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Sample records for antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

  1. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  2. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE VOL. 2 NO. 1 & 2 2009: 5 - ... This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. ... south-east Asia, parts of Latin America, the. Caribbean, and ...

  3. Bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were ... setting and there are antibiotic-resistant uropathogens among the studied population. ... used antibiotics must be a continuous process so as to provide physicians with up ...

  4. Bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infection among ... Key words: Urinary tract infection, pregnant women, antimicrobial drug ..... and premature labour as well as adverse outcome for the unborn child (Raz, 2003).

  5. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Conclusion: This study justifies the necessity to treat patients with UTI based on antimicrobial susceptibility test result in order ... colonization of the urine and symptomatic infection ... indicated a high incidence of UTIs (54%) in pregnant women ...

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Afshar, Ali Taghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  7. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  9. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 7 July 2000. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 STRAINS DURING TWO CHOLERA OUTBREAKS IN DAR ES SALAAM,. TANZANIA. W.K. Urassa, MD, MSc, MMed, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Muhimbili University ...

  10. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative Staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from clinical samples and isolates subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, plasmid curing and plasmid DNA isolation. Result: The highest percentages isolates were recovered from urine samples and ...

  12. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tamalee; Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-08-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... products is an important public health concern throughout the world (FAO, 2010). .... Antibiotic resistant patterns and number of ESBL producing gene of E. coli strains isolated from imported .... A functional classification scheme for .... Grauls CM, Savelkoul PH, Johnston BD, Gordon D, Johnson JR. (2013).

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci Isolated From Patients in Tehran

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    Horieh Saderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci are one of the most common nosocomial pathogens and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been increasing. Objectives: We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from different clinical specimens of patients in Tehran. Materials and Methods: From the beginning of April 2013 to the end of June 2013, a total of 146 enterococci were isolated from the Pars General Hospital in Tehran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates against ampicillin, clindamaycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI. Results: The rates of resistance were high to clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin (97.2%, 89%, and 74.5%, respectively; moderate to ciprofloxacilin and levofloxacilin (40.6% and 36.4%, respectively; and low to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin (13.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All isolates were linezolid sensitive. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE accounted for 9.6% of the isolates. Conclusions: VRE and a high rate of resistance to some of antimicrobial agents were found among the enterococci isolated from patients in Tehran. These findings highlight the importance of regular supervision of antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  15. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brachyspira intermedia isolates from European layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marc; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2011-09-01

    A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycycline in three strains, against the macrolides in two strains, and against lincomycin in one strain. The MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin showed a monomodal distribution, but with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly suggesting low-level acquired resistance in six isolates. Sequencing revealed a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in all doxycycline-resistant strains. The strain resistant to tylosin, tilmicosin, and lincomycin had an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli from clinical sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract, ear, wound and other infections in humans. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli is a growing concern worldwide. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical ...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORGANISMS CAUSING SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI

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    Rohini Murlidhar Gajbhiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CDC defines surgical site infection as ‘Infections related to operative procedure that occurs at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operative procedure or within one year if the implant is left in situ’. Surgical site infection (SSI is 3 rd most frequently reported nosocomial infection (12%-16% as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of organisms causing SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS During a two year study period in a tertiary care hospital, 19,127 patients underwent surgeries in various surgical departments. Of these 517 (2.7% developed surgical site infection. The surgical wounds were classified by CDC & NNIS criteria into 4 classes. Two wound swabs were taken and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility along with testing of ESBLs, MBLs, AmpCβ lactamases was done for all isolates causing SSI. RESULTS Among 19,127 patients, 517 (2.7% developed SSI. It was highest in patients of perforation peritonitis (11.99%.Among 517 specimens, 340 (65.76% showed growth and 177 (34.23% were culture negative. E.coli (23.33% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Acinetobacter spp. (16%, Klebsiella spp. (15.66%, Pseudomonas spp. (15.33%, S. aureus (10.33%, S. epidermidis(7.3%, Proteus spp. (6.00% and Citrobacter spp. (2.66%.Staphylococcus spp. were 100 % sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. (27.5% S. aureus were MRSA and (17.5% were Inducible Clindamycin resistant (ICR. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Amikacin. Klebsiella spp. (40.62%, E.coli (35.89%, Citrobacter spp. (33.33%, Proteus spp. (26.08% were ESBL producers. Klebsiella spp. (17.18%, E.coli (10.25%, Proteus spp. (11.11% and Citrobacter spp. (8.69% were AmpC producers. Acinetobacter spp. (28.57% was commonest MBL producer followed by Klebsiella spp. (20

  20. Pattern Of Polymicrobial Isolates And Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, S.; Jamil, S.; Hafiz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of polymicrobial isolates in blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan, from September to November 2014. Methodology: Blood culture samples were received from patients, which were processed by BACTEC 9240 system (Becton Dickinson). All positive blood samples were further analyzed. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria of the year. Identification of growth was based on Gram staining, colony morphology and appropriate biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: Out of the 7251 samples submitted, 2931 (40.42 percent) were positive for growth, 2389 (81.5 percent) samples were monomicrobial, whereas 542 (18.5 percent) samples were polymicrobial. Among the polymicrobial isolates, 468 (86.34 percent) blood culture samples yielded two, 66 (12.17 percent) yielded three, and 8 (1.47 percent) yielded four organisms. Gram positive isolates were 281 (51.84 percent) and Gram negative were 261 (48.15 percent). The most frequent isolates in polymicrobial blood stream infection were Acinetobacterspp. (51/542, 9.4 percent) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus(84/542, 15.5 percent), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were resistant to Methicillin, accounted for 24.65 percent. Third generation Cephalosporins resistance in Klebsiella spp. and Eschericia (E.) coli was found to be 63.6 percent and 58 percent, respectively. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 5.9 percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 17.6 percent Acinetobacter spp. Conclusion: Gram positive bacteria were more commonly involved in polymicrobial blood stream infections with Coagulase negative Staphylococcus

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to Clinical and. Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Of the 108 ..... antibiotics tested. This was in accordance with multidrug-resistant. Acinetobacter isolates from Bansal, et al. study.[4] The main limitations of our study are a ...

  2. A Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Laboratory of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Isolates were obtained from urine and swabs of wounds, ear, throat and eye. Identification was carried out by conventional methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by disk diffusion method. All isolates were tested for beta-lactamase production.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2018-03-13

    Some members of the Brachyspira genus cause diseases such as swine dysentery (SD) and porcine intestinal (or colonic) spirochetosis. Severe economic losses are caused by decreased feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio, as well as costs associated with treatment and death. A loss of clinical efficacy of some antimicrobial agents authorized for treating SD has been observed in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira isolated from Taiwan and to investigate the mechanism of decreased susceptibility to macrolides. A total of 55 Brachyspira isolates obtained from the grower-finisher period were evaluated in this study. These isolates included B. hyodysenteriae (n = 37), B. murdochii (n = 11), B. pilosicoli (n = 5), B. intermedia (n = 1), and B. innocens (n = 1). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed to examine 12 selected antimicrobial agents. The results showed that the 50% and 90% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the tested macrolides were all >256 μg/ml. The MIC 50 of lincomycin, tiamulin, carbadox, olaquindox, ampicillin, amoxicillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and gentamicin were 32, 1, ≤0.125, ≤0.125, 0.5, 0.25, 2, 2, and 2 μg/ml. The genetic basis of the decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin in Brachyspira spp. was investigated and the results showed a possible connection to the mutations at position A2058 and G2032 of the 23S rRNA gene. These findings demonstrated that, in Taiwan, there may be a decrease in susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. to antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of SD.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus parasuis from pigs in the United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, A J Martín; Tucker, A W; Navas, J; Blanco, M; Morris, S J; Gutiérrez-Martín, C B

    2007-02-25

    A total of 30 British and 30 Spanish Haemophilus parasuis isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 19 of the antimicrobials currently used in swine practice with a broth microdilution method in order to know the emergence of resistance against these compounds in this porcine pathogen. All the British isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, and florfenicol, and most of them were susceptible to the remaining antimicrobials (the highest resistance rate found was of 20% to neomycin). In contrast, all the Spanish isolates were susceptible exclusively to florfenicol, and high proportions of resistance were encountered for penicillin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tiamulin and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole; in addition, a bimodal or multimodal distribution, or tailing of Spanish isolates over the MIC range was observed for clindamycin, sulphonamides and tylosine tartrate, suggesting the development of acquired resistance. In addition, several multiresistance patterns were found among the Spanish isolates, 23.3% of them being resistant to at least eight antimicrobials, the same rate as that encountered for those being susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This study showed that in general British H. parasuis isolates are susceptible to antimicrobial agents routinely used for treatment of porcine respiratory diseases; however, the Spanish isolates need a more continuous surveillance of their susceptibility patterns.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy.

  6. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Currently, the efficacies of antimicrobials have been threatened due to the development of resistance to antibiotics by some microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented products, may act as reservoir of antimicrobial resistance-genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in the food matrix or ...

  7. Invitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of bacterial isolates from wound infections in university of Ilorin Teaching Hospital. ... The Fluoroquino lones are the favoured antimicrobial agents nowadays, ... In our environment however, a combination of Cloxacillin and Gentamicin is an ...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100%) to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%), followed by gentamicin (54.5%); of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each), of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70%) followed by ...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie A; Kock, Marleen M

    2014-03-28

    Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is

  10. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    All the 57 tested lactic acid bacteria isolates were sensitive to Pencillin G (Pen, 10units), and ... resistance genes for Penicillin G and Erythromycin as indicated by the sensitivity of isolates. .... Antibiotic Susceptibility Test: The LAB isolates were ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Subarna; Haq, Sabah; Hasan, Mohammad Rokibul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful

    2017-07-20

    Melioidosis an infectious disease, caused by a Gram negative bacterium called Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in Bangladesh. This organism is sensitive to limited number of antimicrobial agents and need prolonged treatment. There is no comprehensive data on the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of B. pseudomallei isolated in Bangladesh over last several years. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B. pseudomallei isolated in a tertiary care hospital of Dhaka city from 2009 to 2015. All B. pseudomallei isolated from melioidosis patients over a period of 7 years (2009-2015) in the Department of Microbiology of a 725-bed tertiary care referral hospital in Dhaka city, Bangladesh were included in the study. B. pseudomallei was identified by Gram stain, culture, specific biochemical tests, serology and PCR using specific primers constructed from 16s rRNA region of B. pseudomallei. Antimicrobial susceptibility to specific agents was determined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. A total of 20 isolates of B. pseudomallei which were isolated from patients coming from different geographic locations of Bangladesh were included in the study. All the isolates were uniformly sensitive (100%) to ceftazidime, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and tetracycline by both disk diffusion and MIC methods. Two strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by disk diffusion method but were sensitive by MIC method. The MIC 50 and MIC 90 values of the above antimicrobial agents were almost similar. All the isolates were resistant to amikacin by both MIC and disk diffusion methods. The results of the study suggest that B. pseudomallei prevalent in Bangladesh were still susceptible to all recommended antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of melioidosis. However, regular monitoring is needed to detect any emergence of resistance and shifting of MIC 50 and MIC 90 values.

  12. Microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis externa: a changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heward, E; Cullen, M; Hobson, J

    2018-04-01

    Otitis externa is a common presentation to secondary care otolaryngology clinics. Despite this, few studies have investigated the microbiology and antimicrobial resistance of otitis externa. This study aimed to examine these issues. Analysis identified 302 swabs taken from 217 patients (100 male, 117 female), between 1 January 2015 and 30 March 2016, at our rapid access otolaryngology clinic. In total, 315 organisms were isolated; the most frequent was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31.1 per cent), followed by candida species (22.9 per cent) and Staphylococcus aureus (11.7 per cent). P aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin in 97.7 per cent of cases and to gentamicin in 78.4 per cent. Compared with studies worldwide, the relative proportions of different organisms causing otitis externa and the patterns of antimicrobial resistance differ. Increasing resistance of P aeruginosa to aminoglycosides demonstrates a changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance that has not been previously reported. Reassuringly, quinolone antibiotics remain highly effective when treating P aeruginosa.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Poultry Flocks in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasjost, J; Mühldorfer, K; Cortez de Jäckel S; Hafez, H M

    2015-03-01

    Between 2010 and 2011, 145 Enterococcus isolates (Enterococcus faecalis, n = 127; Enterococcus faecium, n = 18) were collected during routine bacteriologic diagnostics from broilers, layers, and fattening turkeys in Germany showing various clinical signs. The susceptibility to 24 antimicrobial agents was investigated by broth microdilution test to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All E. faecalis isolates (n = 127) were susceptible to the beta-lactam antibiotics ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and penicillin. Corresponding MIC with 50% inhibition (MIC50) and MIC with 90% inhibition (MIC90) values of these antimicrobial agents were at the lower end of the test range (≤ 4 μg/ml). In addition, no vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were found. High resistance rates were identified in both Enterococcus species for lincomycin (72%-99%) and tetracycline (67%-82%). Half or more than half of Enterococcus isolates were resistant to gentamicin (54%-72%) and the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin (44%-61%) and tylosin-tartate (44%-56%). Enterococcus faecalis isolated from fattening turkeys showed the highest prevalence of antimicrobial resistance compared to other poultry production systems. Eighty-nine out of 145 Enterococcus isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Again, turkeys stood out with 42 (8 1%) multiresistant isolates. The most-frequent resistance patterns of E. faecalis were gentamicin, lincomycin, and tetracycline in all poultry production systems.

  15. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Akbar, N.; Khan, I. U.; Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.U.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Afzal, A.; Ali, S.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in the patients of urinary tract infection reporting at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Laboratory based study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 440 culture positive bacterial isolates from 1110 urine samples; submitted over a period of one year were included in this study. Identification of bacterial isolates was done by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibility of culture positive bacterial isolates was performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI). Results: Out of the 440 culture positive urine samples, 152 (34.6%) were from indoor patients whereas 288 (65.4%) from outdoor patients. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 414 (94%) of the total isolates while rest of the 26 (6%) were Gram positive bacteria. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Escherichia (E.) coli 270 (61.3%) followed by Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa 52 (12%) and Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae 42 (9.5%). The susceptibility pattern of E. coli showed that 96.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 85.1% to amikacin, 80.7% to piperacillin/tazobactam and 72.6% to nitrofurantoin. In case of P. aeruginsosa, 73% bacterial isolates were sensitive to tazobactam/piperacillin, 69.2% to sulbactam/cefoperazone and 65.38% to imipenem. The antibiogram of K. pneumoniae has revealed that 76.1% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 52.3% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Nitrofurantoin and imipenem were the most effective antimicrobials amongst the Enterococcus spp. as 92.3% showed susceptibility to this bacterial isolate. Conclusion: Majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam while susceptibility to most of the commonly used oral

  17. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

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    Didier Silveira Castellano-Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

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    Marguerite Cameron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: 1 Streptococcus uberis (n = 70, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28, 3 other Streptococci spp. (n = 35, 4, Lactococcus spp. (n = 32, and 5 Enterococcus spp. (n = 27. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible Streptococcus uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin, with a median of 82%. All Streptococcus dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible and tetracycline (18% susceptible. The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin to 97% (for erythromycin, median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the MIC were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice versa. Generally

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of polymyxin b, tigecycline and fosfomycin against carbapenamase producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Bhatti, A.; Malik, S.; Hussain, A.; Khan, I.U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine, the susceptibility pattern of carbapenamase producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) against polymyxinB, tigecycline and fosfomycin. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology PNS Shifa Karachi, from 26 Sep 2013 to 25 Mar 2014. Material and Methods: All specimens were inoculated on blood and macConkey agar, incubated aerobically at 35 degree C - 37 degree C for 18 to 24 hours. After identification of gram negative rods by colony morphology, Gram's staining and biochemical reactions, these were screened for Carbapenems resistance with imipenem and meropenem 10 mu g discs along with routine first and second line antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guide lines. All isolated CPE were saved and then inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). Antimicrobial susceptibility against polymyxin B, Tigecycline and Fosfomycin was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using disc polymyxin B 300 units, Tigecycline 15mu g and Fosfomycin 200 mu g. Zone diameters greater than 24 mm were taken as sensitive for Tigecycline 15 mu g, 16mm for Fosfomycin 200 mu g and 12 mm for polymyxin B 300 units. Results: Clinical specimens of 171 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in our study. Mean +- SD of age was 42.02 +- 22.367 with C.I (38.65 - 45.40). Out of 171 patients 110 (64%) were male and 61 (36%) were female. In vitro susceptibility results revealed that all the 171 (100%) CPE isolates susceptible to PolymyxinB, while susceptibility against Fosfomycin and Tigecycline was 132 (77%) and 49 (29%) respectively. Conclusion: CPE were found to be 100% susceptible to polymyxinB, while for Fosfomycin and Tigecycline susceptibility was 77% and 29% respectively. (author)

  20. Bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pediatric patients with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelign, Birhanu; Abebe, Betelehem; Shibeshi, Adugna; Meshesha, Sosina; Shibabaw, Tewodros; Addis, Zelalem; Gelaw, Aschalew; Dagnew, Mulat

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common pediatric problem with the potential to produce long-term morbidity. Therefore, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is required. However, studies about magnitude of uropathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) are lacking in resource limited countries including Ethiopia. This study was aimed to determine bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pediatric patients with UTI. A cross- sectional study was conducted. Pathogenic bacterial isolates were identified by culture and biochemical methods following standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates for commonly used antibiotics was done using the standard disc diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar. Associations between dependent and independent variables were measured using chi-square test and within 95% confidence interval. P values pediatric patients were included in the study, and 82 (26.45%) bacterial isolates were detected. Gram- negative bacteria were predominant etiologic agents of UTI in this study. E. coli was the most frequently occurring pathogen (n=45; 54.88%) followed by S. aureus and P.aeruginosa (n=8; 9.75% for both), P. vulgaris , P.aeruginosa (n=4; 4.88%, for both) and Enterococcus species (n=3; 3.66%). All K. pneumoniae , P. mirabilis , and K. ozanae straines were 100% resistance to ampicillin, followed by P. aeruginosa (87.5%) and E. coli (69%). While all Gram- positive bacterial isolates were 100% sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Malnutrition, history of catherization and previous history of UTI were independently associated with UTI (p=0.000). There was a high prevalence of uropathogenic bacteria and drug resistance particularly to ampicillin (72%) and tetracycline (37.80%). This condition indicates that antibiotic selection should be based on knowledge of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than empirical

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Davies, Peter R; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered "Brachyspira hampsonii," have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility trends of four Brachyspira species originating from U.S. swine herds and to investigate their associations with the bacterial species, genotypes, and epidemiological origins of the isolates. We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae, B. hampsonii, Brachyspira pilosicoli, and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. A trend of decreasing antimicrobial susceptibility by species was observed (B. hampsonii > B. hyodysenteriae > B. murdochii > B. pilosicoli). In general, Brachyspira isolates from the United States were more susceptible to these antimicrobials than were isolates from other countries. Decreased antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with the genotype, stage of production, and production system from which the isolate originated, which highlights the roles of biosecurity and husbandry in disease prevention and control. Finally, this study also highlights the urgent need for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved clinical breakpoints for Brachyspira species, to facilitate informed therapeutic and control strategies. PMID:27252458

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Mirza, I.A.; Malik, N.; Sattar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 isolates of Acinetobacter spp yielded from various clinical specimens during the study period were included Routine conventional methods were used to identify various species of Acinetobacter and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing. Out of total 276 isolates, 176 (63.8%) turned out to be Acinetobacter baumannii and 100 (36.2%) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Overall sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp against piperacillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, sulbactam/cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin were 64%,63%, 48%, 47%, 41%,39%,35%, 34%, 32%, 31 %, 29%, 19%, 18% and 5% respectively. Out of 276 isolates, 181 (66 %) were multidrug resistant while 33 (18 %) isolates were pan-drug resistant. (author)

  4. Spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Farwa, U.; Sattar, A.; Qureshi, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection from the samples received at AFIP Rawalpindi. Place and duration of study. The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from January 2010 to June 2010. Material and Method: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 500 bacterial isolates out of 2050 urine culture samples, for a period of six month were included in the study. Indentification was carried out by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated organisms were performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Results Out of the culture positive cases, gram-negative bacteria constituted the largest group with a total of 434 (87%) isolates, while gram-positive bacteria constituted only 44 (8.8%) isolates. E. coli was the most common isolate accounting for 63% of the total positive bacterial cultures followed by Klebsiella spp (9%) and P. aernginosa (7%). Susceptibility pattern of E. coli revealed that 96% of isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 91% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 87% to Nitrofurantoin. For Klebsiella spp, 86% of Isolates were susceptible to Imipenem and 71 % to piperacillin-tazobactam. As regards acinetobacter spp, 94% of Isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and 70 % to Imipenem an piperacilline-sulbactam. Antibiogram of P. aeruginosa revealed that 94% of isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and 86% to imipenem. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective urinary antibiotic in case of enterococcus spp as 85% of isolates were susceptible to this compound. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in our set up. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli revealed that majority of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacilline

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Trinidad & Tobago

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    Monteil Michele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. The prevalence however, varies markedly in hospitals in the same country, and from one country to another. We therefore sought to document comprehensively the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods All Staphylococcus aureus isolates encountered in routine clinical specimens received at major hospitals in the country between 2000 and 2001 were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedures including latex agglutination test (Staphaurex Plus; Murex Diagnostics Ltd; Dartford, England; tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma (Becton, Dickinson & Co; Sparks, MD, USA, and DNase test using DNase agar (Oxoid Ltd; Basingstoke, Hampshire, England. MRSA screening was performed using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 6 μg oxacillin and 4% NaCl, latex agglutination test (Denka Seiken Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan and E-test system (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method while methicillin MICs were determined with E-test system. Results Of 1,912 S. aureus isolates received, 12.8% were methicillin (oxacillin resistant. Majority of the isolates were recovered from wound swabs (86.9% and the least in urine (0.4% specimens. Highest number of isolates was encountered in the surgical (62.3% and the least from obstetrics and gynaecology (1.6% facilities respectively. Large proportions of methicillin sensitive isolates are >85% sensitive to commonly used and available antimicrobials in the country. All MRSA isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, gentamicin and penicillin but were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, rifampin and chloramphenicol. Conclusion There is a progressive increase in MRSA prevalence in the country but

  6. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    in resistance patterns were noted up to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive and manageable inventory of the resistance patterns of the major bacteria covering the 2004-2008 period is presented. Clinicians are encouraged to use the pocket-size table as guidance when choosing antibiotic treatment. FUNDING: none......INTRODUCTION: Development of antimicrobial resistance is an ongoing and increasing problem. To provide the best possible treatment for patients it is crucial that clinicians are aware of the local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was to present an overview...... susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children with typhoid fever and serotype of Salmonella typhi in Jakarta

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    Mirari Prasadajudio, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Lia Waslia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indonesia is known for high incidence of typhoid fever especially in children. This study aimed to observe antibiotic susceptibility in circulating Salmonella typhi serotypes in children with typhoid. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted. A total of 142 blood samples from children between 1-18 years old clinically diagnosed with suspected typhoid fever were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013 from six health centers in Jakarta. Confirmed cases were retrieved based on S. typhi isolate finding in blood culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated and PCR was used to detect S. typhi serotypes using fliB, fliC and aroC genes. Results: The prevalence of confirmed typhoid case based on isolate finding was 22 (15.5%. Twenty of S. typhi isolates expressed fliC gene carrying H:d allele, the other two expressed j allele, while only two samples expressed fliB, all showed no difference in pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions: Circulating serotypes found in typhoid children in Jakarta, Indonesia are still susceptible even to the firstline antimicrobials. Thus, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole are still recommended. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 29-35

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with communityacquired pneumonia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bacterial isolates were obtained from adults suspected to have ...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil

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    Glauber P Arêas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10 and iMLSB (4. The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81 were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7. There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

  10. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    of the percentage of bacterial isolates that are covered by the most commonly used antibiotics in the area of Copenhagen and to provide clinicians with a practical tool to help chose the right antimicrobial treatment for their patients. METHODS: We conducted a study of all bacteria isolates tested for antimicrobial...... susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...... in resistance patterns were noted up to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive and manageable inventory of the resistance patterns of the major bacteria covering the 2004-2008 period is presented. Clinicians are encouraged to use the pocket-size table as guidance when choosing antibiotic treatment. FUNDING: none...

  11. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Seble Worku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9% were from diabetics and 9 (4.7% of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1% were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%. Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%. Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from cases of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorek, E; Małaczewska, J; Wójcik, R; Rękawek, W; Siwicki, A K

    2017-08-01

    Mastitis of dairy cattle is one of the most frequently diagnosed diseases worldwide. The main etiological agents of mastitis are bacteria of the genus Streptococcus spp., in which several antibiotic resistance mechanisms have been identified. However, detailed studies addressing this problem have not been conducted in northeastern Poland. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze, on phenotypic and genotypic levels, the antibiotic resistance pattern of Streptococcus spp. isolated from clinical cases of mastitis from dairy cattle in this region of Poland. The research was conducted using 135 strains of Streptococcus (Streptococcus uberis, n = 53; Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 41; Streptococcus agalactiae, n = 27; other streptococci, n = 14). The investigation of the antimicrobial susceptibility to 8 active substances applied in therapy in the analyzed region, as well as a selected bacteriocin (nisin), was performed using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. The presence of selected resistance genes (n = 14) was determined via PCR. We also investigated the correlation between the presence of resistance genes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the examined strains in vitro. The highest observed resistance of Streptococcus spp. was toward gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline, whereas the highest susceptibility occurred toward penicillin, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin. Additionally, the tested bacteriocin showed high efficacy. The presence of 13 analyzed resistance genes was observed in the examined strains [gene mef(A) was not detected]. In most strains, at least one resistance gene, mainly responsible for resistance to tetracyclines [tet(M), tet(K), tet(L)], was observed. However, a relationship between the presence of a given resistance gene and antimicrobial susceptibility on the phenotypic level was not always observed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  14. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward

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    Jalal Mardaneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterobacter cloacae is a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacillus, from the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes disease in plants and humans (premature and immunocompromised persons of all age groups. The goal of this study was to isolate and determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula (PIF milk in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU ward. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 125 consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward were surveyed. Isolation and Identification of microorganisms was carried out according to FDA method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed using the standard disc diffusion method based on CLSI (2011 recommendations. Results: Enterobacter cloacae was isolated from 2 (1.6% of 125 PIF milk samples. The results showed that isolated strains are sensitive to most antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin. Conclusion: Since the infant formula (PIF samples are unsterile products and contamination could occure during different steps, it is imperative to prepare the infant formula milk foods according to the manufacturer’s instruction and in an aseptic condition. Contamination of PIF only could be reduced or prevented by monitoring the critical control points and taking appropriate action during the processing.

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Age Dependent Etiology of Urinary Tract Infections in Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, South-West of Iran

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    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial diseases. The etiological agents and emergence of antimicrobial resistance UTIs vary according to time and geographical region. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of etiological agents of UTIs and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to locally available antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted within six months on all patients with clinical symptoms of UTI who referred to Nemazee Teaching hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured on appropriate media in a short time as possible. Conventional bacteriological methods were followed for the isolation and identification of the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by locally available antibiotics by using disk diffusion method in accordance with CLSI recommendation. Results: In this study, from overall 9991 specimens analyzed 848 (8.5% culture had significant bacterial growth. Of the total positive cultures, 500 (59% cases were female. Escherichia coli (50.6% was the predominant gram-negative isolated pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., respectively. Enterococcus isolates (11.2% was the most isolated gram-positive cocci. Nitrofurantoin (80.9%, gentamycin (77.9% and amikacin (65.3% had the most in-vitro antibacterial effect on E. coli isolates as the predominant cause of UTIs. Conclusions: The results of regional assessments, such as our study, provide not only useful information for prescription of more effective empirical therapy, but also good epidemiological background for comparison of our situation with other regions.

  16. DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: a multicentre study.

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    Salimizand, Himen; Menbari, Shaho; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khonsha, Masomeh; Saleh Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to establish antibiotic profile and the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, with considering the effectiveness of control infection measures across three hospitals in the Kurdistan, west part of Iran. Fifty-four A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients and environmental specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns (Antibio-type) were evaluated for 17 different antibiotics and MIC for imipenem was done. Isolates were assessed for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and integrated gene cassettes and blaOXA-likefamilies genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) was done for analysing clonality and relativeness of isolates (REP-type). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns distinguished 11 distinct Antibio-types and REP-PCR showed three clusters with 20 subclusters, mostly belonged to two clonal subgroups, A1 and B1. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were detected in 100% (54/54) and 52% (28/54), respectively, while blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58 were not present in isolates. MBLs were not detected, but, however, high rate of imipenem resistance was observed (52%). MIC90 of imipenem was 16 mg/ml. Class 1 integrons were detected in 11% (6/54) of isolates followed by 24% (13/54) of class 2. Both classes of integron genes were detected in 15% (8/54) of isolates. Integrated gene cassettes were in low level (11% of class 1 harboring isolates). Two arrays of gene cassettes were revealed, dfrA5-like and dfrA17-aadA5. Infection control surveillance should be considered as a serious manner, even the superficial eradication of hospital acquired pathogens. MBL genes were not induced carbapenem resistance in studied hospital settings, but blaOXA-51 & 23 contributed in imipenem resistant. Integrons had a little share in resistance of A. baumannii isolates.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

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    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States

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    Mirajkar, Nandita S.; Davies, Peter R.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of swine dysentery, caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and the recently discovered “Brachyspira hampsonii,” have reoccurred in North American swine herds since the late 2000s. Additionally, multiple Brachyspira species have been increasingly isolated by North American diagnostic laboratories. In Europe, the reliance on antimicrobial therapy for control of swine dysentery has been followed by reports of antimicrobial resistance over time. The objectives of our study were to determi...

  19. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

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    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  20. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

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    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

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    David Patrick Kateete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human. Fifty eight (60% Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21, Enterococci (16, Streptococci (13, Lactococci (5, Micrococci (2 and Arcanobacteria (1 were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25% coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12, Klebsiella oxytoca (5, Proteus vulgaris (2, Serratia (2, Citrobacter (1, Cedecea (1 and Leclercia (1 were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35% including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri. Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435

  2. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

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    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from infected wounds at a tertiary care hospital

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    Rosić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter, especially species Acinetobacter baumanii, is one of the most important causes of infection in immunocompromised patients in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of Acinetobacter species isolated from swabs of inflamed wounds to antibiotics. The study was conducted in several departments of the Clinical Centre 'Kragujevac' through retrospective analysis of 220 Acinetobacter species isolates from surgical wounds in 2011. The isolates of Acinetobaster species were mostly sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, colistin and tigecycline in all hospital departments that were surveyed. Only minority of the isolated Acinetobacter species were susceptible to cotrimoxazole, amikacin, imipenem and/or meropenem. Antibiotics with the highest in vitro efficacy against Acinetobacter species were ampicillinsulbactam, colistin and tigecycline. Highly resistant Acinetobacter species were more frequently isolated from patients in Intensive Care Unit.

  4. PREVALENCE OF MBL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ACINETOBACTER ISOLATES FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, ASSAM, INDIA

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    Monjuri Kataki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acinetobacter infection have been clinically prominent pathogen in tropical countries have caused recurrent problems during wars and natural disasters and have recently caused multihospital outbreaks. Rational use of antimicrobial agents is clinically important to prevent Acinetobacter infections as well as to avoid poor outcomes. 1 The aim of the study is to see the prevalence of Acinetobacter as a pathogen in this tertiary care hospital, their susceptibility pattern along with prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase. MATERIALS AND METHODS The samples were processed for a period of one year. Samples were collected from ICU including urine, sputum, endotracheal aspirate, BAL, blood, pus, body fluids (pleural fluid, CSF, etc. and the stool specimens were plated using appropriate culture media (MAC, BA, CLED, XLD. RESULTS Shows Acinetobacter baumannii is the significant species isolated is ICU among 700 cases, which yielded only 100% sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics. So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way. CONCLUSION So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

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    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  6. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from canine chronic otitis externa

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    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swab samples obtained from 96 dogs with chronic otitis externa were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus species. Of 57 staphylococcal strains, 41 (72% were coagulase-negative (CNS. The identification of staphylococci strains was made by standard procedures for the routine identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. S. sciuri was the most frequent species isolated (22.8% from chronic otitis externa in dogs followed by S. intermedius (12.3%, S. auricularis (10.5% and S. aureus (8.8%. Three (5.2% CNS strains could not be identified. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. Resistance was most common to penicillin G, oxacillin and ampicillin.

  7. The common enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected individuals attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Hawassa university hospital, southern Ethiopia

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    Ayele Kebede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis among HIV-infected individuals together with increased antimicrobial drug resistance pose a significant public health challenge in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from February to May, 2016. A consecutive 215 HIV-infected patients, with complaints of gastrointestinal tract disease, were enrolled. Data on socio-demography and related factors was collected using a structured questionnaire. A stool sample was collected from each study participant and cultured to isolate enteric bacterial pathogens; isolates were characterized using biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion technique. Results Out of 215 patients, 27(12.6% were culture positive for various bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter species was the most common bacterial isolate (6.04%, followed by Salmonella species (5.1%. The majority of isolates was sensitive to norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin and showed resistance to trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (SXT and chloramphenicol. Consumption of raw food was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with enteric bacterial infection (crude odds ratio 3.41 95% CI 1.13–10.3. Conclusions The observed rate of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance pattern to the commonly prescribed antibiotics highlights the need to strengthen intervention efforts and promote rational use of antimicrobials. In this regard, the need to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship efforts should be emphasized to slow grown antimicrobial resistance among this population

  8. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from patients at two main health facilities in Kabul, Afghanistan.

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    Naimi, Haji Mohammad; Rasekh, Hamidullah; Noori, Ahmad Zia; Bahaduri, Mohammad Aman

    2017-11-29

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, abscess in deep organs, toxin mediated diseases, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, post-surgical wound infections, meningitis and many other diseases. Irresponsible and over use of antibiotics has led to an increased presence of multidrug resistant organisms and especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major public health concern in Afghanistan. As a result, there are many infections with many of them undiagnosed or improperly diagnosed. We aimed to establish a baseline of knowledge regarding the prevalence of MRSA in Kabul, Afghanistan, as well as S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility to current available antimicrobials, while also determining those most effective to treat S. aureus infections. Samples were collected from patients at two main Health facilities in Kabul between September 2016 and February 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by the disc diffusion method and studied using standard CLSI protocols. Out of 105 strains of S. aureus isolated from pus, urine, tracheal secretions, and blood, almost half (46; 43.8%) were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) while 59 (56.2%) were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. In total, 100 (95.2%) strains were susceptible to rifampicin, 96 (91.4%) susceptible to clindamycin, 94 (89.5%) susceptible to imipenem, 83 (79.0%) susceptible to gentamicin, 81(77.1%) susceptible to doxycycline, 77 (77.1%) susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, 78 (74.3%) susceptible to cefazolin, 71 (67.6%) susceptible to tobramycin, 68 (64.8%) susceptible to chloramphenicol, 60 (57.1%) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 47 (44.8%) susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 38 (36.2%) susceptible to azithromycin and erythromycin, 37 (35.2%) susceptible to ceftriaxone and 11 (10.5%) were

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

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    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

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    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  11. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

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    Sedighi, Iraj; Solgi, Abbas; Amanati, Ali; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef

    2014-12-01

    Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients. In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been investigated for antibiotics susceptibility pattern. The susceptibility to Co-trimoxazol (25μg), Amikacin (30μg), Ceftriaxone (30μg), Nalidixic Acid (30μg), Cefixime (5μg), and Nitrofurantoin (300μg) tested with Disk diffusion agar and MIC determined with the E-test. Mean age of patients was 38 Months. Girls had greater proportion than boys (74 versus 26%). In Disk diffusion method, 26% of the isolates were susceptible to cotrimoxazole. Susceptibility to amikacin, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and cefixime was 94%, 66%, 97%, 62% and 52%, respectively. By E-Test method and according to CLSI criteria susceptibility for co-trimoxazol, amikacin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid was 37%, 97%, 67% and 50%, respectively. The highest percentage of agreement between Disk diffusion and E-Test method was found for amikacin (96%) and the lowest percentage for co-trimoxazole (89%). Treatment failure, prolonged or repeated hospitalization, increased costs of care, and increased mortality are some consequence of bacterial resistance in UTIs. Misuse of antibiotics in each geographic location directly affects antibiotic resistance pattern. In the treatment of UTI, proper selection of antimicrobial agents should be relevant to the bacterial susceptibility testing surveillance. According to our results, amikacin as an injectable drug and nitrofurantoin as an oral agent could be used as a drug of choice in our region for children with UTIs.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections in Venezuela: Results of the SMART study 2009-2012].

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    Guevara, Napoleón; Guzmán, Manuel; Merentes, Altagracia; Rizzi, Adele; Papaptzikos, Juana; Rivero, Narlesky; Oranges, Carmela; Vlllarroel, Héctor; Limas, Yoxsivell

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem, which complicates their effective treatment. Surveillance is needed to guide appropriate empiric therapy. to describe the susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated of patients with UTI to twelve antibiotics as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Venezuela. Between 2009-2012 a total of 472 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. The isolates were sent to Central Laboratory (Central Laboratory of International Health Management Associates) to confirm their identification, and to make susceptibility testing as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Enterobacteriacea comprised 96.6% of the total, where Escherichia coli (76.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6%) were the most frequent. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was detected in 21.6% of isolates. Top antimicrobial activity were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin (> 90.0%), slightly lower for amikacin (85.1%) in ESBL-producing strains. Resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and ampicillin/sulbactam were high (40 y 64%, respectively). These data suggest a necessary revision of the therapeutic regimens for the empirical treatment of UTI in Venezuela.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and Ribosomal-RNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus-intermedius from healthy dogs and from dogs sufferning from pyoderma or otitis-externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1995-01-01

    A total of 60 Staphlococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). Fifteen isolates were from healthy dogs, 9 with otitis externa, and 36 with pyoderma, including......, enrofloxacin, and sulphonamides with trimethoprim. There were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns observed among isolates from pyoderma, otitis externa or healthy dogs. Among the 60 strains studied by ribotyping, 10 different ribotypes were identified: 6 different ribotypes...... among isolates from otitis externa, 8 among isolates from pyoderma, and 5 among isolates from healthy dogs. One ribotype (profile C) was dominant among the isolates from healthy dogs while another ribotype (profile A) was dominant among strains from dogs suffering from pyoderma. This profile...

  14. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples from Children Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Salu Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of oxacillin. 264 (59% samples were culture positive. The highest incidence of bacterial infections was noted in the age group of less than 1 year (76%. Out of 264 growth positive samples, Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 162 (61% samples and Gram-negative bacteria were found in 102 (39% samples. Staphylococcus aureus (99% was the predominant Gram-positive bacteria isolated and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44% was predominant Gram-negative bacteria. About 19% of S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant MIC of oxacillin ranging from 4 μg/mL to 128 μg/mL. Among the children of Nepal, those of age less than 1 year were at higher risk of wound infections by bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacteria causing wound infections in children.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslantaş Özkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates among pregnant women attending Dessie referral hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ismail Ebrie; Gebrecherkos, Teklay; Gizachew, Mucheye; Menberu, Martha Alemayehu

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to find out the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and related risk factors among pregnant women. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2017 to May 2017 among asymptomatic pregnant mothers attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. About 10-15 mL of freshly voided midstream urine samples were collected from each study participants, and analyzed at Dessie regional research microbiology laboratory with conventional antibiotic susceptibility, and biochemical tests. Isolates were tested against commonly used antimicrobials using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 software and in all cases, p-values below 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Overall, 358 pregnant women were included in the study with a mean age of 26.5±4.6 years (range, 19-43 yrs). The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 56% (15.6%). Isolated microorganisms were mainly Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (for each, n=18; 31%). Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to ampicillin (66.7%), and penicillin (94.44%). The prevalence of multidrug- resistant isolates was 72.4%. History of catheterization [AOR=2.28, 95% CI=(1.03-5.06)] and anemia [AOR=4.98, 95% CI=(2.395-10.34) were statistically significant regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in the study area was high. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and their antibiotic susceptibility test results should be taken into consideration during the management of pregnant women who are visiting antenatal care clinic.

  17. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pathogenic Bacteria in Children Subjected to UTI: A Referral Hospital-Based Study in Northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh; Abdinia, Babak

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is 1 of the most common bacterial diseases in children with a considerable resistance to antimicrobials. This 5 years prospective study was carried out to determine the frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens among children subjected to urine culture at Tabriz Children Educational-Health Care Center, in the northwest of Iran. Organisms were isolated using standard culture techniques. Frequency of UTI among children examined by urine culture was 3.6%. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (71.4%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (9.6%), Enterococcus spp. (6.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%), Serratia spp. (4.2%), and Enterobacter spp. (4.2%). E coli resistance levels were 11% for nitrofurantoin, 15% for ciprofloxacin, 25% for nalidixic acid, and 30% to 75% for amikacin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and co-trimoxazole. Among the tested antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, showed the highest activity (100%) against Klebsiella and P aeruginosa isolates followed by amikacin, nalidixic acid, and gentamicin. Overall, the highly active antibiotic against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms was amikacin and then ciprofloxacin. On the other hand, the empirical initial therapy with co-trimoxazole and third-generation cephalosporins would be inadequate for more cases of UTI in the study area. Moreover, susceptibility testing should be carried out on all clinical isolates, and the empirical antibiotic treatment changed accordingly.

  18. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynalem Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%. Of all, 81 (59.1% were males. Seventy-seven (57% of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43% were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34% followed by Klebsiella species (13%, coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%, amoxicillin (83%, penicillin (81.3%, oxacillin (74.6%, and tetracycline (59.4%, while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%, ampicillin (94.8%, tetracycline (72.7%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%, and chloramphenicol (54.5%. Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.

  19. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, Patrizia; Zavatta, Emanuele; Fiocchi, Eleonora; Serafini, Emanuele; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Bignami, Giorgia

    2017-10-20

    V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes vvh A and hsp , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype ( vcg E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype ( vcg C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  1. Bacterial profile of urinary tract infection and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at Antenatal Clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derese B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Derese,1 Haji Kedir,2 Zelalem Teklemariam,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Senthilkumar Balakrishnan4 1Department of Medical Laboratory, Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, 2Department of Public Health, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial profile of urinary tract infection (UTI and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending at antenatal clinic in Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 18, 2015 to March 25, 2015. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens were collected from 186 pregnant women using sterile containers. Then, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by standard disk diffusion method. Patient information was obtained using pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered and cleaned using EpiData Version 3 and then exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (Version 16 for further analysis.Results: The prevalence of significant bacteriuria was 14%. Gram-negative bacteria were more prevalent (73%. Escherichia coli (34.6%, coagulase-negative staphylococci (19.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4%, and Klebsiella spp. (11.5% were common bacterial isolates, where most of them were resistant against ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance (resistance in ≥2 drugs was seen in 100% of the isolated bacteria. A majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, and gentamicin.Conclusion: This study found a number of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs from pregnant women with and without symptoms of UTI. Therefore, the early routine

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus saprophyticus and urethral staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J; Kwan, C

    1982-01-01

    The activity of eight antimicrobial agents was determined against 115 isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. All were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to nalidixic acid and novobiocin. A bimodal pattern of susceptibility to erythromycin was observed: 80% were inhibited by 0.25 microgram/ml, whereas 13% required greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. The following urethral staphylococci were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and nitrofurantoin but resistant to nalidixic acid: S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. simulans, and S. cohnii. PMID:6982679

  4. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  5. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  6. Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in pediatric population are associated with high morbidity and long term complications. In recent years, there is increased prevalence of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains producing extended spectrum β-lactamase, Amp C, and Metallo β-lactamase, making the clinical management even more difficult. This study was aimed to detect the serotypes and to determine antimicrobial susceptibility profile of E. coli isolates from urine samples of children <10 yrs old. A total of 75 pure E. coli strains isolated from patients with symptoms of UTI and colony count ≥105 organisms/mL were included in the study. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed maximum resistance to nalidixic acid (98.7%, followed by ampicillin (97.3%, amoxi-clavulanate (96%, and fluoroquinolones (92% while most of the isolates were found sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam (13.3%, nitrofurantoin (5.3%, and meropenem (1.3%. 48% of the strains were ESBL producer (extended spectrum beta lactamase. 44% strains were typable withantisera used in our study and the most common serogroup was O6 (33.3% followed by O1 (15.1% and O15 (15.1%. To conclude, judicious use of antibiotics according to hospital antibiotic policy and infection control measures should be implemented to prevent spread of multidrug resistant organisms.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and CTX-M β-lactamase producing clinical isolates from burn patients in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Methods: During 2015–2016, a total of 126 samples were collected at a tertiary care hospital, Islamabad. Antibiotic sensitivity and ESBL prevalence were evaluated according to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute, and molecular analysis of the CTX-M type ESBL gene was performed in 225 bacterial isolates from these samples. Results: The most prevalent bacterial species were Escherichia coli (28.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.3%. Of the 225 bacterial isolates, 89 (39.5% were found to be ESBL producers. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem (88% and imipenem (84%, followed by the aminoglycoside amikacin (81%. Molecular epidemiology of the ESBL isolates indicated 19% prevalence of CTX-M. Resistance to antibiotics was exhibited by 28% isolates. Conclusions: In the present study, bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E. coli isolated from burn patients exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics and produced large amounts of ESBL. Further studies are needed to investigate the virulence and epidemiology of CTX-M type ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients.

  8. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Entrobacteriaceae in the University of Gondar Referral Hospital environments, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engda, Tigist; Moges, Feleke; Gelaw, Aschalew; Eshete, Setegn; Mekonnen, Feleke

    2018-05-22

    This study aimed at assessing the magnitude, distribution, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Entrobacteriaceae in the University of Gondar Referral Hospital environments. Out of a total of 384 samples, 14.8% were ESBL producing Entrobacteriaceae, where 42.10% Klebsiella pneumoniae, 35.09% Escherchia coli and 7.01% Proteus mirabilis were the predominant isolates. Most ESBL producing isolates, that is, 24.56, 22.8, and 22.8% were found from waste water, sinks and bedside tables respectively. All ESBL producing Entrobacteriaceae were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefpodoxime, and amoxicillin with Clavulanic acid. Resistance rate was also high for non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, like chloramphenicol (70.18%), cotrimoxazole (64.91%), norfloxacin (42.10%), ciprofloxacin (43.86%), and gentamicin (19.30%).

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Mengistu, Shimelis; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log 10 /ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log 10 /ml) with significant differences ( P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) ( P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town.

  11. 21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial... clinical laboratories for determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to these therapeutic...

  12. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  13. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in outpatient urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Aim. To identify organisms and determine antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infections (UTIs) at 3 Military Hospital, Bloemfontein ...

  15. Lessons Learned from Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a Large Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett H. Heintz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report assessed the differences in resistance rates and antimicrobial usage-versus-susceptibility relationships of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in various hospital patient care areas. A simplified case control study was also performed to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Last, we determined the consequence of combining mucoid and non-mucoid derived antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa into hospital antibiograms. Overall, susceptibility rates remained lower in the intensive care units (ICUs compared to the non-ICU patient care areas, except for cefepime over the last time period. Cefepime utilization and antimicrobial-resistance rates among P. aeruginosa isolates had a significant relationship. Decreased meropenem exposure was associated with lower resistance rates relative to cefepime. Risk factors independently associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa were structural lung disease, ICU admission, recent third generation cephalosporin use, frequent hospital admission and non-urine isolates. Large and statistically significant differences were observed between non-mucoid and combined percent susceptibility data for aminoglycosides. To control antimicrobial resistance and optimize initial empiric antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility and utilization patterns in specific patient care areas should be monitored and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance should be assessed. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa should not be included into antimicrobial susceptibility data as this may underestimate activity of most antipseudomonal agents.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcic, Emina; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Karcic, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose treatment is threatened with an increase in the number of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. Goal: The main goal of this research was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance of S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: Taken are swabs of the nose and nasopharynx, eye and ear. In vitro tests that were made in order to study the antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci are: disk diffusion method and E-test. Results: The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol–0.56%, rifampicin–6.11%, tetracycline–4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases. Conclusion: The highest resistance pneumococcus showed to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and these should be avoided in the treatment. The least resistance pneumococcus showed to tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, penicillin-G and ciprofloxacin. PMID:26236165

  18. Choosing the correct empirical antibiotic for urinary tract infection in pediatric: Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli by E-Test method.

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Sedighi; Abbas Solgi; Ali Amanati; Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are of the most common bacterial diseases worldwide. We investigate the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains isolated from pediatric patients with community acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) to find a clinical guidance for choosing a right empirical antibiotic in these patients. Materials and Methods In this cross sectional study, 100 urine specimens which were positive for E. coli had been inve...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. 21 CFR 866.1620 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antimicrobial susceptibility test disc. 866.1620 Section 866.1620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1620 Antimicrobial...

  1. Prevalence and Susceptibility Patterns of Clinical Isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli as an aetiologic agent in bacterial infections and its antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, perfloxacin, gentamycin and cotrimoxazole as a guide for empiric therapy. A retrospective study was carried out using a ...

  2. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy may cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anaemia, chronic renal failure, premature delivery and foetal mortality. This study aimed to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and to determine the patterns of antimicrobial drug susceptibility ...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  4. Isolation and antimicrobial drug susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens from pediatric patients with otitis media in selected health institutions, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailegiyorgis, Tewodros Tesfa; Sarhie, Wondemagegn Demsiss; Workie, Hailemariam Mekonnen

    2018-01-01

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrane, which often occurs after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. It is the most common episode of infection in children and the second most important cause of hearing loss affecting 1.23 billion people, thus ranked fifth global burden of disease with a higher incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate of bacterial pathogens from pediatric patients with otitis media. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013-June 2014 in Addis Ababa among 210 pediatrics patients. Demographic, clinical and associated factors data was obtained in face to face interview with guardians/parents by 5 trained nurse data collectors using structured questionnaire. Middle ear drainage swab was collected following all aseptic procedures and transported to the microbiology laboratory. Culture and Antimicrobial sensitivity test were performed according to the standards. The data quality was assured by questionnaire translation, retranslation and pretesting. Reference strains were used as a positive and negative control for biochemical tests, and culture results were cross checked. Data was checked for completeness, consistency and then entered into Epi Info v3.5.1 and analyzed by SPSS v20. Data interpretation was made using graphs, tables, and result statements. A total of 196 middle ear drainage swab samples were analyzed from pediatric patients and of those 95 (48.5%) samples were positive for pathogenic organisms. The major isolate was S. aureus (15.8%) followed by P. aeruginosa (10.9%), Viridians streptococcus (9.9%), S. pneumoniae (8.9%) and S. pyogenes (7.9%). Upper respiratory tract infection history and living in the rural area have shown significant association with the isolation of pathogenic organism, ( p-value = 0.035) and ( p-value = 0.003) respectively. Most of the isolates show a high level of resistance to

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. isolated from children under 5 years of age attending tertiary care hospitals, Nepal along with first finding of ESBL-production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Subhash; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Sharma, Sangita; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Khadka, Sundar; Khatiwada, Sulochana; Rijal, Basista

    2017-06-05

    Shigella is an important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in resource-poor countries. The treatment of shigellosis mostly requires antibiotics. However, the increase of multidrug resistance along with emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase and ciprofloxacin resistance among Shigella spp. has challenged the situation. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of species and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella species isolated from stool specimen among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal. Out of total 717 stool samples collected, 15 cases of Shigella spp. was isolated which includes 12 S. flexneri and 3 S. sonnei. Multidrug resistance was found among 13(86%) of the isolates. One of the isolates of S. flexneri was found to be ESBL-producer with MIC >256 mg/L for cefixime. The high occurrence of multidrug resistance among Shigella spp. along with a case of ESBL-production for the first time in Nepal alarms the concerns about dissemination of the resistant isolates. So, systemic monitoring of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. is becoming crucial to guide therapy.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanin Putsathit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. Methods A collection of 105 C. difficile isolated from inpatients admitted at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok in 2015 was tested for their susceptibility to nine antimicrobials via an agar incorporation method. Results All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem. Resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin and moxifloxacin was observed in 73.3%, 35.2% and 21.0% of the isolates, respectively. The in vitro activity of fidaxomicin (MIC50/MIC90 0.06/0.25 mg/L was superior to first-line therapies vancomycin (MIC50/MIC90 1/2 mg/L and metronidazole (MIC50/MIC90 0.25/0.25 mg/L. Rifaximin exhibited potent activity against 85.7% of the isolates (MIC ≤0.03 mg/L, and its MIC50 (0.015 mg/L was the lowest among all antimicrobials tested. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant C. difficile, defined by resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials, was 21.9% (23/105. Conclusions A high level of resistance against multiple classes of antimicrobial was observed, emphasising the need for enhanced antimicrobial stewardship and educational programmes to effectively disseminate information regarding C. difficile awareness and appropriate use of antimicrobials to healthcare workers and the general public.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 21 Polish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmudzki, J; Szczotka, A; Nowak, A; Strzelecka, H; Grzesiak, A; Pejsak, Z

    2012-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is a common disease among pigs worldwide, which contributes to major production losses. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae, the etiological agent of SD, is mainly performed by the agar dilution method. This method has certain limitations due to difficulties in interpretation of results. The aim of this study was the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B. hyodysenteriae) Polish field isolates by broth microdilution procedure. The study was performed on 21 isolates of B. hyodysenteriae, collected between January 2006 to December 2010 from cases of swine dysentery. VetMIC Brachyspira panels with antimicrobial agents (tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, tylosin and ampicillin) were used for susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution procedure. The lowest antimicrobial activity was demonstrated for tylosin and lincomycin, with inhibition of bacterial growth using concentrations > 128 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively. In the case of doxycycline, the MIC values were < or = 2.0 microg/ml. No decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was found among the Polish isolates and MIC values for this antibiotic did not exceed 1.0 microg/ml. The results of the present study confirmed that Polish B. hyodysenteriae isolates were susceptible to the main antibiotics (tiamulin and valnemulin) used in treatment of swine dysentery. Further studies are necessary to evaluate a possible slow decrease in susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Poland.

  9. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Leptospira Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, Kirubakaran; Lall, Chandan; Raj, Ratchagadasse Vimal; Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the causative agent of leptospirosis. Biofilm formation in leptospires is a new area of study, and its role in pathogenesis is not fully explored. As in other biofilm-forming bacteria, Leptospira biofilm may play a significant role in antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira biofilm was investigated by 96-well plate assay using Alamar Blue. Leptospira biofilm showed five to sixfold increase in resistance in all the strains used. The range of minimal bactericidal concentrations for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was 1,600 U/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, and 800-1,600 μg/ml, respectively. In agar substrate, the biofilm showed six- to sevenfold increase in resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic cell. The present study emphasizes the importance of biofilm formation and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This could pave the way for devising appropriate strategy to prevent the occurrence of potential chronic leptospirosis in endemic areas and also during an outbreak situation.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility assessment of compound from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of Aspergillus fumigatus on chromatographic analysis has led to the isolation of the compound, AF-1 which exhibited a significant in vitro antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic microorganism. The structure of the isolated compound, AF-1 was identified as ...

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Geographically Diverse Clinical Human Isolates of Leptospira▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ressner, Roseanne A.; Griffith, Matthew E.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Miller, R. Scott; Mende, Katrin; Fraser, Susan L.; Galloway, Renee L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2008-01-01

    Although antimicrobial therapy of leptospirosis has been studied in a few randomized controlled clinical studies, those studies were limited to specific regions of the world and few have characterized infecting strains. A broth microdilution technique for the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility has been developed at Brooke Army Medical Center. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibilities of 13 Leptospira isolates (including recent clinical isolates) from Egypt, Thailand, Nicarag...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of intra-abdominal infection isolates from a tertiary care hospital in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, U.; Anwar, S.; Kahara, U.Z.; Saeed, H.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent pathogens involved are the gastrointestinal flora which can cause poly-microbial infections. Microbiological diagnosis is required to determine the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms involved. Prompt initiation of antimicrobials is essential for improving patient's outcome. Knowledge of local trends of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial isolates is essential for empiric therapy. Methods: A total of 190 clinical isolates collected from intra-abdominal infections during July 2013 to July 2014 were included in the study. Organism identification and Antimicrobial sensitivity testing using standard biochemical tests and CLSI recommended criteria was carried out. Result: Of the total 190 isolates from abdominal infection sources 52% were from fluid sources (peritoneal and ascitic fluid), 41% were from gall bladder and 6.5% were from other abdominal sources. E. coli (46.8%) was the most frequently isolated gram negative and Enterococcus (13.1%) was the most frequently isolated gram positive organism. Carbapenem (imipenem) was the most active agent against enterobacteraceae exhibiting, 94.4% and 91.3% sensitivity against E. coli and Klebsiella respectively. While vancomycin was the most active agent against gram positive organisms. Eighty-four percent of the Enterococci isolated were sensitive to vancomycin. Most isolates exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. Conclusion: Continuous evolution of antimicrobial resistance patterns in bacteria necessitates updating of local data on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to ensure the safety and efficacy of pathogen specific antimicrobial therapies. (author)

  15. Multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Mi Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active beta-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study.

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  17. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of phenotype Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: From July 2013 to January 2014, urine, pus and blood samples were collected from patients suspected to have bacterial infections at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania. The isolates were identified based on standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out ...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface ...

  19. Group B streptococcal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the carriers had rectal colonization alone. All isolates (100%) were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, vancomycin, and linezolid. On the other hand, 43.4%, 28.3%, 22.6%, and 15% of isolates were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin respectively.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility and tetracycline resistance determinant genotyping of Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Vazquez, Maria E.; Bager, Ragnhild J.

    2011-01-01

    no determinant was identified.This is the first study to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gallibacterium anatis by MIC revealing that multidrug resistance is very common among G. anatis field isolates. tet(B) was by far the most common determinant identified but future work should aim at identifying......The present investigation was undertaken to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of a collection of 58 Gallibacterium isolates. All strains were tested by the broth dilution method using the veterinary fastidious medium. A total of 46 field strains were tested, whereof 23 were clinical isolates....... Multidrug resistance (resistance towards≥three drugs) was observed for 65% of the field strains and only two strains were susceptible to all compounds. Most prominently, resistance to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole was observed in 92% and 97% of the field strains, respectively. For comparison...

  1. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Sam; Brown, P D

    2016-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs). We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae) and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin). Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively) were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%), was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%). The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01) among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  2. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Using Forward Laser Light Scatter Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Randall T; Clinton, Lani K; Hewitt, Carolyn; Koyamatsu, Terri; Sun, Yilun; Jamison, Ginger; Perkins, Rosalie; Tang, Li; Pounds, Stanley; Bankowski, Matthew J

    2016-11-01

    The delayed reporting of antimicrobial susceptibility testing remains a limiting factor in clinical decision-making in the treatment of bacterial infection. This study evaluates the use of forward laser light scatter (FLLS) to measure bacterial growth for the early determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. Three isolates each (two clinical isolates and one reference strain) of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested in triplicate using two commercial antimicrobial testing systems, the Vitek2 and the MicroScan MIC panel, to challenge the BacterioScan FLLS. The BacterioScan FLLS showed a high degree of categorical concordance with the commercial methods. Pairwise comparison with each commercial system serving as a reference standard showed 88.9% agreement with MicroScan (two minor errors) and 72.2% agreement with Vitek (five minor errors). FLLS using the BacterioScan system shows promise as a novel method for the rapid and accurate determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of animal and food isolates of Salmonella enterica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Tania; López-Martin, Juana; Gädicke, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to one or more antimicrobiak is worrisome. To determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials of Salmonella entérica isolates from animáis and food, from the Laboratory of Veterinary Microbiology at the University of Concepción. The samples were isolated according to traditional microbiological methods standardized protocols. Resistance was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations (2008). Nine serotypes were identified among the 68 isolates. Strains were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 11 patterns of resistance were identified. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 20.5% of the strains tested. The most common was Oxytetracycline resistance (69.1%). Infood, the predominant serotype was S. Derby (2.9%) and S. Senftenberg (2.9%), which is commonly found infood intended for animal consumption. In samples of animal origin, the predominant serotypes were S. infantis (33.8%) and S. Group E (3.9;-;-) (23.5%). The frequeney of resistance found and the impending risk that these strains could reach humans through the food chain, should prompt a follow-up study of this pathogen.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  5. Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al-Rashdan, Mohammad

    2011-06-02

    This study compares the antimicrobial susceptibility over time between two groups of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) isolates from the same geographical area. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 13 antimicrobials was determined against two groups of MG isolates from chickens. Group 1 strains (n=22) were isolated in 2004-2005 while group 2 strains (n=7) were isolated in 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration 50 for group 1 versus group 2 was 4/4, 0.5/0.5, ≤ 0.031/≥ 64, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/0.125, 1/0.5, 1/1, ≤ 0.031/≤ 0.031, ≤ 0.031/2, ≤ 0.031/2, 1/4, ≤ 0.031/0.062, and 0.062/2 μg/ml against gentamicin, spectinomycin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, florfenicol, thiamphenicol, tiamulin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of group 2 to erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline. This dramatic increase in resistance against 8 antimicrobials belonging to three different families of antimicrobials in a relatively short period of time appears to be rare and of concern. The cause of this increased resistance observed in group 2 of MG isolates was not determined and should be further investigated. Monitoring of MG field strain susceptibility is highly recommended to implement successful treatment and prophylaxis programs in endemic areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of Micrococcus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of Micrococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eiff, C; Herrmann, M; Peters, G

    1995-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 63 isolates of Stomatococcus mucilaginosus and of 188 isolates of Micrococcus spp. to 18 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Many beta-lactams, imipenem, rifampin, and the glycopeptides were shown to be active in vitro against Stomatococcus and Micrococcus isolates, whereas the activities of antibiotics such as some aminoglycosides, erythromycin, and fosfomycin against an important number of these microorganisms are limited. PMID:7695321

  8. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae Causing Urinary Tract Infections in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, Giannoula S.; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adults in Africa. The PubMed database was systematically searched to identify relevant studies published after 2000. Google, World Health Organization, and African Field Epidemiology networks were also searched. Twenty-eight studies, accounting for 381,899 urine isolates from 14 African countries, met the inclusion criteria. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Proteus spp. were the most commonly encountered uropathogens. Cefotaxime, imipenem, fosfomycin, and ciprofloxacin were the antibiotics with the highest activity against E. coli isolates from outpatients, with susceptibility being 92 to 99, 100, 100, and 68 to 91%, respectively. The susceptibility among Klebsiella spp. isolates from outpatients varied from 80 to 100% for amikacin and from 53 to 100% for ciprofloxacin, while susceptibility was 74 to 78, 97, and 77% for ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and fosfomycin, respectively, among Klebsiella species isolates from inpatients or patients with hospital-acquired UTIs. With regard to Proteus spp., the highest activity was observed among fluoroquinolones; 71 to 100% of the P. mirabilis isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin in four studies, and 74 to 100% of the P. vulgaris isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin in two studies. The currently available evidence suggests that the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens in African countries were similar to those in countries of southeast Europe. Further original studies are warranted from African countries for which there is limited published data. PMID:23689709

  9. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a university Teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Amoxycillin clavunanic acid and ciprofloxacin were most active with MRSA isolates showing 97% and 93.9% susceptibility to the two drugs respectively. Eighteen (54.5%) ...

  10. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  11. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Serovariedades y patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de Salmonella aisladas de alimentos en Cuba Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella strains isolated from food in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Puig Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los serotipos de 178 cepas de Salmonella enterica aisladas de alimentos en diferentes regiones de Cuba entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009, y el patrón de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de 100 aislados seleccionados mediante muestreo por estratos. Se identificaron 20 serovariedades de Salmonella entre las que predominaron S. Enteritidis (23%; S. Agona (13,5% y S. London (11,2%. Del total, 75% de las cepas fueron resistentes o presentaron resistencia intermedia a al menos uno de los fármacos probados, en el siguiente orden, según su frecuencia: tetraciclina (70,7%; ampicilina (22,7% y ácido nalidíxico (14,7%. Se identificaron 10 patrones de resistencia diferentes y predominaron las cepas resistentes o conresistencia intermedia a un fármaco (89,3%. Tres cepas (S. Infantis, S. Derby y S. Enteritidis fueron multirresistentes y una, de S. Enteritidis, dio un resultado no sensible al ácido nalidíxico y la ciprofloxacina. Se destaca la necesidad de extremar la vigilancia sanitaria integrada en el país para el control de la salmonelosis.The serotypes of 178 isolates of Salmonella enterica taken from food in different regions of Cuba between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 selected isolates was determined by strata sampling. A total of 20 Salmonella serotypes were identified, with a predominance of S. Enteritidis (23%, S. Agona (13.5%, and S. London (11.2%. Of all the strains, 75% were resistant or presented intermediate resistance to at least one of the drugs tested, in the following order: tetracycline (70.7%, ampicillin (22.7%, and nalidixic acid (14.7%. Ten different resistance patterns were identified. The most frequent patterns corresponded to strains that were either drugresistant or had intermediate resistance (89.3%. Three strains (identified as S. Infantis, S. Derby, and S. Enteritidis were multiresistant, and one of them, S. Enteritidis, was

  13. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter species isolated from blood samples of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Zafar, A.; Ejaz, H.; Zubair, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acinetobacter species is a major nosocomial pathogen causing serious infections in immuno-compromised and hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in blood samples of paediatric patients. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during January to October, 2011 at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 12,032 blood samples were analysed during the study period. Acinetobacter species were Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The blood cultures showed growth in 1,141 cultures out of which 46 (4.0%) were Acinetobacter species. The gender distribution of Acinetobacter species was 29 (63.0%) in males and 17 (37.0%) in females. A good antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species was seen with sulbactam-cefoperazone (93.0%), imepenem and meropenem (82.6% (30.4%) was poor. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows high rate of resistance of Acinetobacter species with cephalosporins in nosocomial infections. The sulbactam-cefoperazone, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam showed effective antimicrobial susceptibility against Acinetobacter species. (author)

  14. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik's Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:29112122

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic pelvic pain, infertility, acute urethritis, cervicitis and proctitis or pharyngitis [5]. N. gonorrhoeae infections represent 106 million of the estimated 498 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infection that occur globally every year [5]. Previous studies have estimated. 3.4 million cases of gonorrhea among ...

  17. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... E. coli using ChromID ESBL agar plates and further confirmed by PCR amplification. Out of 45 .... open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License .... There is no data available on “pubmed" search.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high levels of bacterial resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin and spectinomycin, should be taken into account in developing any new guidelines in the management of the infection. Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Female infertility Drug Resistance, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, ...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and twenty eight (128) stool samples were collected from patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria and Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, and screened for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Out of the one hundred and twenty eight samples analyzed 4 ...

  20. Isolation, identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Haramaya University, College of Veterinary Medicine, P. O.BOX 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia .... inefficiency posed by health constraints including drug resistances. ... result, among 210 sampled cows' 60 of them were excluded from the study due ..... significance to reduce and prevent the pathogen effect on dairy industry.

  1. patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacterial pathogens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    There are many public, private and academic centres which collect data. For example, different centres in the country collect a wide range of data about the .... lic sector. None of these 526 isolates was resistant to cephalosporins on.

  2. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory tract diseases, mainly of bacterial origin, have been identified as important problems accounting for up to 54% of the overall mortality of sheep in the central highlands of Ethiopia. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on sheep reared at Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre. It is aimed at ...

  3. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... might be the possible reservoir of blaCTX-M gene and may contribute to the dissemination and transfer of these β-lactamase genes to humans through food chain. The high rate of occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the mackerel fish indicates that there is an established reservoir of these bacteria in the mackerel fish.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 consecutive patients who attended a sexually transmitted infections clinic were studied. Thirteen had gonococcal urethritis, of which 10 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP method and beta lactamase production by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Four patients were co-infected with each of the following: HIV, HBV and Chlamydia trachomatis . Gonococcal urethritis (13% was found more in male patients. Ten percent gonococcal isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae , and another 10% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae .

  5. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria in Ontario, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Rawte, Prasad; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J; Patel, Samir N

    2014-08-01

    The local epidemiology of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in anaerobic bacteria is important in guiding the empiric treatment of infections. However, susceptibility data are very limited on anaerobic organisms, particularly among non-Bacteroides organisms. To determine susceptibility profiles of clinically-significant anaerobic bacteria in Ontario Canada, anaerobic isolates from sterile sites submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for identification and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Using the E-test method, isolates were tested for various antimicrobials including, penicillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole. The MIC results were interpreted based on guidelines published by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 2527 anaerobic isolates submitted to PHOL, 1412 were either from sterile sites or bronchial lavage, and underwent susceptibility testing. Among Bacteroides fragilis, 98.2%, 24.7%, 1.6%, and 1.2% were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and metronidazole, respectively. Clostridium perfringens was universally susceptible to penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem, whereas 14.2% of other Clostridium spp. were resistant to penicillin. Among Gram-positive anaerobes, Actinomyces spp., Parvimonas micra and Propionibacterium spp. were universally susceptible to β-lactams. Eggerthella spp., Collinsella spp., and Eubacterium spp. showed variable resistance to penicillin. Among Gram-negative anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., and Veillonella spp. showed high resistance to penicillin but were universally susceptible to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. The detection of metronidazole resistant B. fragilis is concerning as occurrence of these isolates is extremely rare. These data highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance to provide clinically relevant information to clinicians for empiric management of

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-01-01

    and enrofloxacin amongst MSSP. The review highlights inconsistencies between studies as a result of several factors, for example the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation criteria. We recommend that data on susceptibility in important companion animal pathogens...

  8. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... pattern in fish pathogenic bacteria. The American guideline from The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) recommends Mueller-Hinton Agar for susceptibility testing of human pathogens and this validated medium appears to be adequate for the rapidly growing fish pathogens. Following......The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pullorum strains to different antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Liesbeth; Decostere, Annemie; Devriese, Luc A; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of 13 antimicrobial agents against 23 Helicobacter pullorum strains from poultry (21) and human (two) origin, and one human H. canadensis strain was tested by the agar dilution method. With the H. pullorum strains, monomodal distributions of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were seen with lincomycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, erythromycin, tylosin, metronidazole, and enrofloxacin in concentration ranges considered as indicating susceptibility in other bacteria. The normal susceptibility level for nalidixic acid was situated at or slightly above the MIC breakpoints proposed for Campylobacteriaceae. Ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim showed poor activity against H. pullorum. For the H. canadensis strain, a similar susceptibility pattern was seen, except for nalidixic acid and enrofloxacin, whose MIC of >512 and 8 microg/ml, respectively, indicated resistance of this agent. With spectinomycin, a bimodal distribution of the MICs was noted for the tested strains; eight H. pullorum isolates originating from one flock showed acquired resistance (MIC>512 microg/ml).

  10. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  12. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with renal failure disease and renal transplant recipients (group 1) and in ... standard methods, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by ... costing the global economy in excess of US$ 6 ... standard control strains.

  13. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  14. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads isolated from the dental prostheses biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanrrangers Sales Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aspiration of oral bacteria leads to cardiac and respiratory infectious diseases and dentures can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms. Objective: To determine the occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric rods and pseudomonads from the denture biofilm of 52 subjects at the Center for Dental Specialties of Sobral/ Ceara, Brazil. Material and Methods: Denture biofilm was collected and samples plated on MacConkey agar. The isolated bacterial colonies were identified using the BBL Crystal enteric/non-fermenter system. Antibiotic bacterial susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, doxycycline, tetracycline, tobramycin, imipenem, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of cefotaxime, tobramycin, doxycycline, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin was determined for 40 species by E-test. Results: 34 subjects (65.4% harbored enteric rods in their prostheses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (26.5%, Escherichia coli (23.5%, and Enterobacter aerogenes (23.5% were the most prevalent species. All organisms were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and most species were resistant to amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, demonstrating variable sensitivity patterns to other antimicrobials. However, the MIC showed the emergence of strains with reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (MIC90≥3 μg/ mL and cefotaxime (MIC90≥2 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings show high prevalence of nosocomial diseases-related bacterial species and low susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, these results imply caution against the indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics in dental practice.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; He, Lijiao; Sha, Jintong; Zhu, Haobo; Huang, Liqu; Zhu, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jun; Li, Guogen; Ge, Zheng; Lu, Rugang; Ma, Geng; Shi, Yaqi; Guo, Yunfei

    2018-02-02

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of most common pediatric infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns in children hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of all UTI from 1 January 2013 to 30 November 2016 in children discharged from Nanjing Children's Hospital. The isolated pathogens and their resistance patterns were examined using midstream urine culture. A total of 2,316 children with UTI were included in the study. The occurrence rates of isolated pathogens were as follows: Enterococcus spp., 35.15%; Escherichia coli, 22.32%; Staphylococcus aureus spp., 7.73%; Streptococcus spp., 7.51%; and Klebsiella spp., 6.95%. Uropathogens had a low susceptibility to linezolid (3.47%), vancomycin (0.92%), imipenem (5.74%), and amikacin (3.17%), but they had a high susceptibility to erythromycin (90.52%), penicillin G (74.01%), cefotaxime (71.41%), cefazolin (73.41%), cefuroxime (72.52%), and aztreonam (70.11%). There is high antibiotic resistance in hospitalized children with UTI. Susceptibility testing should be carried out on all clinical isolates, and the empirical antibiotic treatment should be altered accordingly. © 2018 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Brucellosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella Isolates in Hamedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkaman Asadi, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Naseri, Zahra

    2017-05-24

    Current drug regimens for brucellosis are associated with relatively high rates of therapeutic failure or relapse. Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella spp. has been proposed recently as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Brucella melitensis clinical isolates by E-test method in Hamadan, west of Iran. In a 15-month period, all patients with suspected brucellosis were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected for diagnosis of brucellosis by BACTEC system and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates to 7 antibiotics was assessed by the E-test method. One hundred forty-nine patients with brucellosis were evaluated. 38.3% of cultures of clinical samples were positive for BACTEC system, of which 91.2% were associated with a positive serological test result. No significant associations were found between serology and the culture method. All Brucella isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. However, decreased sensitivity to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in 35.1% and 3.5% of isolates, respectively. Because of the high rates of intermediate sensitivity to rifampin among Brucella isolates, this drug should be prescribed with caution. We recommend restricting the use of rifampin for treatment of brucellosis except as an alternative drug for special situations.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis.

  19. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the

  20. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  1. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  2. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  4. A 9-year study of shigellosis in Northeast Malaysia: Antimicrobial susceptibility and shifting species dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga Singh, Kirnpal-Kaur; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Deris, Zakuan Zainy; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul

    2011-06-01

    AIMS: In Malaysia, Shigella spp. is the third most common bacterial agent responsible for childhood diarrhoea. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2009. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was used. Stool samples from patients were cultured using a standard culture method. Shigella spp. isolates were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. RESULTS: A total of 138 Shigella spp. were isolated from a total of 14,830 routine stool specimens, yielding an isolation rate of 0.93% that corresponded to 9.99% of the 1,381 bacterial pathogens isolated. Of these isolates, S. sonnei was the predominant species, followed by S. flexneri and S. boydii. Seasonal variation was noticed, and no significant differences were detected in the demographic data for S. flexneri and S. sonnei. The susceptibility of all isolated Shigella strains was tested against seven antibiotics. Ceftriaxone (99.1%), ciprofloxacin (98.4%), and nalidixic acid (93.8%) were effective against the Shigella strains, whereas tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole exhibited high frequencies of resistance (58.4% and 53.8%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study is important for public health education aimed at reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with Shigella spp. infection. Our results also will be helpful for paediatricians and microbiologists in the selection of appropriate antibiotics for the management of diarrhoea.

  5. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  7. Epidemiology and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of the main Nocardia species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤  0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Eschericia coli isolates from Arieş river (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BODOCZI FLOREA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR and multiple antimicrobial resistances (MAR among the faecal bacteria found in the Arieş river (Romania affected by strong anthropogenic pressures. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for 12 antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ceftazidin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ticarcycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and norfloxacin. The data of the antimicrobial susceptibility reviled that all the studied E. coli strains were resistant to most of the tested antibiotics. The analysis of antibiotic resistance frequencies has showed an incidence of 46.66% strains resistant to more than 4 different antibiotics. Moreover, a high incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances was detected in each of the studied samples.

  9. antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-09-01

    Sep 1, 2000 ... antimicrobial agents by use of disc diffusion technique(23). Bacterial strains were ... a roller drum at 37°C. About 1.5 ml of each overnight broth culture was ... antimicrobial agents compared to 36% of milk isolates (p. = 0.0394). A higher .... Hall, B., Greene, R., Potter, M. E. Cohen, M. L. and Brake, B. A..

  10. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  11. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... the published breakpoint (difficile PCR ribotype 027 isolates had smaller zone...... diameters than non-027 isolates. The disc diffusion method is very simple and inexpensive, and the published zone diameter breakpoints will detect C. difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin....

  12. Retrospective evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing pattern in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing pattern in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. ... Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... prescription in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria over a period of seven years. Materials ...

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection in ... out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to ...

  14. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Objective: The knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of common etiological ... of childhood urinary tract infections (UTI) in this environment are resistant to most ... causing urinary tract infection in children with sickle.

  15. [Etiology of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Carlos; Costa, Elísio; Peres, António; Alves, Madalena; Pombo, Graça; Estevinho, Letícia

    2007-01-01

    With the objective of knowing the common etiological agents in urinary infection and comparing its antimicrobial susceptibility in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we analyse all the urine bacteriological exams from the Serviço de Patologia Clínica do Centro Hospitalar do Nordeste, EPE - Unidade Hospitalar de Bragança, during a two years period (April 2004 to March 2006). During this period, 4018 urine bacteriological exams were made. The cultural exam was positive in 572 samples (144 from nosocomial infections and 428 from community-acquired urinary infections). The Escherichia coli was the more isolated strain (68,4 %), followed by Klebsiella spp (7,9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6,1%) and Proteus mirabilis (5,2%). Concerning to antimicrobial susceptibility, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp showed a high resistance to the antimicrobials Amoxicillin, Piperacillin, Cephalothin, Ceftazidim and Quinolones. For Enterobacteriaceae Imipenem, Amikacin and Netilmicin were the antimicrobials with more level of susceptibility. Imipenem and Amikacin were the more efficient antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Concerning to the susceptibility for the same etiological agent, in nosocomial and community-acquired urinary infections, we founded statistical significant differences in the antimicrobials Ticarcillin-clavulanic acid and Collistin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in the group of antimicrobials from Quinolones for the Proteus mirabilis. In the other identified agents there were no statistical significant differences for antimicrobials. This study it allows making use of data necessary for the knowledge of etiologic urinary infection agents in Bragança and provides the information about the antimicrobials resistance, which were necessary to initiate an adequate empirical treatment and to elaborate treatment guides.

  16. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  17. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  18. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains.

  19. Comparison of identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identified isolates were compared with presumptive identities obtained by growth on MSA, tube coagulation and slide agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer technique while MRSA was screened for by growth on chromIDTM MRSA plate and confirmed ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  1. Pediatric - specific Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Urinary Tract Infections: A Single - Centre Experience from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kandur, Yasar; Ozden, Sevinc; Buyukkaragoz, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance of the causative microorganisms of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem. The aim of this study is to determine the changing pattern of antibiotic susceptibility in UTIs in an outpatient setting. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients with UTI who were followed-up in our center between January-2014 and May-2015. Results: One hundred and seventy-one patients (M...

  2. A review of the current state of antimicrobial susceptibility test methods for Brachyspira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathunga, D G R S; Rubin, J E

    2017-06-01

    The re-emergence of swine dysentery (Brachyspira-associated muco-haemorrhagic colitis) since the late 2000s has illuminated diagnostic challenges associated with this genus. The methods used to detect, identify, and characterize Brachyspira from clinical samples have not been standardized, and laboratories frequently rely heavily on in-house techniques. Particularly concerning is the lack of standardized methods for determining and interpreting the antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. The integration of laboratory data into a treatment plan is a critical component of prudent antimicrobial usage. Therefore, the lack of standardized methods is an important limitation to the evidence-based use of antimicrobials. This review will focus on describing the methodological limitations and inconsistencies between current susceptibility testing schemes employed for Brachyspira, provide an overview of what we do know about the susceptibility of these organisms, and suggest future directions to improve and standardize diagnostic strategies.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in Clostridium difficile strains isolated from animals and humans in Brazil. The 54 C. difficile strains used were isolated from stool samples from piglets (n=16, dogs (n=13, humans (n=13, foals (n=8 calves (n=2, an ocelot (n=1 and a maned wolf (n=1. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the serial plate agar dilution method for penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, metronidazole and tylosin. The C. difficile strains assessed were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Florfenicol resistance was rarely observed; 52 (96.4% strains were sensitive to this antimicrobial. Five (9.3%, five (9.3%, 14 (25.9% and 20 (37.0% strains were resistant to oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin and erythromycin respectively.

  4. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  5. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different...... of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible...

  6. Antimicrobial Sysceptibility Pattern of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC in Paediatric Diarrhoeal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimu Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC mediated infantile diarrhoea among children is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of EPEC strains isolated from children under 5 years of age was studied. Stool samples from 272 patients with diarrhoea were collected from two tertiary care hospitals. Out of 272 stool samples, 20 (7.35% isolates were identified as EPEC on the basis of presence of bfpA gene detected by polymerase chain reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on these EPEC strains by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that the EPEC isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin (100%, nalidixic acid (95% and tetracycline (95% and were sensitive to ceftazidime (95%, cefotaxime (90%, ceftriaxone (95%, imipenem (100% and levofloxacin (85%. Isolation of EPEC is of great importance since they are responsible for acute diarrhoeal diseases in large number of children under the age of five years. The high antimicrobial resistance observed in our study indicates indiscriminate or improper use of antimicrobials, besides the risks of self-medication. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2014; 8(1: 12-16

  7. Prevalence and Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Panton-Valentine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing by two standard multiplex PCR assay, revealed an uncharacterized resistance element. Overall antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed relatively high degree of susceptibility,however 1 isolate demostrated multidrug resistant pattern, 37(74.0%)resistant to only penicillin, 5 to ...

  8. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 38 Enterobacter spp. (including 14 Enterobacter agglomerans, 6 Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18 Enterobacter spp., 123 Enterococcus faecium, 78 Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software using F- and t-tests. Results: Among S. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35% and cefixime (74.50%. Thirty-three (53.22% S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The majority of Enterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00% and cephalotin (66.60%. Most Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43% and amikacin (83.33%, but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, among Klebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98% and cotrimoxazole (28.39%. Furthermore, all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00% and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00% and cefixime (88.71%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  9. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to combinations of antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Afeltra, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Combinations of antimicrobial agents were tested against 35 strains of zygomycetes. The interaction between amphotericin B and rifampin was synergistic or additive. Flucytosine alone was inactive and, upon combination with amphotericin B, synergy was not achieved. The combination of amphotericin B

  12. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    2Department of Biology, Science College, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, ... chronic otitis media like meningitis and brain abscess (8). ... because of difference in geography, local antimicrobial .... Table 1: Age and sex distribution of bacterial isolates of otitis media at Dessie Regional Health Research Laboratory ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Short Communication Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase, Recurrent furunculosis, Staphylococcus ... processes ranging from localised abscess which can ... In this study, isolates of S.aureus from cases ... buffered penicillin G. The bacterial suspension.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteus mirabilis: a longitudinal nationwide study from the Taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Pei-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2014-09-05

    Longitudinal nationwide data on antimicrobial susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis from different sources are rare. The effects of the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) β-lactam breakpoints on susceptibility rates and on detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase-producers in this species are also seldom evaluated. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address these issues. Isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from 25 to 28 hospitals in Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. All isolates with aztreonam, ceftazidime, or cefotaxime MIC ≥ 2 mg/L were checked for the presence of ESBL by CLSI confirmatory test and subjected to ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases gene detection by PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 1157 P. mirabilis were studied. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin decreased significantly during the past decade, from 92.6% to 81.7%, 100% to 95.2%, and 80.1% to 53.8%, respectively (P mirabilis from Taiwan in the past decade. The prevalence of ESBL remained stable but AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis increased significantly. Cefotaxime was a better surrogate than ceftazidime for predicting the presence of these β-lactamases. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance mechanisms in P. mirabilis is warranted.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of listeria monocytogenes from food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knöchel, Susanne; Hasman, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    for susceptibility to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin, trimethoprim, and co-trimoxazole, and the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and triclosan, by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All...

  17. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  19. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy herds in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schmidt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is 1 of the most important causes of bovine mastitis and is responsible for significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. One of the principal approaches used in treating intramammary infections is the administration of antimicrobials. Due to the propensity of S. aureus to develop resistance, antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring is necessary to ensure that treatment regimens are effective. As part of this investigation, 90 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis cases submitted to Allerton Provincial Veterinary Laboratory during 2008 and 2009 were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of 10 antimicrobials. Only 8 of the 90 S. aureus isolates tested (8.9 % were found to be susceptible to all of the antimicrobials evaluated. A very high level of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics was noted: 47.8 % of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and 65.6 % were resistant to ampicillin. Minimal resistance to oxacillin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1.1 % was found. Seventeen (18.9 % of the isolates tested were found to be resistant to 3 or more antimicrobials. The need for vigilant monitoring of bacterial resistance trends in the dairy industry is warranted as the potential public health implications are significant.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from clinical cases of canine pyoderma in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Blunt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of canine pyoderma has become compromised owing to the development of antimicrobial resistance with accompanying recurrence of infection. Canine skin samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for microbiological culture and sensitivity between January 2007 and June 2010, from which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, were selected for this investigation. Antimicrobial resistance of S. intermedius was most prevalent with reference to ampicillin followed by resistance to tetracycline and then potentiated sulphonamides. In general, antimicrobial resistance was low and very few methicillin-resistant isolates were detected. Temporal trends were not noted, except for ampicillin, with isolates becoming more susceptible, and potentiated sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole, with isolates becoming more resistant. In general, both the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion and broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration tests yielded similar results for the antimicrobial agents tested. The main difference was evident in the over-estimation of resistance by the Kirby–Bauer test for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, penicillin and doxycycline. Knowledge of trends in bacterial resistance is important for veterinarians when presented with canine pyoderma. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. intermedius isolated from canine pyodermas will guide veterinarians’ use of the most appropriate agent and encourage prudent use of antimicrobials in companion animals.

  1. Interpretive criteria of antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests with flomoxef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, H

    1991-01-01

    320 recently isolated pathogens, 20 strains from each of 16 species, were investigated using Mueller-Hinton agar and DIN as well as NCCLS standards. The geometric mean of the agar dilution MICs of flomoxef were 0.44 mg/l for Staphylococcus aureus, 0.05 mg/l (Klebsiella oxytoca) to 12.6 mg/l (Enterobacter spp.) for enterobacteriaceae, 33.1 mg/l for Acinetobacter anitratus, 64 mg/l for Enterococcus faecalis, and more than 256 mg/l for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For disk susceptibility testing of flomoxef a 30 micrograms disk loading and the following interpretation of inhibition zones using the DIN method were recommended: resistant-up to 22 mm (corresponding to MICs of 8 mg/l or more), moderately susceptible-23 to 29 mm (corresponding to MICs from 1 to 4 mg/l), and susceptible-30 mm or more (corresponding to MICs of 0.5 mg/l or less). The respective values for the NCCLS method using the American high MIC breakpoints are: resistant--up to 14 mm (corresponding to MICs of 32 mg/l or more), moderately susceptible--15 to 17 mm (corresponding to MICs of 16 mg/l), and susceptible--18 mm or more (corresponding to MICs of 8 mg/l or less).

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates) were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T), showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial agents for B. hyodysenteriae

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Märit; Landén, Annica; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Molander, Benedicta; Bengtsson, Björn

    2012-09-21

    The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates) were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T), showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial agents for B. hyodysenteriae tested by broth dilution based on MIC

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  5. 21 CFR 866.1700 - Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tests. 866.1700 Section 866.1700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1700 Culture medium for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. (a) Identification. A culture medium for...

  6. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  8. [Spanish scientific production in antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures during period 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Gutiérrez, F; Royo, G

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production of Spanish authors on antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests during the period 1990-2002. Articles from Spanish scientific institutions of microbiology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology published and recorded in the MEDLINE database (WEBSPIRS version 4.2) during the period 1990-2002 were selected. Only articles about antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures were reviewed. A total of 5,259 documents were analyzed, of which 1,041 (19.8%) were about antimicrobal agents. The annual number of documents increased by two-fold (from 48 in 1990 to 101 in 2002). The journal that published most documents was Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, with 183 (17.1%). The main field of interest of the documents was antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests (765; 73.5%) and in vitro resistance analyses (265; 25.5%). The highest number of contributions came from hospitals (571; 54.9%), followed by universities (351; 33.7%). The institutions with most documents published were the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (8.6%), and Seville University Faculty of Medicine (6%). The most productive autonomous communities were Madrid (43.4%), Catalonia (16.4%) and Andalusia (4.7%). A total of 787 documents (75.6%) were published in journals with impact factors and the mean expected impact factor was 2.390 +/- 1.546. It was concluded that the scientific production of Spanish researchers in antimicrobial agents had increased during the period 1990-2002, and that hospitals were the most productive institutions in this area of microbiology, with the main areas of interest being antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus parasuis and Histophilus somni from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Angen, Øystein

    2004-01-01

    A total of 52 Haemophilus parasuis and 80 Histophilus somni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC-determinations. None of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florphenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin......, or tilmicosin. Two H. parasuis isolates were resistant to trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole. Six H. parasuis isolates had reduced susceptibility (0.06-0.5 mug/ml) to ciprofloxacin and 10 reduced susceptibility to TMP + sulfamethoxazole (1-2 mug/ml). This study showed that Danish isolates of H. parasuis and H...

  10. Bacterial resistance and susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citterio, Linda

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a global challenge and there is urgent need for new and alternative compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are under investigation as novel antibiotics. These are part of the immune defense of all living organisms; hence, they represen...... be a threat to our immunity may be overestimated. In conclusion, this PhD project supports the belief that bacteria hold the potential to develop resistance to each novel antibacterial agent. Nevertheless, strategies to circumvent resistance exist and must be pursued....

  11. Carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and linezolid and resistant in high numbers (194, 81.9%) to ampicillin. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were below 20%. The overall prevalence of MRSA among ...

  12. Solobacterium moorei bacteremia: identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and clinical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha Pedersen, Rune; Holt, Hanne Marie; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    We present five cases of Solobacterium moorei bacteremia. The isolates were identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were susceptible to common antibiotics used for anaerobic infections. Bacteremia with S. moorei seems to be associated with debilitating conditions, but the prognosis of the in...

  13. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in dogs with otitis externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Boesel Scherer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Infections by Staphyloccocus pseudintermedius in the skin of dogs have been object of studies, since such microorganisms often present multiple resistance to antibiotics. This study aimed to identify and evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP strains isolated from dogs with otitis. Swabs from both ears of 52 dogs with otitis (n=104 were included. Bacteria were cultured using Muller-Hinton agar (supplemented with 5% equine blood and incubated at 37°C for 24 to 48 hours. All colonies underwent biochemical evaluation for identification of staphylococci. The identity of colonies as SP was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial susceptibility of SP strains was evaluated by disk diffusion. The presence of the gene mecA was evaluated in all SP isolates by PCR. Forty-four SP strains were isolated from swabs of 31 dogs (31/52, 59.6%. Seventy-five percent of the strains were susceptible to cephalexin and 93.2% to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. Less than 23% of the strains were susceptible to penicillin. For non-beta-lactam antimicrobials, 63.6% of the strains showed resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, 61.4% to tetracycline, and 38, 64% to enrofloxacin. Aminoglycoside resistance rate was 27.3% for gentamicin. Resistance to oxacillin in vitro was detected in 13 of the 44 strains (29, 55%. A total of 12 strains (27.3% were positive for mecA gene and five of these 12 strains were susceptible to in vitro oxacillin. Twenty-six (59, 1% strains were resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials, and classified as multi resistant. Our results showed high frequency of SP and multi resistant isolates to antimicrobials commonly used in veterinary.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

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    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  15. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

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    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  16. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

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    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  17. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  18. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  19. Ocular surface infections in northeastern state of malaysia: a 10-year review of bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zaidah A; Harun, Azian; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Noor, Siti S Md; Deris, Zakuan Z; Ismail, Nabilah; Hassan, Asma S; Ahmad, Fadzhilah; Yaakub, Azhany

    2013-09-01

    Ocular surface infections that include infections of conjunctiva, adnexa, and cornea have the potential risk of causing blindness within a given population. Empirical antibiotic therapy is usually initiated based on epidemiological data of common causative agents. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns of isolates from ocular surface specimens in our hospital. This is a retrospective analysis and records of bacterial isolates from ocular surface specimens in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2001 to December 2010 were examined. Specimens were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Only single, nonrepetitive isolates were included in the analysis. A total of 1,267 isolates were obtained during the study period, which comprised Staphylococcus aureus (n = 299, 23.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 194, 15.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 108, 8.5%), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 100, 7.9%), Haemophilus parainfluenzae (n = 84, 6.6%), and Enterobacter spp. (n = 81, 6.4%). Fungi contributed to 4.4% of the total isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that gram-positive bacteria were generally resistant to gentamicin (19%-57%), whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to chloramphenicol (27%-58%). Based on the above results, knowledge of the initial Gram stain findings is imperative before the commencement of empirical antibiotic therapy. Therefore, a simple Gram staining for all eye specimens is highly recommended.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Antin1icrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru 9 Ryan C. Maves,1...48 human Brucella melitensis biotype 1 strains from Peru between 2000 and 2006. MICs of isolates to doxycycline, azithromycin, gentamicin, rifampin...of testing. Relapses did nut appear to be related tu drug resistance. Infection by Brucella species is a major cause of zoonotic disease

  1. Speciation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Kaplan, R L; Landau, W; Trenholme, G M

    1982-08-01

    During a six month period, 191 isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci from blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and heart valves were identified to species level and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one percent of isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis, 8% Staphylococcus warneri, 7% Staphylococcus hominis, 7% Staphylococcus haemolyticus, 4% Staphylococcus capitis, 2% Staphylococcus saprophyticus and 1% Staphylococcus cohnii. Approximately 4% of isolates were felt to be associated with infection. Overall, 18% of isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, 61% oxacillin, 98% cephalothin, 98% cefamandole, 72% cefotaxime, 95% cefsulodin, 76% gentamicin, 64% clindamycin and 98% rifampicin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Vancomycin, rifampicin, cephalothin and cefamandole showed excellent activity against oxacillin-resistant isolates. With one exception, speciation was not helpful in determining whether or not an isolate was associated with infection.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the

  4. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  5. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of Globicatella sulfidifaciens isolated from sow's urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Amigo, Cristina R; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2017-12-01

    The Globicatella genus comprises Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, α-hemolytic and catalase negative cocci morphologically and phenotypically very similar to Streptococcus and Aerococcus genus which can lead to misidentification and underestimation of this pathogen. Globicatella species have already been isolated from human and animals with heart and brain disorders. Their clinical relevance in animals, and its zoonotic potential, remains unknown due to the difficulty in their identification. To present the isolation, phenotypic and molecular characterization of G. sulfidifaciens from urinary tract infection in sows. Urine samples from 140 sows of two swine herds located in São Paulo State (Brazil) yielded the isolation of three presumptive G. sulfidifaciens strains. Identification and species confirmation were done by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing. Strains were further characterized by single enzyme amplified fragments length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and broth microdilution techniques. All three isolates were confirmed as G. sulfidifaciens. The SE-AFLP genotyping resulted in distinct fingerprint patterns for each strain. All isolates presented high MIC values to tetracycline, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and tylosin tartrate, which present high usage in human and animal medicine. Globicatella sulfidifaciens could be related to sporadic urinary tract infections in swine and appear to present alarming antimicrobial susceptibility profile. It is necessary to differentiate Streptococcus-like microorganisms in routine laboratory diagnostics for the correct identification of underestimated species potentially pathogenic to animals.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from feces of wild cranes migrating to Kagoshima, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Noriyuki; Obi, Takeshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Murase, Toshiyuki; Takase, Kozo

    2012-03-01

    Susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents was examined for 138 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from 192 fecal samples of wild cranes that migrated for wintering to the Izumi plain, Kagoshima prefecture in Japan. The numbers of isolates that were resistant to the antimicrobials used in this study are as follows: oxytetracycline (OTC), 22 isolates; minocycline, 7 isolates; ampicillin (ABPC), 4 isolates; nalidixic acid, 4 isolates; enrofloxacin, 2 isolates; kanamycin, one isolate. Multidrug resistant isolates exhibiting 2-4 drug resistances were obtained. All of the OTC-resistant isolates carried either the tet (A) or tet(B) gene. The bla(TEM) gene was found in all of the ABPC-resistant isolates.

  7. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......-to-result, enabling same-day targeted antimicrobial therapy, facilitating antibiotic stewardship and better patient management. A full-scale validation of the oCelloScope system including more isolates is necessary to assess the impact of using it for AST....

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    and gentamicin. All nine ampicillin-resistant isolates contained a sequence similar to the bla(TEM-1b) gene, one of the eight chloramphenicol-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the catA1 gene, all three neomycin-resistant isolates a sequence similar to the aphA-2 gene, 16 (73%) of the 22 streptomycin...... isolates were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, and resistant isolates were examined for the presence of selected resistance genes by PCR. Results: Only 48 (9.5%) of the isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobial agents tested. A low frequency of resistance was found...

  9. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  10. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis an...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  12. Relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical mastitis pathogens and treatment outcome in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Fernanda G H; Ruegg, Pamela L

    2005-11-01

    To determine whether there was any association between results of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of pathogens isolated from cows with mild or moderate clinical mastitis and outcome of treatment. Observational study. 133 cows with mild or moderate mastitis in a single quarter. Cows were treated by means of intramammary infusion of pirlimycin (50 mg) in the affected quarter once daily for 2 days; additional intramammary treatments with the same product were administered if the milk continued to appear abnormal. Duration of treatment and days until clinical cure were recorded. Bacterial isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by means of a broth micro-dilution technique. Environmental streptococci, coliforms, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Duration of treatment and days until clinical cure were not significantly different for cows from which pathogens that were susceptible or resistant to pirlimycin were isolated. Bacteriologic cure rates 14 and 21 days after treatment were not significantly different for cows with mastitis caused by susceptible or resistant bacteria. Similar results were found when data only from cows with mastitis caused by gram-positive isolates were analyzed. In the present study, differences in clinical outcome for cows with mild or moderate mastitis that could be attributed to differences in results of in vitro susceptibility testing were not identified. The use of in vitro susceptibility testing to guide intramammary mastitis treatment cannot be recommended on the basis of results of this study.

  13. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Israel from local and imported cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2009-06-12

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic bovine mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma bovis clinical strains, isolated during 2005-2007 from Israeli and imported calves. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for macrolides by the microbroth dilution test, for aminoglycosides by commercial Etest, and for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines by both methods. Notably, although correlation between the methods was generally good, it was not possible to determine the MIC endpoint for enrofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC > or =2.5 microg/ml in the microtest) by Etest. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility profiles between local and imported M. bovis strains revealed that local strains were significantly more resistant to macrolides than most isolates from imported animals, with MIC(50) of 128 microg/ml vs. 2 microg/ml for tilmicosin and 8 microg/ml vs. 1 microg/ml for tylosin, respectively. However, local strains were more susceptible than most imported strains to fluoroquinolones and spectinomycin. Difference in susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline and oxytetracycline between local and imported strains was expressed in MIC(90) values for imported strains in the susceptible range compared to intermediate susceptibility for local strains. The marked difference in susceptibility profiles of M. bovis strains isolated from different geographical regions seen in this study emphasizes the necessity for performing of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing periodically and on a regional basis.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brazilian Clostridium difficile strains determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Geraldo Fraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients worldwide. While metronidazole and vancomycin are the most prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, teicoplanin, tigecycline and nitazoxanide are alternatives drugs. Knowledge on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles is a basic step to differentiate recurrence from treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance. Because C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility is largely unknown in Brazil, we aimed to determine the profile of C. difficile strains cultivated from stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea and a positive toxin A/B test using both agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. All 50 strains tested were sensitive to metronidazole according to CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints with an MIC90 value of 2 μg/mL. Nitazoxanide and tigecycline were highly active in vitro against these strains with an MIC90 value of 0.125 μg/mL for both antimicrobials. The MIC90 were 4 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL for vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively. A resistance rate of 8% was observed for moxifloxacin. Disk diffusion can be used as an alternative to screen for moxifloxacin resistance, nitazoxanide, tigecycline and metronidazole susceptibility, but it cannot be used for testing glycopeptides. Our results suggest that C. difficile strains from São Paulo city, Brazil, are susceptible to metronidazole and have low MIC90 values for most of the current therapeutic options available in Brazil.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Zhou, Xuezhang; He, Yulong; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Szenci, Otto; Han, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureusis the leading pathogen involved inbovine mastitis, but knowledgeabout antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus resulting in bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China, is limited. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of Staph. aureus were carried out. A total of 327 milk samples from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in 4 regions of Ningxia were used for the isolation and identification of pathogens according to phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility against 22 antimicrobial agents was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of 8 virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates was tested by PCR. Genotypes of isolates were investigated based on RAPD. Results showed that 35 isolates obtained from mastitis milk samples were identified as Staph. aureus. The isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100%), penicillin G (94.3%), ampicillin (94.3%), erythromycin (68.6%), azithromycin (68.6%), clindamycin (25.7%), amoxicillin (11.4%), and tetracycline (5.7%). All of the isolates contained one or more virulence genes with average (standard deviation) of 6.6±1.6. The most prevalent virulence genes were hlb (97.1%), followed by fnbpA, hla, coa (94.3% each), nuc (85.7%), fnbpB (80%), clfA (77.1%), and tsst-1 (40%). Nine different gene patterns were found and 3 of them were the dominant gene combinations (77.1%). Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n=35) were divided into 6 genotypes by RAPD tying, the genotypes III and VI were the most prevalent genotypes. There was greatvariation in genotypes of Staph. aureus isolates, not only among different farms, but also within the same herd in Ningxia province. The study showed a high incidence of Staph. aureus with genomic variation of resistance genes, which is matter of great concern in public and animal health in Ningxia province of China. Copyright © 2016 American

  16. A study of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofatteh, M R; Shahabian Moghaddam, F; Yousefi, M; Namaei, M H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of bacterial agents in chronic suppurative otitis media and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates among patients. A total of 185 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media were interviewed and middle-ear effusion samples were collected using sterile swabs. All bacterial isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Staphylococci spp. (64.9 per cent) were the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Klebsiella spp. (12.9 per cent) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3 per cent). The most effective antibiotic for treatment of bacterial chronic suppurative otitis media was ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in bacterial infestations among chronic suppurative otitis media patients and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates based on gender and age (p > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of a continuous and periodic evaluation of the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media patients for efficacious treatment of the infection.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

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    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and glycopeptide-resistance of enterococci in vegetables

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    Ida Torre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, often responsible for nosocomial infections, have frequently been isolated from animal and vegetable foods. In our study we evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci isolated from eight types of vegetables randomly selected from grocery stores in Naples.

    Methods: From July to November 2008, we analyzed 150 samples: the bacteria were isolated with standardized methods and antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method. The resistance to vancomycin versus other antibiotics was assessed by the Kappa test.

    Results: 70% of the samples, mainly parsley (96.2%, showed enterococci. Of these, 59.1% belonged to the species Enterococcus faecium. Strains resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin were isolated respectively in 47.6% and 49.5% of the samples: the first one mainly in curly endive (72.7% and the second one in parsley (76.9%. Almost all the isolated strains showed resistance to methicillin (89%, kanamycin (82% and cephalothin (68%. The Kappa test showed statistically significant associations between resistance to vancomycin and resistance to teicoplanin, erythromycin, methicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

    Conclusions: Because of the possible involvement of food in the transmission of resistant micro-organisms to human intestinal microbiota, our data may provide the basis for future studies.

  19. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Orofacial Infections

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    Sinan TOZOĞLU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine an effective antimicrobial therapy ofcausative agents for orofacial abscesses. In order to do that, bacterial strains isolated from patientsamples were identified based on “bacterial fatty acid profiles” and determined the antimicrobialsusceptibilities by using disc diffusion test for aerobic bacteria, and E test for anaerobic bacteria.Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 71 patients with a diagnosis oforofacial infections in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Atatürk University. Aerobic andanaerobic bacteria were isolated from 71 clinical specimens by Microbial Identification Systemand their antibiotic sensitivity was tested. Results: The most frequently isolated species were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.and Bacteroides spp. The highest rate of resistance was detected in the aerobic strains againstpenicillin (58.4%, followed by eriythromycin (46.7%, clindamycin (35.1%, tetracycline(32.5%, amoxycillin/clavulonic acid (31.1% and cefazoline (27.3%, respectively. The highestrate of resistance was detected in the anaerobic strains against to penicillin (60%, clindamycin(53.3%, metronidazole (30%, cefoxitin (20% piperacillin/tazobactam (11.6% and imipenem(0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In order to treat orofacial infections more effectively, and to prevent antimicrobialresistance which has increased recently, antibiotic susceptility tests should be performedroutinely in regions where antibacterial resistance is high like our area.

  1. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

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    G. Ström

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25 and medium-scale (n = 27 pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. Methods Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Faecal samples were collected from three healthy sows at each farm, and Escherichia coli was cultured and analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Multilevel regression models were used to compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from small- and medium-scale farms. Results All farms included in the study administered antimicrobials to their sows. Small-scale farmers most commonly (64% decided themselves when to give antimicrobials and the majority (60% bought the medicines at the local store or pharmacy, whereas farmers on medium-scale farms always discussed antimicrobial treatment with a veterinarian. Medium-scale farms used a greater diversity of antimicrobials than small-scale farms and did also administer antimicrobials in feed to a higher extent. High levels of antimicrobial resistance to several critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (including ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and ampicillin were found in isolates from both small- and medium-scale farms. Resistance levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in isolates from medium-scale farms for several of the antimicrobials tested, as well as the level of multidrug-resistance (P = 0.026. Conclusion The routines regarding access and administration of antimicrobials differed between the small- and

  2. Susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates in various clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative isolates from various clinical specimens. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to January 2009. Methodology: A total of 308 ESBL producing isolates from various clinical specimens sent to AFIP for culture and sensitivity were identified using standard microbiological techniques and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. At the same time screening for ESBL production was also done. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc synergy method. The susceptibility pattern of isolates was then recorded in frequency percentages. Results: Out of the 308 ESBL producing isolates more than 99% were susceptible to carbapenems, 84% to tazobactam/ piperacillin, 81% to sulbactam/cefoperazone, 12% to fluoroquinolones, 13% to cotrimoxazole, 59% to amikacin and 18% to gentamicin. Among the urinary isolates 49% were susceptible to Nitrofurontoin and only 5% to Pipemidic acid. Conclusion: Antibiotic choices in case of ESBL producing isolates are limited and at present only carbapenems can be regarded as treatment of choice. As empirical agents, beta-lactam/beta lactamase inhibitor combinations should be used cautiously for serious infections. Fluoroquinolones showed very poor efficacy. Amikacin can be used alternatively in such cases. Nitrofurantoin is still a good oral agent for treating UTI. (author)

  3. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain...... Kingston (n = 13; 5.7 %). The most widely distributed serovars among the farms were Salmonella Give (six farms) and Salmonella Elisaberthville (six farms). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline ranged from 11.6 % (n = 26) to 22.8 % (n = 51). Resistance....... Other PMQR genes were not detected. Pigs constitute an important source of diverse Salmonella serovars in Ibadan. The isolates were more resistant to old antimicrobials with some multiple resistant. Control measures and regulation of antimicrobials are warranted....

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and wild animals

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    Isabela de Godoy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of veterinary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. One hundred Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates from domestic and wild animals were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to species determination. Antimicrobial susceptibility was obtained by a disk diffusion test against six antibiotics: amoxicillin (AMX, cephalexin (LEX, ciprofloxacin (CIP, erythromycin (ERY, gentamicin (GEN and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT. The most common specie was S. pseudintermedius (61%, 61/100 and resistance to ERY (57%, 57/100, SXT (50%, 50/100 and AMX (46%, 46/100 was detected most frequently. In total, 40% (40/100 of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR phenotype. Results of this study emphasize that animals are reservoir of MDR Staphylococcus spp.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes of Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae recovered from Missouri swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, W H; Morehouse, L G; Mittal, K R; Bean-Knudsen, C; Nelson, S L; Kintner, L D; Turk, J R; Turk, M A; Brown, T P; Shaw, D P

    1989-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 Actinobacillus (Haemophilus) pleuropneumoniae isolates from swine in Missouri was determined with a microdilution minimal inhibitory concentration test system. Serotyping was accomplished by means of co-agglutination. Serotype 1 (39/73) and serotype 5 (30/73) were commonly found, whereas serotype 7 (4/73) was infrequently encountered. Most isolates (MIC90) were found susceptible to ampicillin (amoxicillin), cephalothin, penicillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and kanamycin. Marked resistance was found with oxytetracycline, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine. The data indicate that use of ampicillin (amoxicillin) or penicillin may correlate well with the favorable outcome of treatment.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Vargas, Rafael H; Atanassova, Viktoria; Reich, Felix; Klein, Günter

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E. coli isolates were obtained from cuts of red deer, roe deer and wild boar. The susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was evaluated by a broth microdilution method according to ISO 20776-1:2006. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were compared to breakpoints and cut-off values published by the EUCAST. Isolates showing MICs above the reference values were further studied for associated resistance determinants and phylogrouping by PCR. Overall, 16 E. coli isolates (7.0%) showed resistance (microbiological or clinical) to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. Clinical resistance was recorded to ampicillin (5/229) and chloramphenicol (4/229), whereas the MIC of 9 isolates exceeded the epidemiological cut-off value for doxycycline. One of the ampicillin-resistant isolates showed resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic derivatives tested, cephalosporines and aztreonam. Three of 9 non-wild-type isolates for doxycycline were positive for tet (B) genes. The ß-lactam-resistant isolate was found to harbour bla CTX-M-1 gene. These data show a low prevalence of resistant E. coli in packed game meat compared to studies on conventional meat. Although isolates obtained in this study may also be originating from the processing environment and not necessarily from animals, based on our results, it is important to monitor the development of antimicrobial resistance in game animals and products in order to identify future threats for the

  7. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Ito, Shin; Narita, Harunori; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Sumii, Toru; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Kawai, Shuichi; Kawano, Hiromi; Takayama, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Endo, Katsuhisa; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Horie, Masanobu; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sato, Takashi; Konishi, Takatoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Ishihara, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2013-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of inhibition zone diameters of bovine mastitis pathogens in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supré, K; Lommelen, K; De Meulemeester, L

    2014-07-16

    In dairy farms, antimicrobial drugs are frequently used for treatment of (sub)clinical mastitis. Determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens is needed to come to a correct use of antimicrobials. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus (n=768), Streptococcus uberis (n=939), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n=444), Escherichia coli (n=563), and Klebsiella species (n=59) originating from routine milk samples from (sub)clinical mastitis were subjected to the disk diffusion method. Disks contained representatives of frequently used antibiotics in dairy. A limited number of clinical breakpoints were available through CLSI, and showed that susceptibility of Staph. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella was moderate to high. For streptococcal species however, a large variation between the tested species and the different antimicrobials was observed. In a next step, wild type populations were described based on epidemiological cut off values (EUCAST). Because of the limited number of official cut off values, the data were observed as a mastitis subpopulation and self-generated cut off values were created and a putative wild type population was suggested. The need for accurate clinical breakpoints for veterinary pathogens is high. Despite the lack of these breakpoints, however, a population study can be performed based on the distribution of inhibition zone diameters on the condition that a large number of strains is tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Semi Quantitative MALDI TOF for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Semi- quantitative MALDI-TOF for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Staphylococcus 1 aureus 2 3 4 Tucker Maxson,a Cheryl L. Taylor-Howell,a...Timothy D. Minoguea# 5 6 Diagnostic Systems Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious 7 Disease, Fort Detrick, MD...USAa 8 9 Running Title: Quantitative MALDI for AST in S. aureus 10 #Address correspondence to Timothy D. Minogue, timothy.d.minogue.civ@mail.mil

  10. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

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    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

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    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  13. Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta

    2012-12-01

    Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.

  14. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  15. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    Full Text Available Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation, respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  16. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates...

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  18. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis strains recently isolated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2015-02-01

    Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group β-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (Pmirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL

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    Larissa Anuska Zeni CONDAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%, cephalexin (100% and ceftiofur (100%, while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43% and ampicillin (29%. However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test, only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

  20. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  1. Frequency and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in male outpatients in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Hugo E; Jugo, Mónica B; Macan, Alejandro; Visser, Matias; Hidalgo, Mariana; Maccallini, Gustavo Cesar

    2014-06-11

    Knowledge of the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens is important for determining the best treatment option. This study aimed to determine the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial strains isolated from adult male outpatients. Between November 2012 and April 2013, 3,105 community urine samples were analyzed from adult male patients who attended the Laboratorio Hidalgo, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporin were tested for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production using the double-disk synergy test. Of the 3,105 urine samples analyzed, 791 (25.5%) had significant bacteriuria. The frequency of positive urine cultures increased significantly with patient age. Escherichia coli was isolated most frequently (47.3%), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (13.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.9%). Gram-negative organisms represented 78.8% of urinary pathogens. The highest activities against Gram-negative bacteria were found with imipenem (99.0%), amikacin (98.1%), ertapenem (94.2%), fosfomycin (90.7%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (90.1%). The frequencies of ESBLs among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis were 15.2 %, 22.3%, and 8%, respectively. Fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin were most effective against Gram-positive organisms. Fosfomycin may be an excellent option for cystitis treatment in patients without risk factors, whereas piperacillin-tazobactam is preferred for the treatment of parenchymatous UTIs, complicated UTIs, and UTIs associated with risk factors. To ensure the optimal selection of antibiotics, physicians should have access to up-to-date information about the local prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Alifrangis, Michael; Lund, Ole; Kibiki, Gibson; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods, and disc diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n = 48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n = 44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 40, 10.6%) and Klebsiella spp (n = 38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n = 293, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n = 44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n = 37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n = 29, 9.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 28, 9.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n = 22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins such as cefazolin (n = 62, 72.9%), ceftriaxone (n = 44, 51.8%) and ceftazidime (n = 40, 37.4%) was observed in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as resistance to cefoxitin (n = 6, 27.3%) in S. aureus. The study has revealed a wide range of causative agents, with an alarming rate of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites

  3. Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolates among Patients Admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, ... Wound swab and venous blood samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard ...

  4. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from acute gastrointestinal infections to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Farías, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance may hamper the antimicrobial management of acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial susceptibility to rifaximin, an antibiotic that achieves high fecal concentrations (up to 8,000μg/g), has not been evaluated in Mexico. To determine the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico. Bacterial strains were analyzed in stool samples from 1,000 patients with diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The susceptibility to rifaximin (RIF) was tested by microdilution (<100, <200, <400 and <800μg/ml) and susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), fosfomycin (FOS), ampicillin (AMP) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was tested by agar diffusion at the concentrations recommended by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute and the American Society for Microbiology. Isolated bacteria were: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (EPEC) 531, Shigella 120, non-Typhi Salmonella 117, Aeromonas spp. 80, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 54, Yersinia enterocolitica 20, Campylobacter jejuni 20, Vibrio spp. 20, Plesiomonas shigelloides 20, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC 0:157) 18. The overall cumulative susceptibility to RIF at <100, <200, <400, and <800μg/ml was 70.6, 90.8, 99.3, and 100%, respectively. The overall susceptibility to each antibiotic was: AMP 32.2%, T-S 53.6%, NEO 54.1%, FUR 64.7%, CIP 67.3%, CLO 73%, and FOS 81.3%. The susceptibility to RIF <400 and RIF <800μg/ml was significantly greater than with the other antibiotics (p<0.001). Resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics used in gastrointestinal infections is high. Rifaximin was active against 99-100% of these enteropathogens at reachable concentrations in the intestine with the recommended dose. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

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    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  8. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Clonality of Clinical Ureaplasma Isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Karau, Melissa J; Cunningham, Scott A; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Patel, Robin

    2016-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum are pathogens involved in urogenital tract and intrauterine infections and also in systemic diseases in newborns and immunosuppressed patients. There is limited information on the antimicrobial susceptibility and clonality of these species. In this study, we report the susceptibility of 250 contemporary isolates of Ureaplasma (202 U. parvum and 48 U. urealyticum isolates) recovered at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. MICs of doxycycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and levofloxacin were determined by broth microdilution, with MICS of the last three interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. Levofloxacin resistance was found in 6.4% and 5.2% of U. parvum and U. urealyticum isolates, respectively, while 27.2% and 68.8% of isolates, respectively, showed ciprofloxacin MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. The resistance mechanism of levofloxacin-resistant isolates was due to mutations in parC, with the Ser83Leu substitution being most frequent, followed by Glu87Lys. No macrolide resistance was found among the 250 isolates studied; a single U. parvum isolate was tetracycline resistant. tet(M) was found in 10 U. parvum isolates, including the single tetracycline-resistant isolate, as well as in 9 isolates which had low tetracycline and doxycycline MICs. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) performed on a selection of 46 isolates showed high diversity within the clinical Ureaplasma isolates studied, regardless of antimicrobial susceptibility. The present work extends previous knowledge regarding susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, resistance mechanisms, and clonality of Ureaplasma species in the United States. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Cuniculorum Isolated from Rabbits Reared in Intensive and Rural Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Mion, Domenico; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA), modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated. PMID:27853713

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter cuniculorum isolated from rabbits reared in intensive and rural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Piva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA, modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated.

  13. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar......Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...... among the six mink farms, for tetracycline (0-16.4%. average 21.9), ampicillin (2.9-50.0%. average 23.3), spectinomycin (8.0-35.7%. average 21.9), sulfamethoxazole (8.6-57.7%. average 30.0) and trimethoprim (0-35.7%. average 9.5). Resistance to tetracycline was statistically more prevalent among...

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Moradzadeh, Mina; Eshaghi, Hamid; Ramezani, Amitis; Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Keshavarz Valian, Sepideh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2017-08-01

    studies on the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in these species is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: A Four-Year Surveillance Study (2009–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsoleymani, Seyed Reza; Salimi, Morteza; Shareghi Brojeni, Masoud; Ranjbar, Masoud; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Bandar Abbas (Southern Iran) during a four-year period. In this retrospective study, samples with a colony count of ≥105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive; for these samples, the bacteria were identified, and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. From the 19223 samples analyzed, 1513 (7.87%) were positive for bacterial infection. UTI...

  16. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial susceptibility of caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Tatay-Dualde, J; Amores, J; Prats-van der Ham, M; Sánchez, A; de la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Corrales, J C; Gómez-Martín, Á

    2016-08-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum mycoplasmacidal concentration (MMC) of 17 antimicrobials against 41 Spanish caprine isolates of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) obtained from different specimens (milk, external auricular canal and semen) were determined using a liquid microdilution method. For half of the isolates, the MIC was also estimated for seven of the antimicrobials using an epsilometric test (ET), in order to compare both methods and assess the validity of ET. Mutations in genes gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE conferring fluoroquinolone resistance, which have been recently described in Mmc, were investigated using PCR. The anatomical origin of the isolate had no effect on its antimicrobial susceptibility. Moxifloxacin and doxycycline had the lowest MIC values. The rest of the fluoroquinolones studied (except norfloxacin), together with tylosin and clindamycin, also had low MIC values, although the MMC obtained for clindamycin was higher than for the other antimicrobials. For all the aminoglycosides, spiramycin and erythromycin, a notable level of resistance was observed. The ET was in close agreement with broth microdilution at low MICs, but not at intermediate or high MICs. The analysis of the genomic sequences revealed the presence of an amino acid substitution in codon 83 of the gene gyrA, which has not been described previously in Mmc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  18. Genotyping using whole-genome sequencing is a realistic alternative to surveillance based on phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2013-01-01

    -genome sequencing (WGS) may soon be within reach even for routine surveillance and clinical diagnostics. The aim of this study was to evaluate WGS as a routine tool for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance compared with current phenotypic procedures. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed...... to the categorizing of isolates as resistant and 2569 as susceptible. Seven cases of disagreement between tested and predicted susceptibility were observed, six of which were related to spectinomycin resistance in Escherichia coli. Correlation between MLST type and resistance profiles was only observed in Salmonella...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs with swine erysipelas in Japan, 1988-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents of 214 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs affected with swine erysipelas in Japan between 1988 and 1998 was determined. Ampicillin, cloxacillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftiofur, tylosin, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin were the most active agents [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); doxycycline were detected. The susceptibilities to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline tended to decrease. Investigation of the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of the 214 strains according to their serotypes, sources, isolation years and regions, showed that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin were most frequently found in the strains of serotype 1a and in strains from septicaemic cases. Strains resistant to oxytetracycline were detected in all serotypes and all sources, and most of the strains resistant to erythromycin were detected in the strains of serotype 2. The frequency of strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin gradually increased from 1988 to 1996, but then decreased between 1997 and 1998. The frequency of strains resistant to oxytetracycline was remained more than 38% from 1988 to 1998. It was suggested that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline were distributed over almost all districts of Japan.

  20. [Identification and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Katarzyna; Rokosz, Alicja; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify anaerobic strains isolated in 2001 from clinical specimens obtained from patients of Warsaw hospital and to evaluate a susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial agents. In 2001 two hundred and twenty five clinical strains of obligate anaerobes were cultured, which were identified in the automatic ATB system (bioMérieux, France) using biochemical tests API 20 A. Drug-susceptibility of strains was determined also in ATB system with the use of ATB ANA strips. C. difficile strains were isolated on selective CCCA medium. Toxins A/B of C. difficile directly in stool specimens were detected by means of ELISA test (TechLab, USA). Fifty four strains of Gram-negative anaerobes (B. fragilis strains dominated) and 171 strains of Gram-positive anaerobes (the greatest number of strains belonged to genus Peptostreptococcus) were cultured from clinical specimens. In the cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea 28 C. difficile strains were isolated and C. difficile toxins A/B were detected in 39 stool samples. The most active in vitro antimicrobials against Gram-negative anaerobes were metronidazole, imipenem, ticarcillin combined with clavulanic acid and piperacillin with tazobactam. Gram-positive, clinical strains of anaerobes were the most susceptible in vitro to beta-lactam antibiotics combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors (amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate) and imipenem.

  1. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of wound isolates of obligate anaerobes from combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian K; Mende, Katrin; Weintrob, Amy C; Beckius, Miriam L; Zera, Wendy C; Lu, Dan; Bradley, William; Tribble, David R; Schnaubelt, Elizabeth R; Murray, Clinton K

    2016-02-01

    Data from recent conflicts related to war wounds and obligate anaerobes are limited. We define the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobes from Iraq and Afghanistan casualties (6/2009-12/2013), as well as their association with clinical outcomes. Susceptibility against eleven antibiotics (7 classes) was tested. Overall, 59 patients had 119 obligate anaerobes identified (83 were first isolates). Obligate anaerobes were isolated 7-13 days post-injury, primarily from lower extremity wounds (43%), and were largely Bacteroides spp. (42%) and Clostridium spp. (19%). Patients with pelvic wounds were more likely to have Bacteroides spp. and concomitant resistant gram-negative aerobes. Seventy-three percent of isolates were resistant to ≥1 antimicrobials. Bacteroides spp. demonstrated the most resistance (16% of first isolates). Patients with resistant isolates had similar outcomes to those with susceptible strains. Serial recovery of isolates occurred in 15% of patients and was significantly associated with isolation of Bacteroides spp., along with resistant gram-negative aerobes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Susceptibility of Haemophilus equigenitalis, the causal agent of contagious equine metritis, to 31 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, C; Isayama, Y; Kashiwazaki, M; Mitani, K

    1981-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 31 antimicrobial agents were determined for 99 isolates of Haemophilus equigenitalis by the agar dilution method. All the isolates showed good susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents tests, minimal inhibitory concentrations of which were less than 3.13 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. Of these agents, 4 macrolides (erythromycin, oleandomycin, kitasamycin, tylosin), 3 tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline), 1 peptide (colistin), 1 penicillin (ampicillin) and 1 pleuromutilin (tiamulin) were the most active agents, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of less than 0.39 micrograms/ml for more than 90% of the isolates. The growth of more than 90% of the isolates was not inhibited by 800 micrograms/ml of streptomycin.

  3. Antimicrobial Effects of β-Lactams on Imipenem-Resistant Ceftazidime-Susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wi, Yu Mi; Choi, Ji-Young; Lee, Ji-Young; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-06-01

    We studied the resistance mechanism and antimicrobial effects of β-lactams on imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates that were susceptible to ceftazidime as detected by time-kill curve methods. Among 215 P. aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in eight hospitals in the Republic of Korea, 18 isolates (23.4% of 77 imipenem-resistant isolates) were imipenem resistant and ceftazidime susceptible. Multilocus sequence typing revealed diverse genotypes, which indicated independent emergence. These 18 isolates were negative for carbapenemase genes. All 18 imipenem-resistant ceftazidime-susceptible isolates showed decreased mRNA expression of oprD , and overexpression of mexB was observed in 13 isolates. In contrast, overexpression of ampC , mexD , mexF , or mexY was rarely found. Time-kill curve methods were applied to three selected imipenem-resistant ceftazidime-susceptible isolates at a standard inoculum (5 × 10 5 CFU/ml) or at a high inoculum (5 × 10 7 CFU/ml) to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of β-lactams. Inoculum effects were detected for all three β-lactam antibiotics, ceftazidime, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam, against all three isolates. The antibiotics had significant killing effects in the standard inoculum, but no effects in the high inoculum were observed. Our results suggest that β-lactam antibiotics should be used with caution in patients with imipenem-resistant ceftazidime-susceptible P. aeruginosa infection, especially in high-inoculum infections such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by Use of Laser Light Scattering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Lascols, Christine; Sue, David; Weigel, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Rapid methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility would assist in the timely distribution of effective treatment or postexposure prophylaxis in the aftermath of the release of bacterial biothreat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, or Burkholderia pseudomallei Conventional susceptibility tests require 16 to 48 h of incubation, depending on the bacterial species. We evaluated a method that is based on laser light scattering technology that measures cell density in real time. We determined that it has the ability to rapidly differentiate between growth (resistant) and no growth (susceptible) of several bacterial threat agents in the presence of clinically relevant antimicrobials. Results were available in 10 h of incubation. Use of laser scattering technology decreased the time required to determine antimicrobial susceptibility by 50% to 75% for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and B. pseudomallei compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Antimicrobial Non-Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from Outpatients and Patients Visiting Emergency Rooms in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Tay Wang

    Full Text Available Longitudinal nationwide surveillance data on antimicrobial non-susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs as well as AmpC β-lactamases producers among Escherichia coli from different sources in the community settings are limited. Such data may impact treatment practice. The present study investigated E. coli from outpatients and patients visiting emergency rooms collected by the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program. A total of 3481 E. coli isolates were studied, including 2153 (61.9% from urine and 1125 (32.3% from blood samples. These isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from a total of 28 hospitals located in different geographic regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using methods recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The prevalence and factors associated with the presence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were determined. Significant increases in non-susceptibility to most β-lactams and ciprofloxacin occurred during the study period. By 2012, non-susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin reached 21.1% and 26.9%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers also increased from 4.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in 2002-2004, to 10.7% for both in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M and CMY-types, respectively. Non-susceptibility of urine isolates to nitrofurantoin remained at around 8% and to fosfomycin was low (0.7% but to cefazolin (based on the 2014 CLSI urine criteria increased from 11.5% in 2002-2004 to 23.9% in 2010-2012 (P <0.001. Non-susceptibility of isolates from different specimen types was generally similar, but isolates from elderly patients were significantly more resistant to most antimicrobial agents and associated with the presence of ESBL- and AmpC- β-lactamases. An additional concern is that decreased ciprofloxacin

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa M. Abdel Rahman

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... Peer review under responsibility of Alexandria University Faculty of Medicine. Alexandria Journal of ... This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ... to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes. (PROM) ... mitted pathogens M. hominis and U. urealyticum among a group of ...

  7. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    from nasal swabs of University students in Umuahia, were tested against 10 ... Resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin and tetracycline was 100% among ... Seven (23%) of these isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and 6 (20%) to ...

  8. 112 current trend in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clostridium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    inorganic substances. The odour usually gives a suggestion that Clostridium species was present. C. tetani is an obligate anaerobe, and therefore its isolation requires an environment, which is totally devoid of even a trace of oxygen. The technique applied in this research to create an anaerobic condition was found to be ...

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa S. Fathi

    2013-04-22

    Apr 22, 2013 ... Abstract Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is currently recognized as one of the most common chronic bacterial ... diffusion and Ellipsometer testing (E-testing) methods. Further molecular characterization of genes. * Corresponding ... ability) on the basis of the most recent data available from the literature [9].

  10. Short communication: Molecular characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility, and pathogenicity of clinical Nocardia cyriacigeorgica isolates from an outbreak of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Yongxia; Barkema, Herman W; Gao, Jian; De Buck, Jeroen; Kastelic, John P; Liu, Gang; Ali, Tariq; Shahid, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of nocardial mastitis, mostly in the context of outbreaks, has been reported in many countries. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding detailed characterization of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica from bovine mastitis. Thus, herein we report characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, molecular identification, and pathogenicity of N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from an outbreak of clinical mastitis in a dairy herd in northern China. A total of 182 (80.2%) lactating cows had clinical mastitis with severe inflammation and firmness of the udder, reduced milk production, and anorexia, with no apparent clinical response to common antibiotics. Out of 22 mastitic milk samples submitted to our laboratory, 12 N. cyriacigeorgica were isolated and characterized using standard microbiological analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR analysis, biochemical assays, and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Additionally, in vivo experiments were done to determine pathogenicity of these clinical mastitis isolates. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, minocycline, rifampicin, and aminoglycosides (type VI pattern). Additionally, intramammary inoculation of mice with N. cyriacigeorgica caused chronic inflammatory changes, including hyperemia, edema, and infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as hyperplasia of lymph nodules in mammary glands. Therefore, we concluded that N. cyriacigeorgica was involved in the current outbreak of mastitis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to characterize N. cyriacigeorgica isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle Märit; Landén Annica; Unnerstad Helle; Molander Benedicta; Bengtsson Björn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both spe...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in staphylococci from poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    of conventional biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (83), Staphylococcus hyicus (11), Staphylococcus xylosus (9) and Staphylococcus cohnii (6). The isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. A high frequency of S. aureus (30%) was resistant...... to ciprofloxacin. Only six (7%) S. aureus isolates and one Staphylococcus saprophyticus were penicillin resistant. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed among 16 (19%) of S. aureus isolates and two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). Twenty (24%) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin...

  13. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...

  14. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella Isolates from Infections in Humans in Henan Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.L.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Xie, Z.Q.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized 208 human Salmonella isolates from 2006 to 2007 and 27 human Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from 1987 to 1993 from Henan Province, China, by serotyping, by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and, for the most common serovars, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... (PFGE). The most common serovars among the 2006-2007 isolates were S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (27%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (17%), S. enterica serovar Derby (10%), S. enterica serovar Indiana (6%), and S. enterica serovar Litchfield (6%). A high percentage of the isolates were multiple-drug...

  15. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hisano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%. Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively. For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin.

  16. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  17. Serological characterisation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from pigs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C B; Rodríguez Barbosa, J I; Tascón, R I; Costa, L; Riera, P; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1995-07-15

    Seventy-one isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from the lungs of pigs in outbreaks of pleuropneumonia in Spain were serotyped by indirect haemagglutination. Serotype 4 (42.2 per cent), serotype 7 (22.5 per cent) and serotype 2 (12.8 per cent) were predominant, whereas serotypes 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, 12 and untypable isolates were present only in small numbers. Serotypes 1, 2, 4 and 7 originated mainly from cases of acute pleuropneumonia, whereas serotypes 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 were associated with chronically infected herds. The susceptibility of the isolates to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined by agar disc diffusion. Most were susceptible to cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefazolin, kanamycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, thiamphenicol, colistin and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. Marked resistance was found with amoxicillin, ticarcillin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and metronidazole. Rifampicin, fosfomycin and tiamulin were the agents most effective against the isolates tested.

  18. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  20. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, Monique; Vickers, David M; Ziola, Barry

    2009-09-07

    Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol). Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin) by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM) used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence gene profiles of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Joerling

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is an economically important diarrheal disease in pigs caused by different strongly hemolytic Brachyspira (B. species, such as B. hyodysenteriae, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Possible associations of epidemiologic data, such as multilocus sequence types (STs to virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility are rather scarce, particularly for B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Germany. In this study, B. hyodysenteriae (n = 116 isolated from diarrheic pigs between 1990 and 2016 in Germany were investigated for their STs, susceptibility to the major drugs used for treatment of SD (tiamulin and valnemulin and genes that were previously linked with virulence and encode for hemolysins (tlyA, tlyB, tlyC, hlyA, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS09085, BHWA1_RS04705, and BHWA1_RS02195, outer membrane proteins (OMPs (bhlp16, bhlp17.6, bhlp29.7, bhmp39f, and bhmp39h as well as iron acquisition factors (ftnA and bitC. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST revealed that 79.4% of the isolates belonged to only three STs, namely ST52 (41.4%, ST8 (12.1%, and ST112 (25.9% which have been observed in other European countries before. Another 24 isolates belonged to twelve new STs (ST113-118, ST120-123, ST131, and ST193. The temporal distribution of STs revealed the presence of new STs as well as the regular presence of ST52 over three decades (1990s-2000s. The proportion of strains that showed resistance to both tiamulin und valnemulin (39.1% varied considerably among the most frequent STs ranging from 0% (0/14 isolates resistant in ST8 isolates to 46.7% (14/30, 52.1% (25/48, and 85.7% (6/7 in isolates belonging to ST112, ST52, and ST114, respectively. All hemolysin genes as well as the iron-related gene ftnA and the OMP gene bhlp29.7 were regularly present in the isolates, while the OMP genes bhlp17.6 and bhmp39h could not be detected. Sequence analysis of hemolysin genes of selected isolates revealed co-evolution of tlyB, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS

  2. Phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence gene profiles of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerling, Jessica; Barth, Stefanie A.; Schlez, Karen; Willems, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important diarrheal disease in pigs caused by different strongly hemolytic Brachyspira (B.) species, such as B. hyodysenteriae, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Possible associations of epidemiologic data, such as multilocus sequence types (STs) to virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility are rather scarce, particularly for B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Germany. In this study, B. hyodysenteriae (n = 116) isolated from diarrheic pigs between 1990 and 2016 in Germany were investigated for their STs, susceptibility to the major drugs used for treatment of SD (tiamulin and valnemulin) and genes that were previously linked with virulence and encode for hemolysins (tlyA, tlyB, tlyC, hlyA, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS09085, BHWA1_RS04705, and BHWA1_RS02195), outer membrane proteins (OMPs) (bhlp16, bhlp17.6, bhlp29.7, bhmp39f, and bhmp39h) as well as iron acquisition factors (ftnA and bitC). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that 79.4% of the isolates belonged to only three STs, namely ST52 (41.4%), ST8 (12.1%), and ST112 (25.9%) which have been observed in other European countries before. Another 24 isolates belonged to twelve new STs (ST113-118, ST120-123, ST131, and ST193). The temporal distribution of STs revealed the presence of new STs as well as the regular presence of ST52 over three decades (1990s–2000s). The proportion of strains that showed resistance to both tiamulin und valnemulin (39.1%) varied considerably among the most frequent STs ranging from 0% (0/14 isolates resistant) in ST8 isolates to 46.7% (14/30), 52.1% (25/48), and 85.7% (6/7) in isolates belonging to ST112, ST52, and ST114, respectively. All hemolysin genes as well as the iron-related gene ftnA and the OMP gene bhlp29.7 were regularly present in the isolates, while the OMP genes bhlp17.6 and bhmp39h could not be detected. Sequence analysis of hemolysin genes of selected isolates revealed co-evolution of tlyB, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

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    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  4. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  5. Current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal salmonellae isolated at tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.M.; Irfan, F.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal Salmonellae. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to December 2015. Methodology: Blood culture samples received from the wards and outpatient departments were included. Isolates of Salmonella were dealt with standard microbiological procedures. The antimicrobial sensitivity against the typhoidal Salmonellae was determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2013). Results: A total of 460 typhoidal Salmonellae were isolated; out of which 270 were Salmonella typhi and 190 were Salmonella paratyphiA. The percentage of MDR isolates of S. typhi was 57% and that of S. paratyphiA was 42%. None of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, while sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (07% and 0% for S. typhiand S. paratyphiA, respectively) was very low. Conclusion: There is high percentage of MDR isolates of typhoidal Salmonellae in our region. The antimicrobial sensitivity of typhoidal Salmonellae to conventional agent has not improved enough to recommend their empirical use. There is almost complete resistance to fluoroquinolones as well, leaving very limited available treatment options. (author)

  6. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmouli, Angeliki; Valenti, Marco; van Rijn, Erwin; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2018-03-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test, namely the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test, to determine the antimicrobial activity of Au and Ag ENPs having diameters from 10 to 40 nm on Escherichia coli cultures. As anticipated, the tests did not show any antibacterial effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their negligible diffusivity through the culture media. Ag NPs on the other hand exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity that was independent of their size. Considering that Ag, in contrast to Au, dissolves upon oxidation and dilution in aqueous solutions, the apparent antibacterial behavior of Ag NPs is attributed to the ions they release. The Kirby-Bauer method, and other similar tests, can therefore be employed to probe the antimicrobial activity of ENPs related to their ability to release ions rather than to their unique size-dependent properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

  8. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

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    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  9. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

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    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira spp. isolated from commercial laying hens and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Pringle, Märit

    2011-08-01

    In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and ampicillin was investigated by broth dilution in 48 Brachyspira spp. isolates from commercial laying hens (n=30) and free-living wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (n=18). Presumed pathogens (Brachyspira alvinipulli, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli), commensals (Brachyspira murdochii, Brachyspira innocens, "Brachyspira pulli"), and isolates of undetermined species affiliation were included. The laying hens had not been exposed to therapeutic levels of antimicrobials for at least 50 weeks before sampling, and low levels of environmental antimicrobial exposure were presumed in mallards. No isolates with decreased susceptibility to tylosin, valnemulin, tiamulin or doxycycline were found. Decreased susceptibility to lincomycin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 µg/ml) was detected in two isolates (Brachyspira sp.) from laying hens. Five isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration 16 to >32 µg/ml), including two "B. pulli" and one B. alvinipulli from laying hens, and isolates of B. pilosicoli and "B. pulli" from mallards. Decreased susceptibility to ampicillin was associated with β-lactamase activity in four isolates. A new variant of a class D β-lactamase gene designated bla (oxa-192) was identified in a B. pilosicoli isolate of mallard origin. This is the first time the genetic basis for antimicrobial resistance is described in Brachyspira spp. from a free-living wild bird. Isolates displaying decreased susceptibility to ampicillin were accompanied by fully susceptible isolates of the same species or other genotypes within three laying hen flocks. This underlines the need for performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests on single clones/genotypes, and to analyse multiple isolates from the same flock.

  11. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of listeria species from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru

    2015-05-12

    Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%) were positive for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 24 (6.25%) of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cake, raw meat, ice cream, minced beef, fish, unpasteurized milk and pizza in that order from higher to lower rate. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes revealed the presence of four multi-drug resistant isolates. The higher resistance rate was recorded for penicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in decreasing order. All L. monocytogenes identified in the current study were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalothin, cloxacillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and vancomycin. The presence of L. monocytogenes including drug resistant and multidrug resistant isolates in some ready-to-eat food items is an indicator of the presence of public health hazards to the consumer, particularly to the high-risk groups. Hence awareness creation on food safety and implementation of regulations

  12. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jibril; Ziwa, Michael Henry; Hounmanou, Yaovi Mahuton Gildas; Kisanga, Adela; Tuntufye, Huruma Nelwike

    2018-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN) S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Forty-six coagulase positives (CP) and two CN S. aureus were identified. Most strains were resistant to penicillin (72%), and 3 isolates: 2 CN S. aureus and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin and were confirmed to carry mecA. Resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline was 23.9%, 30.4%, and 41.3%, respectively. Twelve isolates exhibited multidrug resistance; however, only one mecA positive strain among the three was typeable and belonged to spa type t2603. This study reports for the first time the presence of CN variant of MRSA, which was assigned the spa type t2603, and the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from bovine milk in Morogoro, Tanzania.

  13. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in Greek female outpatients, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Nioti, Eleni; Stafylaki, Dimitra; Minadakis, George

    2017-11-28

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France). Ureaplasma spp. was isolated from 116 patients (11.5%), M. hominis from 6 (0.6%), while coinfection with both mycoplasmas was demonstrated in 17 (1.7%). All Ureaplasma strains were susceptible to josamycin and doxycycline. Doxycycline, minocycline and ofloxacin were the most potent antibiotics against M. hominis. Docycycline was proved the most active and is still the drug of choice for the treatment of genital mycoplasma infections. Local surveillance to monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities is necessary to guide treatment strategies.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of clinical Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream isolates in Shanghai, China.

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    Su Wang

    Full Text Available Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention.Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion. PCR was performed to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL, carbapenemase and colistin resistance (MCR-1 gene. Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC genes were detected using a multiplex PCR assay targeting MIR/ACT gene (closely related to chromosomal EBC family gene and other plasmid-mediated genes, including DHA, MOX, CMY, ACC, and FOX. eBURST was applied to analyze multi-locus sequence typing (MLST.The rates of resistance to all tested antibiotics were 0.05. SHV (6/8, 75.0% and MIR/ACT (15/18, 83.3% predominated in ESBL and pAmpC producers respectively. Moreover, 2 isolates co-carried TEM-1, SHV-12, IMP-26 and DHA-1. MLST analysis distinguished the 53 isolates into 51 STs and only ST414 and ST520 were assigned two isolates of each (2/53.The antimicrobial resistance rates were low among 53 E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in the two hospitals. Multiclonality disclosed no evidence on spread of these isolates in Shanghai. The simultaneous presence of ESBL, carbapenemase and pAmpC detected in 2 isolates was firstly reported in Shanghai, which necessitated active ongoing surveillances and consistent prevention and control of E. cloacae.

  16. Genetic relatedness, antimicrobial and biocide susceptibility comparative analysis of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Natacha; Belas, Adriana; Couto, Isabel; Perreten, Vincent; Pomba, Constança

    2014-08-01

    Forty methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and MSSP, respectively) from colonization and infection in dogs and cats were characterized for clonality, antimicrobial, and biocide susceptibility. MSSP were genetically more diverse than MRSP by multi-locus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Three different spa types (t06, t02, t05) and two SCCmec types (II-III and V) were detected in the MRSP isolates. All MRSP and two MSSP strains were multidrug-resistant. Several antibiotic resistance genes (mecA, blaZ, tet(M), tet(K), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia, aph(3')-III, ant(6)-Ia, sat4, erm(B), lnu(A), dfr(G), and catp(C221)) were identified by microarray and double mutations in the gyrA and grlA genes and a single mutation in the rpoB gene were detected by sequence analysis. No differences were detected between MSSP and MRSP in the chlorhexidine acetate (CHA) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). However, two MSSP had elevated MIC to triclosan (TCL) and one to benzalkonium chloride and ethidium bromide. One MSSP isolate harboured a qacA gene, while in another a qacB gene was detected. None of the isolates harboured the sh-fabI gene. Three of the biocide products studied had high bactericidal activity (Otodine(®), Clorexyderm Spot Gel(®), Dermocanis Piocure-M(®)), while Skingel(®) failed to achieve a five log reduction in the bacterial counting. S. pseudintermedius have become a serious therapeutic challenge in particular if methicillin- resistance and/or multidrug-resistance are involved. Biocides, like CHA and TCL, seem to be clinically effective and safe topical therapeutic options.

  17. Quality assurance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Latin American and Caribbean countries, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Pam; Martin, Irene; Galarza, Patricia; Carvallo, Marıa Elena Trigoso; Araya Rodriguez, Pamela; Cruz, Olga Marina Sanabria; Hernandez, Alina Llop; Martinez, Mario Fabian; Borthagaray, Graciela; Payares, Daisy; Moreno, José E; Chiappe, Marina; Corredor, Aura Helena; Thakur, Sidharath Dev; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2018-04-19

    A Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility quality control comparison programme was re-established in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure antimicrobial susceptibility data produced from the region are comparable nationally and internationally. Three panels, consisting of N. gonorrhoeae isolates comprising reference strains and other characterised isolates were sent to 11 participating laboratories between 2013 and 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for these isolates were determined using agar dilution, Etest or disc diffusion methods. Modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for each panel isolate/antibiotic combination were calculated. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used for interpretations of antimicrobial susceptibility. The agreement of MICs with the modal MICs was determined for each of the participating laboratories as well as for each of the antibiotics tested. Five of 11 laboratories that participated in at least one panel had an overall average agreement between participants' MIC results and modal MICs of >90%. For other laboratories, agreements ranged from 60.0% to 82.4%. The proportion of agreement between interpretations for all the antibiotics, except penicillin and tetracycline, was >90%. The percentages of agreement between MIC results and their modes for erythromycin, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were >90%. Tetracycline, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin agreement ranged from 84.5% to 89.1%, while penicillin had 78.8% agreement between MICs and modal MICs. The participating laboratories had acceptable results, similar to other international quality assurance programmes. It is important to ensure continuation of the International Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Quality Control Comparison Programme to ensure that participants can identify and correct any problems in antimicrobial susceptibility testing for N. gonorrhoeae as they arise and continue to generate reproducible

  18. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    % of the results were correct. For susceptibility testing, 92% of the results were in agreement with the expected results. However, only 78% of the performed tests with the E. coli ATCC 25922 reference strain were within the quality control range specified by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards...... susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...... (NCCLS) guidelines. These EQAS results demonstrate the need for further training to improve the performance of some of the laboratories. WHO Global Salm-Surv activities, including international training courses and EQAS, represent an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping...

  19. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

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    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harichandran D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Harichandran, Kavitha Radhakrishnan Dinesh Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology: All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results: A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%, followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64% and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%. Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%, ampicillin (77.21%, cotrimoxazole (75.94% and azithromycin (78.48%. For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth

  1. Haemophilus influenzae Isolated From Men With Acute Urethritis: Its Pathogenic Roles, Responses to Antimicrobial Chemotherapies, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Shimuta, Ken; Kondo, Hiromi; Mizutani, Kosuke; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohinishi, Makoto; Deguchi, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    There have been few comprehensive studies on Haemophilus influenza-positive urethritis. In this retrospective study, we enrolled 68 men with H. influenzae-positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or genital mycoplasmas: 2, 3, 20, and 43 treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, and extended-release azithromycin (azithromycin-SR), respectively. We assessed microbiological outcomes in 54 men and clinical outcomes in 46 with H. influenzae-positive monomicrobial nongonococcal urethritis. We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 antimicrobial agents for 59 pretreatment isolates. H. influenzae was eradicated from the men treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, or sitafloxacin. The eradication rate with azithromycin-SR was 85.3%. The disappearance or alleviation of urethritis symptoms and the decreases in leukocyte counts in first-voided urine were significantly associated with the eradication of H. influenzae after treatment. For the isolates, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline MICs were ≤0.008-0.25, 0.008-0.5, 0.001-0.008, 0.12-1, 0.25-16, and 0.25-2 μg/mL, respectively. The azithromycin MICs for 3 of 4 strains persisting after azithromycin-SR administration were 1 μg/mL. H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL increased chronologically. H. influenzae showed good responses to the chemotherapies for urethritis. The significant associations of the clinical outcomes of the chemotherapies with their microbiological outcomes suggested that H. influenzae could play pathogenic roles in urethritis. All isolates, except for one with decreased susceptibility to tetracyclines, were susceptible to the examined agents. However, the increase in H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL might threaten efficacies of azithromycin regimens on H. influenzae-positive urethritis.

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Pathogen Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk in Transylvania, Romania

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    Cosmina Bouari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows, one of the most common and economically important infectious diseases of dairy cattle, all over the world, with significant impact due to economic losses, occurs when the udder becomes inflamed because the leukocytes are released into the mammary gland usually in response to bacteria invasion of the teat canal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from milk in order to design specific control programs for bovine mastitis in this area. A total of 204 milk samples aseptically collected both from farms and private owners were processed during May 2014 and March 2016 within the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The microbiological examination was carried out by inoculation on blood agar and MacConkey medium. After the overnight incubation in aerobic conditions, the identification of the isolates was performed using microscopic, cultural and biochemical methods. Biochemical identification was based on API 20 Biomerieux system. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar; the antibiotics were represented by Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid, Ceftiofur, Florfenicol, Mastidiscs, Enrofloxacin, Penicillin and Tetracycline. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common isolated pathogen, in 54.9% of the specimens, followed by Streptococcus spp. in 20.1%, Escherichia coli in 10.78%, Klebsiella spp. in 8.34%, Bacillus spp. in 5.88%. The most frequent associations were represented by staphylococci-streptococci in 62.7% of the samples, followed by streptococci-bacillus in 19.8% of the samples. The most important etiological agents identified were Staphylococcus aureus, S uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the total isolates revealed good sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Mastidiscs and Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

  3. MASTER: a model to improve and standardize clinical breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing using forecast probabilities.

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    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C; Hombach, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The procedure for setting clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial susceptibility has been poorly standardized with respect to population data, pharmacokinetic parameters and clinical outcome. Tools to standardize CBP setting could result in improved antibiogram forecast probabilities. We propose a model to estimate probabilities for methodological categorization errors and defined zones of methodological uncertainty (ZMUs), i.e. ranges of zone diameters that cannot reliably be classified. The impact of ZMUs on methodological error rates was used for CBP optimization. The model distinguishes theoretical true inhibition zone diameters from observed diameters, which suffer from methodological variation. True diameter distributions are described with a normal mixture model. The model was fitted to observed inhibition zone diameters of clinical Escherichia coli strains. Repeated measurements for a quality control strain were used to quantify methodological variation. For 9 of 13 antibiotics analysed, our model predicted error rates of  0.1% for ampicillin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Increasing the susceptible CBP (cefoxitin) and introducing ZMUs (ampicillin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) decreased error rates to < 0.1%. ZMUs contained low numbers of isolates for ampicillin and cefuroxime (3% and 6%), whereas the ZMU for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid contained 41% of all isolates and was considered not practical. We demonstrate that CBPs can be improved and standardized by minimizing methodological categorization error rates. ZMUs may be introduced if an intermediate zone is not appropriate for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic or drug dosing reasons. Optimized CBPs will provide a standardized antibiotic susceptibility testing interpretation at a defined level of probability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  4. Pan-European monitoring of susceptibility to human-use antimicrobial agents in enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals.

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    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Godinho, Kevin; Schiessl, Brigitte; Klein, Ulrich; Butty, Pascal; Vallé, Michel; Marion, Hervé; Shryock, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterococcus from cattle, pigs and chickens across the European Union (EU) using uniform methodology. Intestinal samples (1624) were taken at slaughter across five EU countries. Bacteria were isolated in national laboratories, whilst MICs were determined in a central laboratory for key antimicrobials used in human medicine. Clinical resistance was based on CLSI breakpoints and decreased susceptibility based on European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)/EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values. Isolation rates were high for E. coli (n=1540), low for Salmonella (n=201) and intermediate for Campylobacter (n=940) and Enterococcus (n=786). For E. coli and Salmonella, clinical resistance to newer compounds (cefepime, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin) was absent or low, but decreased susceptibility was apparent, particularly in chicken strains. Resistance to older compounds (except gentamicin) was variable and higher. Colistin resistance was absent for E. coli, but apparent for Salmonella. For Campylobacter jejuni, ciprofloxacin resistance was markedly prevalent for chickens, whereas clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was absent or very low. For Campylobacter coli, resistance was notably higher. None of the Enterococcus faecium strains was resistant to linezolid, but some were resistant to ampicillin or vancomycin. Resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin was frequent. Resistance patterns varied widely depending on bacterial species, antibiotics, hosts and region. Resistance varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to newer antibiotics used to treat foodborne disease in humans was generally very low. In the absence of resistance to newer compounds in E. coli and Salmonella, the apparent decreased susceptibility should be monitored.

  5. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates from intramammary infections of dairy cows.

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    Devriese, L A; Baele, M; Vaneechoutte, M; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2002-06-20

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is a highly prevalent species in subclinical mastitis with a well-established impact on somatic cell count. Few data are available on its antimicrobial susceptibility. The objective of this study was three-fold: (1) to evaluate simple identification tests by comparing them with a genomic method; (2) to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of different antibiotics; (3) to search for the presence of important resistance mechanisms and resistance-determining genes.Seventy-three staphylococcal strains, all collected on different dairy farms, were tentatively identified as S. chromogenes based on their lack of hemolysis and their characteristic intermediate DNase activity. The identification of 70 strains was confirmed as S. chromogenes by tRNA intergenic spacer PCR (tRNA PCR). Three strains were identified as S. sciuri, a species that is naturally cloxacillin- and lincomycin-resistant. All 70 S. chromogenes strains were found to be normally susceptible to neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, and to penicillinase-stable penicillins and cephalosporins, represented in this study by cloxacillin. The latter result was confirmed by the absence of the mecA gene in each of 13 strains in which this gene was searched for. Twenty-seven (38%) strains were penicillinase producers. Three lincomycin-resistant S. chromogenes strains were found to carry the linA gene. It was concluded that S. chromogenes can be identified reliably in routine mastitis bacteriology, and that the only resistance of importance is against penicillinase-susceptible penicillins.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant strains: A retrospective study from a university hospital in Morocco, North Africa

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    M.C. El Bouamri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urinary K. pneumoniae isolates showed a significantly high resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. These data highlight the need for regular surveillance of microbial resistance to improve infection control and guide the use of antimicrobial agents.

  7. A 4-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumanni in a university-affiliated hospital in China.

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    Xu, Ting; Xia, Wenying; Rong, Guodong; Pan, Shiyang; Huang, Peijun; Gu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the changes in resistance of Acinetobacter baumanni (A. baumannii) to different antimicrobial agents and the association of resistance rates with several independent factors: specimen origin, hospital wards, patients' gender and age, from 2008 to 2011. Bacterial isolates were isolated from January 2008 to December 2011 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by the Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Agar method as recommended by CLSI. Data were managed by the software WHONET 5.4 and analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The proportion of A. baumannii in our hospital increased from 7.0% in 2008 to 18.8% in 2011, becoming the most frequent pathogen in gram-negative isolates. 79.9% of A. baumannii were cultured from respiratory tract and geriatrics showed the highest isolation rate of A. baumannii during 4 years. The resistance rates to 12 antibiotics significantly increased from 2008 to 2011, from 14.8% to 90.8% to imipenem, and from 23.3% to 91.1% to meropenem. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the specimen origin, hospital wards, patients' gender and age were associated with resistance rate in varying degrees. The 4-year surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility demonstrated the rapid increase of drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii, and revealed several factors related with resistance rate. Knowing the antimicrobial resistance patterns will help guide the empirical therapy and strengthen interventional infection control measures in China.

  8. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

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    Hung-Chih Kuo

    Full Text Available We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 48 (44% had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  9. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

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    Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chen, Chiou-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chen; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Kuo, Jung-Che; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-01-01

    We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 48 (44%) had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis.

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    Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Horie, Kengo; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Shimuta, Ken; Ohnishi, Makoto; Muratani, Tetsuro; Nakano, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 41 antimicrobial agents for 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis and examined the strains for the production of β-lactamase. We also compared their antimicrobial susceptibilities with those of H. influenzae strains from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections that were reported in Japan. The proportion of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis appeared to be lower, but that of β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains appeared to be higher, compared with those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. However, their antimicrobial susceptibilities to a variety of other antimicrobial agents would be similar to those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. Almost all of the strains of H. influenzae from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis were susceptible to the agents, including ceftriaxone, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, commonly prescribed for treatment of acute urethritis based on the MIC breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Ceftriaxone and quinolones could be effective on H. influenzae-induced urethritis. However, azithromycin treatment failures were reported in acute urethritis caused by H. influenzae strains considered susceptible to azithromycin. Further studies will be needed to determine MIC breakpoints of antimicrobial agents, which are recommended for treatment of urogenital infections, for H. influenzae strains causing these infections. Nevertheless, this study provides useful data regarding antimicrobial susceptibilities of H. influenzae strains isolated from the urogenital tract, which have rarely been studied. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier

  11. Trends towards lower antimicrobial susceptibility and characterization of acquired resistance among clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain.

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    Hidalgo, Álvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte; Pringle, Märit; Naharro, Germán; Rubio, Pedro

    2011-07-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates recovered from 2008 to 2009 by broth dilution. Domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L3 gene were sequenced in 20 isolates for which the tiamulin MIC was ≥ 4 μg/ml, presenting decreased susceptibility, and in 18 tiamulin-susceptible isolates (MIC ≤ 0.125 μg/ml), and all isolates were typed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected for lincomycin, and the MIC of tylosin remained high (MIC(50) > 128 μg/ml). The decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin can be explained by mutations at position A2058 of the 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). A2058T was the predominant mutation, but A2058G also was found together with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between G2032A and high levels of tiamulin and lincomycin MICs was found, suggesting an increasing importance of this mutation in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of B. hyodysenteriae.

  12. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain ▿

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    Hidalgo, Álvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte; Pringle, Märit; Naharro, Germán; Rubio, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates recovered from 2008 to 2009 by broth dilution. Domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal protein L3 gene were sequenced in 20 isolates for which the tiamulin MIC was ≥4 μg/ml, presenting decreased susceptibility, and in 18 tiamulin-susceptible isolates (MIC ≤ 0.125 μg/ml), and all isolates were typed by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected for lincomycin, and the MIC of tylosin remained high (MIC50 > 128 μg/ml). The decreased susceptibility to tylosin and lincomycin can be explained by mutations at position A2058 of the 23S rRNA gene (Escherichia coli numbering). A2058T was the predominant mutation, but A2058G also was found together with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between G2032A and high levels of tiamulin and lincomycin MICs was found, suggesting an increasing importance of this mutation in antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates of B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:21555771

  13. Emerging antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori in central Gujarat

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    H B Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in H. pylori treatment. The study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of resistance amongst 80 H.pylori isolates cultured from biopsy taken during routine endoscopies in 2008-2011. Materials and Methods: 855 gastro duodenal biopsies were collected and cultured on H.pylori selective medium (containing Brucella agar and Columbia agar (Hi media, with Skirrow′s supplement (antibiotic supplement and 7% human blood cells. H.pylori was isolated from 80 specimens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H.pylori isolates was carried out by the Kirby Bauer technique against metronidazole (5 µg, clarithromycin (15 µg, ciprofloxacin (5 µg, amoxicillin (10 µg, tetracycline (30 µg, erythromycin (15 µg, levofloxacin (5 µg, and furazolidone (50 µg (Sigma- Aldrich, MO. Results: 83.8% isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 58.8% were resistant to Clarithromycin 72.5% were resistant to Amoxicillin, 50% to Ciprofloxacin and 53.8% to tetracycline. furazolidone, erythromycin and Levofloxacin showed only 13.8% resistance to H.pylori. Multi drug resistance with metronidazole+ clarithromycin+ tetracycline was 85%. For all the drugs Antimicrobial resistance rate was found higher in males compare to females. Metronidazole and amoxicillin resistance was found noteworthy in patients with duodenal ulcer (p = 0.018, gastritis (P = 0.00, and in reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance was suggestively linked with duodenitis (P = 0.018, while furazolidone, erythromycin and levofloxacin showed excellent sensitivity in patients with duodenitis (P value- 0.018, gastritis (P= 0.00 and reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. Resistance with metronidazole (P = 0.481, clarithromycin (P= 0.261, amoxicillin (P = 0.276, tetracycline (P = 0.356, ciprofloxacin (P = 0.164 was not correlated well with Age-group and Gender of the patients. Conclusion: A very high percentage of patients were infected

  14. Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility

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    Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260. From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331. Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

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    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility survey of pathogens isolated from selected patients in Northern Italy

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    Elisabetta Maioli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the University of Genoa participated, during the year 2003, in an international antimicrobial surveillance program.The collection of isolates was done according to the site of infection and/or type of patient. Four hundred twenty (420 clinical isolates were analyzed during this year and the frequencies of the different pathogens were investigated. A reference centre carried out susceptibility tests. Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus represented 47.6% of all S. aureus isolates from blood stream infections and 33.3% of all S. aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalised patients.These strains showed resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents evaluated, except vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid which registered 100% of susceptibility. Some isolates from blood stream infections such as E. coli demonstrated resistance to ciprofloxacin (23.3%, levofloxacin (20%, and gatifloxacin (16.6%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant (18% to all fluoroquinolones tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa manifested resistance to ciprofloxacin (16.6%, while 27.7% of these strains were resistant both to levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. All the Enterobacter cloacae isolated from blood were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from community-acquired respiratory tract infections were all inhibited by ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections in hospitalised patients were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin (2.7%. All Salmonella spp. collected from samples of patients affected by infections of the gastro-intestinal tract were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones. Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in 21.4% of isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections. Fluoroquinolone resistance was

  17. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

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    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafoods in Lagos Lagoon Nigeria

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    Chigozie Oramadike

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a total of 90 seafood samples; croaker fish (Pseudotolithus senegalensis, shrimps (Penaeus notialis and blue crab (Callinectes sapidus collected from landing sites along the Lagos Lagoon in Nigeria were examined for the prevalence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using both biochemical and molecular methods. Biochemical identification of the isolates was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. The presence of the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin, trh1 (thermostable-related haemolysin and trh2 genes in the V. parahaemolyticus isolates was also detected by the PCR method. PCR products from the V.16S primers were sequenced. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was also determined. About, eight isolates were presumptively identified as V. parahaemolyticus, PCR identified five and none of the isolates were positive for the genes tdh or trh. The five isolates sequenced were identified as different strains of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus_RIMD_2210633 = 2MKSHa remained resistant to all antimicrobials tested. However, only V. parahaemolyticus_MP-2_AY911391 = TBSHy showed strong sensitivity to all the antimicrobials with ampicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration-4 μg/ml. In addition, the other three isolates showed sensitivity for Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Ceftazidime. Ampicillin resistance in most of the isolates suggests low efficiency of ampicillin in management of V. parahaemolyticus infection.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in Maluti Adventist Hospital patients, 2011

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    Phillip Mubanga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are amongst the most common infections encountered globally and are usually treated empirically based on bacterial resistance to antibiotics for a given region. Unfortunately in Lesotho, no published studies are available to guide doctors in the treatment of UTIs. Treatment protocols for Western countries have been adopted, which may not be applicable for this region. Aim: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in outpatients at the Maluti Adventist Hospital. Setting: The study was conducted at the outpatient department of the Maluti Adventist Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study using consecutive sampling of patients with clinical symptoms of UTI. Midstream urine samples were screened through chemistry and microscopy, then positive urine samples were cultured. The isolated uropathogens underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inclusion continued until 200 culture samples were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis. Results: The top five cultured uropathogens were Escherichia coli (61.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (14%, Pseudomonasspecies (6.5%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.5% and Streptococcus agalactiae (5%. The isolated uropathogens showed low sensitivity to cotrimoxazole (32.5% – 75.0% and amoxicillin (33.2% – 87.5% and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (84.0% – 95.1% and nitrofurantoin (76.9% – 100%. Conclusion: In the Maluti setting, cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin should be avoided as first-line drugs for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. We recommend the use of nitrofurantoin as first choice.

  1. Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

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    Hsi Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France, respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC: ceftriaxone (CRO, cefixime (CFX, and cefpodoxime (CPD. Methods One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI and manufacturer’s standards for each of the three methods. The measured diameters by the disk diffusion method were tested for correlation with the MIC values by agar dilution. In addition, comparisons with the Etest® were made. Categorical results for concordance, based on standard CLSI cutoffs, between the disk diffusion and the other two methods, respectively, were tested using the Chi-square statistics. Reproducibility was tested for CFX across a 6-month interval by repeated disk tests. Results Across all 115 specimens, the disk diffusion tests produced good categorical agreements, exhibiting concordance of 93.1%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with agar dilution and 93.0%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with Etest®, for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. Pearson correlations between disk-diffusion diameters and agar dilution MIC’s were -0.59, -0.67, and -0.81 for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. The correlations between disk diffusion and Etest® were -0.58, -0.73, and -0.49. Pearson correlation between the CFX disk readings over a 6-month interval was 91%. Conclusions Disk diffusion tests remain to be a useful, reliable and fast screening method for qualitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime.

  2. Antimicrobial treatment of infective endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin: historic overview and future considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, D. W. M.; Vedder, A. C.; Speelman, P.; van der Meer, J. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present the path that led to current concepts regarding antimicrobial treatment of endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin. Early treatment trials indicate that some patients with subacute endocarditis can be cured with shorter treatment

  3. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in 20 Chinese Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaoli; Cavaco, Lina; Lv, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected...

  4. International Comparison of Causative Bacteria and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Urinary Tract Infections between Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koichi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Alimsardjono, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Dadik; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Fujisawa, Masato

    2018-01-23

    Variation by country in urinary tract infection (UTI)-causative bacteria is partly due to the differences in the use of antibiotics. We compared their frequencies and antibiotic susceptibilities in the treatment of patients with UTI from 2 cities, Kobe, Japan, and Surabaya, Indonesia. We retrospectively analyzed 1,804 urine samples collected from patients with UTI in 2014 (1,251 collected in 11 months at Kobe University Hospital in Kobe and 544 collected in 2 months at Dr. Soetomo Hospital in Surabaya). Surabaya data were divided into adult and pediatric patients because a substantial number of specimens from pediatric-patients had been collected. The results indicated that Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (24.1% in Kobe and 39.3% in Surabaya) and was significantly resistant to ampicillin and substantially to first- and third-generation cephalosporins in Surabaya adults but not in Kobe adults (p < 0.01). Enterococcus faecalis was often isolated in Kobe (14.0%), but not in Surabaya (5.3%). Klebsiella spp. were isolated at a higher rate in Surabaya pediatric patients (20.3%) than in Surabaya adults (13.6%) and Kobe adults (6.6%). The antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates form Surabaya isolates tended to be lower than the ones from Kobe. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria were detected at a significantly higher rate in Surabaya than in Kobe (p < 0.001). These results showed that the antimicrobial resistance patterns of UTI-causative bacteria are highly variable among 2 countries, and the continuous surveillance of trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens is necessary for the future revision of antibiotic use.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken carcasses in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiri, Yoni Darmawan; Gölz, Greta; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Kleer, Josef; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Alter, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and quantify the number of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in chicken carcasses was 15.8% (29/184). When comparing samples from traditional markets and supermarkets, no significant difference in the L. monocytogenes prevalence was detectable (15.2 versus 16.3%). Of the samples, 97.3% had L. monocytogenes counts study were grouped into the molecular serogroup IIb, comprising the serovars 1/2b, 3b, and 7.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Karun River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Nazarzadeh Zaree

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a worldwide problem. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is typically caused by the production of β-lactamases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Karun River in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 water samples were collected from nine stations along Karun River in Iran, during spring and summer of 2012. In this research, different waterborne bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified using the membrane filtration technique and analytical profile index system for Enterobacteriaceae (API 20E. Then, disk diffusion method (CLSI, 2010; M2-A9 was used for testing the antibiotic resistance susceptibility. Enterobacteriaceae genera were tested against sixteen antibiotics: ampicillin, carbencillin, methicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, amikacin, ofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and amoxycillin. Results: The results of this study suggested that the level of fecal contamination in Karun water was very high. Among the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, there were 287 strains of (65% Escherichia coli, 162 (27% Enterobacter aeogenes, 73 (12.16% Citrobacter freundii, 58 (9.66% Proteus vulgaris, and 20 (3.3% Salmonella typhi. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed 100% resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. They failed to exhibit resistance to norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed intermediate activity, and some isolates were resistant. Conclusions: Detection of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli in more than 75% of water samples indicates the possible presence of other bacteria causing infectious diseases.

  10. Phenotypic, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from buffalo and cow mastitic milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Hassan, Hany M; Orabi, Ahmed; Abdelhafez, Ahmed S T

    2014-06-01

    Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n = 10/232) and cow (n = 35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance.

  11. Retrospective Analysis of Blood Stream Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria in a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital

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    Radha Rani D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the clinically diagnosed cases of sepsis in cancer patients. Methods: In the present study, etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of 1 year at a tertiary cancer care hospital was done. Blood culture positive isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the organisms was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration was done by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. Results: There were 1178 blood culture samples, of which 327 (27.7% were identified to be culture positive. Out of 327 positive cultures, 299 (91.4% showed bacterial growth, Gram negative were 161 (53.8% and Gram positive were 138 (46.1%. Candida species were isolated from 13 (3.97% of positive samples and 15 samples showed contamination. The most common Gram-negative isolate was. Escherichia coli (37.80% and Gram-positive isolate was coagulasenegative staphylococci (52.80%. Escherichia coli showed highest sensitivity to amikacin (83.60% and sensitivity to piperacillin+ tazobactum and cefaperazone+sulbactam was 54.09% and 52.45% respectively. High degree of resistance was found to cephalosporins and levofloxacin. Conclusion: The results indicate high level of antimicrobial resistance among Gram negative bacilli in septicemic patients. The results warrant continuous monitoring of antimicrobial pattern so as to build geographical epidemiological data.

  12. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  13. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W; Malcolm, Tan T H; Kuan, Chee H; Thung, Tze Y; Chang, Wei S; Loo, Yuet Y; Premarathne, Jayasekara M K J K; Ramzi, Othman B; Norshafawatie, Mohd F S; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels ( Rastrelliger brachysoma ) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus . Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 10 5 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains ( tdh + and/or trh +) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh + V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >10 5 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W.; Malcolm, Tan T. H.; Kuan, Chee H.; Thung, Tze Y.; Chang, Wei S.; Loo, Yuet Y.; Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Ramzi, Othman B.; Norshafawatie, Mohd F. S.; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

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    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  16. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia W. Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2% were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from <3 to >105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2% followed by minimarkets (89.1% and hypermarkets (83.3%. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+ were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130 of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a

  17. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteremia in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Eng, Li Ching

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug

  18. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in

  19. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  20. Characterization and susceptibility patterns of clinically important Enterococcus species in eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, A; Khanal, A; Kanungo, R; Mohapatra, T

    2007-12-01

    Life threatening infections caused by enterococcus species with multidrug resistance has emerged as a threat to medical care in the present era. This study was conducted to characterize enterococcus species isolated from different clinical samples and to detect the pattern of susceptibility to some of the commonly used antibiotics in B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Clinical samples submitted to the microbiology unit of Central Laboratory Service (CLS) for culture and sensitivity during March 2002 - February 2003 was analyzed. Enterococcus species were identified by colony characteristics, gram staining and relevant biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Of 50 Enterococcus species isolated, E. faecalis was the predominant isolate (48.0%) followed by E. faecium (32.0%) and E. avium (20.0%). Eighty-eight percent of E. faecalis showed sensitivity to cephotaxime and 87.0% to vancomycin. Multiple drug resistance was observed most commonly in E. faecium. Seventeen percent of E. faecium were resistant to vancomycin and 63.0% to ciprofloxacin and 44.0% to ampicillin. On the contrary E. avium rarely showed resistance to the antimicrobials tested including vancomycin. Enterococcal infections are common nowadays specially in hospitalized patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical practice and poultry should be discouraged to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistant species.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  2. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Diabetic Patients with Controlled and Uncontrolled Glycemia in Kuwait

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    May Sewify

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of glycemic control in diabetic patients on UTI prevalence, type of strains, and their antimicrobial drugs susceptibility. This study was conducted on urine samples from 722 adult diabetic patients from which 252 (35% samples were positive for uropathogens. Most UTI cases occurred in the uncontrolled glycemic group (197 patients versus 55 patients with controlled glycemia. Higher glycemic levels were measured in uncontrolled glycemia group (HbA1c = 8.3 ± 1.5 and 5.4 ± 0.4, resp., P<0.0001. Females showed much higher prevalence of UTI than males in both glycemic groups (88.5% and 11.5%, resp., P<0.0001. In the uncontrolled glycemia group 90.9% of the UTI cases happened at ages above 40 years and a clear correlation was obtained between patient age ranges and number of UTI cases (r=0.94; P=0.017, whereas in the group with controlled glycemia no trend was observed. Escherichia coli was the predominant uropathogen followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and they were together involved in 76.2% of UTI cases. Those species were similarly present in both diabetic groups and displayed comparable antibiotic resistance pattern. These results highlight the importance of controlling glycemia in diabetic patients to reduce the UTI regardless of age and gender.

  3. Neonatal nosocomial sepsis in a level-III NICU: evaluation of the causative agents and antimicrobial susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaz, Mehmet; Cetin, Hasan; Akisu, Mete; Aydemir, Söhret; Tunger, Alper; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in supportive care and use of antibiotics, sepsis preserves its importance due to its high mortality and morbidity for neonates. Identifying the causative agents and antibiotic resistance yearly in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) helps the physician to choose the most appropriate empirical therapy. In this study we aimed to evaluate positive blood cultures and antibiotic susceptibilities of newborns with proven sepsis during the years 2000-2002 in our NICU. The charts of babies with sepsis were evaluated for clinical characteristics, positive cultures and antimicrobial susceptibilities, retrospectively. Although most of the admitted patients were premature (76.5%), the frequency of proven sepsis was quite low, at 9.1% among 909 newborns. Mortality rate in sepsis was 16%. The most commonly isolated micro-organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (31.3%), fungi (19.2%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%). Methicillin resistance for CoNS was 92.3% and for S. aureus was 72.7%. In the last year, a significant increase in the frequency of Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.3 vs 14.2%), CoNS (27.1 vs 37.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.1 vs 8.6%) and fungal infections (18.8 vs 20%) was observed compared to the previous years. An initial empirical antibiotic therapy for late-onset sepsis was designed with teicoplanin + piperacillin-tazobactam/meropenem + antifungal (fluconazole or amphotericin B) as the best combination to cover this spectrum until the culture results arrive. However, this combination is only compatible with our results and may not be applied in all units. Every unit must follow the bacterial spectrum and antibacterial resistance patterns to choose their specific empirical treatment strategy for nosocomial infections.

  4. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320 isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185 toxR-positive isolate exhibit the TDH-related hemolysin (trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%, chloramphenicol (95%, trimethoprim-sulfamet (93%, gentamicin (85%, levofloxacin (83% and tetracycline (82%. The chloramphenicol (catA2 and kanamycin (aphA-3 resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lee, Learn-Han; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh), which plays a similar role as tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance V. parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320) isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185) toxR-positive isolate exhibit the trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%), chloramphenicol (95%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (93%), gentamicin (85%), levofloxacin (83%), and tetracycline (82%). The chloramphenicol (catA2) and kanamycin (aphA-3) resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields. PMID:25688239

  8. Susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of bacteria isolated in patients with acute gastrointestinal infections in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Farias, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E

    Enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in Mexico City have shown a high rate of resistance to different antibiotics, with the exception of rifaximin (RIF). RIF is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that reaches high fecal concentrations (≈ 8,000μg/g). Susceptibility to antimicrobials can vary in different geographic regions. To study the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in patients with acute diarrhea in the southeastern region of Mexico. A total of 614 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with acute diarrhea from 4 cities in Southeast Mexico were analyzed. An antibiogram with the following antibiotics was created: ampicillin (AMP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), chloramphenicol (CHL), and fosfomycin (FOS), assessed through the agar diffusion method at the standard concentrations recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), and RIF, assessed through microdilution at 4 concentrations. The bacteria were Escherichia coli (55%), as the majority, in all its pathogenic variants, Shigella (16.8%), Salmonella (15.3%), Aeromonas (7.8%), and less than 5% Campylobacter, Yersinia, Vibrio, and Plesiomonas. The accumulated overall susceptibility to RIF was 69.1, 90.8, 98.9, and 100% at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800μg/ml, respectively. Overall susceptibility to other antibiotics was FOS 82.8%, CHL 76.8%, CIP 73.9%, FUR 64%, T-S 58.7%, NEO 55.8%, and AMP 23.8%. Susceptibility to RIF at 400 and 800μg was significantly greater than with the other antimicrobials (P 98% of the bacterial strains and a high frequency of resistance to several common antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and chickens (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Smet, Annemieke; Ludwig, Carolin; Stephan, Bernd; De Graef, Evelyne; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-07-16

    Using the agar dilution method, antimicrobial susceptibility to human-use antibiotics was determined among Belgian faecal Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and broiler chickens. Both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical breakpoints were applied for interpretation of the results. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were examined for the presence of genes encoding CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CMY β-lactamases. All isolates with decreased quinolone susceptibility were screened for plasmid-borne genes qnr, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr. In all, 368 Salmonella isolates were recovered from pigs and 452 from chickens. Clinical resistance to ciprofloxacin was absent in isolates of both host species, and was 1.9 and 13.1% to cefotaxime in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to cefotaxime amounted to 2.2 and 0.7%, whereas for ciprofloxacin this was 3.0 and 23.0% in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin decreased susceptibility was limited to few serovars, mainly Paratyphi B. Multidrug resistance was markedly higher for pig isolates (39.7%) than for chicken isolates (17.3%). Sixty-six cefotaxime-resistant isolates, 59 from chickens and 7 from pigs, were phenotypically determined as ESBL/AmpC producers; predominantly Paratyphi B and Typhimurium serovars. BlaCTX-M (mostly blaCTXM-1, but also blaCTXM-2 and blaCTXM-9) and blaTEM-52 were the predominant ESBL genes. Only few isolates expressed SHV-12 or an AmpC enzyme (CMY-2). Isolates of four serovars carried qnr genes: Brandenburg and Llandof from pigs, both qnrS; Indiana and Paratyphi B from chickens with qnrB and qnrA. The latter isolate carried blaCTX-M-9 and was the only strain with a plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene among the ESBL/AmpC producers. This Salmonella survey confirms that the ESBL/AmpC producers are particularly prevalent in chickens (12.8%), and much less in pigs (1.9%). A link between plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes and ESBLs/AmpC was uncommon. Copyright

  10. A new rapid method for direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnini, Simona; Brucculeri, Veronica; Morici, Paola; Ghelardi, Emilia; Florio, Walter; Lupetti, Antonella

    2016-08-12

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the causative agent(s) of bloodstream infections can lead to prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy. To shorten species identification, in this study bacteria were recovered from monomicrobial blood cultures by serum separator tubes and spotted onto the target plate for direct MALDI-TOF MS identification. Proper antibiotics were selected for direct AST based on species identification. In order to obtain rapid AST results, bacteria were recovered from positive blood cultures by two different protocols: by serum separator tubes (further referred to as PR1), or after a short-term subculture in liquid medium (further referred to as PR2). The results were compared with those obtained by the method currently used in our laboratory consisting in identification by MALDI-TOF and AST by Vitek 2 or Sensititre on isolated colonies. The direct MALDI-TOF method concordantly identified with the current method 97.5 % of the Gram-negative bacteria and 96.1 % of the Gram-positive cocci contained in monomicrobial blood cultures. The direct AST by PR1 and PR2 for all isolate/antimicrobial agent combinations was concordant/correct with the current method for 87.8 and 90.5 % of Gram-negative bacteria and for 93.1 and 93.8 % of Gram-positive cocci, respectively. In particular, 100 % categorical agreement was found with levofloxacin for Enterobacteriaceae by both PR1 and PR2, and 99.0 and 100 % categorical agreement was observed with linezolid for Gram-positive cocci by PR1 and PR2, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between PR1 and PR2 for Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive cocci. This newly described method seems promising for providing accurate AST results. Most importantly, these results would be available in a few hours from blood culture positivity, which would help clinicians to promptly confirm or streamline an effective antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens from uncomplicated urinary tract infection in a pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Briceida; Calderón-Jaimes, Ernesto; Olivar-López, Víctor; Parra-Ortega, Israel; Alcázar-López, Virginia; Castellanos-Cruz, María Del Carmen; de la Garza-López, Alicia

    Urinary tract infection in children is well recognized as a cause of acute morbidity and chronic medical conditions. As a result, appropriate use of antimicrobial agents, however, increases antibiotic resistance and complicates its treatment due to increased patient morbidity, costs, rates of hospitalization, and use of broader-spectrum antibiotics. The goal of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility to commonly used agents for urinary tract infection against recent urinary isolates. A total of 457 consecutive children attending the emergency room at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez with symptoms of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection were eligible for inclusion. Patients who had had symptoms for≥7 days and those who had had previous episodes of urinary tract infection, received antibiotics or other complicated factors were excluded. Midstream and catheter urine specimens were collected. All isolates were identified and the in vitro activities of antimicrobials were determined. The most frequently isolated urinary pathogens were as follows: Escherichia coli (E. coli) (312, 68.3%), Enterococcus spp. (42, 11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (40, 8.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (34, 7.5%), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) (21, 4.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (8, 1.7%). The resistance to trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (%) was 73.7, 62.2, 100, 52, and 50, respectively, for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp., 92.5 for Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and 49.9 for Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium). Ampicillin was 86.3, 45, 100, 47.9, and 66.6% for the same strains, ciprofloxacin 33.8, 9, 18.8, 0, 0%, nitrofurantoin 4.4, 13, 97.7, 70, 0%; to E. faecalis 0% and 16.7% to E. faecium. Frequently prescribed empirical agents for uncomplicated urinary tract infection demonstrate lowered in vitro susceptibilities when tested against recent clinical isolates. Copyright © 2014 Hospital

  12. Variation in Outpatient Oral Antimicrobial Use Patterns among Canadian Provinces, 2000 to 2010

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    Shiona K Glass-Kaastra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The volume and patterns of antimicrobial drug use are key variables to consider when developing guidelines for prescribing, and programs to address stewardship and combat the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Because drug programs are regulated at the provincial level, there is an expectation that antibiotic use may vary among provinces.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from sputum culture of patients with cystic fibrosis: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a serious concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Farahmand, Fateme; Motamed, Farzaneh; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-11-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sputum specimens were cultured for the following bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. cepacia complex. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In our study, 54% of the patients (n = 93) harbored at least once S. aureus, 30% (n = 52) P. aeruginosa, and 2% (n = 3) Burkholderia cepacia. In 40 patients (23%), none of these organisms was grown. An increasing colonization rate of P. aeruginosa in the second decade of life was found. In contrast, the colonization rate of S. aureus was constant in both decades of life. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 40 isolates (43%). Among MRSA, no resistance against vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin occurred. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to meropenem, imipenem, doripenem, levofloxacin and polymixin B were more than 90%. The prevalence of MRSA has been rising. Since its impact on clinical outcomes, optimal prevention and treatment strategies are unclear, further studies to expand the knowledge about the infection control strategies and MRSA treatment are highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Short communication: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, T; Puacz, E; Lisowski, A; Siedlecki, P; Dudziak, W; Międzobrodzki, J; Krukowski, H

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that remains a major economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic composition of 80 S. aureus mastitis isolates collected from 14 dairy farms in Eastern Poland were determined. Of the 10 antimicrobial agents evaluated, only testing for penicillin G produced drug resistance. As 41% of the S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant, this drug along with other β-lactamase-sensitive β-lactams, should rather not be considered for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Upon genotyping, with a triplex PCR method, a total of 11 distinct PCR types were produced. The population structure of S. aureus isolates was highly clonal, with 1 predominant genotype circulating on each farm. The observed similarities in the genotype composition of S. aureus populations from geographically distant farms underscore the significance of interfarm transmission of S. aureus in Poland. This, in turn, argues for the establishment of a nationwide surveillance program for bovine mastitis due to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns of Antimicrobial Prescribing in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Yamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been designed to measure and improve the use of antimicrobials to achieve optimal clinical outcomes and reduce bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to review patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for hospitalized patients in the acute care setting and assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial use among prescribers in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a four-week period (1 November to 28 November 2012. The data of all discharged patients were retrieved from the department databases. Patient records and prescriptions were reviewed by an infectious disease consultant. The rationality of antimicrobial use was evaluated, analyzed, and judged based on local standard guidelines and the experience of the evaluating consultant. Results: There were 178 patients discharged from acute medical teams over the study period. Sixty-four percent of the patients received a total of 287 antimicrobial agents during admission. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient in those prescribed antimicrobials was 2.5±1.1. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent was piperacillin/tazobactam. Most patients had infections from gram-negative organisms, and high rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms were observed. Cultures were obtained before antimicrobial initiation in 25% of patients. Variability in antimicrobial selection for common infections was observed. Conclusions: National guidelines for the management of common infections are needed to minimize the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in tertiary care hospitals. A large surveillance study on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in different hospital settings is warranted.

  16. Unraveling bacterial networks and their antimicrobial susceptibility on silicon microarchitectures using intrinsic phase-shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Heidi; Holtzman, Liran; Haimov, Yuri; Weizman, Daniel; Kashi, Yechezkel; Nativ, Ofer; Halachmi, Sarel; Segal, Ester

    2018-02-01

    We have developed a rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in which photonic 2D silicon microarrays are employed as both the optical transducer element and as a preferable solid-liquid interface for bacterial colonization. We harness the intrinsic ability of the micro-architectures to relay optical phase-shift reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements (termed PRISM) and incorporate it into a platform for culture-free, label-free tracking of bacterial accumulation, proliferation, and death. This assay employs microfluidic channels interfaced with PRISM chips and is carried out in a two-stage process, namely bacteria seeding and antibiotic incubation. Bacteria proliferation within the microtopologies results in an increase in refractive index of the medium, yielding an increase in optical path difference, while cell death or bacteriostatic activity results in decreasing or unchanged values. The optical responses of bacteria to various concentrations of relevant antibiotics have been tracked in real time, allowing for accurate determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values within 2-3 hours. We further extended this work to analyze antibiotic susceptibilities of clinical isolates and direct urine samples derived from patients at neighboring hospitals in newly designed, disposable microfluidic devices. This has opened the door to the observation of unique bacterial behaviors, as we can evaluate bacterial adhesion, growth, and antibiotic resistance on different microarchitectures, different surface chemistries, and even different strains. Motility, charge, and biofilm abilities have been explored for their effect of bacterial adhesion to the microstructures as we further develop our method of rapid, label-free AST for full clinical application.

  17. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  18. Bovine salmonellosis in northeast of Iran: frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Hessam A; Seifi, Hesam A; Rad, Mehrnaz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate serovar and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp isolated from healthy, diseased and necropsied cows and calves in this observational study. Nineteen isolates recovered from feces and tissues of salmonellosis-affected animals of two commercial farms in north-east of Iran. In second part of the study, the two farms were sampled 4 times with an interval of 2 month. The samples included calves' feces, adult cows' feces, feeds, water, milk filters, and milk fed to calves. Five Salmonella were isolated from 332 fecal samples collected from calves and peri-parturient cows. No Salmonella was recovered from water, feed, milk filers and milk fed to calves. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolate among all sero-groups. S. Dublin was only accounted for 8% (two out of 24) of isolates. Isolated Salmonella strains were used for the ERIC PCR DNA fingerprinting assay. Our results grouped Salmonella isolates into 3 clusters, suggesting that specific genotypes were responsible for each sero-group of Salmonella. The results also revealed diversity among Salmonella isolates in cluster III (sero-group B). Eighteen out of 19 Salmonella spp. were resistant to oxytetracycline. Five isolates out of 19 showed more than one drug resistance. Multi-drug resistance was seen only among Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. Enrofloxacin was the most susceptible antibiotic against all isolates in this study. The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Group G Streptococcal Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Kurita, Goro; Murata, Yoshiteru; Goto, Mieko; Takahashi, Takashi

    2017-07-24

    In this study, we conducted a species-level identification of group G streptococcal (GGS) isolates from companion animals in Japan and analyzed antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns. Strains were isolated from sterile and non-sterile specimens collected from 72 animals with clinical signs or symptoms in April-May, 2015. We identified the strain by 16S rRNA sequencing, mass spectrometry (MS), and an automated method based on their biochemical properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the broth microdilution method and E-test. AMR determinants (erm(A), erm(B), mef(A), tet(M), tet(O), tet(K), tet(L), and tet(S)) in corresponding resistant isolates were amplified by PCR. The 16S rRNA sequencing identified the GGS species as Streptococcus canis (n = 68), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (n = 3), and S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (n = 1). However, there were discrepancies between the sequencing data and both the MS and automated identification data. MS and the automated biochemical technique identified 18 and 37 of the 68 sequencing-identified S. canis strains, respectively. The AMR rates were 20.8% for tetracycline and 5.6% for clarithromycin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 50 -MIC 90 of 2-64 and ≤ 0.12-0.25μg/mL, respectively. AMR genotyping showed single or combined genotypes: erm(B) or tet(M)-tet(O)-tet(S). Our findings show the unique characteristics of GGS isolates from companion animals in Japan in terms of species-level identification and AMR patterns.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria, isolated from patients treated at Jesenice General hospital in the period between 2004 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is still one of the mayor problems in medicine. In the year 2006, microbiologists of the Institute of Public Health Kranj together with clinicians and pharmacist of Jesenice General Hospital prepared the programm of antimicrobial resistance surveillance of patients treated in the hospital. Some of the results are presented in this article.Methods: In the retrospective study, bacterial strains, isolated from different samples were analysed. The strains were isolated and studied during the routine work of microbiology laboratory of IPH Kranj in the period between 2004 and 2006.Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria from haemocultures was Escherichia coli (35.4 %. In the years 2004 and 2006, susceptibility of strains for ciprofloxacin was 95.7 % and 97.2 %, for parenteral cefuroxime (95.7 % and 94.4 %, for cefotaxime and gentamicin in both years 100 %. Susceptibility of E. coli strains from urine samples in patients from the department for internal medicine was in 2004 and 2006 for co-amoxiclav 88.5 % and 70.1 %, for co-trimoxazole 60.3 % and 81.3 %, for cefaclor 94.9 % and 89.7 %, for ciprofloxacin 83.3 % and 82.2 %. Among strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 100 % were sensitive to vancomycin and 99.3 % to linezolid in 2006. Among methicillin susceptible strains, sensitivity to erythromycin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin lowered slightely in the three years period; in 2006 it was 87.6 %, 90.6 % and 89.1 %. Susceptibility of strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in 2006 similar comparing to 2004; it was 92 % for ceftazidime, 75 % for gentamicin, 64.6 % for ciprofloxacin and 96 % for imipenem. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp., sensitivity rate to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin with tazobactam and gentamicin significantly fell in the year 2005 and stayed low in 2006.Conclusions: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and trends of susceptibility are intended to guide

  1. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  2. Correcting a Fundamental Flaw in the Paradigm for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvi C. Ersoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing cause of death worldwide, resulting in a global ‘call to action’ to avoid receding into an era lacking effective antibiotics. Despite the urgency, the healthcare industry still relies on a single in vitro bioassay to determine antibiotic efficacy. This assay fails to incorporate environmental factors normally present during host-pathogen interactions in vivo that significantly impact antibiotic efficacy. Here we report that standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST failed to detect antibiotics that are in fact effective in vivo; and frequently identified antibiotics that were instead ineffective as further confirmed in mouse models of infection and sepsis. Notably, AST performed in media mimicking host environments succeeded in identifying specific antibiotics that were effective in bacterial clearance and host survival, even though these same antibiotics failed in results using standard test media. Similarly, our revised media further identified antibiotics that were ineffective in vivo despite passing the AST standard for clinical use. Supplementation of AST medium with sodium bicarbonate, an abundant in vivo molecule that stimulates global changes in bacterial structure and gene expression, was found to be an important factor improving the predictive value of AST in the assignment of appropriate therapy. These findings have the potential to improve the means by which antibiotics are developed, tested, and prescribed.

  3. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  5. Technical note: Antimicrobial susceptibility of Portuguese isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in subclinical bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, S F; Bexiga, R; Cavaco, L M; Vilela, C L

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance traits of staphylococci responsible for subclinical bovine mastitis in Portugal, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 7 antimicrobial agents, frequently administered for mastitis treatment, were determined for 30 Staphylococcus aureus and 31 Staphylococcus epidermidis field isolates. Beta-lactamase production was detected through the use of nitrocefin-impregnated discs. The MIC that inhibited 90% of the isolates tested (MIC90) of penicillin, oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, and enrofloxacin were, respectively, 4, 0.5, 1, 1, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. aureus and > or = 64, 8, 1, 32, > or = 64, > or = 64, and 0.06 microg/mL for Staph. epidermidis. All Staph. aureus isolates showed susceptibility to oxacillin, cefazolin, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and enrofloxacin. Beta-lactamase production was detected in 20 of these isolates (66.7%), all of which were resistant to penicillin. Of the 31 Staph. epidermidis tested, 24 (77.4%) were beta-lactamase positive. All isolates were susceptible to both cefazolin and enrofloxacin. Nine Staph. epidermidis isolates were resistant to oxacillin, with MIC values ranging from 4 to 8 microg/mL. The MIC values of 5 antimicrobial agents tested were higher than those reported in other countries. Enrofloxacin was the only exception, showing lower MIC values compared with other reports. Overall, the antimicrobial agents tested in our study, with the exception of penicillin, were active against the 61 isolates studied.

  6. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  8. Presence of Type I-F CRISPR/Cas systems is associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Seyid; Personne, Yoann; Newire, Enas; Laverick, Rebecca; Russell, Oliver; Roberts, Adam P; Enne, Virve I

    2017-08-01

    Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and their associated cas genes are sequence-specific DNA nuclease systems found in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas systems use RNA transcripts of previously acquired DNA (spacers) to target invading genetic elements with the same sequence, including plasmids. In this research we studied the relationship between CRISPR/Cas systems and multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli . The presence of Type I-E and Type I-F CRISPR systems was investigated among 82 antimicrobial-susceptible and 96 MDR clinical E. coli isolates by PCR and DNA sequencing. Phylogrouping and MLST were performed to determine relatedness of isolates. RT-PCR was performed to ascertain the expression of associated cas genes. Type I-F CRISPR was associated with the B2 phylogroup and was significantly overrepresented in the susceptible group (22.0%) compared with the MDR group (2.1%). The majority of CRISPR I-F-containing isolates had spacer sequences that matched IncF and IncI plasmids. RT-PCR demonstrated that Type I-F cas genes were expressed and therefore potentially functional. The CRISPR I-F system is more likely to be found in antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli . Given that the Type I-F system is expressed in WT isolates, we suggest that this difference could be due to the CRISPR system potentially interfering with the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance plasmids, maintaining susceptibility in these isolates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Angell, Joseph W.; Clegg, Simon R.; Sullivan, Leigh E.; Duncan, Jennifer S.; Grove?White, Dai H.; Carter, Stuart D.; Evans, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the ...

  10. The second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Hosobe, Takahide; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Matsumura, Masaru; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Takayama, Kazuo; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sumii, Toru; Kadena, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Shirane, Takeshi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Akiyama, Kikuo; Imai, Toshio; Kano, Motonori

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Survey on Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Different Antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: A study of antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from clinical sources of Medinova ... It also causes urinary tract infection and other .... Ceftriaxone- resistant Salmonella infection acquired by a child from cattle. N. Engl.

  12. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Salmon, S.A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested:

  13. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance ...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from mastitic cows in Brazilian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rosa da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis and is associated with several economic losses for producers. Few studies have evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility and the prevalence of genetic resistance determinants among isolates of this bacterium from Brazilian dairy cattle. This work aimed to evaluate the frequency of the antimicrobial resistance genes ermA, ermB, mefA, tetO, tetM, aphA3, and aad-6, and in vitro susceptibility to the antimicrobials amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, penicillin, ceftiofur, and cefalotin, and the associations between resistance genotypes and phenotypes among 118 S. agalactiae isolates obtained from mastitic cows in Brazilian dairy herds. Of the resistance genes examined, ermB was found in 19 isolates (16.1%, tetO in 23 (19.5%, and tetM in 24 (20.3%. The genes ermA, mefA, aphA3, and aad-6 were not identified. There was an association between the presence of genes ermB, tetM, and tetO and phenotypic resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. Rates of resistance to the tested antibiotics varied, as follows: erythromycin (19.5%, tetracycline (35.6%, gentamicin (9.3%, clindamycin (20.3%, penicillin (3.4%, and amikacin (38.1%; conversely, all isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur and cefalotin. Antimicrobial resistance testing facilitates the treatment decision process, allowing the most judicious choice of antibiotics. Moreover, it enables regional and temporal monitoring of the resistance dynamics of this pathogen of high importance to human and animal health.

  16. How to isolate, identify and determine antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in routine laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, E; Boyanova, L; Justesen, U S

    2018-02-17

    There has been increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria that cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens. Beside the classical, time-consuming identification methods and automated biochemical tests, the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has revolutionized identification of even unusual and slow-growing anaerobes directly from culture plates, providing the possibility of providing timely information about anaerobic infections. The aim of this review article is to present methods for routine laboratories, which carry out anaerobic diagnostics on different levels. Relevant data from the literature mostly published during the last 7 years are encompassed and discussed. The review involves topics on the anaerobes that are members of the commensal microbiota and their role causing infection, the key requirements for collection and transport of specimens, processing of specimens in the laboratory, incubation techniques, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria. Advantages, drawbacks and specific benefits of the methods are highlighted. The present review aims to update and improve anaerobic microbiology in laboratories with optimal conditions as well as encourage its routine implementation in laboratories with restricted resources. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A successful antimicrobial therapeutic strategy for the discitis caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans under unknown drug susceptibility: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shunsuke; Horiuchi, Yosuke; Uchida, Takae; Yonaha, Akiko; Miyata, Takanori; Nagano, Eiko; Kodama, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2018-04-20

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is well-known as the pathogen of gingivitis or periodontitis, and discitis or vertebral osteomyelitis cases caused by this organism have rarely been reported. Ampicillin or amoxicillin has been used in the previously reported discitis cases; however, no cases have been reported that is treated with levofloxacin. We report the first published case we chose levofloxacin to treat. We failed to perform the susceptibility testing because of the poor growth and fastidious nature of the organism, and the result of susceptibility of amoxicillin was unclear. Levofloxacin, which A. actinomycetemcomitans is usually susceptible to, can be an effective alternative oral antimicrobial agent in such cases. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, A. P.; Watts, J. L.; Salmon, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for 811 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of bovine mastitis in 11 countries. The countries and number of isolates included Denmark (105), England (92), Finland (95), Germany (103), Iceland (22), Ireland (42), Norway (101), Sweden...... antimicrobial agents tested regardless of country. Given the differences in antimicrobial use in various countries, the widespread adoption of mastitis control programs to prevent infections limits the exposure of S. aureus infected animals to antimicrobial drugs....

  19. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin while the enteric bacteria were generally more resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The findings show that there is a high rate of wound infection in Kano, ...

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Gram-negative bacteria, the production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In the Banja Luka region, there were no extensive researches on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates. Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates as the cause of the urinary tract infections in outpatients, the distribution of these ESBL isolates according to age and gender of patients and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Methods. Urine specimens obtained from outpatients were cultured on chromogenic CPS-ID3 media. All plates showing significant (>105 cfu/ml growth of E. coli in pure culture were further processed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on VITEK TWO Compact using AST-GN27 cards for testing Gram negative bacteria and detection of ESBL producers. Results. Out of 2,195 isolates, 177 (8.1% were ESBL producers. Ninety-two isolates were obtained from female patients (5% of E. coli isolated from women and 85 isolates from male patients (23% of E. coli isolated from men. High percentage of ESBL isolates was detected in the infant age group under one year (36.7% and in the age group over 60 years (28.8%. All ESBL isolates were susceptible to imipenem and resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime. There was a significant resistance to amikacin (79.1%, gentamicin (76.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (54.8% and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (45.8%. Resistance to nutrofurantoin was 13.6%. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated the presence of ESBL producing E. coli urinary isolates in outpatients, and their extensive susceptibility to imipenem and nitrofurantoin.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Minjun; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide. In 2011, 1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected. All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents, and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs, Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates. Among the antimicrobial agents tested, ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%, followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%). Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%, 38.3%, 61.1%, and 50.8%, respectively. The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%, 38.1%, 41.2%, and 57.7%, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin. Including the carbapenems, most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  2. Enteric fever in Mumbai--clinical profile, sensitivity patterns and response to antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jog, S; Soman, R; Singhal, T; Rodrigues, C; Mehta, A; Dastur, F D

    2008-04-01

    Enteric fever is endemic in Mumbai and its diagnosis poses several problems. Our main aim was to study the clinical profile, haematological features of culture proven typhoid cases, the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates and the time to defervescence with the treatment received. This was a retospective chart review of all cases of culture proven enteric fever carried out at a tertiary care private hospital in Mumbai over the period January 2003 to September 2005. Culture positivity in our study was 52.6%. Sixty one percent of the isolates were Salmonella typhi while 39% were Salmonella paratyphi A. An absolute eosinopenia was seen in 76.9% of the patients. Before being admitted to the hospital, 46.2% received antibiotics. The mean time to defervescence in patients who received prior antibiotics was 4.5 days while that in those who did not receive prior antibiotics was 5.1 days. A high culture positivity despite prior or ongoing antibiotic treatment was seen. Absolute eosinophil count of 0% could be an important marker of typhoid. High prevalence of nalidixic acid resistance, a marker of resistance to fluoroquinolones was observed. Combination treatment was not found to be superior to treatment with a single antibiotic.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials in enterococci from poultry has been found throughout the world and is generally recognized as associated with antimicrobial use. This study was conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterococcal isolates of intensive (indoor) and free range chickens from 2008/09 and 2000 in order to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance associated with different management systems. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in faecal enterococci isolates were determined by agar dilution. Resistance to bacitracin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, lincomycin, tylosin and tetracycline was more common among meat chickens (free range and intensive) than free range egg layers (Pfree range meat chickens.

  4. Bacterial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: A Four-Year Surveillance Study (2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mirsoleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the common bacterial microorganisms causing UTI and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in Bandar Abbas (Southern Iran during a four-year period. In this retrospective study, samples with a colony count of ≥105 CFU/mL bacteria were considered positive; for these samples, the bacteria were identified, and the profile of antibiotic susceptibility was characterized. From the 19223 samples analyzed, 1513 (7.87% were positive for bacterial infection. UTI was more frequent in male (54.9%. E. coli was reported the most common etiological agent of UTI (65.2%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (26%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.6%, and Staphylococcus coagulase positive (3.7%. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility analysis for E. coli to commonly used antibiotics are as follows: Amikacin (79.7%, Ofloxacin (78.3%, Gentamicin (71.6%, Ceftriaxone (41.8, Cefotaxime (41.4%, and Cefixime (27.8%. Empirical antibiotic selection should be based on awareness of the local prevalence of bacterial organisms and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on universal or even national guidelines. In this study, Amikacin and Gentamicin were shown to be the most appropriate antibiotics for empiric therapy of pyelonephritis, but empirical therapy should only be done by specialist physicians in cases where it is necessary while considering sex and age of children.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  6. Spatial patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Danish Pig Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Ersbøll, A. K.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W), was quantified by a high-throughput qPCR. It was evaluated whether the sample method resulted in a study population representative of Danish pig farms with finishers where it was found that the study population was biased...

  7. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Proposed quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Susceptibility Tests using the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N; Walter, D H

    2001-01-01

    Quality control guidelines for standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test methods are critical for the continuing accuracy of these clinical tests. In this report, quality control limits were proposed for the veterinary antimicrobial agent tiamulin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of three or four log(2) dilution steps in two different medium formulations. Disk diffusion zone diameter ranges were proposed for tiamulin tested against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ATCC 27090 (12-18 mm) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-32 mm). The data from eight participating laboratories produced 100% of results within proposed MIC limits (8-32 microg/mL), and 95.8-97.0% of zones were found within suggested zone diameter QC guidelines. These proposed QC ranges should be validated by in-use results from veterinary clinical laboratories.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  10. Variations in the sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Muller, Arno; Greko, Christina; Moulin, Gerard; Mackay, David

    2014-08-01

    To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of packages sold) according to a standardized protocol and template and presented in a harmonized manner. These data were calculated to express amounts sold, in metric tonnes, of active ingredient of each package. A population correction unit (PCU) was applied as a proxy for the animal biomass potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The indicator used to express sales was milligrams of active substance per PCU. Substantial variations in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the countries were observed. The proportion of sales, in mg/PCU, of products applicable for treatment of groups or herds of animals (premixes, oral powders and oral solution) varied considerably between the countries. Some countries reported much lower sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents than others, when expressed as mg/PCU. Sales patterns varied between countries, particularly with respect to pharmaceutical forms. Further studies are needed to understand the factors that explain the observed differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  12. [Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from animals to ofloxacin and commonly used antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, I; Yoshida, T; Higashide, Y; Sakano, T

    1990-01-01

    Susceptibilities of Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chickens, pigs and cattle to ofloxacin (OFLX) and commonly used antimicrobial agents were investigated. 1. E. coli (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility of OFLX (MIC 0.10-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. Commonly used antimicrobial agents to which these isolates responded with relatively high susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-6.25 micrograms/ml) included oxolinic acid (OXA), ampicillin (ABPC), kanamycin (KM) and chloramphenicol (CP) with their MIC50 values in the increasing order as above. Drugs to which these isolates responded with moderate to weak susceptibilities (MIC50 25 approximately greater than 800 micrograms/ml) were doxycycline (DOXY), streptomycin (SM), spectinomycin (SPCM) and sulfadimethoxine (SDMX) in the increasing order of MIC50. E. coli isolates with resistances to all the test drugs other than OFLX and OXA amounted to 7.1-57.1% of the isolates examined and 20 isolates (71.4%) in total. 2. Susceptibilities to OFLX and 4 existing pyridonecarboxylic acid derivatives of E. coli (48 samples) isolated recently from diarrheal pigs were compared. When evaluated in terms of MIC50, the values of OFLX and norfloxacin were both 0.10 micrograms/ml. The values increased by differences of 0.39-3.13 micrograms/ml in an order of OXA, pipemidic acid and nalidixic acid. 3. Salmonella (28 isolates) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility to OFLX (MIC 0.20-0.39 micrograms/ml for all the isolates) among all the test drugs. The drugs to which these isolates responded with relatively high to moderate susceptibilities (MIC50 0.78-12.5 micrograms/ml) included ABPC, OXA, DOXY, KM, CP and SM with their MIC50 values increasing in this order. The drugs to which the isolates responded with low susceptibilities (MIC50 above 100 micrograms/ml) were SPCM and SDMX. Of all the 28 Salmonella isolates tested, 7.1-32.1% were resistant

  13. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates recovered from the pig slaughter process in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Adriana; Sala, Claudia; Imre, Kálmán

    2015-01-15

    Reported human salmonellosis cases have increased in Romania. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Salmonella strains isolated from pork and chicken meat indicate a worrying multidrug resistance pattern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella and to evaluate the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella strains in a pig slaughterhouse-processing complex, which receives animals from 30% of the large industrialized swine farms in Romania. A total of 108 samples, including pork (n = 47), packaged pork products (n = 44), scald water sludge (n = 8), and detritus from the hair removal machine of the slaughterhouse (n = 9) were examined for the presence of Salmonella through standard methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated strains to 17 antibiotics was tested using the Vitek 2 system. Twenty-six (24.1%) samples were found to be Salmonella positive; this included 25.5% of meat samples and 15.9% of packaged products, as well as samples from two different points of the slaughter (41.2%). Resistance was observed against tetracycline (61.5%), ampicillin (50%), piperacillin (50%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (34.6%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (26.9%), nitrofurantion (23.1%), cefazolin (15.4%), piperacillin/tazobactam (7.7%), imipenem (3.8%), ciprofloxacin (3.8%), and norfloxacin (3.8%). No resistance towards cefoxitin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, amikacin, and gentamicin was found. Our study demonstrated the occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains in the investigated pork production complex and highlighted it as a potential source of human infections. The results demonstrate the seriousness of antibiotic resistance of Salmonella in Romania, while providing a useful insight for the treatment of human salmonellosis by specialists.

  14. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  15. Endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin: Clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients. The clinical settings were post-cataract surgery in 8/14 (57.1% and open globe injury in 6/14 (42.8%. Primary intervention for all patients included tap and intravitreal antibiotic injection. During subsequent follow-up, pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 6 patients and one patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty. Mean number of intravitreal antibiotic injections performed were 3.4 per patient. The most common organisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 6/14 (42.8%, Staphylococcus aureus in 5/14 (35.7%, Streptococcus sp in 2/14 (14.2% and Bacillus sp in 1/14 (7.14%. In addition to vancomycin, resistance to multiple drugs (three or more groups of antibiotics was found in all 14 cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed susceptibility to amikacin in 7/14 (50.0%, gatifloxacin in 6/14 (42.8%, moxifloxacin in 3/13 (23.0%, cefazoline in 5/14 (35.7%, cefuroxime in 3/14 (21.4%, ciprofloxacin in 2/14 (14.2% and linezolid in 5/5 (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 30.7 weeks (6 weeks–90 weeks. At last follow-up, visual acuity (VA of 20/200 or better was recorded in 7/14 (50% and VA < 5/200 occurred in 7/14 (50%. Conclusion and importance: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing may help in selection of suitable antimicrobial agents for repeat intravitreal injection. Inspite of retreatment with intravitreal antibiotics, these patients generally had poor VA outcomes. Keywords: Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Endophthalmitis

  16. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

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    Amin Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods: A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results: A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. Flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  17. Overall decrease in the susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis to antimicrobials over the past 30 years in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne V Gautier-Bouchardon

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma (M. bovis is frequently implicated in respiratory diseases of young cattle worldwide. Today, to combat M. bovis in Europe, only antimicrobial therapy is available, but often fails, leading to important economical losses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of M. bovis is not covered by antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks. The objectives of this study were to identify resistances that were acquired over the last 30 years in France and to determine their prevalence within contemporary strains. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values of 12 antimicrobials, considered active on M. bovis, were compared, using an agar dilution method, between 27 and 46 M. bovis isolates respectively obtained in 1978-1979 and in 2010-2012 from 73 distinct respiratory disease outbreaks in young cattle all over France. For eight antimicrobials, resistances were proven to be acquired over the period and expressed by all contemporary strains. The increase of the MIC value that inhibited 50% of the isolates (MIC50 was: i substantial for tylosin, tilmicosin, tulathromycin and spectinomycin, from 2 to >64, 2 to >128, 16 to 128 and 4 to >64 µg/mL, respectively, ii moderate for enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, marbofloxacin and oxytetracycline, from 0.25 to 0.5, 0.25 to 0.5, 0.5 to 1, 32 to >32 µg/mL, respectively. No differences were observed for gamithromycin, tildipirosin, florfenicol and valnemulin with MIC50 of 128, 128, 8, <0.03 µg/mL, respectively. If referring to breakpoint MIC values published for respiratory bovine pathogens, all contemporary isolates would be intermediate in vivo for fluoroquinolones and resistant to macrolides, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin and florfenicol.

  18. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    to the following antimicrobials were determined: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, colistin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Results: No significant development of resistance occurred within the most important serovars, except Salmonella Typhimurium. A major...

  19. Diagnostic tests and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in boys and girls with UTI in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, S.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Donker, G.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: in children, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections encountered by the general practitioner (GP). To minimize renal damage, early diagnosis and adequate empiric antimicrobial therapy are essential. Therefore, this study evaluated the nitrite and

  20. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and multiplex PCR-serotyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from humans, foods and livestock in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfollahi, Lida; Chaharbalesh, Ardalan; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Hasani, Alka

    2017-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen causing listeriosis, which potentially affects all individuals, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons. The present study investigated the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and serotypes distribution of the isolated L. monocytogenes from Iran. Twenty two (4.97%) of 442 human, food and livestock samples were found to be positive for L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was identified in 8.8% of 125 human samples, 2.99% of 267 food and 6% of 50 livestock samples. The standard disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multiplex PCR for serotyping. Among the 22 isolates tested, 6 (27.2%) displayed resistance to penicillin G, with all of the isolates and 2 (9%) of them showing intermediate susceptibility to clindamycin and rifampicin, respectively. According to the MIC assay, the rate of resistance to penicillin G was the same as that of disk diffusion method, but 16 (72.7%) of isolates showed intermediate susceptibility to clindamycin using E-test. In the multiplex PCR, 19 (86.4%) of isolates belonged to serotype 1/2c or 3c and the remaining 3 isolates were identified as (4b, 4d or 4e) and (1/2a or 3a), respectively. The occurrence of resistance to penicillin G, which can be used in the treatment of listeriosis, is very alarming and more prevalence of 1/2c serotype, in comparison to 3 other important ones (1/2a, 1/2b and 4b), in Iran has been reported for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing the distribution of various serogroups of L. monocytogenes from human and livestock in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Aeromonas species isolated from pet turtles and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon

    2017-05-23

    To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act + /alt + /ast + genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act - /alt - /ast - . In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.

  2. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  3. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  4. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bacterial isolates. The isolates were characterized and identified by standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out ... Pure cultures were characterized using morphological appearances on selective and .... J Nepal Health Res Council. 2007; 5(1): 22-26. 4. Taiwo SS, Okesina AB, Onile BA.

  5. Urinary Bacterial Profile and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisms were identified from mid-stream clean catch urine samples and antibiotic susceptibility was performed using bacteriological standard tests. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and were processed and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 16. Results: Out of 367 pregnant women, 37 were ...

  6. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Ps aeruginosa, Staph aureus and E. coli are highly prevalent in urine of the residents of Zaria investigated. The high multiple antibiotics resistance identified makes it necessary for antibiotic susceptibility testing to be conducted prior to antibiotics prescription in in Zaria. Key words: Antibiotics resistance; bacteria; ...

  7. Detection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm Producing Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated From a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms adhere to non-living material or living tissue, and form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers/slime. Biofilm-associated microorganisms behave differently from free-floating bacteria with respect to growth rates and ability to resist antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose a public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the prevalence of biofilm producers among Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. The study was carried out from October 2009 to March 2010, at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College/ National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Clinical specimens were received from various wards of a tertiary care hospital. These were dealt by standard microbiological procedures. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated were subjected to biofilm detection by congo red agar method (CRA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of those isolates, which showed positive results (slime production, was done according to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of 150 isolates were tested for the production of biofilm/slime. Among them, 81 isolates showed positive results. From these 81, 51 were Gram positive and 30 were Gram negative. All the 81(54% slime producers showed reduced susceptibility to majority of antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor associated with chronic nosocomial infection. Detection of biofilm forming organisms can help in appropriate antibiotic choice.

  8. Microbiological Surveillance of Peritoneal Dialysis Associated Peritonitis: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of a Referral Center in GERMANY over 32 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kitterer

    Full Text Available Peritonitis is one of the most important causes of treatment failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. This study describes changes in characteristics of causative organisms in PD-related peritonitis and antimicrobial susceptibility.In this single center study we analyzed retrospective 487 susceptibility profiles of the peritoneal fluid cultures of 351 adult patients with peritonitis from 1979 to 2014 (divided into three time periods, P1-P3.Staphylococcus aureus decreased from P1 compared to P2 and P3 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA occurred only in P3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE increased in P3 over P1 and P2 (P <0.0001, respectively. In P2 and P3, vancomycin resistant enterococci were detected. The percentage of gram-negative organisms remained unchanged. Third generation cephalosporin resistant gram-negative rods (3GCR-GN were found exclusively in P3. Cefazolin-susceptible gram-positive organisms decreased over the three decades (93% in P1, 75% in P2 and 58% in P3, P<0.01, P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively. Vancomycin susceptibility decreased and gentamicin susceptibility in gram-negatives was 94% in P1, 82% in P2 and 90% in P3. Ceftazidim susceptibility was 84% in P2 and 93% in P3.Peritonitis caused by MSSA decreased, but peritonitis caused by MRSE increased. MRSA peritonitis is still rare. Peritonitis caused by 3GCR-GN is increasing. An initial antibiotic treatment protocol should be adopted for PD patients to provide continuous surveillance.

  9. [Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler whole production process in four provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W W; Bai, L; Zhang, X L; Xu, X J; Tang, Z; Bi, Z W; Guo, Y C

    2018-04-06

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler production process in 4 provinces of China. Methods: Using convenience sampling method, 238 sample sites from broiler whole production process were chosen in Henan, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang and Shandong provinces in 2012. A total of 11 592 samples were collected and detected to analyze prevalence baseline, including 2 090 samples from breeding chicken farms and hatcheries, 1 421 samples from broiler farms, 5 610 samples from slaughterhouses and 2 471 samples from distribution and retail stores. All Salmonella strains were isolated through selective enrichment, and were serotyped according to Kauffmann-White scheme. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of selected Salmonella strains were determined by the broth microdilution method and fourteen antimicrobial agents were examined. Results: During incubation course, the average prevalence of Salmonella was 5.5% in feces of breeding hens, feces of chicks, and hatching eggs, 123 Salmonella strains were isolated. During cultivation course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 8.0% in feces from broiler farms, soil, feed, and workers, 114 Salmonella strains were isolated. During slaughter course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 24.9% in swabs pre-slaughter, dressed broiler carcasses, pre-cooled broiler carcasses, water from precooling pool, cutter and chipping boards, frozen chicken portions, and workers, 1 438 Salmonella strains were isolated. During distribution and sale course, the prevalence of Salmonella was 20.9% in transport carts, frozen chicken portions, retail chicken portions and workers, 551 Salmonella strains were isolated. The dominant Salmonella serotypes were Salmonella Enteritidis ( n= 1 229) and Salmonella Indiana ( n= 621). Among 1 231 examined strains, 97.2% Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, 69.9% Salmonella strains were multi-drug resistant isolates. Conclusion: Our

  10. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  11. Immunogenic properties of the human gut-associated archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis and its susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Bang

    Full Text Available The methanogenic archaeon Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis strain B10T was isolated from human feces just a few years ago. Due to its remarkable metabolic properties, particularly the degradation of trimethylamines, this strain was supposed to be used as "Archaebiotic" during metabolic disorders of the human intestine. However, there is still no data published regarding adaptations to the natural habitat of M. luminyensis as it has been shown for the other two reported mucosa-associated methanoarchaea. This study aimed at unraveling susceptibility of M. luminyensis to antimicrobial peptides as well as its immunogenicity. By using the established microtiter plate assay adapted to the anaerobic growth requirements of methanogenic archaea, we demonstrated that M. luminyensis is highly sensitive against LL32, a derivative of human cathelicidin (MIC = 2 μM. However, the strain was highly resistant against the porcine lysin NK-2 (MIC = 10 μM and the synthetic antilipopolysaccharide peptide (Lpep (MIC>10 μM and overall differed from the two other methanoarchaea, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae in respect to AMP sensitivity. Moreover, only weak immunogenic potential of M. luminyensis was demonstrated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs by determining release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Overall, our findings clearly demonstrate that the archaeal gut inhabitant M. luminyensis is susceptible to the release of human-derived antimicrobial peptides and exhibits low immunogenicity towards human immune cells in vitro-revealing characteristics of a typical commensal gut microbe.

  12. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swab and Their Susceptibility Pattern in a Private Medical College Hospital in Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Sultana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound infection is one of the major health problems that are caused and aggravated by the invasion of pathogenic organisms where empiric treatment is routine. Objective: To isolate and identify the bacteria causing wound infection and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and method: A total of 263 wound swab and pus samples were collected during the period of January to December 2012 from Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Swabs from the wound were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured and the isolates were identified by standard procedures as needed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to ‘The Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute’ guidelines. Results: In this study 220 bacterial isolates were recovered from 263 samples showing an isolation rate of 83.65%. The predominant bacteria isolated from infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus 89 (40.45% followed by Escherichia coli 62 (28.18%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 34 (15.45%, Enterococci 18 (8.18%, Acinetobacter 5 (2.27%, Klebsiella 9 (4.09% and Proteus 3 (3.36%. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to linezolid (94.38%, fusidic acid (91.01%, vancomycin (87.64%, amikacin (74.15% and gentamicin (73.03%. Among the Gram negative isolates Escherichia coli was predominant and showed sensitivity to imipenem (93.54% amikacin (83.87% colistin (53.22% and piperacillin and tazobactum (53.22% and pseudomonas showed sensitivity to amikacin (73.52%, imipenem (70.58% and colistin (70.58%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen from wound swab and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of various isolates help to assist the clinician in appropriate selection of empirical antibiotics against wound infection.

  13. 21 CFR 866.1645 - Fully automated short-term incubation cycle antimicrobial susceptibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES... determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from clinical specimens. Test results...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility, risk factors and prevalence of bla cefotaximase, temoneira, and sulfhydryl variable genes among Escherichia coli in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Kallyadan V; Veena, Shetty A; Rathika, Shenoy D; Vijaya, Shenoy M; Avinash, Shetty K

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has become an important challenge among pediatric patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, associated risk factors and to survey the frequency of bla cefotaximase (CTX-M), bla temoneira (TEM), and bla sulfhydryl variable (SHV) genotypes in ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from children with community-acquired UTI. This was a prospective study conducted from November 2012 to March 2016 in a tertiary care center. E. coli isolated in urine cultures from children aged ≤18 years was identified and confirmed for ESBL production. ESBL-positive strains were screened for ESBL encoding genes. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the difference in antibiotic susceptibility with respect to ESBL positive and negative, and binary logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with ESBL production. Among 523 E. coli isolates, 196 (37.5%) were ESBL positive, >90% were resistant to cephalosporins, and 56% were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Least resistance was observed for imipenem, netilmicin, and nitrofurantoin (2%, 8.6%, 15.3%). Association between ESBL production and drug resistance was significant for ceftazidime ( P antibiotics were the common risk factors. ESBL-producing E. coli from community-acquired pediatric UTI carries more than one type of beta-lactamase coding genes correlating their increased antibiotic resistance. Aggressive infection control policy, routine screening for detecting ESBL isolates in clinical samples, and antimicrobial stewardship are the keys to prevent their dissemination in community settings.

  15. Effects of a Statewide Protocol for the Management of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis on Microbial Profiles and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities: A Retrospective Five-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda L; Carson, Christine F; Inglis, Timothy J J; Chakera, Aron

    2015-12-01

    ♦ Peritonitis is a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early empirical antibiotic therapy is recommended, with the choice of agents guided by local resistance patterns. As routine use of specific antimicrobial agents can drive resistance, regular assessment of causative organisms and their susceptibility to empirical therapy is essential. ♦ We conducted a retrospective review of all PD peritonitis cases and positive PD fluid cultures obtained over a 5-year period in Western Australia following the introduction of a statewide protocol for the initial management of PD peritonitis with intraperitoneal vancomycin and gentamicin. ♦ The incidence of PD peritonitis decreased from 1 in 16 patient months (0.75/year at risk) to 1 in 29 patient months (0.41/year at risk) over the 5 years. There were 1,319 culture-positive samples and 1,069 unique isolates identified. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 69.9% of positive cultures, with vancomycin resistance averaging 2% over the study period. Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 25.4% of positive cultures, with gentamicin resistance identified in an average of 8% of organisms. No increase in antimicrobial resistance to vancomycin or gentamicin occurred over the 5 years and there was no change in the proportion of gram-positive (69.9%), gram-negative (25.4%) or fungal (4.4%) organisms causing PD peritonitis. ♦ Over time, the peritonitis rates have dramatically improved although the profile of causative organisms remains similar. Empirical treatment of PD peritonitis with intraperitoneal vancomycin and gentamicin remains efficacious, with high levels of susceptibility and no evidence that the introduction of this statewide empirical PD peritonitis treatment protocol is driving resistance to these agents. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  16. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  17. Expression pattern of arenicins - the antimicrobial peptides of polychaete Arenicolamarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina L. Maltseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune responses of invertebrate animals are mediated through innate mechanisms, among which production of antimicrobial peptides play an important role. Although evolutionary Polychaetes represent an interesting group closely related to a putative common ancestor of other coelomates, their immune mechanisms still remain scarcely investigated. Previously our group has identified arenicins - new antimicrobial peptides of the lugworm Arenicola marina, since then these peptides were thoroughly characterized in terms of their structure and inhibitory potential. In the present study we addressed the question of the physiological functions of arenicins in the lugworm body. Using molecular and immunocytochemical methods we demonstrated that arencins are expressed in the wide range of the lugworm tissues - coelomocytes, body wall, extravasal tissue and the gut. The expression of arenicins is constitutive and does not depend on stimulation of various infectious stimuli. Most intensively arenicins are produced by mature coelomocytes where they function as killing agents inside the phagolysosome. In the gut and the body wall epithelia arenicins are released from producing cells via secretion as they are found both inside the epithelial cells and in the contents of the cuticle. Collectively our study showed that arenicins are found in different body compartments responsible for providing a first line of defence against infections, which implies their important role as key components of both epithelial and systemic branches of host defence.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  19. Consenso sobre las pruebas de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos en Enterobacteriaceae Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Famiglietti

    2005-03-01

    , and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida strains isolated from swine to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Martin, C B; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-08-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 42 antimicrobial agents were determined against 59 strains of Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida, all isolated from swine lungs with lesions indicative of pneumonia. Penicillins (except cloxacillin), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, erythromycin, josamycin, thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin and mupirocin showed good activities, with ranging resistance between 0 and 6.8%. Higher resistance was observed for spiramycin and fosfomycin. Tylosin, vancomycin, metronidazole, dapsone and tiamulin, to which strains showed high rates of resistance, were ineffective. Cephalosporins (especially the third-generation cephalosporins) and quinolones (especially the fluorinated quinolones) were the most effective antimicrobial agents against P. multocida subsp. multocida strains and they might be of value for in vivo use.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in New Zealand: 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sally A; Shore, Keith P; Paviour, Susan D; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur J

    2006-05-01

    Routine susceptibility testing of all anaerobic organisms is not advocated, but it is useful for laboratories to test periodically for anaerobic organisms and provide local susceptibility data to guide therapy. This study reports the national trend of antibiotic susceptibility of clinically significant anaerobes in New Zealand. Clinical isolates were tested using standardized methods against a range of antibiotics commonly used to treat anaerobic infections. Susceptibility was determined using NCCLS criteria. The change in susceptibility trends between this study and earlier studies was measured by comparing the geometric mean of the MIC. A total of 364 anaerobes were tested. Penicillin had poor activity against Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp., Eubacterium spp., Clostridium tertium and Veillonella spp. In general, Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides ureolyticus, Propionibacterium spp., Clostridium perfringens and anaerobic streptococci isolates, with the exception of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, were penicillin susceptible. Amoxicillin/clavulanate showed good activity against most anaerobes, but resistance was seen with Bacteroides fragilis group and P. anaerobius isolates. Cefoxitin was more active than cefotetan, particularly against non-B. fragilis species, Eubacterium spp. and P. anaerobius. Meropenem and imipenem showed good activity against all anaerobes, with only 2 and 4% of Bacteroides spp., respectively, showing resistance. With the exception of Propionibacterium acnes isolates, which are predictably resistant, metronidazole was active against all anaerobes tested. There has been little change in susceptibility since 1997. Metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin/clavulanate remain good empirical choices when anaerobes are expected in our setting. No clinically relevant changes in susceptibility over time were found.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <1%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was 3-6% and tetracycline resistance varied from 14.7% in A. pleuropneumoniae to 81.8% in S. suis. In conclusion, low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bovine salmonellosis in Northeast of Iran: Frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

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    Hessam A. Halimi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: Current susceptibility patterns in Trinidad

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    Land Michael

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become one of the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently, reports have emerged that S. aureus strains recovered from community-acquired infections are also methicillin-resistant. This study was undertaken to analyze the prevalence of methicillin resistance among isolates at a regional hospital in Trinidad, and document the current resistance profile of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA to the commonly used anti-staphylococcal agents. Methods Over a 6-year period we analyzed 2430 isolates of S. aureus strains recovered from various clinical sources, from hospital and community practices. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to guideline recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results The prevalence of MRSA from surgical/burn wounds, urine and pus/abscess were 60.1%, 15.5% and 6.6%, respectively. The major sources of MSSA were surgical/burn wounds, pus/abscess and upper respiratory tract specimens with rates of 32.9%, 17.1% and 14.3%, respectively. The greatest prevalence of resistance of MRSA was seen for erythromycin (86.7%, and clindamycin (75.3%. Resistance rates among MSSA were highest for ampicillin (70%. Resistance rates for tetracycline were similar among both MRSA (78.7% and MSSA (73.5%. The MRSA recovery rates from nosocomial sources (20.8% was significantly higher than that of previous years (12.5% (p Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA in the hospital increased from 12.5% in 1999 to 20.8% in 2004. Most isolates were associated with infected surgical/burn wounds which may have become infected via the hands of HCPs during dressing exercises. Infection control measures aimed at the proper hand hygiene procedures may interrupt the spread of MRSA. HCPs may also be carriers of MRSA in their anterior nares. Surveillance cultures of both patients and HCPs may help

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species isolated from milk of dairy cows differed between bacterial species, and to compare results obtained by phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistance to penicillin,

  6. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in asia and molecular mechanism of reduced susceptibility to the fluoroquinolones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, Tran Thuy; Campbell, James Ian; Galindo, Claudia M.; van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; Diep, To Song; Nga, Tran Thu Thi; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Tuan, Phung Quoc; Page, Anne Laure; Ochiai, R. Leon; Schultsz, Constance; Wain, John; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Parry, Christopher M.; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Dutta, Shanta; Agtini, Magdarina; Dong, Baiqing; Honghui, Yang; Anh, Dang Duc; Canh, Do Gia; Naheed, Aliya; Albert, M. John; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul N.; Basnyat, Buddha; Arjyal, Amit; La, Tran Thi Phi; Rang, Nguyen Ngoc; Phuong, Le Thi; van Be Bay, Phan; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dougan, Gordon; Clemens, John D.; Vinh, Ha; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Acosta, Camilo J.; Farrar, Jeremy; Dolecek, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the pattern and extent of drug resistance in 1,774 strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolated across Asia between 1993 and 2005 and characterizes the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones of these strains. For 1,393 serovar

  7. Frequency, serotyping and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella from feces and lymph nodes of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B.P. Guerra Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salmonellosis is a foodborne disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella, being pigs and pork-products potentially important for its occurrence. In recent decades, some serovars of Salmonella have shown increase of resistance to conventional antimicrobials used in human and animal therapy, with serious risks for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate feces (n=50, mediastinal (n=50, mesenteric (n=50 and mandibular (n=50 lymph nodes obtained from slaughter houses for Salmonella spp. Positive samples were serotyped and subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production. Salmonella species were identified in 10% (20/200 of total samples. From these, 20% (10/50 were identified in the submandibular lymph nodes, 18% (9/50 in the mesenteric lymph nodes, 2% (1/50 in feces and 0% (0/50 in the mediastinal lymph nodes. The serotypes found were Salonella Typhimurium (55%, S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12: i: - (35%, S. Brandenburg and S. Derby with 5% (5% each. All strains showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial; 90% were resistant to four or more antimicrobials, and 15% were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and nalidixic acid was particularly prevalent amongst the tested serovars. Here, we highlighted the impact of pigs in the epidemiological chain of salmonellosis in domestic animals and humans, as well as the high antimicrobial resistance rates of Salmonella strains, reinforcing the necessity for responsible use of antimicrobials for animals as an emergent One Health issue, and to keep these drugs for human therapy approaches.

  8. Patterns Of Antimicrobial Use For Respiratory Tract Infections In Elderly Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, H.M.; Rasheedy, D.; Mahmoud, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients are prone to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) both; acute bronchitis and pneumonia. A large proportion of the antibiotics prescribed are unlikely to provide clinical benefit to patients. There is an increased need to decrease excess antibiotic use in elderly to minimize antibiotic resistance. Objective: To describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly Patients and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on one hundred elderly patients, aged > 60 years, both males and females to describe patterns of antimicrobial use for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among elderly patients. RTIs, categorized as acute bronchitis, and pneumonia, were studied for appropriateness of antimicrobial use, type of antibiotics used, and factors associated with their use. We rated antibiotic use as appropriate (when an effective drug was used), inappropriate (when a more effective drug was indicated), or unjustified (when use of any antimicrobial was not indicated). Results: Of 100 patients with RTI, overall treatment was appropriate in 79% of episodes, inappropriate in 9%, and unjustified in 12%. For acute bronchitis, treatment was appropriate in 85% and unjustified in 15% of cases. For pneumonia, treatment was appropriate in 55% of episodes. Among the most commonly used antimicrobials, B.Lactam + macrolides their use were unjustified in 41% of cases. There were statistical significant differences in the patterns of antibiotic use when stratified by age, gender, and co- morbid conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Antimicrobials are unjustifiably used for 12% of RTIs and 15% of cases of acute bronchitis, thus suggesting a need for programs to improve antibiotic prescribing at hospitals.

  9. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents among bovine mastitis pathogens isolated from North American dairy cattle, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Cynthia J; Portis, Ellen; Johansen, Lacie; Mullins, Lisa M; Stoltman, Gillian A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately 8,000 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, isolated by 25 veterinary laboratories across North America between 2002 and 2010, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the beta-lactam drugs remained low against most of the Gram-positive strains tested, and no substantial changes in the MIC distributions were seen over time. Of the beta-lactam antimicrobial agents tested, only ceftiofur showed good in vitro activity against E. coli. The MICs of the macrolides and lincosamides also remained low against Gram-positive mastitis pathogens. While the MIC values given by 50% of isolates (MIC50) for erythromycin and pirlimycin and the streptococci were all low (≤0.5 µg/ml), the MIC values given by 90% of isolates (MIC90) were higher and more variable, but with no apparent increase over time. Staphylococcus aureus showed little change in erythromycin susceptibility over time, but there may be a small, numerical increase in pirlimycin MIC50 and MIC90 values. Overall, the results suggest that mastitis pathogens in the United States and Canada have not shown any substantial changes in the in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs tested over the 9 years of the study.

  10. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from domestically acquired infections in Finland by phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE and MLVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienemann, Taru; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Halkilahti, Jani; Haukka, Kaisa; Siitonen, Anja

    2015-07-02

    Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serotype Typhimurium (STM) is the most common agent of domestically acquired salmonellosis in Finland. Subtyping methods which allow the characterization of STM are essential for effective laboratory-based STM surveillance and for recognition of outbreaks. This study describes the diversity of Finnish STM isolates using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptible testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and compares the discriminatory power and the concordance of these methods. A total of 375 sporadic STM isolates were analysed. The isolates were divided into 31 definite phage (DT) types, dominated by DT1 (47 % of the isolates), U277 (9 % of the isolates) and DT104 (8 % of the isolates). Of all the isolates, 62 % were susceptible to all the 12 antimicrobials tested and 11 % were multidrug resistant. Subtyping resulted in 83 different XbaI-PFGE profiles and 111 MLVA types. The three most common XbaI-PFGE profiles (STYM1, STYM7 and STYM8) and one MLVA profile with three single locus variants accounted for 56 % and 49 % of the STM isolates, respectively. The studied isolates showed a genetic similarity of more than 70 % by XbaI-PFGE. In MLVA, 71 % of the isolates lacked STTR6 and 77 % missed STTR10p loci. Nevertheless, the calculated Simpson's diversity index for XbaI-PFGE was 0.829 (95 % CI 0.792-0.865) and for MLVA 0.867 (95 % CI 0.835-0.898). However, the discriminatory power of the 5-loci MLVA varied among the phage types. The highest concordance of the results was found between XbaI-PFGE and phage typing (adjusted Wallace coefficient was 0.833 and adjusted Rand coefficient was 0.627). In general, the calculated discriminatory power was higher for genotyping methods (MLVA and XbaI-PFGE) than for phenotyping methods (phage typing). Overall, comparable diversity indices were calculated for PFGE and MLVA (both DI > 0.8). However, MLVA was phage type dependent

  11. Typhoid outbreak in Songkhla, Thailand 2009-2011: clinical outcomes, susceptibility patterns, and reliability of serology tests.

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    Wannee Limpitikul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes, the reliability of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S ser. Typhi IgM and IgG rapid tests, and the susceptibility patterns and the response to treatment during the 2009-2011 typhoid outbreak in Songkhla province in Thailand. METHOD: The medical records of children aged <15 years with S ser. Typhi bacteremia were analysed. The efficacy of the typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests and susceptibility of the S ser. Typhi to the current main antibiotics used for typhoid (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, co-trimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, were evaluated. RESULTS: S ser. Typhi bacteremia was found in 368 patients, and all isolated strains were susceptible to all 6 antimicrobials tested. Most of the patients were treated with ciprofloxacin for 7-14 days. The median time (IQR of fever before treatment and duration of fever after treatment were 5 (4, 7 days and 4 (3, 5 days, respectively. Complications of ascites, lower respiratory symptoms, anemia (Hct <30%, and ileal perforation were found in 7, 7, 22, and 1 patients, respectively. None of the patients had recurrent infection or died. The sensitivities of the typhoid IgM and IgG tests were 58.3% and 25.6% respectively, and specificities were 74.1% and 50.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were diagnosed at an early stage and treated with a good outcome. All S ser. Typhi strains were susceptible to standard first line antibiotic typhoid treatment. The typhoid IgM and IgG rapid tests had low sensitivity and moderate specificity.

  12. Spatial agreement of predicted patterns in landslide susceptibility maps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sterlacchini, S.; Ballabio, C.; Blahůt, Jan; Masetti, J.; Sorichetta, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 125, č. 1 (2011), s. 51-61 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : landslide susceptibility * weights of evidence * success rate Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V93-511TN6P-3&_user=1407143&_coverDate=01%2F01%2F2011&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000052620&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1407143&md5=d4e3ac0e1295373f2203f99a1aa8e905&searchtype=a

  13. Antimicrobial Agent of Susceptibilities and Antiseptic Resistance Gene Distribution among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Impetigo and Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Norihisa; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Nishijima, Setsuko; Kurokawa, Ichiro; So, Hiromu; Sasatsu, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents of and distributions of antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated between 1999 and 2004 in Japan were examined. The data of MRSA strains that are causative agents of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) were compared with those of MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases. The susceptibilities to antiseptic agents in MRSA isolates from patients with impetigo and SSSS were higher than those in MRSA isolates from patients with other diseases. The distribution of the qacA/B genes in MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS (1.3%, 1/76) was remarkably lower than that in MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases (45.9%, 95/207). Epidemiologic typings of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS had type IV SCCmec (75/76), except for one strain, and 64.5% (49/76) of the strains had different PFGE types. In addition, the patterns of restriction digestion of all tested qacA/B plasmid in MRSA isolates having different PFGE types were identical. The results showed that a specific MRSA clone carrying qacA/B was not prevalent, but qacA/B was spread among health care-associated MRSA strains. Therefore, it was concluded that the lower distribution rate of qacA/B resulted in higher susceptibilities to cationic antiseptic agents in MRSA isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS. PMID:16757607

  14. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the fi...

  15. First isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Chromobacterium violaceum from oysters in Mexico

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    R. Berebichez-Fridman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic, non-sporing, fermentative and oxidase-positive coccobacillus. Human infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum are infrequent. There are a few reported cases in several countries. Those infections appear after a skin contact with soil or contaminated water. Infections can progress to necrotizing metastatatic lesions and multiple abscesses of the lung, liver, skin, spleen, lymph nodes and brain with fatal septicemia. Infections caused by this bacterium have a high lethality rate, with a low recovery rate among survivors. It has been described that this bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics. Materials and methods: Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated, cultivated, and identified from oysters from thirteen different restaurants in Mexico City and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Results: Four isolations of Chromobacterium violaceum were obtained from oysters. Three of them corresponded to biotype 36 and all of them had a confidence factor of 0.987. All isolations were resistant to Carbencillin, Cephalothin and Cephotaxime. Two isolations were also resistant to Ampicillin and one was resistant to Amikacin. All isolations were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, Chloramphenicol, Gentamicin, Netilmicin, Nitrofurantoin, Pefloxacine and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: The presence of Chromabacterium violaceum in food obtained from salt marshes that usually are eaten fresh (like oysters means a high potential risk for human health because this bacterium has been associated with high morbidity and mortality. In our report, this bacterium showed resistance to several antibacterial agents. Patients should be cautions when eating fresh seafood, and healthcare personnel should suspect an infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum if the patient presents with sepsis, enteritis or abscesses and they have risk factors for acquiring this

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolates from reptiles in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wan-Ching; Chin, Shih-Chien; Lai, Yen-Hsueh; Tung, Kwong-Chung; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2010-01-01

    Pets, including reptiles, have been shown to be a source of Salmonella infection in humans. Due to increasing popularity and variety of exotic reptiles as pets in recent years, more human clinical cases of reptile-associated Salmonella infection have been identified. However, limited information is available with regard to serotypes in different reptiles (turtles, snakes, and lizards) and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in pet reptiles. The current study was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella colonization in pet reptiles. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 30.9% of 476 reptiles investigated. The isolation prevalences were 69.7% (23/33), 62.8% (27/43), and 24.3% (97/400) in snakes, lizards, and turtles, respectively. A total of 44 different Salmonella serovars were identified. Compared with S. Heron, Bredeney, Treforest, and 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Typhimurium isolates were resistant to many antimicrobials tested, and notably 61.1% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. The results indicated that raising reptiles as pets could be a possible source of Salmonella infection in humans, particularly zoonotic Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that may be resistant to antimicrobials.

  17. The role of whole genome sequencing in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria: report from the EUCAST Subcommittee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellington, M J; Ekelund, O; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2017-01-01

    clinical decision making. Internationally agreed principles and quality control (QC) metrics will facilitate early harmonization of analytical approaches and interpretive criteria for WGS-based predictive AST. Only data sets that pass agreed QC metrics should be used in AST predictions. Minimum performance...... of resistance loci. For most bacterial species the major limitations to widespread adoption for WGS-based AST in clinical laboratories remain the current high-cost and limited speed of inferring antimicrobial susceptibility from WGS data as well as the dependency on previous culture because analysis directly...... should be changed to epidemiological cut-off values in order to improve differentiation of wild-type from non-wild-type isolates (harbouring an acquired resistance). Clinical breakpoints should be a secondary comparator. This assessment will reveal whether genetic predictions could also be used to guide...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence factors and biofilm formation among Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospital infections in Kerman, Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Shakibaie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of present study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence factors and biofilm formation among MRSA hospital isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: Thirty non-repetitive strains of S. aureus isolated from three hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Antimicrobial sus­ceptibility was determined by disk diffusion breakpoints method according to CLSI guideline. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin and methicillin were measured by the broth microdilution and E-test procedures. Virulence factors (protease, DNase, lecithinase, capsule and hemolysis associated with the above isolates was studied. Biofilm was quantified by microtiter technique. Results: In total, 14 (46.7% S. aureus were isolated from lower respiratory tract, six (20.0% from urinary tract and re­maining 10 (33.3% were recovered from wounds, blood and orthopedic patients. All of the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, eight (26.7% were found to be resistant to methicillin (MRSA and 4 (13.3% showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. No any vancomycin resistant isolate was detected (p≤0.05. MIC results showed that four of the isolates (13.3% exhibited MIC 4 μg/mL to vancomycin while, five (16.6% demonstrated MIC 32 μg/mL to methicillin. The iso­lates were also resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, tetracycline and tobramycin. It was found that, six (75 % of MRSA strains produced lecithinase, seven (96.7% demonstrated protease and DNase activities as compared to MSSA isolates. Biofilm analysis revealed that twenty (66.7% isolates formed strong, seven (23.3% formed moderate and three (10.0% had weak biofilm. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that, treatment options available for these infections are limited; therefore, monitoring, and management of infections due to MRSA with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, must be done in order to control spread of these strains in the hospital environment. J

  19. Salmonella serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility in apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiflu, Bitsu; Alemayehu, Haile; Abdurahaman, Mukarim; Negash, Yohannes; Eguale, Tadesse

    2017-05-19

    The close bond between pet animals and family members poses risk of infection with zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella. No data is available on occurrence of Salmonella in dogs in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from feces of apparently healthy dogs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Of the total 360 dogs examined, 42 (11.7%; 95% Confidence limit of 8.5%-15.4%) were positive for Salmonella. Fourteen serotypes were detected and the predominant ones were S. Bronx (n = 7; 16.7%), S. Newport (n = 6; 14.3%), followed by S. Typhimurium, S. Indiana, S. Kentucky, S. Saintpaul and S. Virchow (n = 4; 9.5%) each. Salmonella infection status was significantly associated with history of symptom of diarrhea during the past 60 days (OR = 3.78; CI = 1.76-8.13; p = 0). Highest resistance rates were found for oxytetracycline (59.5%), neomycin (50%), streptomycin (38.1%), cephalothin (33.3%), doxycycline (30.9%), ampicillin (30.9%) and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (26.2%). Thirty eight (90.5%) of the isolates were resistant or intermediately resistant to at least one of the 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials was detected in 30 (71.4%) of the isolates. Resistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 19 (45.2%) of the isolates. This study demonstrated high carriage rate of Salmonella serotypes known for causing human salmonellosis and large proportion of them were resistant to antimicrobials used in public and veterinary medicine for management of various bacterial infections, suggesting the possible risk of infection of human population in close contact with these dogs by drug resistant pathogens. Therefore, it is vital to work on raising public awareness on zoonotic canine diseases prevention measures and good hygienic practices.

  20. Detection of biofilm production of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from infected children and comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of biofilm versus planktonic forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, A; Kyratsa, A; Ioannidou, V; Bersimis, S; Chatzipanagiotou, S

    2014-06-01

    The ability of Yersinia species to produce biofilms has not been hitherto systematically studied, although there is evidence, that Y. enterocolitica is able to form biofilms on inanimate surfaces. The present study aimed to detect the production of biofilms by 60 clinical strains of Y. enterocolitica and to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility of planktonic versus biofilm-forming bacteria. Y. enterocolitica strains were collected from stool and blood cultures collected from β-thalassaemic children, with gastroenteritis and/or septicemia. The isolated bacterial strains were grouped by biotyping and serotyping and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the planktonic forms was investigated by MIC determination. Biofilm formation was detected by the use of silicone disks and for the biofilm forming strains the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacterial regrowth (MICBR) of 11 clinically important antimicrobials was determined. The presence of the waaE, a gene reported to be related with biofilm formation was investigated in all the strains. All of 60 strains were positive for biofilm production by the use of silicone disks. The great majority of the biofilm forms were resistant to all the antimicrobials. In antimicrobial concentrations far higher than the CLSI breakpoints, bacterial regrowth from the biofilms was still possible. None of the strains bore the waaE gene. These results, indicate that biofilm formation by Y. enterocolitica might be an inherent feature. The presence of biofilms increased dramatically the MICBR in all antimicrobials. The way in which biofilms could contribute to Y. enterocolitica pathogenicity in humans is a matter needing further investigation.

  1. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coil among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance varied widely (0.0% to 81.3%) among the antimicrobials tested. Ninety percent of all the isolates tested were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most common multi-drug resistance patterns were to 2 to 6 antimicrobials. Resistance was significantly more frequent (P pigs compared to finisher pigs. These findings indicate that resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials was prevalent among fecal E. coli isolates of pigs on study farms, and that this constitutes a potential reservoir for resistance genes that could spread to pathogens. The findings also provide further evidence that use of medication in swine rations provides selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance in E. coli in pigs.

  2. Antimicrobial activity evaluation and comparison of methods of susceptibility for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenchoski, Daniele Zendrini; Dambrozio, Angélica Marim Lopes; Vivan, Ana Carolina Polano; Schuroff, Paulo Alfonso; Burgos, Tatiane das Neves; Pelisson, Marsileni; Perugini, Marcia Regina Eches; Vespero, Eliana Carolina

    The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest ® (bioMérieux), Vitek 2 ® automated system (bioMérieux) and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2 ® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulasenegative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Mastitis in Dairy Farms from Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez Bonilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antimicrobial presence and susceptibility of the coagulase-negative staphylococci group (ECN, for its initials in Spanish in some cattle farms from Tolima, Colombia. Materials and methods: Using the California test for the diagnosis of mastitis (CMT, for its initials in Spanish, 484 quarters belonging to 121 cows from five small production ranches from a region of central Tolima were evaluated. CMT positive samples were cultivated for bacterial isolation. The ECN found were tested for susceptibility to the antibiotics. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results: 252 (52% quarters did not show any type of reaction to the CMT, nor did they show any clinical signs of mastitis, therefore they were considered free of the disease. From the quarters, 73 (15% turned positive for CMT and bacteriological culture. From these, 36 strains of ECN were isolated (7.4% of the total of quarters; S. aureus-ECP, 28 (5.8%; Streptococcus spp., 6 (1.2%.; Escherichia coli, 2 (0.4%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 (0.2%. The clinical and subclinical mastitis in the quarter occurred in 1.4% and 13.6%, respectively. In 5 (1.0% of the quarters, clinical mastitis caused by ECN was found and subclinical mastitis in 31 (6.4%. 61% of the ECN strains were resistant to penicillin, and 58%, to tetracycline; 97% were sensitive to cefoperazone. Conclusion: The ECN group, considered a global emergent of mastitis, is evidenced with high frequency in ranches from Tolima, Colombia, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis with varied response to antimicrobials.

  4. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and a modification of the standardised disc diffusion test: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, C

    2016-04-27

    In an era when clinical microbiology laboratories are under increasing financial pressure, there is a need for inexpensive, yet effective, rapid microbiology tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel modification of standard methodology for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of pathogens in positive blood cultures, reducing the turnaround time of laboratory results by 24 h.

  5. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Wachlin, A; Altendorf, K; García, F; Lipski, A

    2007-12-01

    To ameliorate the identification, evaluate the diversity, and determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of 19 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops. Phenotypical, chemotaxonomical, and molecular data allocated most isolates to the species Sten. maltophilia and Ser. marcescens. The API profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns (ATB system), and BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genomic fingerprints of isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. exhibited a higher degree of heterogeneity than those obtained for the isolates of Serratia sp. The former group of bacteria exhibited multiresistance to antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates of Serratia sp. were sensitive to the majority of the drugs tested. Changes in the results of the antibiograms throughout incubation, which indicate an induction of tolerance, were observed for isolates of both the species. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, determined using E-test stripes, were rather elevated. The occurrence of two species of opportunistic pathogens in crop-associated materials poses a risk to consumers in the community. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented could support epidemiologist and physicians dealing with infections caused by environmental strains of these taxa.

  6. Optimization and evaluation of Flexicult(®) Vet for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uropathogens in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results...

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains to 42 antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C B; Píriz, S; Vadillo, S; Rodríguez Ferri, E F

    1993-04-01

    Minimal inhibitory concentration of 42 antimicrobial agents was determined against 57 field strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from pigs in Spain. Penicillins, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines had irregular activity; ticarcillin, tobramycin, and doxycycline were the most active of each group, respectively. Macrolides, vancomycin, dapsone, and tiamulin, to which strains had high rate of resistance, were almost ineffective. Thiamphenicol, colistin, rifampin, fosfomycin, mupirocin, and metronidazole had good activity, with resistance ranging between 0 and 8.8%. Finally, cephalosporins (except cephalexin) and quinolones (especially ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) were the most active antibiotics against A pleuropneumoniae.

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Animal Nocardia Isolated from Field Cases of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Oyekunle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antimicrobial tests were carried out on strains of Nocardia isolated from field cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in farm animals. Results with the disc diffusion test showed the multiresistant nature of the isolates, but 23.81 and 21.43% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, respectively. The MIC mode and range for oxytetracycline were 12.5 and 3.12–25 μg/ml, respectively, while those of erythromycin were 3.12 and 0.78–6.25 μg/ml, respectively.

  9. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile Toward Antimicrobial Agents Used as Feed Additives for Food Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Tvede, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A total of 65 toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were tested for susceptibility to avilamycin, flavomycin, monensin, and salinomycin. Except for flavomycin the substances showed in vitro efficacy comparable to reports of the currentl...

  10. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kourmouli, A.; Valenti, M.; van Rijn, E.; Beaumont, H.J.E.; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, A.; Biskos, G.

    2018-01-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test,

  11. Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species by broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, K; Laverdière, M; Rivest, R

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium species are increasingly being implicated in foreign-body infections and in immunocompromised-host infections. However, there are no specific recommendations on the method or the criteria to use in order to determine the in vitro activities of the antibiotics commonly used to treat Corynebacterium infections. The first aim of our study was to compare the susceptibilities of various species of Corynebacterium to vancomycin, erythromycin, and penicillin by using a broth microdilution method and a disk diffusion method. Second, the activity of penicillin against our isolates was assessed by using the interpretative criteria recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards for the determination of the susceptibility of streptococci and Listeria monocytogenes to penicillin. Overall, 100% of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, while considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin were noted for the different species tested, including the non-Corynebacterium jeikeium species. A good correlation in the susceptibilities of vancomycin and erythromycin between the disk diffusion and the microdilution methods was observed. However, a 5% rate of major or very major errors was detected with the Listeria criteria, while a high rate of minor errors (18%) was noted when the streptococcus criteria were used. Our findings indicate considerable variations in the activities of erythromycin and penicillin against the various species of Corynebacterium. Because of the absence of definite recommendations, important discrepancies were observed between the methods and the interpretations of the penicillin activity. PMID:8849254

  12. Frequency, microbial interactions, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rogério C; Montagner, Francisco; Signoretti, Fernanda G C; Almeida, Geovania C; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2008-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence and microbial interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium necrophorum in primary endodontic infections from a Brazilian population and their antimicrobial susceptibility to some antibiotics by the E-test. One hundred ten samples from infected teeth with periapical pathologies were analyzed by culture methods. Five hundred eighty individual strains were isolated; 81.4% were strict anaerobes. F. nucleatum was found in 38 root canals and was associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., and Eubacterium spp. F. necrophorum was found in 20 root canals and was associated with Peptostreptococcus prevotii. The simultaneous presence of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum was not related to endodontic symptoms (p > 0.05). They were 100% susceptible to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, and cephaclor. Fusobacterium spp. is frequently isolated from primary-infected root canals of teeth with periapical pathologies. Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic against F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum in endodontic infections and has been prescribed as the first choice in Brazil.

  13. Evaluation of the automated system Vitek2 for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brazilian Gram-positive cocci strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alves d'Azevedo

    Full Text Available Automated instruments offer many advantages for clinical laboratories. Nevertheless, they can have problems identifying and determining susceptibilities of some pathogens. Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux is an automated system that was recently introduced to Brazil. We evaluated the performance of this equipment for Brazilian isolates that had been characterized using reference identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. Ninety-nine strains of Gram-positive cocci from a local reference center collection were analyzed, consisting of 50 coagulasenegative Staphylococcus (CoNS and 49 Enterococcus and related species. Vitek® 2 correctly identified 79.8% (79/99 of the isolates. Oxacillin resistance was detected in 76% (19/25 of resistant S. epidermidis strains and in 88% (22/25 of other resistant CoNS species strains. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 100% (20/20 of resistant Enterococcus and related species strains. Vitek® 2 performed very well for the identification of S. epidermidis and non-epidermidis staphylococci, and for the detection of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus and related species. However, the system needs improvement in order to provide reliable results for the characterization of some CoNS species, identification of Enterococcus and related species and for detecting oxacillin resistance in CoNS.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from community-acquired and health-care associated pediatric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbuz, Adem; Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Aldemir-Kocabaş, Bilge; Tekeli, Alper; Özdemir, Halil; Güriz, Haluk; Gökdemir, Refik; İnce, Erdal; Çiftçi, Ergin

    2017-01-01

    Karbuz A, Karahan ZC, Aldemir-Kocabaş B, Tekeli A, Özdemir H, Güriz H, Gökdemir R, İnce E, Çiftçi E. Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibilities and virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from community-acquired and health-care associated pediatric infections. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 395-403. The aim of this study was to investigate the enterotoxins and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene as virulence factor, identification if antimicrobial sensitivity patterns, agr (accessory gene regulator) types and sequence types and in resistant cases to obtain SCCmec (staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) gene types which will be helpful to decide empirical therapy and future health politics for S. aureus species. Total of 150 isolates of S. aureus were isolated from the culture