible to clindamycin in 2003 and 2004, whereas greater than 75% were susceptible in 2005 and 2006. The increased rates of MRSA abscesses with susceptibility to clindamycin may reflect the high prevalence level of CAMRSA in the western New York community. The variations in S. aureus susceptibilities could serve as an indicator of the changing resistance patterns within a broad urban community. PMID:20181909

  20. Antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility profiles of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolated from community wastewater in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Ross C; Duke, Sara E; Ziprin, Richard L; Harvey, Roger B; Hume, Michael E; Poole, Toni L; Scott, H Morgan; Highfield, Linda D; Alali, Walid Q; Andrews, Kathleen; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2008-03-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from human wastewater effluents in a nonclinical semiclosed agri-food system in Texas were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics and disinfectants. The 50 VRE were resistant to eight fluoroquinolones and 10 of 17 antimicrobials typically active against Gram-positive organisms. The VRE were susceptible to quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid. Lack of the insertion element IS1251 correlated with VRE susceptibility to streptomycin and gentamicin at p or =2 ppm. Triclosan MICs for many of the VRE were well over expected product application levels. No association was observed between antibiotic resistance and disinfectant susceptibility in these VRE. Enterococci multiply-resistant to vancomycin and aminoglycosides were found in a non-hospital environment where one would not expect to find them. PMID:18193143

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antibiotic agents at super specialty hospital, Amravati city, India

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    Hrishikesh Sawdekar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the health problems that is caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms. Information on local pathogens and sensitivity to antimicrobial agent is crucial for successful treatment of wounds. So the present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from wound infection and their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients with wound infection in Suyash super speciality hospital, from January 2012 to December 2013. Wound swab was collected using sterile cotton swabs and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to Systemic antimicrobial agents. Results: In this study 78 bacterial isolates were recovered from 258 specimens showing an isolation rate of 31.2%. The predominant bacteria isolated from wounds were gram positive staphylococci 36 (46.2%, followed by gram negative streptococci 18 (23.1% gram negative pseudomonas 12 (15.4 % and gram negative proteus 8 (10.4%. The gram positive and gram negative bacteria constituted 68 (87.2% and 10 (12.8% of bacterial isolates; respectively. Conclusion: In the present study most of the pathogens isolated from wound isolates showed high rate of resistance to most commonly used newer antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections. Therefore, rational use of antibiotics should be practiced. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(2.000: 433-439

  2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kidanemariam; J. Gouws; M. Van Vuuren; Gummow, B.

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of...

  3. Investigation of clostridium difficile interspecies relatedness using multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina; Avesani, Véronique; Taminiau, Bernard; Van Broeck, Johan; Brévers, Bastien; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility were performed on 37 animal and human C. difficile isolates belonging to 15 different PCR-ribotypes in order to investigate the relatedness of human and animal isolates and to identify possible transmission routes. MLVA identified a total of 21 different types while MLST only distinguished 12 types. Identical C. difficile strains were detected in the same animal spe...

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

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    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  5. Investigation into the susceptibility of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Watters, A. L.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    The main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) sufferers is progressive pulmonary damage caused by recurrent and often unremitting respiratory tract infection. Causative organisms include Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae, but in recent years the Burkholderia cepacia complex has come to the fore. This group of highly drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are associated with a rapid decline in lung function and the often fatal cepacia syndrome, with treatment limited to patient segregation and marginally effective antibacterial regimens. Thus, development of an effective treatment is of the upmost importance. PACT, a non-target specific therapy, has proven successful in killing both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, planktonic cultures of six strains of the B. cepacia complex were irradiated (635 nm, 200 J cm-2,10 minutes irradiation) following 30 seconds incubation with methylene blue (MB) or meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP). Rates of kill of > 99 % were achieved with MB- and TMP-PACT. A MB concentration of 50 μg ml-1 and TMP concentration of 500 μg ml-1 were associated with highest percentage kills for each photosensitizer. PACT is an attractive option for treatment of B.cepacia complex infection. Further study, involving biofilm culture susceptibility, delivery of light to the target and in vivo testing will be necessary before it PACT becomes a viable treatment option for CF patients who are colonised or infected with B. cepacia complex.

  6. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Isamu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Tachibana, Mineji; Takahashi, Choichiro; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Baba, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shuji; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Murase, Mitsuharu; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2010-12-01

    The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (26 species, 1022 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (23 species, 184 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2006 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 53.0% and 65.8%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 micrcog/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 87.6%. Ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics, VCM, teicoplanin, linezolid(LZD) and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 10.9% of E. faecalis strains or 3.5% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to LZD. 24.4% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM were under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity against C. difficile. Carbapenems showed good activity against Peptococcaceae, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. However since several strains of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems and the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future. PMID:21425596

  7. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jimei; Chen, Chun; Ding, Baixing; Tu, Jinjing; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Salgado, Cassandra; Cai, Qiangjun; Song, Yulong; Bao, Qiyu; Zhang, Liming; Pan, Jingye; Wang, Liangxing; Yu, Fangyou

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935) S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935) MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%), ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%). 82%, (23/28) of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs), as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779) and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community. PMID:22114670

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kudo, Reiko; Fuji, Rieko; Takahashi, Choichiro; Oota, Reiko; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Fujita, Shinichi; Matsuo, Shuji; Kono, Hisashi; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanimoto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (25 genus or species, 1029 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (21 genus or species, 187 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2008 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 59.6% and 81.2%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM), linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 microg/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 92.0% that was highest among our previous reports. Cefpirome, carbapenems, VCM, teicoplanin (TEIC), LZD and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 15.9% of E. faecalis strains and 1.2% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate to LZD. 17.1% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM was under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity. Carbapenems showed good activity against Clostridiales, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp., but one strain of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems. And so, the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future at detecting continuously. PMID:22808693

  9. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a Chinese medical college campus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimei Du

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection occur more commonly among persons living or working in crowded conditions, but characterization of S. aureus colonization within medical communities in China is lacking. A total of 144 (15.4%, 144/935 S. aureus isolates, including 28 (3.0%, 28/935 MRSA isolates, were recovered from the nares of 935 healthy human volunteers residing on a Chinese medical college campus. All S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid but the majority were resistant to penicillin (96.5%, ampicillin/sulbactam (83.3% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (93.1%. 82%, (23/28 of the MRSA isolates and 66% (77/116 of the MSSA isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics, and 3 MRSA isolates were resistant to mupirocin--an agent commonly used for nasal decolonization. 16 different sequence types (STs, as well as SCCmec genes II, III, IVd, and V, were represented among MRSA isolates. We also identified, for the first time, two novel STs (ST1778 and ST1779 and 5 novel spa types for MRSA. MRSA isolates were distributed in different sporadic clones, and ST59-MRSA-VId- t437 was found within 3 MRSA isolates. Moreover, one isolate with multidrug resistance belonging to ST398-MRSA-V- t571 associated with animal infections was identified, and 3 isolates distributed in three different clones harbored PVL genes. Collectively, these data indicate a high prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage and molecular heterogeneity of S. aureus isolates among persons residing on a Chinese medical college campus. Identification of epidemic MRSA clones associated with community infection supports the need for more effective infection control measures to reduce nasal carriage and prevent dissemination of MRSA to hospitalized patients and health care workers in this community.

  10. Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis isolated from osseointegrated dental implants: colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility Prevotella intermedia e Porphyromonas gingivalis isolados de implantes osseointegrados: colonização e susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Augusto Pfau; Mario Julio Avila-Campos

    2005-01-01

    The colonization and antimicrobial susceptibility of P. intermedia and P. gingivalis isolated from peri-implant and gingival sulcus samples were determined. Samples were collected from 30 patients submitted to implant in three different times: at the moment of the surgery, 20 and 60 days after the implant installation. Organisms were identified by using a biochemical tests or API 32-A kit and by PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by using an agar dilution method. Nineteen P....

  11. Neural Network-Based Model for Landslide Susceptibility and Soil Longitudinal Profile Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Barari, Amin; Choobbasti, A. J.;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create an empirical model for assessing the landslide risk potential at Savadkouh Azad University, which is located in the rural surroundings of Savadkouh, about 5 km from the city of Pol-Sefid in northern Iran. The soil longitudinal profile of the city of Babol......, located 25 km from the Caspian Sea, also was predicted with an artificial neural network (ANN). A multilayer perceptron neural network model was applied to the landslide area and was used to analyze specific elements in the study area that contributed to previous landsliding events. The ANN models were...... studies in landslide susceptibility zonation....

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus recovered from recreational and commercial areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays.

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    Kristi S Shaw

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in the estuarine-marine environment are of human health significance and may be increasing in pathogenicity and abundance. Vibrio illness originating from dermal contact with Vibrio laden waters or through ingestion of seafood originating from such waters can cause deleterious health effects, particularly if the strains involved are resistant to clinically important antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility among these pathogens. Surface-water samples were collected from three sites of recreational and commercial importance from July to September 2009. Samples were plated onto species-specific media and resulting V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus strains were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction assays and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Descriptive statistics, Friedman two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Vibrio vulnificus (n = 120 and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 77 were isolated from all sampling sites. Most isolates were susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treating Vibrio infections, although the majority of isolates expressed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol (78% of V. vulnificus, 96% of V. parahaemolyticus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus also demonstrated resistance to penicillin (68%. Sampling location or month did not significantly impact V. parahaemolyticus resistance patterns, but V. vulnificus isolates from St. Martin's River had lower overall intermediate resistance than that of the other two sampling sites during the month of July (p = 0.0166. Antibiotics recommended to treat adult Vibrio infections were effective in suppressing bacterial growth, while some antibiotics recommended for pediatric treatment were not effective against some of the recovered isolates. To our knowledge, these are the first antimicrobial

  13. Rising trend of antimicrobial resistance among Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and the emergence of N. gonorrhoeae isolate with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bharara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gonorrhoea is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI in developing countries and is a global health problem. Aims: To analyze the trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates over the years, in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: The study population comprised males with urethritis and females with endocervicitis attending STI clinic of our hospital. Materials and Methods: In our STI laboratory, all gonococcal isolates are subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disc diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. β-lactamase production is determined by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for ceftriaxone is determined by E-test. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were expressed as percentages. The differences in percentages were tested for statistical significance by using χ2 test and P values were determined. Results: The percentage of penicillinase producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG increased from 8% in 1995-96 to 20% in 2004-05 and 88% in 2011-2013. Quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG showed a significant increase from 12% in 1995-96 to 98.3% in 2004-05, while 84% isolates were found to be QRNG by 2011-2013. In January 2013 we detected our first gonococcal isolate with decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins; Ceftriaxone, Cefixime and Cefpodoxime (MIC for ceftriaxone = 0.19 μg/ml. Conclusions: The results of our study highlighted an alarming increase in the percentage of PPNG and QRNG strains over the years. Emergence of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with decreased susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins is a cause of concern and thus emphasises the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  14. Prevalence, toxin gene profiles, and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from quick-frozen dumplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dan; Xing, Xiaonan; Li, Guanghui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Weisong; Xia, Xiaodong; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in quick-frozen dumplings and to characterize these strains. A total of 120 dumpling samples, including lamb (n = 13), vegetarian (n = 14), seafood (n = 12), and pork (n = 81) stuffing, were collected in Shaanxi province in China and screened for S. aureus. All S. aureus isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and detection of genes encoding staphylococcal enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins A and B (eta and etb), toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tsst-1), and resistance to methicillin-oxacillin (mecA). In all, 60.0% of all samples were positive for S. aureus, and 117 S. aureus isolates, including seven mecA-positive strains, were recovered from these positive samples. In addition, all mecA-positive S. aureus isolates were recovered from products of animal origin. In these S. aureus isolates, resistance was observed most frequently to ampicillin (92.3%) and penicillin (86.3%), followed by clarithromycin, erythromycin, midecamycin, tetracycline, and kanahemycin (from 53.8 to 28.2%). All isolates were sensitive to cefoperazone, minocycline, vancomycin, and ofloxacin. The predominant toxin gene was sec (38.5%), followed by seg (19.7%), sej (16.2%), see (12.8%), sea (11.1%), and seb (10.3%), whereas eta, etb, and tsst-1 genes were not detected. These findings indicate that S. aureus was present commonly in quick-frozen dumplings, accompanied by multiple antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes. Our findings highlight the urgency for stricter hygiene strategies in food production and the prudent use of antibiotics in the breeding industry.

  15. Pharmacodynamic Profiling of Antimicrobials against Gram-negative Respiratory Isolates from Canadian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Keel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the profile of a variety of dosing regimens for common intravenous antibiotics against contemporary Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates collected in Canada during 2009, using pharmacodynamic modelling techniques. Monte Carlo simulation was conducted for standard and/or prolonged infusion regimens of cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, doripenem, ertapenem, meropenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. The cumulative fraction of response (CFR was calculated using bactericidal targets for each regimen against each species. All cefepime, doripenem, ertapenem and meropenem regimens achieved optimal exposures against Enterobacteriaceae, whereas target attainment was organism and dose dependent for the other agents. These results support that the currently recommended antimicrobial dosing regimens generally attain acceptable exposures to achieve the requisite pharmacodynamic targets against the Enterobacteriaceae species; however, they fall short of obtaining optimal bactericidal exposures against P aeruginosa.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase production of selected gram-negative bacilli from two Croatian hospitals: MYSTIC study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenic, B; Goic-Barisic, I; Budimir, A; Tonkic, M; Mihajkevic, L J; Novak, A; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Punda-Polic, V; Kalenic, S

    2010-06-01

    The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results

  17. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates identified in milk from dairy cattle in Belgium, Germany, and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, A; Flaminio, B; De Vliegher, S; Supré, K; Kromker, V; Garbarino, C; Arrigoni, N; Zanardi, G; Bertocchi, L; Gobbo, F; Catania, S; Moroni, P

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 isolates of Mycoplasma bovis isolated from milk of dairy cattle herds of Belgium, Germany, and Italy. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the microbroth dilution method for the following antimicrobials: erythromycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, florfenicol, and tiamulin. Macrolides, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin, were chosen because they represent antimicrobials families commonly used in several countries for treatment of M. bovis, and their MIC values in cattle population are reported in several studies, allowing a comparison with previous data. Doxycycline and tiamulin were selected to assess the susceptibility of M. bovis to new antimicrobials, because they are not registered in the European Union for the treatment of dairy cattle. Among the agents of the different antimicrobial classes, the macrolides showed the highest concentration to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90), all above the highest concentration tested: >8μg/mL for erythromycin, >16μg/mL for spiramycin, and >32μg/mL for tilmicosin and tylosin. Also the MIC90 of lincomycin was above the highest concentration tested (>32μg/mL), but the distribution of the MIC values was almost perfectly bimodal: 41 isolates had a MIC ≤0.5μg/mL and 30 isolates >32μg/mL. Oxytetracycline had a 2-fold higher concentration to inhibit 50% of isolates (2 vs. 0.5μg/mL) and 1-fold higher MIC90 (4 vs. 2μg/mL) than doxycycline. Enrofloxacin and florfenicol had both a MIC90 of 2μg/mL, whereas tiamulin had a MIC90 of 0.5μg/mL. Significant differences on the MIC values were found among the 3 countries for several antimicrobials: compared with Germany, Belgium and Italy showed significantly higher MIC for lincomycin, spiramycin, and tylosin, and lower for oxytetracycline and florfenicol. The Belgian isolates showed the lowest MIC

  18. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria from adults with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections in France: the nationwide French PREMIUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, C; Desroches, M; Emirian, A; Coutureau, C; Anais, L; Fihman, V; Soussy, C J; Decousser, J W

    2015-10-01

    The empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) must be based on updated bacterial distribution and susceptibility data. A nationwide study consecutively collected 1288 isolates from CAP (n=467) and cSSTIs (n=821) from 18 French hospitals between 2012 and 2013. The MIC values of commonly used antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined. Bacterial distribution featured Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus for CAPs and S. aureus, β-hemolytic streptococci and Enterobacteriaceae for cSSTIs. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated i) the sustained third-generation cephalosporins and levofloxacin activity against pneumococci and H. influenzae, ii) no methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emergence among respiratory pathogens, iii) the high in vitro activity of ceftaroline against staphylococci from cSSTIs (98.7% susceptibility), and iv) the worrisome decreasing fluoroquinolone and third-generation cephalosporin susceptibilities among Enterobacteriaceae. This laboratory-based survey depicts a contrasting situation and supports the scoring of patients for the resistant pathogen risk before empirical therapy. PMID:26166208

  19. First description of Candida nivariensis in Brazil: antifungal susceptibility profile and potential virulence attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Ramos, Livia de Souza; Barbedo, Leonardo Silva; Chaves, Alessandra Leal da Silva; Muramoto, Ilda Akemi; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profile and the production of potential virulence attributes in a clinical strain of Candida nivariensis for the first time in Brazil, as identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region and D1/D2 domains of the 28S of the rDNA. For comparative purposes, tests were also performed with reference strains. All strains presented low planktonic minimal inhibitory concentrations (PMICs) to amphotericin B (AMB), caspofungin (CAS), and voriconazole. However, our strain showed elevated planktonic MICs to posaconazole (POS) and itraconazole, in addition to fluconazole resistance. Adherence to inert surfaces was conducted onto glass and polystyrene. The biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility on biofilm-growing cells were evaluated by crystal violet staining and a XTT reduction assay. All fungal strains were able to bind both tested surfaces and form biofilm, with a binding preference to polystyrene (p < 0.001). AMB promoted significant reductions (≈50%) in biofilm production by our C. nivariensis strain using both methodologies. This reduction was also observed for CAS and POS, but only in the XTT assay. All strains were excellent protease producers and moderate phytase producers, but lipases were not detected. This study reinforces the pathogenic potential of C. nivariensis and its possible resistance profile to the azolic drugs generally used for candidiasis management. PMID:26814644

  20. Comparison of susceptibility and transcription profile of the new antifungal hassallidin A with caspofungin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is First report on the antifungal effects of the new glycolipopeptide hassallidin A. Due to related molecular structure moieties between hassallidin A and the established antifungal drug caspofungin we assumed parallels in the effects on cell viability. Therefore we compared hassallidin A with caspofungin by antifungal susceptibility testing and by analysing the genome-wide transcriptional profile of Candida albicans. Furthermore, we examined modifications in ultracellular structure due to hassallidin A treatment by electron microscopy. Hassallidin A was found to be fungicidal against all tested Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. MICs ranged from 4 to 8 μg/ml, independently from the species. Electron microscopy revealed noticeable ultrastructural changes in C. albicans cells exposed to hassallidin A. Comparing the transcriptional profile of C. albicans cells treated with hassallidin A to that of cells exposed to caspofungin, only 20 genes were found to be similarly up- or down-regulated in both assays, while 227 genes were up- or down-regulated induced by hassallidin A specifically. Genes up-regulated in cells exposed to hassallidin A included metabolic and mitotic genes, while genes involved in DNA repair, vesicle docking, and membrane fusion were down-regulated. In summary, our data suggest that, although hassallidin A and caspofungin have similar structures, however, the effects on susceptibility and transcriptional response to yeasts seem to be different

  1. Capsule expression in Streptococcus mitis modulates interaction with oral keratinocytes and alters susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, H V; Engen, S A; Schenck, K; Petersen, F C

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus mitis is a colonizer of the oral cavity and the nasopharynx, and is closely related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Both species occur in encapsulated and unencapsulated forms, but in S. mitis the role of the capsule in host interactions is mostly unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how capsule expression in S. mitis can modulate interactions with the host with relevance for colonization. The S. mitis type strain, as well as two mutants of the type strain, an isogenic capsule deletion mutant, and a capsule switch mutant expressing the serotype 4 capsule of S. pneumoniae TIGR4, were used. Wild-type and capsule deletion strains of S. pneumoniae TIGR4 were included for comparison. We found that capsule production in S. mitis reduced adhesion to oral and lung epithelial cells. Further, exposure of oral epithelial cells to encapsulated S. mitis resulted in higher interleukin-6 and CXCL-8 transcription levels relative to the unencapsulated mutant. Capsule expression in S. mitis increased the sensitivity to human neutrophil peptide 1-3 but reduced the sensitivity to human β-defensin-3 and cathelicidin. This was in contrast with S. pneumoniae in which capsule expression has been generally associated with increased sensitivity to human antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Collectively, these findings indicate that capsule expression in S. mitis is important in modulating interactions with epithelial cells, and is associated with increased or reduced susceptibility to AMPs depending on the nature of the AMP.

  2. Use of Aeromonas spp. as general indicators of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacteria in aquatic environments in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Masaru eUsui; Chie eTagaki; Akira eFukuda; Torahiko eOkubo; Chanchai eBoonla; Satoru eSuzuki; Kanako eSeki; Hideshige eTakada; Yutaka eTamura

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are widely used, not only for treating human infections, but also for treatment of livestock and in fish farms. Human habitats in Southeastern Asian countries are located in close proximity to aquatic environments. As such, the human populations within these regions are at risk of exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB), and thereby disseminating antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, we collected water samples from 15 sites (5 sites in Chao Phraya Riv...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella serovars isolated from edible offal and carcasses of slaughtered poultry in the state of Tocantins, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Minharro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolated from the carcasses, livers and hearts of chickens slaughtered in the state of Tocantins, Brazil, as recommended by the Normative Instruction 70 of 2003 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply and the National Monitoring Program Prevalence and Bacterial Resistance in Chicken. Carcasses, livers and hearts from chicken with or without pericarditis/perihepatitis were studied in 60 lots of poultry slaughtered under the Federal Inspection System in the state of Tocantins, Brazil between August 2010 and June 2011. Twenty-six indicative Salmonella sp. were isolated in 11 lots (18.33%. Different strains of Salmonella were isolated more than a kind of sample/lot. The most frequent serovar was Enteriditis (38.46%, 10/26, while the second was Mbandaka (19.23%, 5/26, both isolated from hearts, livers and carcasses. Regarding antimicrobial resistance, of 12 tested principal pharmacological agents, the samples appeared to be most sensitive to tetracyclines, but showed 100% resistance to one or more active principal agents, especially sulfamethoxazole (30 mcg and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 mcg. Although Salmonella sp. was isolated from normal carcasses, the results are within permitted levels for unfrozen products according to Brazilian legislation. However, one should always be aware of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of production processes and food processing, especially regarding good manufacturing practices.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of mastitis pathogens isolated from acute cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cows across Europe: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Valérie; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; Simjee, Shabbir; El Garch, Farid; Morrissey, Ian; Marion, Hervé; Vallé, Michel

    2015-07-01

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry not recently treated with antibiotics. Non-replicate milk samples were collected from cows with acute clinical mastitis in eight countries. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis were isolated by standardised methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in a central laboratory by CLSI broth microdilution methodology; results were interpreted using clinical breakpoints where available. Among E. coli (n=280), resistance to tetracycline (14.3%) and cefapirin (11.1%) were most common. Resistance to other β-lactam antibiotics was absent (ceftiofur) or very low (cefalexin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). The MIC90 of enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin was 0.03 and 0.06μg/mL, respectively, with 0.7% of strains displaying a deviating high MIC. Staphylococcus aureus (n=250) were susceptible to most antibiotics tested, although 36.0% were resistant to penicillin G. For other β-lactam antibiotics where a CLSI breakpoint was available, no resistance was detected. Tetracycline resistance was low (5.2%). Streptococcus uberis (n=282) were susceptible to all β-lactam antibiotics, although 29.8% were intermediately susceptible to penicillin G; 18.8% of strains were resistant to erythromycin and 28.7% to tetracycline. This European study shows that bacteria associated with acute clinical mastitis are susceptible to most antibiotics with the exception of penicillin G against S. aureus, and erythromycin and tetracycline against S. uberis. The results of this study should serve as a reference baseline. This work also highlights the urgent need to set additional clinical breakpoints for antibiotics frequently used to treat mastitis. PMID:26003836

  5. Prevalence of nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization in children and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of carriage isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Y. Zhou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal (NP pneumococcal carriage predisposes children to pneumococcal infections. Defining the proportion of pneumococcal isolates that are antibiotic-resistant enables the appropriate choice of empiric therapies. The antibiogram of NP carriage isolates derived from a pediatric population following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was defined in this study.

  6. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella are opportunistic pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of severe diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antibiogram pattern along with biochemical study and biotype number. Clinical lab isolate of K. oxytoca was divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. Control group remain untreated and treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield. The analysis was...

  7. Comparative virulence genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of environmental and clinical Salmonella enterica from Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Vijayan, J.; Murali, G.; Chandran, P.

    islands (SPIs) and plasmids. The virulence genes associated with SPIs I–VI were detected in 95–100% of all the isolates, while the viaB locus representing SPI-7 was detectable in 66 and 73% of the environmental and clinical isolates, respectively. A...

  8. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  9. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time. PMID:19928761

  10. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG)5-PCR and ERIC-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardsanei, F; Nikkhahi, F; Bakhshi, B; Salehi, T Z; Tamai, I A; Soltan Dallal, M M

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human) by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats) and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7%) was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1-P7) were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG)5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs) with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG)5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin. PMID:27656286

  11. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony and Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated from clinical cases of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in Dorper sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activities of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were determined against field isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC by means of the broth microdilution technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these antimicrobial drugs were determined for a representative number of 10 isolates and 1 type strain. The susceptibility of Arcanobacterium pyogenes to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin was determined by means of an agar disk diffusion test. The MICs of enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin were within the ranges of 0.125-0.5, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 and 4.0-8.0 µg / m , respectively. This study has shown that resistance of MmmLC against enrofloxacin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline and spiramycin was negligible. All the field strains of A. pyogenes that were tested were susceptible to enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and tilmicosin with mean inhibition zones of 30.6, 42.3 and 35.8mm, respectively. Although there is lack of data on in vivo efficacy and in vitro MIC or inhibition zone diameter breakpoints of these antimicrobial drugs for MmmLC, the MIC results indicate that these 4 classes of antimicrobial drugs should be effective in the treatment of ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep in South Africa.

  12. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.;

    2002-01-01

    Initiated in 2000, WHO Global Salm-Surv is a global network of epidemiologists and microbiologists involved in Salmonella surveillance. WHO Global Salm-Surv seeks to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibil......Initiated in 2000, WHO Global Salm-Surv is a global network of epidemiologists and microbiologists involved in Salmonella surveillance. WHO Global Salm-Surv seeks to enhance the capacity of national and regional reference laboratories to conduct Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial...... susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...... (NCCLS) guidelines. These EQAS results demonstrate the need for further training to improve the performance of some of the laboratories. WHO Global Salm-Surv activities, including international training courses and EQAS, represent an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping...

  13. 肾盂肾炎患者经验用抗菌药物与药敏结果符合率%Coincidence rates between empiric antimicrobial use and antimicrobial sus-ceptibility testing results in patients with pyelonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海谱; 梁霞; 贾克然; 赵会海; 史文俊; 王缚鲲

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解某院住院肾盂肾炎患者经验使用抗菌药物情况,为临床合理用药提供依据。方法收集2011年1月—2014年9月该院肾内科收治的620例肾盂肾炎患者资料,分析其抗菌药物应用情况,及不同种类、不同年龄患者经验用抗菌药物与细菌药敏结果符合情况。结果药敏结果报告前,620例患者应用抗菌药物625例次,其中5例患者同时应用了2种抗菌药物,共涉及8类抗菌药物15个品种,应用最多的抗菌药物依次为第三代头孢菌素、头霉素类、氟喹诺酮类。应用抗菌药物与细菌药敏结果符合率为64.32%(402例次),部分符合率为8.32%(52例次),不符合率为27.36%(171例次)。急性肾盂肾炎患者总符合率(77.61%,357例次)高于慢性肾盂肾炎(58.79%,97例次),差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。<50岁组、≥50岁组肾盂肾炎患者总符合率分别为68.12%(156/229)、75.25%(298/396),两组比较,差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.93,P =0.09)。结论肾盂肾炎患者经验用抗菌药物与细菌药敏结果不符合率较高,需采取措施提高经验用抗菌药物水平。%Objective To understand the empiric antimicrobial use in patients with pyelonephritis in a hospital,and pro-vide reference for clinical rational antimicrobial use.Methods Data of 620 patients with pyelonephritis admitted to the nephrology department of a hospital between January 2011 and September 2014 were collected,application of antimicrobial agents,coincidence between empiric antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility testing results in patients with different diseases and different ages were analyzed.Results Before antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were reported,620 pa-tients use 625 times of antimicrobial agents,5 of whom used two kinds of antimicrobial agents at the same time,8 varieties in 15 types of

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental.

  15. Multiplex PCR to determine Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing otitis media in the Republic of Ireland with further characterisation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and genotypes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vickers, I

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypes, genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing otitis media (OM) in children in Dublin, Ireland. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 28) from spontaneously discharging OM were studied. Serotyping was performed using a previously undescribed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) scheme in combination with serological methods. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. Fourteen different S. pneumoniae serotypes were identified. The five most common serotypes were 3, 19F, 19A, 14 and 6A, which accounted for 68% of all infections. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) provided potential coverages of 43%, 46% and 86%, respectively. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was evident for 25% of isolates and was associated with serotypes 14, 19A, 19F and 9V. A total of 21 different sequence types (STs) were identified. Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones or their variants represented 54% (15\\/28) of all isolates. Continued monitoring and characterisation of S. pneumoniae causing OM in Ireland is warranted in order to guide future vaccine and treatment policies.

  16. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... isolates. RESULTS: Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility to parenteral and oral agents in a largely polyclonal collection of CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelman, Emilia; Iversen, Aina; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Giske, Christian G

    2011-12-01

    Activity of oral and parenteral antimicrobials against consecutively isolated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (n = 149) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 20) was determined, and susceptibility test methods were compared for parenteral β-lactams. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV) and bla(TEM), and DNA sequencing and epidemiological typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were performed. PCR targeting pabB was screened for E. coli O25b-ST131. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Etest and broth microdilution. Disc diffusion was performed according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Dominating genotypes were bla(CTX-M-15) (75%) and bla(CTX-M-14) (23%). Four E. coli clusters (7-18 isolates) were found. Forty-two per cent of E. coli belonged to O25b-ST131. Ciprofloxacin resistance was 72%, trimethoprim resistance was 70%. Among E. coli, resistance to mecillinam (13%), nitrofurantoin (7%) and fosfomycin (3%) was low, although resistance was high in K. pneumoniae (25%, 60%, 85%). Susceptibility to ertapenem was 99%, piperacillin-tazobactam 91%, tigecycline 96% and temocillin 76%. Susceptibility rates obtained with broth microdilution and Etest were in agreement for cefotaxime (2 vs 1%) and ceftazidime (9 vs 11%), but not for piperacillin-tazobactam (59 vs 91%). With disc diffusion major errors occurred with piperacillin-tazobactam (18/169). Several therapeutic alternatives exist for ESBL-producing E. coli, but few exist for K. pneumoniae. Disc diffusion and Etest can accurately predict susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime, but not to piperacillin-tazobactam with the present breakpoints. PMID:22085361

  18. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of Schistosoma japonicum Derived from Less-Susceptible Host Water Buffalo and Susceptible Host Goat

    OpenAIRE

    Jianmei Yang; Yang Hong; Chunxiu Yuan; Zhiqiang Fu; Yaojun Shi; Min Zhang; Liuhong Shen; Yanhui Han; Chuangang Zhu; Hao Li; Ke Lu; Jinming Liu; Xingang Feng; Jiaojiao Lin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. RESULTS: The worm recovery rate was low...

  19. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  20. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  1. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients.In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg, Amikacin (30μg, Ceftriaxone (30μg, Nalidixic Acid (30μg, Cefixime (5μg, and Nitrofurantoin (300μg tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test.Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%. In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96% and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%.Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  2. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.;

    2012-01-01

    salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l−1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of communityacquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients in primary hospitals in Shanghai from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春妹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of communityacquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) and the antimicrobial resistance of the major pathogens in primary hospitals in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CARTI were prospectively recruited from 30 primary hospitals

  4. Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum

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    Yujuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol crude extracts (ECE and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g, while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF. Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g; acetone fraction (AF contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g, while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP, whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration.

  5. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujuan; Luo, Ziwen; Wang, Dongmei; He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol crude extracts (ECE) and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g), while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g) was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF). Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g); acetone fraction (AF) contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g), while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP), whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration.

  6. Bacterial profile and drug susceptibility pattern of urinary tract infection in pregnant women at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemu Agersew

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common health problem among pregnant women. Proper investigation and prompt treatment are needed to prevent serious life threatening condition and morbidity due to urinary tract infection that can occur in pregnant women. Recent report in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia indicated the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 11.6 % and Gram negative bacteria was the predominant isolates and showed multi drug resistance. This study aimed to assess bacterial profile that causes urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from March 22 to April 30, 2011. Mid stream urine samples were collected and inoculated into Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient medium (CLED. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of 105/ml of urine or more of pure isolates were regarded as significant bacteriuria for infection. Colony from CLED was sub cultured onto MacConkey agar and blood agar plates. Identification was done using cultural characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. A standard method of agar disc diffusion susceptibility testing method was used to determine susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Results The overall prevalence of UTI in pregnant women was 10.4 %. The predominant bacterial pathogens were Escherichia coli 47.5 % followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci 22.5 %, Staphylococcus aureus 10 %, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 10 %. Gram negative isolates were resulted low susceptibility to co-trimoxazole (51.9 % and tetracycline (40.7 % whereas Gram positive showed susceptibility to ceftriaxon (84.6 % and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (92.3 %. Multiple drug resistance (resistance to two or more drugs was observed in 95 % of the isolates. Conclusion

  7. Sporothrix schenckii COMPLEX: SUSCEPTIBILITIES TO COMBINED ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Carvalho OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Sporothrix schenckiiwas reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans (n = 1 , S. brasiliensis (n = 6 , S. globosa (n = 1, S. mexicana(n = 1 and S. schenckii(n = 36 to terbinafine (TRB alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ, ketoconazole (KTZ, and voriconazole (VRZ by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5% or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5% for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckii strains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA activity was observed only for S. albicans and S. mexicana. The species S. globosaand S. mexicanawere the only species without β-glucosidase (GS activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrixin further studies.

  8. Sporothrix schenckii COMPLEX: SUSCEPTIBILITIES TO COMBINED ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC PROFILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLIVEIRA, Daniele Carvalho; de LORETO, Érico Silva; MARIO, Débora Alves Nunes; LOPES, Paulo G. Markus; NEVES, Louise Vignolles; da ROCHA, Marta Pires; SANTURIO, Janio Morais; ALVES, Sydney Hartz

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Sporothrix schenckiiwas reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans (n = 1) , S. brasiliensis (n = 6) , S. globosa (n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) and S. schenckii(n = 36) to terbinafine (TRB) alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5%) or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5%) for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckii strains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA) activity was observed only for S. albicans and S. mexicana. The species S. globosaand S. mexicanawere the only species without β-glucosidase (GS) activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrixin further studies. PMID:26422151

  9. Sporothrix schenckii COMPLEX:SUSCEPTIBILITIES TO COMBINED ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC PROFILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daniele Carvalho; de Loreto, Érico Silva; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Lopes, Paulo G Markus; Neves, Louise Vignolles; da Rocha, Marta Pires; Santurio, Janio Morais; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii was reclassified as a complex encompassing six cryptic species, which calls for the reassessment of clinical and epidemiological data of these new species. We evaluated the susceptibility of Sporothrix albicans(n = 1) , S. brasiliensis(n = 6) , S. globosa(n = 1), S. mexicana(n = 1) and S. schenckii(n = 36) to terbinafine (TRB) alone and in combination with itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), and voriconazole (VRZ) by a checkerboard microdilution method and determined the enzymatic profile of these species with the API-ZYM kit. Most interactions were additive (27.5%, 32.5% and 5%) or indifferent (70%, 50% and 52.5%) for TRB+KTZ, TRB+ITZ and TRB+VRZ, respectively. Antagonisms were observed in 42.5% of isolates for the TRB+VRZ combination. Based on enzymatic profiling, the Sporothrix schenckii strains were categorized into 14 biotypes. Leucine arylamidase (LA) activity was observed only for S. albicans and S. mexicana. The species S. globosa and S. Mexicana were the only species without β-glucosidase (GS) activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of virulence and resistance among species of the genus Sporothrix in further studies.

  10. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from infected cultured tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Thailand: Nine-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangwetngam, Machalin; Suanyuk, Naraid; Kong, Fanrong; Phromkunthong, Wutiporn

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) infection remains a major problem associated with high mortality of cultured tilapia worldwide. The present study reports the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of GBS isolated from infected tilapia cultured in Thailand. One hundred and forty-four GBS isolates were identified by biochemical, serological and molecular analyses. Of these 144 GBS isolates, 126 were serotype Ia and 18 were serotype III. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 144 GBS isolates were determined by the disc diffusion method. Most GBS isolates were susceptible to lincomycin, norfloxacin, oxytetracycline, ampicillin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol, but resistant to oxolinic acid, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. However, 17 isolates displayed an oxytetracycline-resistant phenotype and harboured the tet(M) gene. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 17 oxytetracycline-resistant GBS isolates, and then minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of these isolates were evaluated. Oxytetracyline-resistant isolates were found to be susceptible to ampicillin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol, with the MIC and MBC ranging from ≤ 0.125 to 0.5 μg ml- 1 and ≤ 0.125 to 2 μg ml- 1, respectively. Moreover, all 17 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates demonstrated resistance to trimethoprim, oxolinic acid, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and oxytetracycline, with the MIC and MBC ranging from 16 to ≥ 128 μg ml- 1 and ≥ 128 μg ml- 1, respectively. These findings are useful information for antibiotic usage in fish aquaculture. PMID:26701807

  11. Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp.: An emerging nosocomial superbug

    OpenAIRE

    Purti C Tripathi; Sunita R Gajbhiye; Gopal Nandlal Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently, Acinetobacter has emerged as significant hospital pathogen, notoriously known to acquire antibiotic resistance to most of the commonly prescribed antimicrobials. Many risk factors are associated with Acinetobacter infections, especially in patients in intensive care unit (ICU). This study aims to isolate Acinetobacter from various clinical specimens and to determine its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: Identification, speciation and antimicro...

  12. Expression profiles of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptides in response to Edwardsiella ictaluri infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using quantitative PCR technique, the relative transcriptional levels of seven channel catfish antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes [NK-lysin type 1, NK-lysin type 2, NK-lysin type 3, bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), cathepsin D, hepcidin, and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 ...

  13. Deletion of the β-acetoacetyl synthase FabY in Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces hypoacylation of lipopolysaccharide and increases antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, David A; Yuan, Yanqiu; Leeds, Jennifer A; Meredith, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    The β-acetoacetyl-acyl carrier protein synthase FabY is a key enzyme in the initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Deletion of fabY results in an increased susceptibility of P. aeruginosa in vitro to a number of antibiotics, including vancomycin and cephalosporins. Because antibiotic susceptibility can be influenced by changes in membrane lipid composition, we determined the total fatty acid profile of the ΔfabY mutant, which suggested alterations in the lipid A region of the lipopolysaccharide. The majority of lipid A species in the ΔfabY mutant lacked a single secondary lauroyl group, resulting in hypoacylated lipid A. Adding exogenous fatty acids to the growth media restored the wild-type antibiotic susceptibility profile and the wild-type lipid A fatty acid profile. We suggest that incorporation of hypoacylated lipid A species into the outer membrane contributes to the shift in the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the ΔfabY mutant.

  14. Environmental parameters and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterobacteriaceae isolated from estuarine waters of São Vicente, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    N. G. G. S. Lourenço

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by water consists a serious public health problem and enterobacteria are the main group of microorganisms responsible for outbreaks in humans. Such pathogenic bacteria proliferate in water polluted by domestic and industrial sewage and reach the population through seawater contact. The aim of the present work was to study environmental parameters as well as to identify Enterobacteriaceae species and their antimicrobial susceptibility in water samples collected from the estuarine area of São Vicente city (São Paulo State, Brazil. Strains were identified by using traditional biochemical tests described in literature and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using the disk diffusion method. Out of 26 samples, Escherichia coli was the most frequent species (40.1%, followed by Citrobacter, Enterobacter and Klebsiella. The most effective drugs against the tested microorganisms were gentamycin, netilmicin, ciprofloxacin and cefepime. Since these bacteria are commonly found in seashore contaminated by sewage effluents, it can be concluded that estuarine waters of São Vicente are polluted and potentially capable of causing diseases and spreading pathogenic bacteria to human communities.

  15. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

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    Aslantaş Özkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

  17. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P  0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P < 0.0001) is more in cows compared to the camel, but the RR for vaginal infection with S. aureus and Str. pyogenes were lower in cows compared to Camels. The E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species. PMID:24570857

  18. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities and Phenolic Profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurian Vlase

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS. The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids, flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin, in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively, and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  19. Agar Disk Diffusion and Automated Microbroth Dilution Produce Similar Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Results for Salmonella Serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, But Differ in Economic Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzer, Karin; Cummings, Kevin J.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Ynte H. Schukken; Siler, Julie D.; Gröhn, Yrjo T.; Davis, Margaret A.; Besser, Tom E.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Data generated using different antimicrobial testing methods often have to be combined, but the equivalence of such results is difficult to assess. Here we compared two commonly used antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, automated microbroth dilution and agar disk diffusion, for 8 common drugs, using 222 Salmonella isolates of serotypes Newport, Typhimurium, and 4,5,12:i-, which had been isolated from clinical salmonellosis cases among cattle and humans. Isolate classification corresp...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.INTRODUÇÃO: Listeria monocytogenes é o agente etiológico da listeriose, doença de origem alimentar que acomete principalmente grávidas, pacientes imunodeprimidos e idosos. O tratamento primário é a associação de

  1. Safety profile of antimicrobial peptides: camel, citropin, protegrin, temporin a and lipopeptide on HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Pikula, Michał; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Roszkiewicz, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential part of the innate immunity of the skin and mucosal surfaces. They have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral as well as antiprotozoal. Numerous studies using AMPs as potential agents against different microbes has been performed during the last two decades. Here we investigated antistaphylococcal activity and safety of following AMPs: camel, citropin, protegrin, temporin A and lipopeptide Palm-KK-NH2. The susceptibility of the strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the patients with erythrodermia to conventional antibiotics and AMPs was determined by the broth dilution method. The cytotoxicity assay was performed on HaCaT keratinocytes. Tested peptides turned out to be very effective against all clinical isolates, including strains resistant to conventional antibiotics. The majority of the examined peptides as well as conventional antimicrobials do not exert any toxic effect on HaCaT cells in minimal inhibitory concentration. Peptides are very promising agents for the topical treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. The most promising seem to be citropin 1.1 and temporin A, as they were toxic only in two highest concentration (50 and 100 microg/mL), with relatively low MIC values.

  2. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-08-18

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49-2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66-3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2-9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5-11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2-13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8-5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98-1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13-2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1-8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  3. The health and economic burden of bloodstream infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible and non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in European hospitals, 2010 and 2011: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, Andrew J; Allignol, Arthur; Beyersmann, Jan; Graves, Nicholas; Schumacher, Martin; Meyer, Rodolphe; Tacconelli, Evelina; De Angelis, Giulia; Farina, Claudio; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bertrand, Xavier; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Edgeworth, Jonathan; Tosas, Olga; Martinez, Jose A; Ayala-Blanco, M Pilar; Pan, Angelo; Zoncada, Alessia; Marwick, Charis A; Nathwani, Dilip; Seifert, Harald; Hos, Nina; Hagel, Stefan; Pletz, Mathias; Harbarth, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We performed a multicentre retrospective cohort study including 606,649 acute inpatient episodes at 10 European hospitals in 2010 and 2011 to estimate the impact of antimicrobial resistance on hospital mortality, excess length of stay (LOS) and cost. Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCRE), meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) increased the daily risk of hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.42, HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.49–2.20 and HR = 2.42; 95% CI: 1.66–3.51, respectively) and prolonged LOS (9.3 days; 95% CI: 9.2–9.4, 11.5 days; 95% CI: 11.5–11.6 and 13.3 days; 95% CI: 13.2–13.4, respectively). BSI with third-generation cephalosporin-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (3GCSE) significantly increased LOS (5.9 days; 95% CI: 5.8–5.9) but not hazard of death (1.16; 95% CI: 0.98–1.36). 3GCRE significantly increased the hazard of death (1.63; 95% CI: 1.13–2.35), excess LOS (4.9 days; 95% CI: 1.1–8.7) and cost compared with susceptible strains, whereas meticillin resistance did not. The annual cost of 3GCRE BSI was higher than of MRSA BSI. While BSI with S. aureus had greater impact on mortality, excess LOS and cost than Enterobacteriaceae per infection, the impact of antimicrobial resistance was greater for Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27562950

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Clinically Relevant Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci Collected over a Three-Year Period in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Welling, G. W.; Degener, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    The susceptibility of 14 species of 115 Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) was determined for 14 antibiotics. To assure correct identification, strains were genotypically identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequencing. Susceptibility differences (MIC(50) and MIC(90)) for penicilli

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus. Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB. Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4% S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8% that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6% strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40% to erythromycin, 18 (51.4% to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8% to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and Co

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adilson; Cataneli Pereira, Valéria; Pinheiro, Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Benini Martins, Katheryne; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of planktonic and biofilm cells of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Two hundred Staphylococcus spp. strains were studied, including 50 S. aureus and 150 CoNS strains (50 S. epidermidis, 20 S. haemolyticus, 20 S. warneri, 20 S. hominis, 20 S. lugdunensis, and 20 S. saprophyticus). Biofilm formation was investigated by adherence to polystyrene plates. Positive strains were submitted to the broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for planktonic and biofilm cells and the minimal bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBCB). Forty-nine Staphylococcus spp. strains (14 S. aureus, 13 S. epidermidis, 13 S. saprophyticus, 3 S. haemolyticus, 1 S. hominis, 3 S. warneri, and 2 S. lugdunensis) were biofilm producers. These isolates were evaluated regarding their resistance profile. Determination of planktonic cell MIC identified three (21.4%) S. aureus strains that were resistant to oxacillin and six (42.8%) that were resistant to erythromycin. Among the CoNS, 31 (88.6%) strains were resistant to oxacillin, 14 (40%) to erythromycin, 18 (51.4%) to gentamicin, and 8 (22.8%) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. None of the planktonic isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. MICs were 2-, 4-, 8-, and up to 16-fold higher for biofilm cells than for planktonic cells. This observation was more common for vancomycin and erythromycin. The MBCB ranged from 8 to >256 µg/mL for oxacillin, 128 to >128 µg/mL for vancomycin, 256 to >256 µg/mL for erythromycin and gentamicin, >64 µg/mL for linezolid, and 32/608 to >32/608 µg/mL for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. The results showed considerably higher MICs for S. aureus and CoNS biofilm cells compared to planktonic cells. Analysis of MBCM confirmed that even high concentrations of vancomycin were unable to eliminate the biofilms of S. aureus and CoNS species

  8. Salmonella prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility from the National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2000 and 2006 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over Salmonella contamination of food is compounded by fear that antimicrobials traditionally used to combat the infection will become useless due to rising antibiotic resistance. Livestock, in particular swine, are often blamed for illnesses caused by Salmonella and for increasing antibioti...

  9. Antimicrobial profiles of periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontitis patients in the Netherlands and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Herrera, D; Oteo, A; Sanz, M

    2005-01-01

    Background and Aim: Antimicrobial resistance of periodontal pathogens towards currently used antibiotics in periodontics has been investigated in a previous study. Microbial resistance in the periodontal microflora was more frequently observed in Spanish patients in comparison with Dutch patients. T

  10. Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp.: An emerging nosocomial superbug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purti C Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Acinetobacter nosocomial infections resistant to most antimicrobials have emerged, especially in ICU. Early identification and continued surveillance of prevalent organism will help prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment.

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fariha Masood Siddiqui; Muhammad Akram; Nighat Noureen; Zobia Noreen; Habib Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential ofCampylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Methods:Antibiotic sensitivity patterns ofC. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection ofmapA (membrane-associated protein),cadF (fibronectin binding protein),wlaN (beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase) andneuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). FurtherC. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling.Results: A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage ofC. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultryC. jejuni isolates. CadF andmapA were present in all poultry, cattle and humanC. jejuni isolates,wlaN was not detected in any isolate andneuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity ofC. jejuni isolates.Conclusions:Detection of multidrug resistantC. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors,cadF andmapA (100 % each) inC. jejuni isolates from all sources andneuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types ofC. jejuni to humans.

  12. Predose and Postdose Blood Gene Expression Profiles Identify the Individuals Susceptible to Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Lu

    Full Text Available The extent of drug-induced liver injury (DILI can vary greatly between different individuals. Thus, it is crucial to identify susceptible population to DILI. The aim of this study was to determine whether transcriptomics analysis of predose and postdose rat blood would allow prediction of susceptible individuals to DILI using the widely applied analgesic acetaminophen (APAP as a model drug. Based on ranking in alanine aminotransferase levels, five most susceptible and five most resistant rats were identified as two sub-groups after APAP treatment. Predose and postdose gene expression profiles of blood samples from these rats were determined by microarray analysis. The expression of 158 genes innately differed in the susceptible rats from the resistant rats in predose data. In order to identify more reliable biomarkers related to drug responses for detecting individuals susceptibility to APAP-induced liver injury (AILI, the changes of these genes' expression posterior to APAP treatment were detected. Through the further screening method based on the trends of gene expression between the two sub-groups before and after drug treatment, 10 genes were identified as potential predose biomarkers to distinguish between the susceptible and resistant rats. Among them, four genes, Incenp, Rpgrip1, Sbf1, and Mmp12, were found to be reproducibly in real-time PCR with an independent set of animals. They were all innately higher expressed in resistant rats to AILI, which are closely related to cell proliferation and tissue repair functions. It indicated that rats with higher ability of cell proliferation and tissue repair prior to drug treatment might be more resistant to AILI. In this study, we demonstrated that combination of predose and postdose gene expression profiles in blood might identify the drug related inter-individual variation in DILI, which is a novel and important methodology for identifying susceptible population to DILI.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in invasive non-typhoid Salmonella from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: emergence of decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta lactamases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-resistance against the first-line antibiotics ampicillin, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole or multidrug resistance (MDR is common in non typhoid Salmonella (NTS. Use of alternative antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones or third generation cephalosporins is threatened by increasing resistance, but remains poorly documented in Central-Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in DR Congo, blood cultures were collected between 2007 and 2011. Isolated NTS were assessed for serotype and antimicrobial resistance including decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production. In total, 233 NTS isolates (representing 23.6% of clinically significant organisms were collected, mainly consisting of Salmonella Typhimurium (79% and Salmonella Enteritidis (18%. The majority of NTS were isolated in the rainy season, and recovered from children ≤2 years old. MDR, decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, azithromycin and cefotaxime resistance were 80.7%, 4.3%, 3.0% and 2.1% respectively. ESBL production was noted in three (1.3% isolates. Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility was associated with mutations in codon 87 of the gyrA gene, while ESBLs all belonged to the SHV-2a type. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Presence of almost full MDR among NTS isolates from blood cultures in Central Africa was confirmed. Resistance to fluoroquinolones, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins is still low, but emerging. Increased microbiological surveillance in DR Congo is crucial for adapted antibiotic therapy and the development of treatment guidelines.

  14. Lipid profile, antiradical power and antimicrobial properties of Syzygium aromaticum oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum oil (CO was studied for its lipid classes, fatty acid profiles and tocol contents. The radical scavenging potential and antimicrobial properties of CO were also evaluated. The levels of neutral lipids in CO was the highest (ca. 94.7% of total lipids, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The main fatty acids in CO were linoleic and oleic, which comprise together ca. 80% of total fatty acids. Stearic and palmitic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. a- and γ-tocopherols and d-tocotrienol were the main tocols. CO quenched 70% of DPPH• radicals after 1 h, while extra virgin olive oil was able to quench only 45%. ESR measurements also showed the same pattern, wherein CO quenched 57% of galvinoxyl radical and olive oil deactivated about 38%. The results of antimicrobial properties revealed that CO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. CO had a drastic effect on the biosynthesis of protein and lipids in the cells of B. subtilis. In consideration of is tpotential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition and functional properties of CO is of major importance.Se ha estudiado el aceite de clavo (Syzygium aromaticum obtenido mediante presión en frío (CO y sus diferentes clases de lípidos, perfiles de ácidos grasos y contenido en tocoles. También se evaluó el potencial captador de radicales y las propiedades antimicrobianas del CO. Los niveles de lípidos neutros en CO fue mayoritario (aprox. 94,7% de lípidos totales, seguido de glicolípidos y fosfolípidos. Los principales ácidos grasos en CO fueron linoleico y oleico, que comprenden juntos el 80% de ácidos grasos totales. Los ácidos esteárico y palmítico fueron los principales ácidos grasos saturados. α- y γ-Tocoferol y δ-Tocotrienol fueron los principales tocoles. CO atrapó el 70% de los radicales DPPH• después de 1 h, mientras que el aceite de oliva virgen extra fue capaz de atrapar s

  15. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were ...... bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Incidence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Toxin Genes Possession Screening of Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken Livers and Gizzards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Few recent outbreaks in Europe and the US involving Campylobacter and Salmonella were linked to the consumption of chicken livers. Studies investigating Staphylococcus aureus in chicken livers and gizzards are very limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence of S. aureus and MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in retail chicken livers and gizzards in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In this study, 156 chicken livers and 39 chicken gizzards samples of two brands were collected. While one of the brands showed very low prevalence of 1% (1/100 for S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards, the second brand showed prevalence of 37% (31/95. No MRSA was detected since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. Eighty seven S. aureus isolates from livers and 28 from gizzards were screened for antimicrobial resistance to 16 antimicrobials and the possession of 18 toxin genes. Resistance to most of the antimicrobials screened including cefoxitin and oxacillin was higher in the chicken gizzards isolates. While the prevalence of enterotoxin genes seg and sei was higher in the gizzards isolates, the prevalence of hemolysin genes hla, hlb, and hld was higher in the livers ones. The lucocidin genes lukE-lukD was equally prevalent in chicken livers and gizzards isolates. Using spa typing, a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are not known to be livestock associated and, hence, may be of a human origin. In conclusion, this study stresses the importance of thorough cooking of chicken livers and gizzards since it might contain multidrug resistant enterotoxigenic S. aureus. To our knowledge this is the first study to specifically investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in chicken livers and gizzards in the US.

  17. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Clinical Infection and Asymptomatic Carriers in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayemi O Ayepola; Olasupo, Nurudeen A.; Egwari, Louis O; Becker, Karsten; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Few reports from Africa suggest that resistance pattern, virulence factors and genotypes differ between Staphylococcus aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection. We therefore compared antimicrobial resistance, selected virulence factors and genotypes of S. aureus from nasal carriage and clinical infection in Southwest Nigeria. Non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were obtained from infection (n = 217) and asymptomatic carriers (n = 73) during a cross sectional study in Lagos and Ogun Stat...

  18. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  19. Bacterial profile and patterns of antimicrobial drug resistance in intra-abdominal infections: Current experience in a teaching hospital

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    Neetu Shree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial isolates from intra-abdominal infections, in particular, peritonitis and their unpredictable antimicrobial resistance patterns, continue to be a matter of concern not only globally but regionally too. Aim: An attempt in the present study was made to study the patterns of drug resistance in bacterial isolates, especially gram negative bacilli in intra-abdominal infections (IAI in our hospital. Materials and Methods: From 100 cases of peritonitis, identification of isolates was done as per recommended methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL testing were performed following the CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 133 clinical isolates were obtained, of which 108 were aerobes and 22 anaerobes. Fungal isolates were recovered in only three cases. Escherichia coli (47/108 emerged as the most predominant pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. (27/108, while Bacteroides fragilis emerged as the predominant anaerobe (12/22. Among coliforms, 61.7% E. coli and 74.1% Klebsiella spp. were ESBL positive. A high level of resistance was observed for beta lactams, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and ertapenem. Ertapenem resistance (30-41% seen in coliforms, appears as an important issue. Imipenem, tigecycline, and colistin were the most consistently active agents tested against ESBL producers. Conclusion: Drug resistance continues to be a major concern in isolates from intra-abdominal infections. Treatment with appropriate antibiotics preceded by antimicrobial resistance testing aided by early diagnosis, adequate surgical management, and knowledge of antibiotic - resistant organisms appears effective in reducing morbidity and mortality in IAI cases.

  20. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden

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    Nyman Ann-Kristin J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nationwide survey on the microbial etiology of cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows was carried out on dairy farms in Sweden. The aim was to investigate the microbial panorama and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were investigated. Methods In total, 583 quarter milk samples were collected from 583 dairy cows at 226 dairy farms from February 2008 to February 2009. The quarter milk samples were bacteriological investigated and scored using the California Mastitis Test. Staphylococci were tested for betalactamase production and presence of resistance was evaluated in all specific udder pathogens. Differences between newly infected cows and chronically infected cows were statistically investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results The most common isolates of 590 bacteriological diagnoses were Staphylococcus (S aureus (19% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 16% followed by Streptococcus (Str dysgalactiae (9%, Str. uberis (8%, Escherichia (E. coli (2.9%, and Streptococcus spp. (1.9%. Samples with no growth or contamination constituted 22% and 18% of the diagnoses, respectively. The distribution of the most commonly isolated bacteria considering only bacteriological positive samples were: S. aureus - 31%, CNS - 27%, Str. dysgalactiae - 15%, Str. uberis - 14%, E. coli - 4.8%, and Streptococcus spp. - 3.1%. There was an increased risk of finding S. aureus, Str. uberis or Str. dysgalactiae in milk samples from chronically infected cows compared to findings in milk samples from newly infected cows. Four percent of the S. aureus isolates and 35% of the CNS isolates were resistant to penicillin G. Overall, resistance to other antimicrobials than penicillin G was uncommon. Conclusions Staphylococcus aureus and CNS were the most frequently isolated pathogens and resistance to antimicrobials was rare.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C R; Kariyawasam, S; Borst, L B; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M; Woodley, T A

    2015-02-01

    Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of Ent. cecorum in poultry have not been defined. In this study, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (n = 75) and diseased broilers and broiler breeders (n = 30) were compared based upon antimicrobial resistance phenotype, the presence of virulence determinants and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 16 antimicrobials tested, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates and clinical cases were resistant to ten and six of the antimicrobials, respectively. The majority of Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates was resistant to lincomycin (54/75; 72%) and tetracycline (46/75; 61.3%) while the highest level of resistance among clinical Ent. cecorum was to tetracycline (22/30; 73.3%) and erythromycin (11/30; 36.7%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥2 antimicrobials) was identified in Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (53/75; 70.7%) and diseased poultry (18/30; 60%). Of the virulence determinants tested, efaAfm was present in almost all of the isolates (104/105; 99%). Using PFGE, the majority of clinical isolates clustered together; however, a few clinical isolates grouped with Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates. These data suggest that distinguishing the two groups of isolates is difficult based upon the characterization criteria used.

  2. Antimicrobial profile of some novel keto esters: Synthesis, crystal structures and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imtiaz; Saeed, Aamer; Arshad, Mohammad Ifzan; White, Jonathan Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rapid increase in bacterial resistance has become a major public concern by escalating alongside a lack of development of new anti-infective drugs. Novel remedies in the battle against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains are urgently needed. So, in this context, the present work is towards the investigation of antimicrobial efficacy of some novel keto ester derivatives, which are prepared by the condensation of substituted benzoic acids with various substituted phenacyl bromides in dimethylformamide at room temperature using triethylamine as a catalyst. The structural build-up of the target compounds was accomplished by spectroscopic techniques including FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The purity of the synthesized compounds was ascertained by elemental analysis. The molecular structures of compounds (4b) and (4l) were established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The prepared analogues were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leuteus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas picketti, Salmonella setuball) bacteria and two fungal pathogenic strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus), respectively. Among the screened derivatives, several compounds were found to possess significant activity but (4b) and (4l) turned out to be lead molecules with remarkable antimicrobial efficacy. The structure-activity relationship analysis of this study also revealed that structural modifications on the basic skeleton affected the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds. PMID:26826838

  3. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae

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    Kiessoun Konaté

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica. Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  4. Antidiarrheal and antimicrobial profiles extracts of the leaves from Trichilia emetica Vahl.(Meliaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiessoun; Konaté; Kassi; Yomalan; Oksana; Sytar; Marian; Brestic

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate and-diarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of the bioactive fraction of Trichilia emetica in order to provide a scientific basis for the management of gastroenteritis in Burkina Faso.Methods:To do this,polyphenols content of extract and fractions were investigated.FolinCiocalteu,AlCl3 methods and tannic acid respectively were used for polyphenols content.The in vivo antidiarrhocal activity was done using Swiss albino mice of both sexes.In vitro antimicrobial activity(disc-diffusion assay,minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentration or minimal bactericidal concentration) was assessed using seven bacteria strains(Gram-negative and Gram-positive).Results:About our study,it was found that ethyl acetate fraction effective attenuation factior(EAF) elicits the higher total phenolics and total flavonoids contents compared to the extracts of leaves of Trichilici emetica.EAF of Trichilia emetica Vahl..has positive effects in a dose dependent manner against diarrhoea induced by castor oil in experimental mice.The bioactive fraction also showed good antimicrobial activity against all tested Gram-negative and Grampositive bacteria strains.It was shown that experimental bacteria strains were more sensitive to the EAF effect compared to the ciprofloxacin.Conclusions:The obtained results allow justifying the traditional uses of Trichilia emetica and possess good antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activities of EAF from Trichilia emetica.Results of the present study have clearly supported the utilization of Trichilia emetica in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bloodstream Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus: Global Results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial, 2004-2008

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    Daniel Amsterdam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST commenced in 2004 to monitor the activity of tigecycline, a new glycylcycline and numerous comparators against major hospital-and community-associated pathogens. In this report we examine the efficacy of tigecycline and comparators against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus collected from blood. Approach: Almost 4000 blood-derived isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from participating centers globally between 2004-2008. Results: All isolates were susceptible to tigecycline (MIC90 0.25 mg L-1 and linezolid (MIC90 4 mg L-1; 99.9% of isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (MIC90 1 mg L-1. Tigecycline and linezolid activity were unaffected by resistance to methicillin, ICU vs non-ICU isolate collection or the age of patients from which the isolates were collected. Although 95.3% of MSSA were levofloxacin susceptible, only 14.4% of MRSA isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin in this study. Conclusion: Tigecycline is shown here to be active against S. aureus isolates collected from blood and is unaffected by methicillin resistance. However, tigecycline is not as yet approved for the treatment of bacteremic infections.

  6. Isolation and speciation of Enterococci from various clinical samples and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern with special reference to high level Aminoglycoside resistance

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    :Saroj Golia, Nirmala AR, Asha S Kamath B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enterococci are important nosocomial agents and strains resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics occur frequently. Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and offer low level resistance to aminoglycosides. In penicillin sensitive strains, synergism occurs with combination treatment with penicillin and aminoglycoside. Serious infections caused by them are treated with penicillin and aminoglycoside combination. But the synergistic effect is lost, when the strain develops high level aminoglycoside resistance. The choice of drug for infections due to such strains is vancomycin. The present study was carried out to isolate and speciate Enterococci from various clinical samples, to know the susceptibility pattern of the isolates, to determine the High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance (HLAR among Enterococcal isolates. Methods: A total of One hundred Enterococcal species isolated from various clinical samples were identified by various biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and HLAR were determined by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Out of 100 Enterococcal isolates, 59 were E. faecalis, 38 were E. faecium, 3 were other Enterococcal species. Among these 53 isolates showed High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance. Conclusion: Present study shows the presence of drug resistance to most of commonly used antibiotics and HLAR is also more in E.faecium compared to E.fecalis.

  7. Correlation of TEM, SHV and CTX-M extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility

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    A Manoharan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was carried out to characterize the ESBL types and evaluated their in vitro activity against a collection of Gram negative bacteria (GNB from a multicentric Indian surveillance study. Material and Methods: During January 2005 to June 2006, six tertiary care centres in India forwarded 778 non-duplicate GNB to our reference laboratory. Three hundred GNB from this collection were selected based on clinical significance and were used in the present study. Tested isolates included Escherichia coli (167, Klebsiella spp. (122 and Enterobacter spp. (11. ESBL screening and confirmation was performed for all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration of imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, levofloxacin, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftriaxone was determined by the E-test method. Molecular typing of the ESBLs was performed by polymerase chain reaction among the 121 selected isolates. Results: The study showed excellent susceptibility among the strains to imipenem (100%, meropenem (100% and ertapenem (98.7%; good susceptibility to amikacin (89.7% and piperacillin/tazobactam (85.3% was observed. TEM and CTX-M were predominantly found in E. coli (39.2% while, among the Klebsiella spp., TEM, SHV and CTX-M occurred together in 42.6% of the isolates. Conclusion: More than one ESBL was produced by many strains, and this was correlated with increased resistance levels. Carbapenems continue to show good in vitro activity and ertapenem is a potential alternative to imipenem and meropenem. Continued antimicrobial resistance surveillance is warranted in light of these findings.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urinary tract infections to fluoroquinolones and detection of gyrA mutations in resistant strains

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    Akbari-Nakhjavani F.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Widespread uses of fluoroquinolones have resulted in increasing incidences of resistance against these agents all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess, susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains from patients with Urinary Tract Infection against common fluoroquinolones and detection of mutations in the gyrA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 164 E.coli isolates from patients with UTI, was evaluated by disk agar diffusion (DAD and MIC methods. Polymerase chain reaction of E.coli strains were performed by amplification of Quinolone Resistance Determining Region (QRDR of gyrA gene. PCR products were tested by Conformational Sensitive Gel Electrophoresis (CSGE and those with hetrodublexes were selected and examined by DNA sequencing. According to disc agar diffusion, 49.3% were resistant to nalidixic acid, 41.4% to norfloxacin, 44.5% to ofloxacin and 40.2 % to ciprofloxacin. By Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC testing a high-level of resistance (42.1% to ciprofloxacin was observed. Mutations in codons 83 and 87 in all 81 isolates were positive by CSGE method.

  9. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

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    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  10. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. PMID:27181059

  11. Antimicrobial Agents

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    Sigrid Mayrhofer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strains of the genus Bifidobacterium are frequently used as probiotics, for which the absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance has become an important safety criterion. This clarifies the need for antibiotic susceptibility data for bifidobacteria. Based on a recently published standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bifidobacteria with broth microdilution method, the range of susceptibility to selected antibiotics in 117 animal bifidobacterial strains was examined. Narrow unimodal MIC distributions either situated at the low-end (chloramphenicol, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin or high-end (kanamycin, neomycin concentration range could be detected. In contrast, the MIC distribution of trimethoprim was multimodal. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing or verifying present microbiological breakpoints suggested by regulatory agencies to assess the safety of these micro-organisms intended for the use in probiotics.

  12. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei in Comparison to Those of Other Pathogenic Burkholderia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, D J; Russell, P; Rogers, D.; Eley, S M; Titball, R W

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolates of Burkholderia mallei to 16 antibiotics were assessed and compared with the susceptibilities of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cepacia. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of B. mallei resembled that of B. pseudomallei more closely than that of B. cepacia, which corresponds to their similarities in terms of biochemistry, antigenicity, and pathogenicity. Ceftazidime, imipenem, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin were active agai...

  13. Clinical laboratory evaluation of the Abbott MS-2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system: report of a collaborative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornsberry, C; Anhalt, J P; Washington, J A; McCarthy, L R; Schoenknecht, F D; Sherris, J. C.; Spencer, H J

    1980-01-01

    The MS-2 system (Abbott Diagnostics, Division of Abbott Laboratories, Dallas, Tex.) was evaluated for its efficacy in determining the susceptibilities of both clinical and selected challenge (nonfastidious, facultative, and aerobic) isolates. The MS-2 results were compared with standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and microdilution results by using fresh clinical isolates. For gram-positive isolates other than enterococci, overall agreement between MS-2 and reference results was 93 to 98%. Wit...

  14. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Asia and Molecular Mechanism of Reduced Susceptibility to the Fluoroquinolones▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Campbell, James Ian; Galindo, Claudia M; Van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Nga, Tran Thu Thi; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Tuan, Phung Quoc; Page, Anne Laure; Ochiai, R Leon; Schultsz, Constance; Wain, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Parry, Christopher M.; Sujit K Bhattacharya

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar Typhi strains collected in southern Vietnam, the proportion of multidrug resistance has remained high since 1993 (50% in 2004) and there was a dramatic increase in nalidixic acid resistance between ...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBL Escherichia coli isolated from community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najwa Al Mously; Ohoud Al Arfaj; Lenah Al Fadhil; Shazia Mukaddam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Increasing resistance of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria is an important challenge for clinicians. Aims: Monitor the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community and hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ESBL Escherichia coli. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective observational study that was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: Results of urine culture with E. coli and their bacterial anti...

  16. Serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates circulating in Beijing, China.

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    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multi-locus sequence type (MLST profiles of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae in Beijing to provide references for the prevention and treatment of S. agalactiae infections.All isolates were identified using the CAMP test and the latex-agglutination assay and serotyped using a Strep-B-Latex kit, after which they were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, macrolide-resistance genes, and MLST profiles.In total, 56 S. agalactiae isolates were identified in 863 pregnant women (6.5%. Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V were identified, among which types III (32.1%, Ia (17.9%, Ib (16.1%, and V (14.3% were the predominant serotypes. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone. The nonsusceptiblity rates measured for erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, telithromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were 85.7%, 92.9%, 98.2%, 30.4%, 73.2%, 91%, and 39.3%, respectively. We identified 14 sequence types (STs for the 56 isolates, among which ST19 (30.4% was predominant. The rate of fluoroquinolone resistance was higher in serotype III than in the other serotypes. Among the 44 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 32 (72.7% carried ermB.S. agalactiae isolates of the serotypes Ia, Ib, III, and V are common in Beijing. Among the S. agalactiae isolates, the macrolide and clindamycin resistance rates are extremely high. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates carry ermB.

  17. Cellular fatty acid composition, protein profile and antimicrobial activity of Bacillus sp., isolated from fish gut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushparaj Sujith; Baskaran Rohini; Singaram Jayalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To purify and partially characterize the antimicrobial compounds from bacteriaBacillus sp., isolated from fish gut. Methods: Protein and fatty acids were isolated from the bacteria and checked for the presence of antibacterial activity. Protein has been purified to apparent homogeneity from the supernatants of culture by means of ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses were performed for proteins to identify the functional groups.Results:sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fatty acids were extracted and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis.Conclusions:Protein showed an apparent molecular mass 56, 47 and 39 kDa on sodium dodecyl acids and proteins which holds promise for the development of new drugs. The antimicrobial activity of the bacteria might be due to the presence of fatty acids and proteins which holds promise for the development of new drugs.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial profiles of Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop (Hyacinthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Bodenstein; Audrey Kweyama; Karen du Toit

    2011-01-01

    Scilla nervosa (Burch.) Jessop (Hyacinthaceae) [=Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch.) Van der Merwe] is a well-known plant in traditional medicine in South Africa, used for conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as rheumatic fever. However, the topical anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the plant have not been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation approach was implemented to determine the biological activities of diff...

  19. Analysis of phytochemical profile of Terminalia arjuna bark extract with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shreya Mandal; Arpita Patra; Animesh Samanta; Suchismita Roy; Arpita Mandal; Tapasi Das Mahapatra; Shrabani Pradhan; Koushik Das; Dilip Kumar Nandi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity and qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of flavonoid components, antioxidant activity and total flavonoid compound of Terminalia arjuna. Methods:For phytochemical screening, some common and available standard tests were done. Antimicrobial bioassay was done through agar well diffusion method. Detection of antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds were done through thin layer chromatography. Total antioxidant activity was measured by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in colorimetric method. Aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used for total flavonoid determination. Results:Phytochemical screening showed the active compounds presence in high concentration, such as phytosterol, lactones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and tannins and glycosides. The antimicrobial activity of extract showed that greater inhibition zone against Gram negative bacteria than Gram positive bacteria. This methanolic extract showed a promising antioxidant activity, as absorption of DPPH redicles decreased in DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Flavonoids components having antioxidant property present in the methanol extract at a level of 199.00 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried methanol extract in colorimetric method. Conclusions: The Terminalia arjuna bark extract revealed the presence of bio-active constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities.

  20. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. (M. calabura). Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95%ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phyto-chemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans (C. albicans), with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract, triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract. Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of anti-bacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  1. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  3. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

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    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.OBJECTIVO: Describir la actividad antimicrobiana de varios antibióticos, contra 97 cepas de Enterococcus spp., consideradas como aislamientos clínicamente significativos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En un estudio prospectivo de dos años, (enero de 1998

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases in Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Bedeschi Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a public referral center for sexually transmitted diseases and specialized care services (STD/SCS in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Methods Between March 2011 and February 2012, 201 specimens of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were consecutively obtained from men with symptoms of urethritis and women with symptons of cervicitis or were obtained during their initial consultation. The strains were tested using the disk diffusion method, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin, tetracycline and spectinomycin were determined using the E-test. Results The specimens were 100% sensitive to cefixime, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin and exhibited resistances of 4.5% (9/201, 21.4% (43/201, 11.9% (24/201, 22.4% (45/201 and 32.3% (65/201 to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate sensitivities of 17.9% (36/201, 4% (8/201, 16.9% (34/201, 71.1% (143/201 and 22.9% (46/201 were observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. The specimens had plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin PPNG 14.5% (29/201 and tetracycline TRNG 11.5% (23/201. Conclusions The high percentage of detected resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin indicates that these antibiotics are not appropriate for gonorrhea treatment at the Health Clinic and possibly in Belo Horizonte. The resistance and intermediate sensitivity of these isolates indicates that caution is recommended in the use of azithromycin and emphasizes the need to establish mechanisms for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance for the effective control of gonorrhea.

  5. Expression of the MexXY-OprM efflux system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa with discordant cefepime/ceftazidime susceptibility profiles

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    Somvadee Laohavaleeson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Somvadee Laohavaleeson1, Karen Lolans2,3, John P Quinn2,3,4, Joseph L Kuti1, David P Nicolau11Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA; 2John Stroger Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Chicago Infectious Disease Research Institute, Chicago, IL, USA; 4Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: While MIC distributions and percent susceptibility for cefepime and ceftazidime are generally similar among Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we noted an increasing discordance in susceptibility favoring ceftazidime at our hospital. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was utilized to explore overexpression of the MexXY-OprM efflux as the mechanism for this phenotype profile. Thirteen of 15 (87% randomly selected isolates had mexY gene expression levels of 5.8–40.8-fold relative to the wild-type reference strain. While mexY overexpression was noted in the majority of isolates, other resistance mechanisms appear to contribute to the observed phenotypic profile of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa studied. Clinicians must understand not only the magnitude of difference in the MIC profiles between agents, but also the mechanism(s responsible for these observations if strategies (ie, pharmacodynamic dosing are to be designed to optimize patient care outcomes in the face of increasing resistance.Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, efflux, MexXY-OprM, mexY, cefepime, resistance

  6. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility.

  9. Prevalence of enterobacteriaceae in Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae) from a captive facility in Central Brazil, with a profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa de Moraes Carvalho; Ayrton Klier Péres Júnior; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Valéria de Sá Jayme

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the presence of enterobacteriaceae in Tegu Lizards (Tupinambis merianae)from a captive facility in central Brazil. From a total of 30 animals, 10 juveniles and 20 adults (10 males, 10 females), 60 samples were collected, in two periods separated by 15 days. The samples were cultivated in Xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar (XLT4) and MacConkey agar. The Salmonella enterica were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 78 bacteria was isolated, of wich 27 were ...

  10. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum derived from less-susceptible host water buffalo and susceptible host goat.

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    Jianmei Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Water buffalo and goats are natural hosts for S. japonicum in endemic areas of China. The susceptibility of these two hosts to schistosome infection is different, as water buffalo are less conducive to S. japonicum growth and development. To identify genes that may affect schistosome development and survival, we compared gene expression profiles of schistosomes derived from these two natural hosts using high-throughput microarray technology. RESULTS: The worm recovery rate was lower and the length and width of worms from water buffalo were smaller compared to those from goats following S. japonicum infection for 7 weeks. Besides obvious morphological difference between the schistosomes derived from the two hosts, differences were also observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed gene patterns for parasites from the two hosts, which revealed that genes related to lipid and nucleotide metabolism, as well as protein folding, sorting, and degradation were upregulated, while others associated with signal transduction, endocrine function, development, immune function, endocytosis, and amino acid/carbohydrate/glycan metabolism were downregulated in schistosomes from water buffalo. KEGG pathway analysis deduced that the differentially expressed genes mainly involved lipid metabolism, the MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, dorso-ventral axis formation, reproduction, and endocytosis, etc. CONCLUSION: The microarray gene analysis in schistosomes derived from water buffalo and goats provide a useful platform to disclose differences determining S. japonicum host compatibility to better understand the interplay between natural hosts and parasites, and identify schistosome target genes associated with susceptibility to screen vaccine candidates.

  11. Incidence and Diversity of Antimicrobial Multidrug Resistance Profiles of Uropathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Inês Linhares; Teresa Raposo; António Rodrigues; Adelaide Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the most frequent multidrug resistant (MDR) profiles of the main bacteria implicated in community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). Only the MDR profiles observed in, at least, 5% of the MDR isolates were considered. A quarter of the bacteria were MDR and the most common MDR profile, including resistance to penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides (antibiotics with different mechanisms of action, all mainly recommended by the European Association of...

  12. The Role of Phosphoglycans in the Susceptibility of Leishmania mexicana to the Temporin Family of Anti-Microbial Peptides

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    Gabriela A. Eggimann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural product antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been proposed as promising agents against the Leishmania species, insect vector borne protozoan parasites causing the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. However, recent studies have shown that the mammalian pathogenic amastigote form of L. mexicana, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis, is resistant to the amphibian-derived temporin family of AMPs when compared to the insect stage promastigote form. The mode of resistance is unknown, however the insect and mammalian stages of Leishmania possess radically different cell surface coats, with amastigotes displaying low (or zero quantities of lipophosphoglycan (LPG and proteophosphoglycan (PPG, macromolecules which form thick a glycocalyx in promastigotes. It has been predicted that negatively charged LPG and PPG influence the sensitivity/resistance of promastigote forms to cationic temporins. Using LPG and PPG mutant L. mexicana, and an extended range of temporins, in this study we demonstrated that whilst LPG has little role, PPG is a major factor in promastigote sensitivity to the temporin family of AMPs, possibly due to the conferred anionic charge. Therefore, the lack of PPG seen on the surface of pathogenic amastigote L. mexicana may be implicated in their resistance to these peptides.

  13. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

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    Olney Vieira-da-Motta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments.

  14. Microbiota and anthropic interference on antimicrobial resistance profile of bacteria isolated from Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Motta, Olney; Eckhardt-de-Pontes, Luiz Antonio; Petrucci, Melissa Paes; dos Santos, Israel Pereira; da Cunha, Isabel Candia Nunes; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves

    2013-12-01

    Both the study of Brazilian wild mammal fauna and the conditions that foster the preservation of endangered species, such as Brazilian Maned-wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), in wild life are of extreme importance. In order to study the resistance profile of microbiota bacterial colonizing Brazilian Maned-wolf, this work investigated samples from eight male captive and free roaming animals originating from different Brazilian geographical regions. Samples for microbiological purposes were collected with swabs and kept in appropriate transport medium. Using routine microbiological techniques, the isolated bacteria were tested toward antimicrobial drugs by the agar disk diffusion method. Results showed that all samples from wild animals were sensitive toward all drugs tested. Conversely, the resistance profile of bacteria isolated from captive animals varied among strains and animal body site location. Escherichia coli samples from prepuce, anus and ear showed multi-resistance toward at least four drugs, especially against erythromycin and tetracycline, followed by Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris strains isolated from anus and ear. Among Gram-positive bacteria, strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci showed multi-resistance mainly toward erythromycin and amoxicillin. The work discusses these findings and suggests that profile of multi-resistance bacteria from captive subjects may be attributed to direct contact with human or through lifestyle factors such as feeding, predation or contact of animals with urban animals such as birds, rodents, and insects from surrounding environments. PMID:24688529

  15. Distribution of capsular types and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombian children. Pneumococcal Study Group in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, E; Leal, A L; Castillo, O; De La Hoz, F; Vela, M C; Arango, M; Trujillo, H; Levy, A; Gama, M E; Calle, M; Valencia, M L; Parra, W; Agudelo, N; Mejía, G I; Jaramillo, S; Montoya, F; Porras, H; Sánchez, A; Saa, D; Di Fabio, J L; Homma, A

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia in the developing world. This study describes the type distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal isolates from Colombian children and is part of the Sistema Regional de Vacunas (SIREVA), a PAHO regional initiative designed to determine the ideal serotype composition of a protein polysaccharide pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for use in children less than 5 years old in Latin America. In Colombia, during the study period, centres in Bogota, Medellin, and Cali collected 324 S. pneumoniae isolates from invasive diseases, 238 (73.5%) from children under the age of 2. Pneumonia was the clinical diagnosis in 41.3% cases, meningitis in 41%, and sepsis in 11.2%. The seven most frequent types included 14(21.9%), 5(10.5%), 23F(9.6%), 1(9%), 6B(9%), 19F(7.1%), and 6A(6.2%). The frequency of diminished susceptibility to penicillin (DSP) was 12%, with 8.9% of isolates showing intermediate level resistance and 3.1% showing high level resistance. Among DSP isolates, 23% were also resistant to cefotaxime, 33.3% to erythromycin, 48.7% to chloramphenicol, and 74.3% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Multiple resistance was detected in 59% of the isolates that have DSP. Penicillin resistance was associated with types 23F (53.8%) and 14 (25.6%). These data provides information on capsular types prevalent in Colombia that will not only allow the formulation of an ideal vaccine for the region but also reinforce the need for ongoing regional surveillance.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

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    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers.

  18. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Effects and Phenolic Profile of Lycium barbarum L. Flowers

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    Andrei Mocan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available L. barbarum L. is a widely-accepted nutraceutical presenting highly advantageous nutritive and antioxidant properties. Its flowers have been previously described as a source of diosgenin, β-sitosterol and lanosterol that can be further pharmaceutically developed, but no other data regarding their composition is available. The purpose of this work was to investigate the chemical constituents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of L. barbarum flowers, as an alternative resource of naturally-occurring antioxidant compounds. The free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was tested by TEAC, two enzymatic assays with more physiological relevance and EPR spectroscopy. The presence of several phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids, but also isoquercitrin, rutin and quercitrin, was assessed by an HPLC/MS method. The antioxidant assays revealed that the extract exhibited a moderate antioxidant potential. The antimicrobial activity was mild against Gram-positive bacteria and lacking against Escherichia coli. These findings complete the scarce existing data and offer new perspectives for further pharmaceutical valorization of L. barbarum flowers.

  19. Isolation and species identification of enterococci from clinical specimen with their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital, Bangladesh

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    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the species prevalence of Enterococcus with their antimicrobial resistance pattern from patients of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Methods: Samples were cultured and Enterococcus species were identified by conventional biochemical tests as well as PCR by using species specific primers for Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium. For isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci, minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin and PCR was done to detect vanA and vanB genes. Results: A total of 16 enterococci were isolated from 300 urine and 200 wound swab samples (15 from urine and 1 from wound swab from July 2011 to June 2012. Enterococci were the third most common organism (8.47% from urine after Escherichia coli (63.28% and Enterobacter (11.87%. Out of 16 enterococci, 10 (62.5% were E. faecalis, 4 (25% were E. faecium and 2 (12.5% were other species. All the enterococci (100% were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Most of the strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin (87.5%, gentamycin (81.25%, ceftriaxone (75%, amoxiclav (31.25% and imipenem (25%. E. faecium was more resistant than E. faecalis to azithromycin (100%, ciprofloxacin (100%, amoxiclav (75% and imipenem (50%. No vancomycin resistant enterococci were identified and the range of minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin was 1–4 µg/mL. None of the enterococci were positive for vanA and vanB genes. Conclusions: The presence of multidrug resistant enterococci should be considered as danger alarm for serious enterococcal infections and further study in large scale is needed.

  20. Isolation and species identification of enterococci from clinical specimen with their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tashmin Afroz Binte Islam; S M Shamsuzzaman

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the species prevalence ofEnterococcus with their antimicrobial resistance pattern from patients of Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Methods:Samples were cultured andEnterococcus species were identified by conventional biochemical tests as well asPCR by using species specific primers forEnterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) andEnterococcus faecium(E. faecium). For isolation of vancomycin resistant enterococci, minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin andPCR was done to detect vanA andvanB genes. Results:A total of 16 enterococci were isolated from 300 urine and 200 wound swab samples (15 from urine and 1 from wound swab) from July 2011 to June 2012. Enterococci were the third most common organism (8.47%) from urine afterEscherichia coli(63.28%) and Enterobacter (11.87%). Out of 16 enterococci, 10 (62.5%) wereE. faecalis, 4 (25%) were E. faecium and 2 (12.5%) were other species. All the enterococci (100%) were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Most of the strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin (87.5%), gentamycin (81.25%), ceftriaxone (75%), amoxiclav (31.25%) and imipenem (25%). E. faecium was more resistant thanE. faecalis to azithromycin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), amoxiclav (75%) and imipenem (50%). No vancomycin resistant enterococci were identified and the range of minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin was 1–4µg/mL. None of the enterococci were positive forvanA andvanB genes. Conclusions: The presence of multidrug resistant enterococci should be considered as danger alarm for serious enterococcal infections and further study in large scale is needed.

  1. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Gram-Positive Bacteria from Egg Shell of Hen and to See Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-borne disease is a major public health problem affecting developed as well as developing countries. Inaccurately treated eggs can be one of its causes. So we designed this study to observe the possibility of transmission of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria from market eggs to the community. Objectives: To identify different Gram-positive bacteria in eggs and to observe their antimicrobial susceptibility. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in the department of Microbiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka. Shells of 150 eggs collected from different markets of Dhaka city were tested. Bacteria were isolated and identified by culture and relevant biochemical tests. Results: Out of 150 egg shells, 120 (80% yielded growth of different bacteria. Of them, Staphylococcus spp. were 80 (66.67%, Streptococcus spp. 8 (6.67%, Bacillus subtilis 20 (16.67% and Bacillus cereus 12 (10%. Out of 80 Staphylococcus spp., 30 (25% were Staphylococcus aureus and 50 (41.67% were Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Most of the Gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and imipenem. No MRSA and VRSA were found. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that Gram-positive bacteria from market eggs may be an important source of infection to the community.

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Causing Neonatal Infections%新生儿临床标本抗生素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余加林; 吴仕孝

    2001-01-01

    目的:探索新生儿感染病原菌分布及常见抗菌药物敏感性,为经验性治疗提供依据。方法:按《全国临床检验操作规程》鉴定细菌,纸片扩散法做药敏试验。结果:1987~1998年内分离出病原菌2 244株。院外感染前三位是表皮葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌及大肠埃希菌,院内感染前三位是大肠埃希菌、克雷白菌及绿脓杆菌。院内外感染菌株对青霉素、氨苄西林等15种抗生素的耐药率差异显著。阿米卡星的总敏感率86.2%,与青霉素联用敏感率增至89.0%。结论:院外感染致病菌以革兰阳性菌为主,而院内感染致病菌以革兰阴性菌为主,后者对许多抗菌药物更易产生耐药性,阿米卡星联合青霉素作为第一线抗菌药物值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of bacteria and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and to establish a basis for empirical treatment of the neonatal infections.  Methods:Identification of bacteria were performed according to the National Standard of Clinical Microbiological Test. Disk diffusion were used for antimicrobial susceptibility test. Results: A total of 2,244 strains were isolated from the samples collected in our neonatal ward from Jan. 1987 to Dec. 1998. The predominant species ranked the first three were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Escherichia coli in the group I (infections acquired outside of hospital). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and pseudomonas aeruginosa ranked the first three in the group Ⅱ(nosocomial infections). The resistance rates of bacterial isolates from group Ⅱ to antimicrobial agents including penicillin and ampicillin were significantly higher than that from group I (P<0.05). The sensitivity rate was 82.2% by using amikacin only, but raised to 89% when combined with penicillin.  Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens of nosocomial infections

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial profiles of Scilla nervosa (Burch. Jessop (Hyacinthaceae

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    Johannes Bodenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Scilla nervosa (Burch. Jessop (Hyacinthaceae [=Schizocarphus nervosus (Burch. Van der Merwe] is a well-known plant in traditional medicine in South Africa, used for conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as rheumatic fever. However, the topical anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of the plant have not been investigated. A bioassay-guided fractionation approach was implemented to determine the biological activities of different extracts. A crude methanol extract was prepared from the bulbs to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse model of acute croton oil-induced auricular contact dermatitis. The non-polar and polar components present in the methanol extract were separated by extraction with dichloromethane and ethanol, respectively; and their antimicrobial activity against the invasive pathogenic microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiellla pneumoniae and Candida albicans was investigated using a microplate method. Oedema induced by application of croton oil was significantly reduced 3 h (~66% and 6 h (~40% after treatment with the extracts. Anti-inflammatory activity was ~1.8-fold lower at 6 h, suggesting a potent, short-acting effect. The non-polar extract exhibited greater efficacy and potency against the microorganisms than the polar extract. The non-polar extract was equipotent against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae, but twice as potent against C. albicans as against the bacteria, suggesting little discrimination between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but specificity for the fungal yeast. The polar extract was the least potent against K. pneumoniae, but 10-fold more potent against C. albicans, suggesting specificity for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal yeast. S. nervosa contains compounds that are individually, or in combination, potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents

  4. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from corneal ulcers of dogs Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de úlceras de córnea em cães

    OpenAIRE

    M.R. Prado; E.H.S. Brito; M.D. Girão; J.J.C. Sidrim; Rocha, M. F. G.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 22 clinical specimens were obtained from 19 dogs with corneal ulcer (16 unilateral and three bilateral) for isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation of the isolated bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed in 100% of the samples (n=22). Staphylococcus intermedius was the predominant species (35.5%), followed by Corynebacterium xerosis (19.3%). Gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin had a high efficacy against all of the isolated bacteria. The results ...

  5. Effect of Denture-Related Stomatitis Fluconazole Treatment on Oral Candida albicans Susceptibility Profile and Genotypic Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fonseca, Patrícia; Lopes, Maria Manuel; Pinto, Eugénia; Pereira-Leite, Teresa; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Denture-related stomatitis (DRS) is the most common condition affecting removable-denture wearers, and Candida albicans the most frequent pathogenic agent. Systemic antifungal treatment is indicated but recurrences are frequent. The aim of this study was to characterize the oral load, fluconazole susceptibility profile and genotypic variability of oral C. albicans isolates from patients with DRS before (T0), immediately after fluconazole treatment (Tat) and after 6-months follow-up (T6m). Eighteen patients presenting DRS and treated with fluconazole were followed at the Faculty of Dentistry of Oporto University. Seventy C. albicans isolates were obtained and identified using standard cultural and biochemical multi-testing. Fluconazole susceptibility was tested by E-test(®). Microsatellite-primed PCR was performed to assess the genotypic variability of C. albicans isolates. The patients' mean age was 58.0±3.2 years, and 55.6%/44.4% had total/partial dentures. Before treatment, 22.2%, 44.4% and 33.3% of the patients presented DRS type I, II or III, respectively. Fluconazole treatment healed or improved DRS in 77.8% of the patients, accompanied by an 83.5% reduction in oral C. albicans load. However, after 6-months, oral C. albicans load increased significantly and DRS severity was similar to the one observed before treatment. Moreover, the prevalence of patients presenting fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans increased significantly throughout the study: T0-5.6%, Tat-10.0% and T6m-42.9%. A change in the genotypic variability of C. albicans isolates was also verified, being mostly associated to fluconazole susceptibility profile change. In conclusion, fluconazole presents a good short-term DRS treatment efficiency, but may be associated to a long-term emergence of C. albicans fluconazole resistance.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cows with subclinical mastitis to different antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Gerd; Szabo, Istvan; Roesler, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity to commercial teat dips (nonoxinol-9 iodine complex and chlorhexidine digluconate) of 56 Staphylococcus (S.) aureus strains isolated from quarter milk samples of various German dairy herds treated with different teat dipping schemes was investigated in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using a broth macrodilution method according to the German Veterinary Association guidelines. The main objective of the current study was to induce in vitro resistance induction of S. aureus to chemical disinfectants. Ten different strains were repeatedly passed ten times in growth media with sub-lethal concentrations of disinfectants. Nine strains showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to the nonoxinol-9 iodine complex but only one strain developed resistance to chlorhexidine digluconate. Stability of the acquired resistance was observed in all S. aureus strains adapted to the nonoxinol-9 iodine complex and chlorhexidine digluconate. In contrast, simultaneous resistance to different antibiotics was not observed in any of the ten investigated S. aureus strains. However, the isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to penicillin G. Based on these results, resistance of S. aureus to chemical disinfectants may be more likely to develop if the chemicals are used at concentrations lower than that required for an optimal biocidal effect. PMID:22705737

  7. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococci Isolated from Patients in Tehran University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospitals

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    Jabalameli Fereshteh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antibacterial resistance among enterococci isolated in Tehran hospitals. A total of 277 Enterococcus faecalis, 123 Enterococcus faecium and 13 isolates of other enterococcal strains were collected from 1 March 2002 to 15 April 2004 from three teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of tested antibiotics were determined by agar dilution method. Susceptible and resistant isolates were defined according to the species-related MIC breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Sixty- three percent of isolates were resistant to rifampicin (MIC90 64 µg/ml, 44% to ciprofloxacin (MIC90 16≤ µg/ml, 43% to erythromycin (MIC90 512 µg/ml, 32% to cefazolin (MIC90 256≤ µg/ml, 25% to penicillin (MIC90 32 µg/ml, 21% to ampicillin (MIC90 128≤ µg/ml, 8% to vancomycin (MIC90 ≤ 8 µg/ml, and 8% to teicoplanin (MIC90 16≤ µg/ml. All of the vancomycin-resistant strains carried the vanA phenotype and genotype. High level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin were found in 52% and 83% of the isolates, respectively. The results indicated that a significant percentage of isolates are resistance to different antibiotics, pointing out the need for control strategies to avoid dissemination of resistant isolates and for continuous surveillance for the detection of emerging resistance traits.

  8. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Campylobacter species in Ireland and the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lucey, B

    2012-02-03

    Measurements were made of the susceptibility to six commonly prescribed antibiotics, including erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, of 130 isolates of Campylobacterjejuni and 15 isolates of Campylobacter coli cultured from human and poultry sources during 2000. The results were compared with the results from a collection of strains isolated between 1996 and 1998. The levels of resistance to erythromycin remained low, 2 per cent and 4.4 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline had increased to 31 per cent and 24.4 per cent from 13.9 per cent and 18.8 per cent for the human and poultry isolates, respectively. However, the resistance to ciprofloxacin of the strains isolated during 2000 had increased to 30 per cent, whereas between 1996 and 1998 there had been no resistance to this agent among human isolates, and only 3.1 per cent resistance among poultry isolates. The molecular basis for this resistance has been shown to be the result of a single amino acid substitution, Thr-86-Ile, in the gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase in Cjejuni. A subset of 59 isolates was tested by molecular methods and all of the 25 phenotypically resistant isolates possessed this substitution. None of the human isolates had been treated with ciprofloxacin before their laboratory isolation.

  9. AEROMONAS SPP BACTEREMIA OF RAINBOW TROUT FRY (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CAUSATIVE ORGANISM AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Damir Kapetanović

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.

  10. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE AND FOSFOMYCIN SUSCEPTIBILITY RATES IN UNCOMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: TIME TO CHANGE THE ANTIMICROBIAL PREFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneysel, Ozlem; Suman, Enes; Ozturk, Tuba Cimilli

    2016-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in adult population. They are prevalent in all age groups both in women and men. Also, UTIs are the most frequent indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in emergency department. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance rates in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs. Adult patients admitted to emergency department with uncomplicated UTIs were included in this cross-sectional study. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained under sterile conditions and cultured quantitatively. After 24 hours, the samples showing 10(5) colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Resistance to fosfomycin-trometamol (FT), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AC), ciprofloxacin (CIP), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and cefpodoxime (CEF) was tested by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion system. Escherichia (E.) coli accounted for the vast majority (93.4%) of the organisms isolated in the study. Among the E. coli positive patients, resistance to TMP-SMX was the most common antibiotic resistance. The E. coli species detected in our study group were least resistant to FT (2.4%). The resistance rates, especially to CEF, AC and CIP, were significantly higher in patients over 50 years of age. In conclusion, in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs, TMP-SMX should be excluded from empirical treatment, while fosfomycin could be a viable option in all age groups. PMID:27333718

  11. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary

    2012-09-01

    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  12. Single or in combination antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae contribute to varied susceptibility