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Sample records for antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

  1. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Urinary Bacteria Amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections in the paediatric age group at The Nairobi Hospital. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Nairobi Hospital records department. Results: A total of 31 organisms were isolated consisting of Escherichia ...

  3. Isolation, identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 to isolate coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS) from subclinical mastitic (SCM) lactating cows, to establishing prevalence, to identify risk factors and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CPS isolates in and around Haramaya ...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella typhi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility testing patterns of Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi isolates. Fifteen isolates of each microorganism were collected from three hospitals located in Dar es Salaam region within a 3-month period in the year 2005. Candida Albicans and Salmonella typhi ...

  5. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.

  6. Bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective analysis of 200 mid-stream urine specimens processed for culture and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing between January 2007 and December 2009 was ... Low to moderately high level of resistance was found in first line drugs while high level of resistance was found in third generation cephalosporin.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Afshar, Ali Taghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Urinary Pathogens Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3 (3.4%), Enterobacter agglomerans 2 (2.3%), Acinetobacter iwoffii 1 (1.1%), Acinetobacter baumannii 1 (1.1%), Providencia retgerri 1 (1.1%). The susceptibility of Gram negative bacteria (GNB) were mainly toward parenteral antibiotic rather than oral one, while most of the common antibiotic showed a resistant pattern.

  9. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the infection rate of genital Mycoplasmas (MH and UU) among pregnant females and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to provide a provisional idea about the effectiveness of antibiotics used empirically to treat cases of genital infections in pregnant women. High vaginal swabs of 50 ...

  12. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative Staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from clinical samples and isolates subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, plasmid curing and plasmid DNA isolation. Result: The highest percentages isolates were recovered from urine samples and ...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Enterococci Isolated From Patients in Tehran

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    Horieh Saderi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci are one of the most common nosocomial pathogens and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has been increasing. Objectives: We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from different clinical specimens of patients in Tehran. Materials and Methods: From the beginning of April 2013 to the end of June 2013, a total of 146 enterococci were isolated from the Pars General Hospital in Tehran. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolates against ampicillin, clindamaycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, levofloxacin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, and vancomycin was determined using the disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI. Results: The rates of resistance were high to clindamycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin (97.2%, 89%, and 74.5%, respectively; moderate to ciprofloxacilin and levofloxacilin (40.6% and 36.4%, respectively; and low to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin (13.8% and 3.5%, respectively. All isolates were linezolid sensitive. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE accounted for 9.6% of the isolates. Conclusions: VRE and a high rate of resistance to some of antimicrobial agents were found among the enterococci isolated from patients in Tehran. These findings highlight the importance of regular supervision of antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli from clinical sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract, ear, wound and other infections in humans. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli is a growing concern worldwide. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical ...

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORGANISMS CAUSING SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Murlidhar Gajbhiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CDC defines surgical site infection as ‘Infections related to operative procedure that occurs at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operative procedure or within one year if the implant is left in situ’. Surgical site infection (SSI is 3 rd most frequently reported nosocomial infection (12%-16% as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of organisms causing SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS During a two year study period in a tertiary care hospital, 19,127 patients underwent surgeries in various surgical departments. Of these 517 (2.7% developed surgical site infection. The surgical wounds were classified by CDC & NNIS criteria into 4 classes. Two wound swabs were taken and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility along with testing of ESBLs, MBLs, AmpCβ lactamases was done for all isolates causing SSI. RESULTS Among 19,127 patients, 517 (2.7% developed SSI. It was highest in patients of perforation peritonitis (11.99%.Among 517 specimens, 340 (65.76% showed growth and 177 (34.23% were culture negative. E.coli (23.33% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Acinetobacter spp. (16%, Klebsiella spp. (15.66%, Pseudomonas spp. (15.33%, S. aureus (10.33%, S. epidermidis(7.3%, Proteus spp. (6.00% and Citrobacter spp. (2.66%.Staphylococcus spp. were 100 % sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. (27.5% S. aureus were MRSA and (17.5% were Inducible Clindamycin resistant (ICR. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Amikacin. Klebsiella spp. (40.62%, E.coli (35.89%, Citrobacter spp. (33.33%, Proteus spp. (26.08% were ESBL producers. Klebsiella spp. (17.18%, E.coli (10.25%, Proteus spp. (11.11% and Citrobacter spp. (8.69% were AmpC producers. Acinetobacter spp. (28.57% was commonest MBL producer followed by Klebsiella spp. (20

  18. Pattern Of Polymicrobial Isolates And Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, S.; Jamil, S.; Hafiz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of polymicrobial isolates in blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility in a tertiary care hospital of Karachi. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, Pakistan, from September to November 2014. Methodology: Blood culture samples were received from patients, which were processed by BACTEC 9240 system (Becton Dickinson). All positive blood samples were further analyzed. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria of the year. Identification of growth was based on Gram staining, colony morphology and appropriate biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was done as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations. Results: Out of the 7251 samples submitted, 2931 (40.42 percent) were positive for growth, 2389 (81.5 percent) samples were monomicrobial, whereas 542 (18.5 percent) samples were polymicrobial. Among the polymicrobial isolates, 468 (86.34 percent) blood culture samples yielded two, 66 (12.17 percent) yielded three, and 8 (1.47 percent) yielded four organisms. Gram positive isolates were 281 (51.84 percent) and Gram negative were 261 (48.15 percent). The most frequent isolates in polymicrobial blood stream infection were Acinetobacterspp. (51/542, 9.4 percent) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus(84/542, 15.5 percent), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus isolates, which were resistant to Methicillin, accounted for 24.65 percent. Third generation Cephalosporins resistance in Klebsiella spp. and Eschericia (E.) coli was found to be 63.6 percent and 58 percent, respectively. Carbapenem resistance was seen in 5.9 percent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 17.6 percent Acinetobacter spp. Conclusion: Gram positive bacteria were more commonly involved in polymicrobial blood stream infections with Coagulase negative Staphylococcus

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These patientsf pus samples were examined as Gram.stained smear and cultured aerobically on blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Of the 108 specimens of the ...

  20. A Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Laboratory of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Isolates were obtained from urine and swabs of wounds, ear, throat and eye. Identification was carried out by conventional methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by disk diffusion method. All isolates were tested for beta-lactamase production.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period, 108 patients having DFIs admitted in the general surgery wards were tracked from the hospital data management system. These patients' pus samples were examined as Gram‑stained smear and cultured aerobically on blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by disc ...

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Calva, Juan José; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Galicia-Velazco, Miriam; Jiménez-Martinez, María Elena; Larios-Mondragón, Lina

    2004-05-01

    The susceptibility to 14 beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents was evaluated for Streptococcus pneumoniae from patients with community-acquired respiratory infections in a Mexican medical center. Three hundred fifteen pneumococcal isolates obtained from patients between 1995 and 2001 were tested by the broth microdilution test. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration, >0.06 microg/mL). Penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were more likely to exhibit resistance to cephalosporins, macrolides, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline when compared to penicillin-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three percent of the penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were resistant to at least one other class of antimicrobials, in contrast to only 47% of the penicillin-susceptible strains (p amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was considered to be a reliable marker for the higher probability of multidrug resistance, thus requiring in vitro tests to guide chemotherapy or the choices of parenteral extended spectrum cephalosporins or newer respiratory quinolones.

  3. Determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extended spectrum beta lactamases producing bacteria are bacteria of great concern among Gram negative bacilli. Escherichia coli stand out as major carrier of this enzyme. The appropriate control of this resistance pattern depends on using the antimicrobial regimen of best choice. Therefore the value of ...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Haemophilus parasuis from pigs in the United Kingdom and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, A J Martín; Tucker, A W; Navas, J; Blanco, M; Morris, S J; Gutiérrez-Martín, C B

    2007-02-25

    A total of 30 British and 30 Spanish Haemophilus parasuis isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 19 of the antimicrobials currently used in swine practice with a broth microdilution method in order to know the emergence of resistance against these compounds in this porcine pathogen. All the British isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, and florfenicol, and most of them were susceptible to the remaining antimicrobials (the highest resistance rate found was of 20% to neomycin). In contrast, all the Spanish isolates were susceptible exclusively to florfenicol, and high proportions of resistance were encountered for penicillin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tiamulin and trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole; in addition, a bimodal or multimodal distribution, or tailing of Spanish isolates over the MIC range was observed for clindamycin, sulphonamides and tylosine tartrate, suggesting the development of acquired resistance. In addition, several multiresistance patterns were found among the Spanish isolates, 23.3% of them being resistant to at least eight antimicrobials, the same rate as that encountered for those being susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This study showed that in general British H. parasuis isolates are susceptible to antimicrobial agents routinely used for treatment of porcine respiratory diseases; however, the Spanish isolates need a more continuous surveillance of their susceptibility patterns.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Kofler, H; Brezinka, C; Guggenbichler, J P; Dierich, M P

    1993-01-01

    From January to October 1992 24 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical specimens were collected at the Federal Public Health Laboratory in Innsbruck (Austria) and screened for resistance to penicillin G, erythromycin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacine, and silver nitrate. Patients originated from the Austrian provinces Salzburg, Tirol, and Vorarlberg, and presented with manifest gonorrhoea. Two of 24 isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae. Both strains were isolated from men who had just returned from Thailand or Kenya. The isolate from Africa was also resistant to tetracycline. Five of 24 infections were acquired abroad, sex tourism being involved in four cases. The antimicrobial resistance pattern found in gonococci in western Austria revealed that topical silver nitrate and erythromycin are equally acceptable for use in prophylaxis of neonatal ophthalmia. Penicillin is still the drug of choice in the treatment of endemic infections. If gonorrhoea has been acquired abroad, especially in Asia or Africa, ceftriaxone, spectinomycin or ciprofloxazine are recommended for therapy.

  6. 112 current trend in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clostridium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    of the wet preparation of the isolate (Cheesbrough,. 2002). Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing. The isolates, which were confirmed to be C. tetani, were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Disc diffusion technique was adopted and fresh blood agar media were used. Commercially prepared antimicrobial discs (ABTEK ...

  7. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of vibrio cholerae 01 strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-07-07

    Jul 7, 2000 ... for the rapid rise in antimicrobial resistance have been extensive antimicrobial prophylaxis, unauthorised dispensing and use of these agents in animal husbandry(11,12). In Tanzania, data collected during cholera epidemics in 1990 and 1991 showed that all V. cholerae 01 strains were sensitive to ...

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, the efficacies of antimicrobials have been threatened due to the development of resistance to antibiotics by some microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented products, may act as reservoir of antimicrobial resistance-genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in the food matrix or in the ...

  9. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Abstract. Currently, the efficacies of antimicrobials have been threatened due to the development of resistance to antibiotics by some microorganisms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented products, may act as reservoir of antimicrobial resistance-genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in the food matrix or ...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Vibrio cholerae 01 strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Significant proportion of V. cholerae 0l strains in Dar es Salaam were resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents during the two years of the study. Therefore, there is a great need to control the utilisation of antimicrobial agents in cholera control, in addition to continuing carrying out surveillance of ...

  11. Comparison of antemortem antimicrobial treatment regimens to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of postmortem lung isolates from feedlot cattle with bronchopneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Catherine G; Love, Brenda C; Krehbiel, Clint R; Johnson, Nicholas J; Step, Douglas L

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed to compare the treatment regimens in feedlot cattle that died with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) to the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the microorganisms isolated from lungs. Forty-three cattle submitted by the Willard Sparks Beef Research Center (WSBRC) to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for postmortem examination during 2007 had bronchopneumonia (acute = 16, subacute = 5, or chronic = 22). Lungs from cattle were cultured aerobically (40 cattle) and for Mycoplasma spp. (34 cattle). Susceptibility panels were performed. At least 1 BRD pathogen (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, or Arcanobacterium pyogenes) was isolated from 39 cattle, and 77% (30/39) had multiple organisms recovered. Mycoplasmal infections were common (25/34) and a major component of mixed infections (24/25). The majority (60%) of the M. haemolytica, P. multocida, and H. somni isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Most of the H. somni isolates (67%) were susceptible to tilmicosin (Ti), enrofloxacin (En), ceftiofur (Ce), and florfenicol, despite extensive treatment with Ti, En, and Ce (75% of isolates were from cattle that received each antimicrobial once). Most of the M. haemolytica (65%) and P. multocida (79%) isolates were susceptible to En and Ce, despite antemortem treatment of cattle with these antimicrobials. Hence, the current study reports a discrepancy between the antemortem treatment of clinical BRD and the susceptibility patterns of the bacteria isolated from lungs postmortem. Based on these findings, factors other than antimicrobial resistance are playing a role in the death of feedlot cattle with BRD.

  12. patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among bacterial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    to limit this by appropriate antimicrobial usage and infection control strategies. In order for this to happen, surveillance data need to be .... Quality assurance programmes within the laboratory. Information technology or method of data capture and ... from hospitals in South Africa during the past 2 years. These isolates are.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of genital Mycoplasmas among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa M. Abdel Rahman

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis, chorioamnionitis, pre- term delivery, abortion, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and cervicitis.2–4 The administration of antimicrobial agents to pregnant women with preterm rupture of the membranes. (PROM) may extend the gestation period and decrease the risks of ...

  14. Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent isolates were S. aureus, (34.04%), and P. aeruginosa, (31.8%). About 82.16% of the isolates showed multiple resistances. In light of our findings, regular antibiotic resistance test has to be done for each patient in order to select an appropriate antimicrobial agent. Keywords: Bacteraemia, Burn, Sepsis, Thermal ...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella isolates in Awassa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of resistance was particularly documented against the following antibiotics: ... One strain of Shigella flexneri was found to be resistant to eight drugs. The findings are discussed and recommendations .... Type of antibiotic Susceptible intermediate Resistant. Wu) Wei i%i. Gentamicin 96 2 2. Nalidixic acid 90 1O.

  16. Orbital abscess bacterial isolates and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Annie L; Ledbetter, Eric C; Kern, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    To determine bacterial populations, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and sources of microorganisms for dogs and cats with orbital abscess. In total, 34 dogs and 7 cats with orbital abscess participated in the study. Medical records of dogs and cats with a clinical diagnosis of orbital abscess, confirmed by cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of orbital specimens, were reviewed from the years 1990 to 2007. Animal signalment, presumptive source of microorganisms and mechanism of orbital introduction, bacterial isolates, and aerobic bacterial in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test results were recorded. Percentages of susceptible aerobic bacterial isolates were compared among antimicrobials. Twenty dogs and five cats had positive culture results. The most frequent bacterial genera isolated from dogs were Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Pasteurella. The most frequent bacterial genera isolated from cats were Pasteurella and Bacteroides. Aerobic bacterial isolates from dogs had the highest percentage of susceptibility to amikacin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, imipenem, ticarcillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Aerobic bacterial isolates from dogs had the lowest percentage of susceptibility to ampicillin, clindamycin, erythromycin and penicillin. Antimicrobial resistance was uncommon among feline aerobic bacterial isolates. The most commonly identified routes of orbital bacteria introduction were extension from adjacent anatomical structures, penetrating exogenous trauma, and foreign bodies. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections of the orbit occur commonly in dogs and cats. On the basis of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial isolates and in vitro susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates, cephalosporins, extended-spectrum penicillins, potentiated-penicillins and carbapenems are recommended for initial antimicrobial therapy of orbital abscess in dogs and cats.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  18. [Uropathogen pattern and antimicrobial susceptibility in positive urinary cultures isolates from paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Dionisio, V; Díaz-Zabala, M; Ibáñez-Fernández, A; Suárez-Leiva, P; Martínez-Suárez, V; Ordóñez-Álvarez, F A; Santos-Rodríguez, F

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of urophatogens and antibiotic susceptibility should be used to assist with empirical urinary tract infection treatment. We retrospectively analysed local bacterial pattern and antimicrobial susceptibility in positive urinary isolates from paediatric patients collected in the period 2009-2013. Results were compared with a previous study carried out in the same sanitary area between 1995 and 1999. We identified 2,762 urinary isolates. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen (58.9%), followed by Enterococcus sp. (11.6%) and Proteus mirabilis (10.9%). More than 95% of non extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli were susceptible to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, cefotaxime and aminoglycosides. However, 56%, 49%, and 22% of the E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, oral first-generation cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most effective antibiotics to treat Enterococcus sp. and P. mirabilis, respectively. Not significant modifications were found compared to results published at the same area in the 90´s. E. coli was the mostly isolated uropathogen, with a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin, oral first-generation cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These urinary isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were similar to those reported in other paediatric studies and did not show significant changes compared to local previously published results. Thus, it can be considered that the current recommendations about empiric antibiotic therapy in paediatric urinary tract infections remain applicable nowadays.

  19. Natural antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and biochemical profiles of Leclercia adecarboxylata strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, I; Burak, S; Wiedemann, B

    2004-08-01

    Leclercia adecarboxylata is an opportunistic human pathogen that phenotypically resembles Escherichia coli. The natural susceptibilities of 101 Leclercia strains to 70 antimicrobial agents were investigated. MICs were determined with a microdilution procedure in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (all strains) and IsoSensitest broth (some strains). Natural susceptibility patterns were assessed using German (DIN) standards (when applicable). In addition, biochemical properties recommended for the phenotypic identification of L. adecarboxylata were evaluated, applying two commercially available identification systems for Enterobacteriaceae and seven conventional tests. L. adecarboxylata strains were naturally sensitive to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, all but two beta-lactams, quinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and azithromycin. They were naturally resistant to penicillin G, oxacillin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, ketolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, linezolid, glycopeptides, rifampicin, fusidic acid and fosfomycin. There were only minor medium-dependent differences in susceptibility to most antibiotics. Lysine decarboxylase, malonate assimilation and acid production from arabitol and cellobiose, but not from adonitol and sorbitol, allowed definitive separation of L. adecarboxylata from E. coli. The results of this study form a database that can be applied to validate forthcoming antibiotic susceptibility tests of L. adecarboxylata, and might contribute to its reliable identification. Susceptibility patterns did not indicate obvious therapeutic difficulties for treatment of Leclercia infections. Special attention should be paid to biochemically aberrant leclerciae. Apart from biochemical features, fosfomycin susceptibility might be useful to differentiate between L. adecarboxylata and E. coli.

  20. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Akbar, N.; Khan, I. U.; Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.U.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Afzal, A.; Ali, S.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial pathogens in the patients of urinary tract infection reporting at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Laboratory based study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to December 2012. Methodology: A total of 440 culture positive bacterial isolates from 1110 urine samples; submitted over a period of one year were included in this study. Identification of bacterial isolates was done by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibility of culture positive bacterial isolates was performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI). Results: Out of the 440 culture positive urine samples, 152 (34.6%) were from indoor patients whereas 288 (65.4%) from outdoor patients. Gram negative bacteria accounted for 414 (94%) of the total isolates while rest of the 26 (6%) were Gram positive bacteria. The most prevalent bacterial isolate was Escherichia (E.) coli 270 (61.3%) followed by Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa 52 (12%) and Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae 42 (9.5%). The susceptibility pattern of E. coli showed that 96.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 85.1% to amikacin, 80.7% to piperacillin/tazobactam and 72.6% to nitrofurantoin. In case of P. aeruginsosa, 73% bacterial isolates were sensitive to tazobactam/piperacillin, 69.2% to sulbactam/cefoperazone and 65.38% to imipenem. The antibiogram of K. pneumoniae has revealed that 76.1% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and 52.3% to piperacillin/tazobactam. Nitrofurantoin and imipenem were the most effective antimicrobials amongst the Enterococcus spp. as 92.3% showed susceptibility to this bacterial isolate. Conclusion: Majority of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam while susceptibility to most of the commonly used oral

  2. Detection of Group B Streptococcus in Brazilian pregnant women and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Silveira Castellano-Filho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is still not routinely screened during pregnancy in Brazil, being prophylaxis and empirical treatment based on identification of risk groups. This study aimed to investigate GBS prevalence in Brazilian pregnant women by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR associated to the enrichment culture, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated bacteria, so as to support public health policies and empirical prophylaxis. After an epidemiological survey, vaginal and anorectal specimens were collected from 221 consenting laboring women. Each sample was submitted to enrichment culture and sheep blood agar was used to isolate suggestive GBS. Alternatively, specific PCR was performed from enrichment cultures. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for isolated bacteria by agar diffusion method. No risk groups were identified. Considering the culture-based methodology, GBS was detected in 9.5% of the donors. Twenty five bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Through the culture-PCR methodology, GBS was detected in 32.6% specimens. Bacterial resistance was not detected against ampicillin, cephazolin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin, whereas 22.7% were resistant to erythromycin and 50% were resistant to clindamycin. GBS detection may be improved by the association of PCR and enrichment culture. Considering that colony selection in agar plates may be laboring and technician-dependent, it may not reflect the real prevalence of streptococci. As in Brazil prevention strategies to reduce the GBS associated diseases have not been adopted, prospective studies are needed to anchor public health policies especially considering the regional GBS antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Clostridium difficile Isolates from Family Dairy Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelj, P; Golob, M; Ocepek, M; Zdovc, I; Vengust, M

    2017-05-01

    A significant risk factor for developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in humans and animals is associated with the antimicrobial use. It has often been hypothesized that farm animals could be the source for human infection with Clostridium difficile (CD). In the European Union, family-run dairy farms are the predominant farming model, which are more interlinked within the community compared to large-scale intensive dairy or beef farms. Therefore, it is important to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of CD in such environment. A total of 159 CD isolates from 20 family dairy farms were tested with a customized broth microdilution plate for their antimicrobial resistance. Seventeen antimicrobials were selected (amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, daptomycin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, imipenem, levofloxacin, linezolid, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, oxacillin, rifampicin, tetracycline, tigecycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin), which are commonly used for treatment of CDI in veterinary and human medicine, or were previously applied in CD epidemiological studies. Antimicrobials, which are used for treatment of CDI in humans (metronidazole, vancomycin, fusidic acid, tigecycline, linezolid) inhibited CD growth in vitro. Most CD isolates were resistant to erythromycin (93.1%), daptomycin (69.2%) and clindamycin (46.5%). High multiple-resistance was found in CD ribotype 012 (n = 5, 100%), some CD SLO 060 (n = 4, 25%) and one CD 033 (n = 1, 1.1%). High multiple-resistance in this study was linked with CD ribotypes and not with the origin of CD. The low prevalence of these ribotypes (6.3%; 10/159) indicates that family-run dairy farms are an unlikely source of CD with multiple-resistance to antimicrobials. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of polymyxin b, tigecycline and fosfomycin against carbapenamase producing enterobacteriaceae (cpe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Bhatti, A.; Malik, S.; Hussain, A.; Khan, I.U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine, the susceptibility pattern of carbapenamase producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) against polymyxinB, tigecycline and fosfomycin. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology PNS Shifa Karachi, from 26 Sep 2013 to 25 Mar 2014. Material and Methods: All specimens were inoculated on blood and macConkey agar, incubated aerobically at 35 degree C - 37 degree C for 18 to 24 hours. After identification of gram negative rods by colony morphology, Gram's staining and biochemical reactions, these were screened for Carbapenems resistance with imipenem and meropenem 10 mu g discs along with routine first and second line antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guide lines. All isolated CPE were saved and then inoculated on Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). Antimicrobial susceptibility against polymyxin B, Tigecycline and Fosfomycin was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using disc polymyxin B 300 units, Tigecycline 15mu g and Fosfomycin 200 mu g. Zone diameters greater than 24 mm were taken as sensitive for Tigecycline 15 mu g, 16mm for Fosfomycin 200 mu g and 12 mm for polymyxin B 300 units. Results: Clinical specimens of 171 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in our study. Mean +- SD of age was 42.02 +- 22.367 with C.I (38.65 - 45.40). Out of 171 patients 110 (64%) were male and 61 (36%) were female. In vitro susceptibility results revealed that all the 171 (100%) CPE isolates susceptible to PolymyxinB, while susceptibility against Fosfomycin and Tigecycline was 132 (77%) and 49 (29%) respectively. Conclusion: CPE were found to be 100% susceptible to polymyxinB, while for Fosfomycin and Tigecycline susceptibility was 77% and 29% respectively. (author)

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella isolates in association with hygienic status from butcher shops in Gondar town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Addis, Zelalem; Tesfaye, Reta; Zegeye, Bidir

    2015-01-01

    Background Salmonella has been recognized as a major cause of food borne illness associated with meat products worldwide. The wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella has been a serious global human and animal health problem. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from butcher shops of Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2013 in Gondar town. After re...

  6. Prevalence and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli isolated from pigs reared under antimicrobial-free and conventional production methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunner, Christine A; Norby, Bo; Bartlett, Paul C; Erskine, Ronald J; Downes, Frances P; Kaneene, John B

    2007-07-15

    To determine and compare levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from pigs on farms that did not use antimicrobial agents versus pigs produced under conventional methods. Cross-sectional study. Sample Population-35 antimicrobial-free and 60 conventional swine farms. Farms were visited once, and fecal samples were collected from 15 finisher pigs if available. One E coli isolate from each sample was tested for susceptibility pattern to 14 antimicrobial agents by use of microbroth dilution. E coli isolates were recovered from 1,381 (97.1%) of 1,422 fecal samples. Herd size was significantly larger for conventional swine farms. Resistance to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, or nalidixic acid was not observed on any of the 95 farms. Three isolates from 2 conventional farms were resistant to ceftiofur. Conventional farms had significantly higher levels of resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol, compared with antimicrobial-free farms. Fourteen percent of E coli isolates were susceptible or had intermediate resistance to all the tested antimicrobial agents. The 3 most frequent patterns of multiple resistance were streptomycin-tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline, and kanamycin-streptomycin-sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline. Cessation of antimicrobial use did not appear to result in an immediate reduction in antimicrobial resistance in swine farms. Prospective studies of long-term antimicrobial usage and cessation are needed to estimate the extent to which food animal production may be contributing to antimicrobial drug resistance and might provide a direct measure of the rates of reversibility of antimicrobial drug resistance that might be achieved by curtailing antimicrobial usage.

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Golshani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Golshani Z, Ahadi AM, Sharifzadeh A. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Patients Referring to Hospitals. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(2:48-53. Abstract: Background & Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to detect and survey the antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa isolated from patients in Isfahan (located in central Iran hospitals. Materials & Methods : A Total of 50 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from urine, wound, trachea, ear swab, and pus, and then were confirmed by standard tests. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Susceptibility data were compared by chi-square test using SPSS version 15. Results: Among the isolated strains, resistance to oxacillin was seen in 100%, ceftriaxone in 76%, amikacin in 70%, ceftazidime in 68%, cefepime in 68%, tobramycin in 62%, gentamicin in 60%, ciprofloxacin in 58%, and imipenem in 58% of the isolates. Conclusions: Comparison of the results showed that, patterns of antibiotic resistance are different from one hospital to another in various areas. Therefore, it is suggested that such studies should be performed in different hospitals. Also, prescribing correct medications is essential to prevent further increases in resistant bacteria. References: 1. Pagani L, Mantengoli E, Migliavacca R, Nucleo E, Pollini S, Spalla M, et al. Multifocal Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Producing the PER-1 Extended- Spectrum β-Lactamase in Northern Italy. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42(6:2523–9. 2. Ling TKW, Xiong J, Yu Y, Lee CC, Ye H, Hawkey PM, et al. Multicenter Antimicrobial Susceptibility Survey of Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Community-Acquired Infections in the People's Republic of China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50(1:374–8. 3. Gupta V, Datta P, Agnihotri N, Chander J. Comparative in vitro Activities of Seven

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Mirza, I.A.; Malik, N.; Sattar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 isolates of Acinetobacter spp yielded from various clinical specimens during the study period were included Routine conventional methods were used to identify various species of Acinetobacter and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing. Out of total 276 isolates, 176 (63.8%) turned out to be Acinetobacter baumannii and 100 (36.2%) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Overall sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp against piperacillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, sulbactam/cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin were 64%,63%, 48%, 47%, 41%,39%,35%, 34%, 32%, 31 %, 29%, 19%, 18% and 5% respectively. Out of 276 isolates, 181 (66 %) were multidrug resistant while 33 (18 %) isolates were pan-drug resistant. (author)

  9. Spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, A.; Mirza, I.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Farwa, U.; Sattar, A.; Qureshi, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogens causing urinary tract infection from the samples received at AFIP Rawalpindi. Place and duration of study. The study was carried out at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology from January 2010 to June 2010. Material and Method: This was descriptive cross-sectional study. A total of 500 bacterial isolates out of 2050 urine culture samples, for a period of six month were included in the study. Indentification was carried out by standard biochemical profile of the organisms. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of isolated organisms were performed by disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Results Out of the culture positive cases, gram-negative bacteria constituted the largest group with a total of 434 (87%) isolates, while gram-positive bacteria constituted only 44 (8.8%) isolates. E. coli was the most common isolate accounting for 63% of the total positive bacterial cultures followed by Klebsiella spp (9%) and P. aernginosa (7%). Susceptibility pattern of E. coli revealed that 96% of isolates were sensitive to imipenem, 91% to piperacillin-tazobactam and 87% to Nitrofurantoin. For Klebsiella spp, 86% of Isolates were susceptible to Imipenem and 71 % to piperacillin-tazobactam. As regards acinetobacter spp, 94% of Isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and 70 % to Imipenem an piperacilline-sulbactam. Antibiogram of P. aeruginosa revealed that 94% of isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime and 86% to imipenem. Nitrofurantoin was the most effective urinary antibiotic in case of enterococcus spp as 85% of isolates were susceptible to this compound. Conclusion: From the present study we conclude that E. coli was the predominant urinary pathogen in our set up. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. coli revealed that majority of isolates were susceptible to imipenem and piperacilline

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteil Michele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. The prevalence however, varies markedly in hospitals in the same country, and from one country to another. We therefore sought to document comprehensively the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods All Staphylococcus aureus isolates encountered in routine clinical specimens received at major hospitals in the country between 2000 and 2001 were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedures including latex agglutination test (Staphaurex Plus; Murex Diagnostics Ltd; Dartford, England; tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma (Becton, Dickinson & Co; Sparks, MD, USA, and DNase test using DNase agar (Oxoid Ltd; Basingstoke, Hampshire, England. MRSA screening was performed using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 6 μg oxacillin and 4% NaCl, latex agglutination test (Denka Seiken Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan and E-test system (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method while methicillin MICs were determined with E-test system. Results Of 1,912 S. aureus isolates received, 12.8% were methicillin (oxacillin resistant. Majority of the isolates were recovered from wound swabs (86.9% and the least in urine (0.4% specimens. Highest number of isolates was encountered in the surgical (62.3% and the least from obstetrics and gynaecology (1.6% facilities respectively. Large proportions of methicillin sensitive isolates are >85% sensitive to commonly used and available antimicrobials in the country. All MRSA isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, gentamicin and penicillin but were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, rifampin and chloramphenicol. Conclusion There is a progressive increase in MRSA prevalence in the country but

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from humans, pigs, cattle, and broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Nielsen, E. M.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    isolates were resistant to the other antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates were in most cases either coresistant to tylosin, spiramycin, and erythromycin or susceptible to all three antibiotics, More macrolide-resistant isolates were observed among C. coil isolates from swine (79%) than among C. coil...

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children with typhoid fever and serotype of Salmonella typhi in Jakarta

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    Mirari Prasadajudio, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Lia Waslia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Indonesia is known for high incidence of typhoid fever especially in children. This study aimed to observe antibiotic susceptibility in circulating Salmonella typhi serotypes in children with typhoid. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted. A total of 142 blood samples from children between 1-18 years old clinically diagnosed with suspected typhoid fever were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013 from six health centers in Jakarta. Confirmed cases were retrieved based on S. typhi isolate finding in blood culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated and PCR was used to detect S. typhi serotypes using fliB, fliC and aroC genes. Results: The prevalence of confirmed typhoid case based on isolate finding was 22 (15.5%. Twenty of S. typhi isolates expressed fliC gene carrying H:d allele, the other two expressed j allele, while only two samples expressed fliB, all showed no difference in pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance. Conclusions: Circulating serotypes found in typhoid children in Jakarta, Indonesia are still susceptible even to the firstline antimicrobials. Thus, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole are still recommended. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 29-35

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with communityacquired pneumonia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bacterial isolates were obtained from adults suspected to have ...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, emm type distribution and genetic diversity of Streptococcus pyogenes recovered in Brazil

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    Glauber P Arêas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for a variety of infectious diseases and immunological complications. In this study, 91 isolates of S. pyogenes recovered from oropharynx secretions were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, penicillin G and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was 15.4%, which is higher than previous reports from this area, while 20.9% of the isolates were not susceptible to tetracycline. The macrolide resistance phenotypes were cMLSB (10 and iMLSB (4. The ermB gene was predominant, followed by the ermA gene. Thirty-two emm types and subtypes were found, but five (emm1, emm4, emm12, emm22, emm81 were detected in 48% of the isolates. Three new emm subtypes were identified (emm1.74, emm58.14, emm76.7. There was a strong association between emm type and PFGE clustering. A variety of PFGE profiles as well as emm types were found among tetracycline and erythromycin-resistant isolates, demonstrating that antimicrobial resistant strains do not result from the expansion of one or a few clones. This study provides epidemiological data that contribute to the development of suitable strategies for the prevention and treatment of such infections in a poorly studied area.

  15. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    of the percentage of bacterial isolates that are covered by the most commonly used antibiotics in the area of Copenhagen and to provide clinicians with a practical tool to help chose the right antimicrobial treatment for their patients. METHODS: We conducted a study of all bacteria isolates tested for antimicrobial...... susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...... in resistance patterns were noted up to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive and manageable inventory of the resistance patterns of the major bacteria covering the 2004-2008 period is presented. Clinicians are encouraged to use the pocket-size table as guidance when choosing antibiotic treatment. FUNDING: none...

  16. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus over the past decade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke Seierøe; Wibroe, Elisabeth Arnberg; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard

    2015-01-01

    in resistance patterns were noted up to 2014. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive and manageable inventory of the resistance patterns of the major bacteria covering the 2004-2008 period is presented. Clinicians are encouraged to use the pocket-size table as guidance when choosing antibiotic treatment. FUNDING: none...... susceptibility at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, from 2004 to 2008. Due to a suspected rise in resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae after this period, updated data for these bacteria are shown for selected antibiotics until 2014. The department receives samples from...... hospitals as well as from primary healthcare. Only one isolate per species per patient per year was included. RESULTS: A total of 224,033 bacteria isolates were included in this study. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the various bacteria is presented in a table. No clinically relevant changes...

  17. Genotypically Different Clones of Staphylococcus aureus Are Diverse in the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Biofilm Formations

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    Salman Sahab Atshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether genotypically different clinical isolates of S. aureus have similar susceptibilities to individual antibiotics. It further aims to check the impact of biofilm on the in vitro activity of vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline against S. aureus clones. The study used a total of 60 different clinical MSSA and MRSA isolates. Susceptibilities were performed in planktonic cultures by macrobroth dilution and epsilon-test (E test system. Biofilm production was determined using an adherent plate assay. The efficacy of antimicrobial activities against biofilms formation was checked using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. The study found that similar and different spa, MLST, and SCCmec types displayed high variation in their susceptibilities to antibiotics with tigecycline and daptomycin being the most effective. The biofilms were found resistant to high concentrations of most antibiotics tested with daptomycin being the most effective drug used in adhesive biofilms. A considerable difference exists among similar and various clone types against antibiotics tested. This variation could have contributed to the degree of virulence even within the same clonal genotype and enhanced heterogeneity in the infection potential. Thus, the development of a rapid and precise identification profile for each clone in human infections is important.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and clarithromycin resistance patterns of Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Vietnam [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Quek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that causes several gastroduodenal disorders such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.  Eradication efforts of H. pylori are often hampered by antimicrobial resistance in many countries, including Vietnam.  Here, the study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori clinical isolates across 13 hospitals in Vietnam.  The study further evaluated the clarithromycin resistance patterns of H. pylori strains.  In order to address the study interests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, epsilometer test and PCR-based sequencing were performed on a total of 193 strains isolated from patients, including 136 children (3–15 years of age and 57 adults (19–69 years of age.  Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the overall resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline was 10.4%, 85.5%, 24.4%, 37.8%, and 23.8% respectively.  The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of clarithromycin-resistant strains was 85.5% with MIC >0.5 μg/mL.  The majority of the clarithromycin resistant isolates (135 of 165 subjects have MICs ranging from 2 μg/mL to 16 μg/mL.  Furthermore, sequencing detection of mutations in 23S rRNA gene revealed that strains resistant and susceptible to clarithromycin contained both A2143G and T2182C mutations.  Of all isolates, eight clarithromycin-resistant isolates (MIC >0.5 μg/mL had no mutations in the 23S rRNA gene.  Collectively, these results demonstrated that a proportion of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains, which are not related to the 23S rRNA gene mutations, could be potentially related to other mechanisms such as the presence of an efflux pump or polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene.  Therefore, the present study suggests that providing susceptibility testing prior to treatment or alternative screening strategies for antimicrobial resistance is important

  19. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  20. NORMAL VAGINAL BACTERIAL FLORA OF GIANT PANDAS (AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) AND THE ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF THE ISOLATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Yang, Jiang; Wang, Hongning; Li, Caiwu; He, Yongguo; Jin, SenYan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Wang, Pengyan; Xu, Yuesong; Xu, Changwen; Fan, Chengyun; Xu, Lulai; Huang, Shan; Qu, Chunmao; Li, Guo

    2016-06-01

    To study the typical vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), we took vaginal swabs for the sake of bacterial isolation, from 24 healthy female giant pandas. A total of 203 isolates were identified, representing a total of 17 bacterial species. The most common bacteria isolated were Lactobacillus spp. (54.2%, 13/24), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (41.7%, 10/24) and Escherichia coli (33.3%, 8/24). Some opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Peptostreptococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Proteus mirabilis , were also isolated but showed no pathology. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of aerobic bacterial isolates was performed with the disk diffusion method. Of the 152 isolates, resistance was most frequently observed with chloramphenicol (17.8%), followed by tetracycline (14.5%), ciprofloxacin (12.5%), streptomycin (11.8%), and florfenicol (11.8%), whereas 7.2% were multidrug resistant. This is the first report of the normal culturable vaginal bacterial flora of giant pandas and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and sequence analysis of DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Richa; Thakare, Ritesh; Amrin, N; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Chopra, Sidharth; Dhole, Tapan Nirodhechand

    2016-08-01

    We describe the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 typhoidal Salmonella isolates recovered from blood cultures and also investigate the association of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility with mutations in the genes coding for DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in 55 isolates. The study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2015 at a tertiary care centre in north India. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test. Genotypic characterization included the screening of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR. DNA sequence analysis was done for 55 isolates. Out of 100 isolates recovered 80 were S. Typhi, 18 were Paratyphi A and two were Paratyphi B. Eighty two percent (66/80) of S. Typhi and 15/18 S. Paratyphi A showed decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. The most common mutation in gyrA led to a change at codon 83 of serine to phenylalanine (n=37) or tyrosine (n=12). Five S. Typhi isolates that were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MICs of 12, 16, 24 and 32 μg/ml) had a second mutation at codon 87 in the gyrA gene changing aspartate to asparagine. There is a need to urgently review the use of fluoroquinolones for the management of enteric fever in endemic areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: a multicentre study.

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    Salimizand, Himen; Menbari, Shaho; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khonsha, Masomeh; Saleh Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to establish antibiotic profile and the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, with considering the effectiveness of control infection measures across three hospitals in the Kurdistan, west part of Iran. Fifty-four A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients and environmental specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns (Antibio-type) were evaluated for 17 different antibiotics and MIC for imipenem was done. Isolates were assessed for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and integrated gene cassettes and blaOXA-likefamilies genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) was done for analysing clonality and relativeness of isolates (REP-type). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns distinguished 11 distinct Antibio-types and REP-PCR showed three clusters with 20 subclusters, mostly belonged to two clonal subgroups, A1 and B1. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were detected in 100% (54/54) and 52% (28/54), respectively, while blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58 were not present in isolates. MBLs were not detected, but, however, high rate of imipenem resistance was observed (52%). MIC90 of imipenem was 16 mg/ml. Class 1 integrons were detected in 11% (6/54) of isolates followed by 24% (13/54) of class 2. Both classes of integron genes were detected in 15% (8/54) of isolates. Integrated gene cassettes were in low level (11% of class 1 harboring isolates). Two arrays of gene cassettes were revealed, dfrA5-like and dfrA17-aadA5. Infection control surveillance should be considered as a serious manner, even the superficial eradication of hospital acquired pathogens. MBL genes were not induced carbapenem resistance in studied hospital settings, but blaOXA-51 & 23 contributed in imipenem resistant. Integrons had a little share in resistance of A. baumannii isolates.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

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    Kateete, David Patrick; Kabugo, Usuf; Baluku, Hannington; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Kyobe, Samuel; Okee, Moses; Najjuka, Christine Florence; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2013-01-01

    Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human). Fifty eight (60%) Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21), Enterococci (16), Streptococci (13), Lactococci (5), Micrococci (2) and Arcanobacteria (1) were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25%) coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12), Klebsiella oxytoca (5), Proteus vulgaris (2), Serratia (2), Citrobacter (1), Cedecea (1) and Leclercia (1) were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35%) including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis) and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri). Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively) were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435, spa-type t645 corresponding to ST121) but

  4. A Comparison of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans and Food Animals Using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns

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    Sandt, Carol H.; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J.; Tewari, Deepanker; Ostroff, Stephen; Joyce, Kevin; M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases affecting humans. To characterize the relationship between Salmonella causing human infections and their food animal reservoirs, we compared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolated from ill humans in Pennsylvania and from food animals before retail. Human clinical isolates were received from 2005 through 2011 during routine public health operations in Pennsylvania. Isolates from cattle, chickens, swine and turkeys were recovered during the same period from federally inspected slaughter and processing facilities in the northeastern United States. We found that subtyping Salmonella isolates by PFGE revealed differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and, for human Salmonella, differences in sources and invasiveness that were not evident from serotyping alone. Sixteen of the 20 most common human Salmonella PFGE patterns were identified in Salmonella recovered from food animals. The most common human Salmonella PFGE pattern, Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS), was associated with more cases of invasive salmonellosis than all other patterns. In food animals, this pattern was almost exclusively (99%) found in Salmonella recovered from chickens and was present in poultry meat in every year of the study. Enteritidis pattern JEGX01.0004 (JEGX01.0003ARS) was associated with susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested in 94.7% of human and 97.2% of food animal Salmonella isolates. In contrast, multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents) was observed in five PFGE patterns. Typhimurium patterns JPXX01.0003 (JPXX01.0003 ARS) and JPXX01.0018 (JPXX01.0002 ARS), considered together, were associated with resistance to five or more classes of antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT), in 92% of human and 80% of food

  5. Distribution, detection of enterotoxigenic strains and antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns of Bacteroides fragilis group in diarrheic and non-diarrheic feces from Brazilian infants

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    Débora Paula Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of gastrointestinal diseases and their global distribution, affecting millions of individuals around the world, the role and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of anaerobic bacteria such as those in the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG are still unclear in young children. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of species in the BFG and enterotoxigenic strains in the fecal microbiota of children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Diarrheic (n=110 and non-diarrheic (n=65 fecal samples from children aged 0-5 years old were evaluated. BFG strains were isolated and identified by conventional biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. Alternatively, bacteria and enterotoxigenic strains were detected directly from feces by molecular biology. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the agar dilution method according to the guidelines for isolated bacteria. BFG was detected in 64.3% of the fecal samples (55% diarrheic and 80.4% non-diarrheic, and 4.6% were enterotoxigenic. Antimicrobial resistance was observed against ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ceftriaxone, clindamycin and chloramphenicol. The data show that these bacteria are prevalent in fecal microbiota at higher levels in healthy children. The molecular methodology was more effective in identifying the B. fragilis group when compared to the biochemical and physiological techniques. The observation of high resistance levels stimulates thoughts about the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs in early infancy. Further quantitative studies are needed to gain a better understanding of the role of these bacteria in acute diarrhea in children.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and characterization of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa

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    Lin Johnson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA continues to be a problem for clinicians worldwide. However, few data on the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of S. aureus isolates in South Africa have been reported and the prevalence of MRSA in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province is unknown. In addition, information on the characterization of S. aureus in this province is unavailable. This study investigated the susceptibility pattern of 227 S. aureus isolates from the KZN province, South Africa. In addition, characterization of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA are reported in this survey. Methods The in-vitro activities of 20 antibiotics against 227 consecutive non-duplicate S. aureus isolates from clinical samples in KZN province, South Africa were determined by the disk-diffusion technique. Isolates resistant to oxacillin and mupirocin were confirmed by PCR detection of the mecA and mup genes respectively. PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene was employed in the characterization of MSSA and MRSA. Results All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and fusidic acid, and 26.9% of isolates studied were confirmed as MRSA. More than 80% of MRSA were resistant to at least four classes of antibiotics and isolates grouped in antibiotype 8 appears to be widespread in the province. The MSSA were also susceptible to streptomycin, neomycin and minocycline, while less than 1% was resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and mupirocin. The inducible MLSB phenotype was detected in 10.8% of MSSA and 82% of MRSA respectively, and one MSSA and one MRSA exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. There was good correlation between antibiotyping and PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene in the characterization of MRSA in antibiotypes 1, 5 and 12. Conclusion In view of the high resistance rates of MRSA to gentamicin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampicin and

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

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    David Patrick Kateete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human. Fifty eight (60% Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21, Enterococci (16, Streptococci (13, Lactococci (5, Micrococci (2 and Arcanobacteria (1 were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25% coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12, Klebsiella oxytoca (5, Proteus vulgaris (2, Serratia (2, Citrobacter (1, Cedecea (1 and Leclercia (1 were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35% including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri. Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435

  8. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  9. PREVALENCE OF MBL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ACINETOBACTER ISOLATES FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, ASSAM, INDIA

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    Monjuri Kataki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acinetobacter infection have been clinically prominent pathogen in tropical countries have caused recurrent problems during wars and natural disasters and have recently caused multihospital outbreaks. Rational use of antimicrobial agents is clinically important to prevent Acinetobacter infections as well as to avoid poor outcomes. 1 The aim of the study is to see the prevalence of Acinetobacter as a pathogen in this tertiary care hospital, their susceptibility pattern along with prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase. MATERIALS AND METHODS The samples were processed for a period of one year. Samples were collected from ICU including urine, sputum, endotracheal aspirate, BAL, blood, pus, body fluids (pleural fluid, CSF, etc. and the stool specimens were plated using appropriate culture media (MAC, BA, CLED, XLD. RESULTS Shows Acinetobacter baumannii is the significant species isolated is ICU among 700 cases, which yielded only 100% sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics. So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way. CONCLUSION So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way.

  10. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens and japanese quails in Brazil

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    Everlon Cid Rigobelo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to verify the presence of Pasteurella multocida in eight different poultry groups of 90 birds each. Groups I to IV were chickens (I being > 6 weeks of age with a history of respiratory illness, II > 6 weeks of age and free of respiratory illness, III < 6 weeks of age with respiratory illness and IV being < 6 weeks of age and with no respiratory illness. Groups V to VIII had the matching characteristics of Groups I to V but consisted of Japanese Quails. The P. multocida isolation rate from the groups was as follows; Group I 56/90 (62.3% Group II 18/90 (20.0%, Group III 12/90 (13.3%, Group IV 3/90 (3.33%, Group V 8/90 (8.88%, Group VI 2/90 (2.22% Group VII 2/90 (2.22% and Group VIII 1/90 (1.11%. These isolation rates were not significantly different within the groups of a bird type but the overall chicken isolation rate was significantly higher than the quail isolation rate (p < 0.01. All isolates were examined for their sensitivity to four antimicrobial agents. The results showed only low levels of resistance to the agents tested. The highest level of resistance detected was to cephalothin (5.1% of isolates followed by amikacin (3.4%.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

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    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  12. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from canine chronic otitis externa

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    Silva N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Swab samples obtained from 96 dogs with chronic otitis externa were cultured for the isolation of Staphylococcus species. Of 57 staphylococcal strains, 41 (72% were coagulase-negative (CNS. The identification of staphylococci strains was made by standard procedures for the routine identification of staphylococci in clinical practice. S. sciuri was the most frequent species isolated (22.8% from chronic otitis externa in dogs followed by S. intermedius (12.3%, S. auricularis (10.5% and S. aureus (8.8%. Three (5.2% CNS strains could not be identified. Bacterial isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and neomycin. Resistance was most common to penicillin G, oxacillin and ampicillin.

  13. An overview of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for gram-negative bacteria from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) program from 2000 to 2005.

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    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Buppunharun, Wanchai; Tiengrim, Surapee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Aswapokee, Nalinee

    2009-08-01

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Thailand (NARST) has been initiated since 1998 to strengthen the surveillance program for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens as well as to standardize the laboratory practices in Thailand. This collaborative network was funded by the World Health Organization, and involved 33 hospitals throughout Thailand at the first phase. Nevertheless, no prior effort has been made to share the antimicrobial resistance data in the national level. In this overview, the authors provide an update on the status of antimicrobial resistance from 2000 to 2005 among important Gram-negative pathogens as well as the implication of these findings. The most striking finding appears to be the emergence of pandrug-resistant (PDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii has been dramatically increasing from 2.1% in 2000 to 46.7% in 2005. There is a trend towards the increasing incidence rates of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from 2000 to 2005, but the incidence rates of ESBL-producing Klebseilla pneumoniae remain constant during the same period. The susceptibility of Burkholderia pseudomallei to various antibiotics, particularly ceftazidime and carbapenems, approached 100%. In conclusions, to help strengthen the future surveillance system, NARST needs to develop the data collection tools that include some important patient characteristics and the information that can help distinguish colonizations and infections as well as community-acquired infections and hospital-acquired infections. In addition, an appropriate test for antimicrobial susceptibility including the minimal inhibitory concentration determination should be implemented and carried out for all important pathogens. The NARST data emphasized a need to strengthen the antimicrobial stewardship as well as the infection control measures at the hospital level to help reduce the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Thailand.

  14. The common enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected individuals attending the antiretroviral therapy clinic of Hawassa university hospital, southern Ethiopia

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    Ayele Kebede

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequent occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis among HIV-infected individuals together with increased antimicrobial drug resistance pose a significant public health challenge in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from February to May, 2016. A consecutive 215 HIV-infected patients, with complaints of gastrointestinal tract disease, were enrolled. Data on socio-demography and related factors was collected using a structured questionnaire. A stool sample was collected from each study participant and cultured to isolate enteric bacterial pathogens; isolates were characterized using biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Kirby- Bauer disk diffusion technique. Results Out of 215 patients, 27(12.6% were culture positive for various bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter species was the most common bacterial isolate (6.04%, followed by Salmonella species (5.1%. The majority of isolates was sensitive to norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin and showed resistance to trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (SXT and chloramphenicol. Consumption of raw food was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with enteric bacterial infection (crude odds ratio 3.41 95% CI 1.13–10.3. Conclusions The observed rate of enteric bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance pattern to the commonly prescribed antibiotics highlights the need to strengthen intervention efforts and promote rational use of antimicrobials. In this regard, the need to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship efforts should be emphasized to slow grown antimicrobial resistance among this population

  15. Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in Staphylococcus aureus strains recovered from patients at two main health facilities in Kabul, Afghanistan.

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    Naimi, Haji Mohammad; Rasekh, Hamidullah; Noori, Ahmad Zia; Bahaduri, Mohammad Aman

    2017-11-29

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major pathogen implicated in skin and soft tissue infections, abscess in deep organs, toxin mediated diseases, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, post-surgical wound infections, meningitis and many other diseases. Irresponsible and over use of antibiotics has led to an increased presence of multidrug resistant organisms and especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a major public health concern in Afghanistan. As a result, there are many infections with many of them undiagnosed or improperly diagnosed. We aimed to establish a baseline of knowledge regarding the prevalence of MRSA in Kabul, Afghanistan, as well as S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility to current available antimicrobials, while also determining those most effective to treat S. aureus infections. Samples were collected from patients at two main Health facilities in Kabul between September 2016 and February 2017. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by the disc diffusion method and studied using standard CLSI protocols. Out of 105 strains of S. aureus isolated from pus, urine, tracheal secretions, and blood, almost half (46; 43.8%) were methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) while 59 (56.2%) were Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). All strains were susceptible to vancomycin. In total, 100 (95.2%) strains were susceptible to rifampicin, 96 (91.4%) susceptible to clindamycin, 94 (89.5%) susceptible to imipenem, 83 (79.0%) susceptible to gentamicin, 81(77.1%) susceptible to doxycycline, 77 (77.1%) susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, 78 (74.3%) susceptible to cefazolin, 71 (67.6%) susceptible to tobramycin, 68 (64.8%) susceptible to chloramphenicol, 60 (57.1%) were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 47 (44.8%) susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 38 (36.2%) susceptible to azithromycin and erythromycin, 37 (35.2%) susceptible to ceftriaxone and 11 (10.5%) were

  16. Isolation and anti-microbial susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococcus among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Ayder Referral Hospital and Mekelle Health Center, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia.

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    Alemseged, Gebreselassie; Niguse, Selam; Hailekiros, Haftamu; Abdulkadir, Mehamud; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Asmelash, Tsehaye

    2015-10-01

    Vaginal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the predominant risk factor for the development of invasive neonatal GBS diseases and puts newborns at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. This study is aimed to determine the colonization rate and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococcus among pregnant women. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to December 2014 at selected health facilities. A total of 139 antenatal clinics attendees, proportionally allocated, were recruited consecutively. Socio-demographic and clinical factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Vaginal swabs were collected and cultured on Todd Hewitt broth and in 5 % sheep blood agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi square test. Among the 139, 19 (13.7 %) were positive for GBS. All the GBS isolates were susceptible (100 %) to penicillin G, vancomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin. Two of the GBS isolates showed multidrug resistance against norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. No statistically significant difference was observed for GBS colonization with any independent variables. Vaginal colonization of GBS for the present study put emphasis on further investigation and accomplishment of routine GBS screening practices. The recovery of resistant strains to antimicrobial agents recommended in cases of penicillin allergic mothers indicates the importance of susceptibility test.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

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    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Macrolide Resistance Genes of β-Hemolytic Viridans Group Streptococci in a Tertiary Korean Hospital

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    Hwang, Gyu Yel; Jang, In Ho; Kwon, Ohgun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Yoon, Kap Jun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibilities and macrolide resistance mechanisms of β-hemolytic viridans group streptococci (VGS) in a tertiary Korean hospital. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of seven antimicrobials were determined for 103 β-hemolytic VGS isolated from various specimens. The macrolide resistance mechanisms of erythromycin-resistant isolates were studied by the double disk test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall resistance rates of β-hemolytic VGS were found to be 47.5% to tetracycline, 3.9% to chloramphenicol, 9.7% to erythromycin, and 6.8% to clindamycin, whereas all isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Among ten erythromycin-resistant isolates, six isolates expressed a constitutive MLSB (cMLSB) phenotype, and each of the two isolates expressed the M phenotype, and the inducible MLSB (iMLSB) phenotype. The resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin of β-hemolytic VGS seemed to be lower than those of non-β-hemolytic VGS in our hospital, although cMLSB phenotype carrying erm(B) was dominant in β-hemolytic VGS. PMID:17982224

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 45 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (from different sources) to 11 commonly used antimicrobial agents was determined by agar diffusion technique. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial drugs were also determined using amylase property of Aeromonas as end-point ...

  20. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections in Venezuela: Results of the SMART study 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Napoleón; Guzmán, Manuel; Merentes, Altagracia; Rizzi, Adele; Papaptzikos, Juana; Rivero, Narlesky; Oranges, Carmela; Vlllarroel, Héctor; Limas, Yoxsivell

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem, which complicates their effective treatment. Surveillance is needed to guide appropriate empiric therapy. to describe the susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated of patients with UTI to twelve antibiotics as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Venezuela. Between 2009-2012 a total of 472 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. The isolates were sent to Central Laboratory (Central Laboratory of International Health Management Associates) to confirm their identification, and to make susceptibility testing as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Enterobacteriacea comprised 96.6% of the total, where Escherichia coli (76.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6%) were the most frequent. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was detected in 21.6% of isolates. Top antimicrobial activity were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin (> 90.0%), slightly lower for amikacin (85.1%) in ESBL-producing strains. Resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and ampicillin/sulbactam were high (40 y 64%, respectively). These data suggest a necessary revision of the therapeutic regimens for the empirical treatment of UTI in Venezuela.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from subclinical bovine mastitis in Hatay, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslantaş Özkan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS of eight species from subclinical bovine mastitis were screened for the phenotypic and genotypic methicilline-resistance. In addition, all methicillin-resistant (MR isolates indicating the mecA gene were examined by PCR for the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec types were also determined by multiplex PCR. A total of 21 (23.6% CoNS isolates were found to be resistant to oxacillin in broth microdilution assay. All isolates phenotypically resistant to oxacillin did not have the mecA gene, which was only found in 14.6% (13 of the isolates. Most MR-CoNS isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin (92.3%, fusidic acid (84.6%, penicillin (76.9%, and rifampycin (61.5%, and susceptible to mupirocin (100%, tetracycline (100%, vancomycin (100%, clindamycin (92.3%, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (69.2%. In conclusion, a high rate of antimicrobial resistance among MR-CoNS isolated from food producing animals emphasises the need for periodic surveillance of their resistance.

  2. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Bacteria Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples from Children Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salu Rai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of oxacillin. 264 (59% samples were culture positive. The highest incidence of bacterial infections was noted in the age group of less than 1 year (76%. Out of 264 growth positive samples, Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 162 (61% samples and Gram-negative bacteria were found in 102 (39% samples. Staphylococcus aureus (99% was the predominant Gram-positive bacteria isolated and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44% was predominant Gram-negative bacteria. About 19% of S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant MIC of oxacillin ranging from 4 μg/mL to 128 μg/mL. Among the children of Nepal, those of age less than 1 year were at higher risk of wound infections by bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacteria causing wound infections in children.

  3. Correlation between flagellin A (flaA) genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Anastassios; Nicolaou, Chrysoula; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2009-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common enteric pathogens worldwide. The bacterium is transmitted to humans via contaminated food and water. In the majority of cases the disease is self-limiting, but treatment is indicated in immunocompromised patents, in severe cases with septicemia, and in children. The subtyping of clinical, animal, and food C. jejuni isolates is very important for epidemiological studies. In the present study, 192 Campylobacter jejuni isolates characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of SmaI digested genomic DNA were further examined with respect to their antimicrobial resistance and their flagellin A (flaA) genotypes in order to disclose any correlation between a certain flaA type and a specific antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. C. jejuni clinical isolates were collected from infected children up to 14 years of age from five general hospitals in the area of Attica, Greece, during the period 2004-7. C. jejuni strain isolation and identification from stool samples were performed by conventional bacteriological methods. SmaI restriction fragments were prepared as described previously for the PFGE analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and interpreted by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by use of the agar dilution method as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. FlaA typing was performed by PCR amplification of the corresponding gene, and the product was digested with DdeI and visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using the software Gene Profiler 1-D Gel Analysis and Data Basing for Windows((R)). A statistically significant correlation between certain flaA genotypes (flaA 17 Greece [GR], flaA 19 GR and flaA 39 GR) and resistance to some antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulinic acid [co-amoxiclav], erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin) was detected in C. jejuni strains isolated from infected children. Further

  4. The current susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from in-patients and out-patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) was studied. Fifty, S. aureus organisms were isolated from routine clinical specimens such as high vaginal, wound, urethral and ear ...

  5. Pathogenic Bacteria and their Susceptibility to Antimicrobial Agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antibiotic-resistant Gram negative bacteria are increasingly emerging as serious causes of infections than ever before. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study examined the pattern of pathogenic bacterial isolates and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents at Abouzar Children Hospital, Ahavz-Iran ...

  6. Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Salmonella and Shigella remain the major contributors to acute enteric infections and diarrhoea. Hence, the objective of this study was to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella and Salmonella species from children with acute diarrhoea in Mekelle Hospital and Semen Health ...

  7. Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynalem Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%. Of all, 81 (59.1% were males. Seventy-seven (57% of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43% were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34% followed by Klebsiella species (13%, coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%, amoxicillin (83%, penicillin (81.3%, oxacillin (74.6%, and tetracycline (59.4%, while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%, ampicillin (94.8%, tetracycline (72.7%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%, and chloramphenicol (54.5%. Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of oral Treponema species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Shibayama, Kazuko; Sekino, Jin; Yoshikawa, Kouki; Saito, Atsushi; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Treponemes occur in the microflora of the dental plaque. Certain Treponema species that are frequently isolated from chronic periodontitis lesions are involved in its initiation and progression. In addition to mechanical instrumentation, antimicrobial agents are used as an adjunctive treatment modality for periodontitis. Despite its importance for successful antimicrobial treatment, information about susceptibility is limited for Treponema species. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of Treponema denticola strains, Treponema socranskii, and Treponema vincentii to eleven antimicrobial agents. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of these antimicrobial agents revealed strain-specific variation. Doxycycline, minocycline, azithromycin, and erythromycin were effective against all Treponema species tested in this study, whereas fluoroquinolones only exhibited an equivalent effectiveness on T. socranskii. The susceptibility of one T. denticola strain, T. socranskii, and T. vincentii to kanamycin was influenced by prior exposure to aerobic conditions. The susceptibility to quinolone drugs varied among strains of T. denticola, although they share an amino acid sequence identity of greater than 99% for DNA gyrase (type II topoisomerase) subunit A. In addition, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter inhibitor assay for T. denticola indicated that the transport of quinolone drugs is partially related to this transporter, although there may be parallel transport mechanisms. Our results provide important insights into antimicrobial agent-Treponema dynamics and establish a basis for developing an appropriate adjunctive therapy for periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  11. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    , introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) frequently present to healthcare facilities in South Africa (SA). Aim. To provide information on UTI aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods. We recruited women with UTI-related symptoms, who tested positive for .2 urine ...

  13. Clinical assessment of wounds and antimicrobial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at two veterinary surgeries to investigate the common aerobic bacteria associated with dog bite wounds in dogs, and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibilities. From each wound, two swabs were collected for bacterial culture and cytology. A total of 50 wounds from 50 dogs were examined, with ...

  14. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI. PMID:24991629

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and CTX-M β-lactamase producing clinical isolates from burn patients in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubbashir Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients using phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Methods: During 2015–2016, a total of 126 samples were collected at a tertiary care hospital, Islamabad. Antibiotic sensitivity and ESBL prevalence were evaluated according to the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute, and molecular analysis of the CTX-M type ESBL gene was performed in 225 bacterial isolates from these samples. Results: The most prevalent bacterial species were Escherichia coli (28.4%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (19.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.4%, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (13.3%. Of the 225 bacterial isolates, 89 (39.5% were found to be ESBL producers. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem (88% and imipenem (84%, followed by the aminoglycoside amikacin (81%. Molecular epidemiology of the ESBL isolates indicated 19% prevalence of CTX-M. Resistance to antibiotics was exhibited by 28% isolates. Conclusions: In the present study, bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, and E. coli isolated from burn patients exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics and produced large amounts of ESBL. Further studies are needed to investigate the virulence and epidemiology of CTX-M type ESBL in clinical isolates from burn patients.

  17. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enterococci Isolated from Patients in Tehran University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospitals

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    Jabalameli Fereshteh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antibacterial resistance among enterococci isolated in Tehran hospitals. A total of 277 Enterococcus faecalis, 123 Enterococcus faecium and 13 isolates of other enterococcal strains were collected from 1 March 2002 to 15 April 2004 from three teaching hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of tested antibiotics were determined by agar dilution method. Susceptible and resistant isolates were defined according to the species-related MIC breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Sixty- three percent of isolates were resistant to rifampicin (MIC90 64 µg/ml, 44% to ciprofloxacin (MIC90 16≤ µg/ml, 43% to erythromycin (MIC90 512 µg/ml, 32% to cefazolin (MIC90 256≤ µg/ml, 25% to penicillin (MIC90 32 µg/ml, 21% to ampicillin (MIC90 128≤ µg/ml, 8% to vancomycin (MIC90 ≤ 8 µg/ml, and 8% to teicoplanin (MIC90 16≤ µg/ml. All of the vancomycin-resistant strains carried the vanA phenotype and genotype. High level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin were found in 52% and 83% of the isolates, respectively. The results indicated that a significant percentage of isolates are resistance to different antibiotics, pointing out the need for control strategies to avoid dissemination of resistant isolates and for continuous surveillance for the detection of emerging resistance traits.

  18. Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection (UTI and Detection New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 Producing Isolates in Ahwaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Afrugh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the commonest bacterial infectious disease in worldwide (especially in developing countries with a high rate of morbidity and financial cost. The management of UTI infections has been jeopardized by increase in immergence of antimicrobial drug resistance. Knowledge of the local bacterial etiology and susceptibility patterns is required to trace any change that might have occurred in time so that updated recommendation for optimal empirical therapy of UTI can be made. The aim of this investigation was distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI and detection NDM-1 (new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-1 producing isolates in Ahwaz. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done during a period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from suspected patients to UTI. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical testes. Culture was performed on routine microbiological media. Susceptibility testing was performed according CLSI (2013 guidelines. Detection of carbapenemase producing isolates was performed by modified hodge test (MHT. Metallo-beta-lactamase isolates were detected by imipenem-EDTA combined disc test (CDT. Results: In this study 708 gram negative organisms were isolated from urine samples. E.coli was the most common isolated bacteria (67% followed by Klebsiella spp. (26.5% and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%. In antibiotic susceptibility testing more than 90% of isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, ceftazidime, meropenem, amikacin, cefotaxime, imipenem, and cefepime. Isolates were more resistant to cephalothin (32%, co-trimoxazol (30.5%, and nalidixic acid (25%. Conclusion: In our results isolated organisms from outpatients showed very high sensitivity to common antibiotics. Continuous and regular monitoring of susceptibility pattern of

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Mengistu, Shimelis; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log 10 /ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log 10 /ml) with significant differences ( P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) ( P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town.

  20. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  1. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated from carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamí García

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When it is necessary to determine the susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm strains to antimicrobial drugs, it is important to consider that it should be analyzed in a double context. One of them related to the use of drugs in a specific medical treatment; and the other; to chemoprophylatic drugs, both with the same purpose: the accurate selection of the “in vivo” antimicrobial agent. This requires the study of the sensitivity and resistance of strains isolated in both carriers and patients. With the aim of further studying the behavior of the strains that currently circulate in Cuba, an antimicrobial drug susceptibility study was conducted in 90 strains isolated from carriers during the first half of 1998. The agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs to: penicillin, ampicillin, rifampin, sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime. The study of the three latter drugs was done for the first time in our country. The search for β- lactamase-producer strains was also performed. There was a predominance of penicillin sensitive strains (82,2% with an intermediate sensitivity to ampicillin (57,8%, while 70% of the strains were sensitive to sulfadiazine. Regarding the rest of the antimicrobial drugs, 100% of the strains were sensitive. The paper shows the MICs for each drug as well as the phenotypic characteristics of the strains with the penicillin and sulfadiazine sensitivity and resistance patterns. No β-lactamase-producer strains were found.

  2. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-11-21

    The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria from April- June, 2015. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool sample was collected and examined for pathogens following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of pathogens and sensitivity test was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion technique. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study with the response rate of 100% for data collected by questionnaire. About 7.4% were aged less than 20 years with majority (63.3%) lay in the working age group of 21-35 years. However, a total of 345 food handlers participated for stool examination of whom, stool cultures revealed 6.9% of Salmonella and 3% Shigella isolates. Finger nail status (AOR=0.033), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR= 0.006) and touching food with bare hands (AOR= p < 0.001) were independent predictors of infectious enteric diseases among the food handlers. All isolated pathogens were resistant to amoxicillin (100%), followed by clarithromycin (41%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (35%). The

  3. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammedaman Mama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of safe food improves health of the people that contributes to productivity and provides an effective platform for development and poverty alleviation. On the other hand, unsafe food handling and processing can serve as a vehicle for the transmission of a variety of disease causing agents. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are therefore a public health problem in developed and developing countries which is also true for Ethiopia. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associated risk factors of Shigella and Salmonella among food handlers in Arba Minch University, South Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Arba Minch University students’ cafeteria from April- June, 2015. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool sample was collected and examined for pathogens following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of pathogens and sensitivity test was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion technique. Results A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study with the response rate of 100% for data collected by questionnaire. About 7.4% were aged less than 20 years with majority (63.3% lay in the working age group of 21-35 years. However, a total of 345 food handlers participated for stool examination of whom, stool cultures revealed 6.9% of Salmonella and 3% Shigella isolates. Finger nail status (AOR=0.033, hand washing practice after toilet (AOR= 0.006 and touching food with bare hands (AOR= p < 0.001 were independent predictors of infectious enteric diseases among the food handlers. All isolated pathogens were resistant to amoxicillin (100%, followed by clarithromycin

  4. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in outpatient urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is a global emergence of resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Empirical antibiotic prescribing should be guided by local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Aim. To identify organisms and determine antibiotic susceptibility in urinary tract infections (UTIs) at 3 Military Hospital, Bloemfontein ...

  5. In Vitro Activity of Telithromycin against Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus bovis Isolated from Blood: Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Different Groups of Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Avial, Iciar; Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Picazo, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activities of penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and telithromycin were determined against 155 viridans group streptococci (VGS) and 18 Streptococcus bovis blood isolates. Heterogeneity in the susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes in the different groups of VGS was detected. We found seven telithromycin-resistant S. bovis isolates all harboring the erm(B) gene.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Uropathogenic Bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in Yobe State with particular emphasis on community-acquired (CA) and hospital acquired (HA) UTIs and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of causative bacterial strains. A retrospective study of 1,577 urine samples processed at the Federal ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and Ribosomal-RNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus-intermedius from healthy dogs and from dogs sufferning from pyoderma or otitis-externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1995-01-01

    A total of 60 Staphlococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). Fifteen isolates were from healthy dogs, 9 with otitis externa, and 36 with pyoderma, including...... 10 strains from a previous study. Sixty per cent of the 50 strains tested for antibiotic susceptibility demonstrated resistance to penicillin, 24% to spiramycin, 20% to tetracycline, 16% to chloramphenicol, and 2% to fucidic acid, All isolates were susceptible to amoxycillin with clavulanic acid...

  8. Lessons Learned from Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a Large Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett H. Heintz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report assessed the differences in resistance rates and antimicrobial usage-versus-susceptibility relationships of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in various hospital patient care areas. A simplified case control study was also performed to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Last, we determined the consequence of combining mucoid and non-mucoid derived antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa into hospital antibiograms. Overall, susceptibility rates remained lower in the intensive care units (ICUs compared to the non-ICU patient care areas, except for cefepime over the last time period. Cefepime utilization and antimicrobial-resistance rates among P. aeruginosa isolates had a significant relationship. Decreased meropenem exposure was associated with lower resistance rates relative to cefepime. Risk factors independently associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa were structural lung disease, ICU admission, recent third generation cephalosporin use, frequent hospital admission and non-urine isolates. Large and statistically significant differences were observed between non-mucoid and combined percent susceptibility data for aminoglycosides. To control antimicrobial resistance and optimize initial empiric antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility and utilization patterns in specific patient care areas should be monitored and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance should be assessed. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa should not be included into antimicrobial susceptibility data as this may underestimate activity of most antipseudomonal agents.

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcic, Emina; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Karcic, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose treatment is threatened with an increase in the number of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. Goal: The main goal of this research was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance of S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: Taken are swabs of the nose and nasopharynx, eye and ear. In vitro tests that were made in order to study the antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci are: disk diffusion method and E-test. Results: The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol–0.56%, rifampicin–6.11%, tetracycline–4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases. Conclusion: The highest resistance pneumococcus showed to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and these should be avoided in the treatment. The least resistance pneumococcus showed to tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, penicillin-G and ciprofloxacin. PMID:26236165

  10. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Prevalence and Susceptibility Patterns of Clinical Isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli as an aetiologic agent in bacterial infections and its antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, perfloxacin, gentamycin and cotrimoxazole as a guide for empiric therapy. A retrospective study was carried out using a ...

  12. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy may cause complications such as pyelonephritis, hypertensive disease of pregnancy, anaemia, chronic renal failure, premature delivery and foetal mortality. This study aimed to identify the etiologic agents of UTI and to determine the patterns of antimicrobial drug susceptibility ...

  13. Identification, isolation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification, isolation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Aeromonas veronii associated with an acute death of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus lunetas) in China. X Huang, K Wang, D Zong-Jun, Y Geng, Y Deng ...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  15. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio species associated with zooplankton in coastal area of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hye; Mok, Jong Soo; Jung, Yeoun Joong; Lee, Ka Jeong; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, Kunbawui; Moon, Seong Yong; Kwon, Soon Jae; Ryu, A Ra; Lee, Tea Seek

    2017-12-15

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus are the most common pathogens causing seafood-borne illnesses in Korea. This study determines the abundance and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Vibrio species in seawater and zooplankton samples from the Geoje Island coast in Korea, which is an important area for coastal fisheries, the fishing industry, and tourism. The two Vibrio species were detected more in mesozooplankton samples than in seawater samples. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed greater resistance than those of V. vulnificus for antimicrobials. Of V. parahaemolyticus isolates, 93.3% exhibited resistance to three or more antimicrobial agents. Conversely, more than 80% of V. vulnificus isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobials examined, with the exception of rifampicin. Our findings show that strong antimicrobial resistance of V. parahaemolyticus in the surveyed area was exposed to conventionally used antibiotics, therefore necessitating proper surveillance programs for the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns in seawater bodies and aquatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Susceptibility of Urinary Tract Bacteria to Newer Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the commonest types of bacterial infections. The antibiotic treatment for UTIs is associated with important medical and economic implications. Many different microorganisms can cause UTIs though the most common pathogens are E. coli and members of family Enterobacteriaceae. The knowledge of etiology and antibiotic resistance pattern of the organisms causing urinary tract infection is essential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate trends of antibiotic susceptibility of commonly isolated uropathogens using newer antimicrobial agents, prulifloxacin, fosfomycin (FOM and doripenem. We conclude that maintaining a record of culture results and the antibiogram may help clinicians to determine the empirical and/or specific treatment based on the antibiogram of the isolate for better therapeutic outcome.

  17. Determination of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from lymph nodes of sheep and goats at an organic export abattoir, Modjo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, D; Sisay Tessema, T

    2015-11-01

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a suppurative abscessation in the superficial and internal lymph nodes and internal organs of small ruminants. This study was conducted on the superficial lymph nodes and carcasses of 768 small ruminants slaughtered at a slaughterhouse during the study period; 82 had abscesses or caseous lymphadenitis. The most frequent sites of abscesses in goats were the prescapular (34, 5·54%) and prefemoral lymph nodes (24, 3·91%) respectively. Similar patterns were observed in sheep. The prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis was found to be significantly higher in adult than in young animals, in both species (P < 0·05). The age-wise prevalence rates of lesions on post-mortem inspection, at 95% CI, were 2·7% (2·3-3·1%) and 3·1% (2·8-3·4%) in young sheep and goats, respectively, and 24·4% (17·4-31·4%) and 27·5% (23·8-31·2%) in adult sheep and goats respectively. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates were recovered from 72% (59/82) of animals found to have post-mortem evidence of abscesses. The Coryne. pseudotuberculosis isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics norfloxacin, tetracycline, doxycyline HCl and kanamycine; however, resistance was observed against ampicillin, clindamycin and doxycyline HCl. In conclusion, this study reported the magnitude of the problem in the country for the first time and the authors recommend a thorough investigation of wider study areas. This work presents data on the prevalence of caseous lymphadenitis in slaughtered sheep and goats as well as the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis for the first time in Ethiopia. The carcasses of small ruminants are the major livestock product exported from the country and serves as an important source of foreign currency. Assessing the impact of diseases such as caseous lymphadenitis in the industry would be of great significance. This work forms initial

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical Nocardia species identified by multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTaggart, Lisa R; Doucet, Jennifer; Witkowska, Maria; Richardson, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 112 clinical isolates, 28 type strains, and 9 reference strains of Nocardia were determined using the Sensititre Rapmyco microdilution panel (Thermo Fisher, Inc.). Isolates were identified by highly discriminatory multilocus sequence analysis and were chosen to represent the diversity of species recovered from clinical specimens in Ontario, Canada. Susceptibility to the most commonly used drug, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 97% of isolates. Linezolid and amikacin were also highly effective; 100% and 99% of all isolates demonstrated a susceptible phenotype. For the remaining antimicrobials, resistance was species specific with isolates of Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, N. brasiliensis, N. abscessus complex, N. nova complex, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, and N. cyriacigeorgica displaying the traditional characteristic drug pattern types. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a variety of rarely encountered species isolated from clinical specimens are reported for the first time and were categorized into four additional drug pattern types. Finally, MICs for the control strains N. nova ATCC BAA-2227, N. asteroides ATCC 19247(T), and N. farcinica ATCC 23826 were robustly determined to demonstrate method reproducibility and suitability of the commercial Sensititre Rapmyco panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical specimens. The reported values will facilitate quality control and standardization among laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanin Putsathit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to antimicrobials is the major risk factor associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI. Paradoxically, treatment of CDI with antimicrobials remains the preferred option. To date, only three studies have investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile from Thailand, two of which were published in the 1990s. This study aimed to investigate the contemporary antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from patients in Thailand. Methods A collection of 105 C. difficile isolated from inpatients admitted at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok in 2015 was tested for their susceptibility to nine antimicrobials via an agar incorporation method. Results All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and meropenem. Resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin and moxifloxacin was observed in 73.3%, 35.2% and 21.0% of the isolates, respectively. The in vitro activity of fidaxomicin (MIC50/MIC90 0.06/0.25 mg/L was superior to first-line therapies vancomycin (MIC50/MIC90 1/2 mg/L and metronidazole (MIC50/MIC90 0.25/0.25 mg/L. Rifaximin exhibited potent activity against 85.7% of the isolates (MIC ≤0.03 mg/L, and its MIC50 (0.015 mg/L was the lowest among all antimicrobials tested. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant C. difficile, defined by resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials, was 21.9% (23/105. Conclusions A high level of resistance against multiple classes of antimicrobial was observed, emphasising the need for enhanced antimicrobial stewardship and educational programmes to effectively disseminate information regarding C. difficile awareness and appropriate use of antimicrobials to healthcare workers and the general public.

  20. [Study of phenotypical and antimicrobial susceptibility markers in enteric Escherichia coli strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Adalberto; Bernedo, Robert; Llop, Alina; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Fernández, Anabel; Ledo, Yudith

    2007-01-01

    Forty strains of Escherichia coli isolated from children under 5 years of age with acute diarreas, coming from different provinces of the country , were analyzed. Four important phenotypical determinants were tested: sorbosa, sorbitol, enterohemolysin and 0157:H7 serology, in order to select those strains from enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing category. Likewise, they were characterized by biotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility methods. The use of phenotypical tests showed six strains with presumptive characteristics, four of which were most likely to be Shiga toxin-producing strains. In antimicrobial susceptibility test, the strains showed high resistance mainly to ampicillin and trimethrophin-sulfamethoxasole. Another interesting finding were intermediate resistance and susceptibility values to augmentin, aztreonan and ceftriaxone. There were 12 antimicrobial resistance patterns of which 10 were multi-resistant.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón-Jaimes Ernesto; Arredondo-García José Luis; Aguilar-Ituarte Felipe; García-Roca Pilar

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics) in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium) were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Commit...

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  4. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Leptospira Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, Kirubakaran; Lall, Chandan; Raj, Ratchagadasse Vimal; Vedhagiri, Kumaresan; Sunish, Ittoop Pulikkottil; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2016-10-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are the causative agent of leptospirosis. Biofilm formation in leptospires is a new area of study, and its role in pathogenesis is not fully explored. As in other biofilm-forming bacteria, Leptospira biofilm may play a significant role in antibiotic resistance. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibility of Leptospira biofilm was investigated by 96-well plate assay using Alamar Blue. Leptospira biofilm showed five to sixfold increase in resistance in all the strains used. The range of minimal bactericidal concentrations for penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, and doxycycline was 1,600 U/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, 800-1,600 μg/ml, and 800-1,600 μg/ml, respectively. In agar substrate, the biofilm showed six- to sevenfold increase in resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic cell. The present study emphasizes the importance of biofilm formation and its antibiotic susceptibility patterns. This could pave the way for devising appropriate strategy to prevent the occurrence of potential chronic leptospirosis in endemic areas and also during an outbreak situation.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria that cause gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Romney M; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2015-06-01

    Gastroenteritis due to enteric pathogens is generally a self-limiting disease for which antimicrobial treatment is not required. However, treatment should be considered for cases of severe or prolonged diarrhea, extraintestinal isolation of bacteria, or diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, the elderly, and infants. Various resistance trends and current issues concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens are reviewed in this article, including Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Clostridium difficile. Updated interpretive criteria from breakpoint-setting organizations are reviewed, along with explanations for recent changes in antimicrobial breakpoints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery rates, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonellae isolated from cloacal swabs of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Hangartner, P.; West, K.

    1998-01-01

    to subspecies enterica displayed invasive properties in an experimental mouse model and thus exhibited pathogenic potential, whereas none of the other isolates were invasive. In general, isolates were sensitive to a number of commonly used antimicrobials, except for three isolates that were resistant...... to streptomycin....

  7. A meta-analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for pneumococcal pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying; Sadoh, Ayebo E; Obaro, Stephen K

    2018-02-01

    Pneumonia causes an enormous burden of childhood disease globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial aetiology of pneumonia; however, antimicrobials are limited and may not adequately address the local epidemiology of the region. To undertake a review and meta-analysis of pneumonia studies in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in childhood pneumonia. Articles published in PubMed and Google between 2006 and 2016 which evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal pneumonia in children in sub-Saharan Africa were identified. The source of specimens, pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility data were extracted. Pooled analysis of susceptible isolates was conducted using random effects models. Children from 15 studies and 1634 isolates were included in the meta-analysis. In cases of childhood pneumonia, the mean overall proportion of penicillin susceptibility from invasive specimens of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 85.7% (95% CI 80.1-91.3), and of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 21.0% (95% CI 5.1-36.9). Compared with all S. pneumoniae specimens, penicillin susceptibility was 68.6% (95% CI 59.6-77.5) and that of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was 26.3% (95% CI 14.1-38.6). A high level of heterogeneity was detected, reflecting the paucity of data available. The establishment of national and regional diagnostic platforms to monitor antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for pneumonia as well as other invasive diseases will provide data with which to assess the relevance and adaptation of antimicrobial prescribing recommendations.

  8. Urinary tract infections: etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Laneve

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year.They are the second most common type of infection in the body.The objective of study was to determine the etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infections pathogens isolated in our Patology Clinic laboratory. Materials and Methods: During the period July 2007- July 2008,were analysed 1422 urine samples.The determination of the total microbe load were acquire with an kit of the BIO-DETECTOR while the identification of germs with Apy sistem. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were assaied with the ATB UR strip. Results: About the total of samples analysed, 320 (22% had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most common etiologic agent isolated (62%, followed by Klebsiella ssp. (10%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5,95% and Proteus mirabilis (5%. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for only 7.32% , with prevalence of Staphylococcus ssp (5,32 and Enterococcus spp (2%. The most effective antibiotics for Gram- were: Imipenem, Amikacin, Ceftazidime and Cefotaxim, while for Gram+ were: Minocyclin,Vancomycin and Oxacillin. Conclusion: Escherichia coli was the microrganism more frequently isolated between Gram negative bacteria with very susceptible to Amoxicillin. Currently, the empirical use of Cotrimoxazole and Amoxicillin is not recommended for Enterobacteriaceae. Urinary tract infections are more common in women than in men. Men are more likely to get a UTI once past the age of 65. Current data on the prevalence of multidrug resistance among urinary tract isolates should be a consideration to change the current empiric treatment of IVU.

  9. Multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Mi Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active beta-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study.

  10. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. Background: Otitis media is a major health problem of children in low income countries. Objectives: This study was done to determine the bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media from children and adults. Methods: A retrospective record was analyzed on culture results of discharging ears at ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community-acquired urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.S. Barry

    2017-04-28

    Apr 28, 2017 ... Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of community-acquired urinary tract infection in adults: A seven months prospective cross-sectional study in Dakar Town, Senegal. M.S. Barrya,d,∗. , B.A. Diallob, D. Kantéc, I.S. Diallod a Medical Affairs Department, Sanofi West Africa, Senegal b Department of Gynecology, ...

  12. Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Shigella and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... and Aeromonas species), enteroparasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses ... Laboratory using Cary Blair transport media within. 2-4 hours of collection for bacteriological examination and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The sample size was determined ...

  13. Microbial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exudates from 78 dogs with clinical signs of otitis externa in the period 1991 to 2000 were submitted for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The microbial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus, 40/78 (51.3 %), Streptococcus spp 11/78 (14. 1 %), Pseudomonas spp 11/78 (14.1 %), Proteus spp 8/78 (10.2 ...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility and tetracycline resistance determinant genotyping of Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Vazquez, Maria E.; Bager, Ragnhild J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of a collection of 58 Gallibacterium isolates. All strains were tested by the broth dilution method using the veterinary fastidious medium. A total of 46 field strains were tested, whereof 23 were clinical isolate...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strains are increasing worldwide and have become a major public health problem. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the current and local antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary K. pneumoniae ...

  16. E Test: a novel technique for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Silva Sader

    Full Text Available We describe the applicability of the E test (AB Biodisk Solna, Sweden, a new method for determining minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents against bacteria. This report is based on the literature review and on our own experience using the E test for susceptibility testing of the Xanthomonas maltophilia, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus viridans group against eight different drugs.

  17. Bacteriology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Otitis Media at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Otitis media is a major health problem of children in low income countries. Objectives: This study was done to determine the bacterial isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility of otitis media from children and adults. Methods: A retrospective record was analyzed on culture results of discharging ears at Dessie ...

  18. Performance and clinical significance of direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing on urine from hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breteler, K.B.; Rentenaar, R.J.; Verkaart, G.; Sturm, P.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common infections in the community and the hospital. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, specifically in the Gram-negative uropathogens, reliable, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility data would be useful to guide antimicrobial treatment. Direct

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of intra-abdominal infection isolates from a tertiary care hospital in karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, U.; Anwar, S.; Kahara, U.Z.; Saeed, H.

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent pathogens involved are the gastrointestinal flora which can cause poly-microbial infections. Microbiological diagnosis is required to determine the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of the organisms involved. Prompt initiation of antimicrobials is essential for improving patient's outcome. Knowledge of local trends of antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial isolates is essential for empiric therapy. Methods: A total of 190 clinical isolates collected from intra-abdominal infections during July 2013 to July 2014 were included in the study. Organism identification and Antimicrobial sensitivity testing using standard biochemical tests and CLSI recommended criteria was carried out. Result: Of the total 190 isolates from abdominal infection sources 52% were from fluid sources (peritoneal and ascitic fluid), 41% were from gall bladder and 6.5% were from other abdominal sources. E. coli (46.8%) was the most frequently isolated gram negative and Enterococcus (13.1%) was the most frequently isolated gram positive organism. Carbapenem (imipenem) was the most active agent against enterobacteraceae exhibiting, 94.4% and 91.3% sensitivity against E. coli and Klebsiella respectively. While vancomycin was the most active agent against gram positive organisms. Eighty-four percent of the Enterococci isolated were sensitive to vancomycin. Most isolates exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. Conclusion: Continuous evolution of antimicrobial resistance patterns in bacteria necessitates updating of local data on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to ensure the safety and efficacy of pathogen specific antimicrobial therapies. (author)

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  1. Recovery rates, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonellae isolated from cloacal swabs of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Hangartner, P.; West, K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples from the cloaca and the ventral skin surface of 67 Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) captured in four uninhabited areas at Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, were cultured for Salmonella. All the skin samples tested negative for Salmonella, whereas 18 of 67 (26.9%) cloacal samples grew Salmonella...... to subspecies enterica displayed invasive properties in an experimental mouse model and thus exhibited pathogenic potential, whereas none of the other isolates were invasive. In general, isolates were sensitive to a number of commonly used antimicrobials, except for three isolates that were resistant...

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci species from cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from foremilk samples. Setting: Milk was collected from five farms within a 70 km radius of Gaborone, Botswana. Subjects: Two hundred and twenty five staphylococci isolates from foremilk samples. Main outcome measures: ...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface ...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of phenotype Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: From July 2013 to January 2014, urine, pus and blood samples were collected from patients suspected to have bacterial infections at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre in Moshi, Tanzania. The isolates were identified based on standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out ...

  5. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAM Stephenson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs. Objectives: We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. Methods: A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin. Results: Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%, was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%. The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01 among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. Conclusions: This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  6. In Vitro Activity of Retapamulin and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in a Longitudinal Collection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Amanda T; Black, Jennifer A; Clarridge, Jill E

    2015-12-14

    Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial used to decolonize patients who carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and the topical agent retapamulin may be a potential alternative therapy. The goal of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of retapamulin as well as a panel of 15 antimicrobial agents, including mupirocin, for 403 MRSA isolates collected longitudinally from a naive population at the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System. The MICs for retapamulin had a unimodal distribution, ranging from 0.008 to 0.5 μg/ml. One isolate had an MIC of >16 μg/ml, was also resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, and was recovered from the nares of a patient undergoing hemodialysis. Twenty-four isolates (6%) and 11 isolates (3%) demonstrated low-level resistance (MICs of 8 to 64 μg/ml) and high-level resistance (MICs of ≥ 512 μg/ml), respectively, to mupirocin. Isolates were recovered from 10 patients both before and after mupirocin therapy. Of those, isolates from 2 patients demonstrated MIC changes postmupirocin therapy; in both cases, however, strain typing demonstrated that the pre- and postmupirocin strains were different. A total of 386 isolates (96%) had vancomycin MICs of ≤ 1.0 μg/ml; 340 isolates (84%) were resistant to levofloxacin, 18 isolates (4.5%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 135 isolates (33%) had elevated MICs of 4 μg/ml for linezolid. The baseline levels of resistance were low for mupirocin (9%) and even lower for retapamulin (0.25%) Although the use of mupirocin is currently the standard therapy for decolonization practices, the activity of retapamulin warrants its consideration as an alternative therapy in MRSA decolonization regimens. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a university Teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Amoxycillin clavunanic acid and ciprofloxacin were most active with MRSA isolates showing 97% and 93.9% susceptibility to the two drugs respectively. Eighteen (54.5%) ...

  8. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline......The resistance pattern of Flavobacterium psychrophilum to the antimicrobial agents used in fish farming in Denmark was assessed in vitro using an agar dilution method. After identification of 387 isolates from clinical outbreaks of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and the environment, the isolates...... (OTC) and florfenicol (FLO). We found that F. psychrophilum isolates divided in susceptible and resistant clusters reflecting the reduced efficacy in practice when using OTC and AMX. The most recent isolates were less susceptible to AMX and OXA, whereas resistance to OTC seemed stable over the last 5...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    The resistance pattern of Flavobacterium psychrophilum to the antimicrobial agents used in fish farming in Denmark was assessed in vitro using an agar dilution method. After identification of 387 isolates from clinical outbreaks of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and the environment, the isolates...... were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...... years. Apparently, F. psychrophilum carries intrinsic resistance towards the potentiated sulfonamides, and in correlation with this, we found very few susceptible isolates, All isolates were susceptible to FLO. The method used for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) follows the American...

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Co-amoxiclav, gentamicin, cefuroxime, minocycline and piperacillin showed moderate to high activity. Klebsiella spp isolates portrayed high resistance against several drugs. The sensitivity patterns showed that empirical prescribing should be discouraged since the organisms appear to be developing resistance against ...

  11. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo E. Mendes

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  12. Ability of Latin America laboratories to detect antimicrobial resistance patterns: experience of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Rodrigo E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility tests is a crucial step for the clinical management of patients with serious infections. They must be reliable and precise because they will guide antimicrobial therapy. Our main objective was to compare the results of susceptibility testing performed by the SENTRY coordinator laboratory with those reported by the participating Latin American medical centers. A total of 10,277 bacterial isolates were tested by the reference broth microdilution method at the coordinator laboratory in the United States. The tests were performed and interpreted following the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Ten antimicrobial agent-organism combinations were analyzed. The susceptibility methods utilized in each of the medical centers were also evaluated. Total agreement of the results was obtained in nearly 88% of the antimicrobial agent-organism combinations. "Very major" (false-susceptible results and "major errors" (false-resistant results were observed in 12% and 6% of the cases, respectively. The highest disagreements were observed for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus - oxacillin (20% - very major error and Burkholderia cepacia - imipenem (21% - very major error. The susceptibility method with the highest agreement rate was Etest® (92% > PASCO® (91% > agar dilution (91% > MicroScan® (90% > Vitek® (87%. External quality assurance data obtained by surveillance programs such as the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program are not only helpful for detecting the emergence of patterns of antimicrobial resistance, but also to monitor the performance of the participating microbiology laboratories.

  13. Evaluation of the BIOGRAM antimicrobial susceptibility test system.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Amato, R F; Hochstein, L; Vernaleo, J R; Cleri, D J; Wallman, A A; Gradus, M S; Thornsberry, C

    1985-01-01

    BIOGRAM is an antimicrobial susceptibility test system for the determination of MICs from the standard disk diffusion test zone diameters. The system was challenged with 511 recent clinical isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, staphylococci, and enterococci. Results were compared with those obtained with the broth microdilution method. Appropriate control organisms were included with each test series. A total of 10,085 organism-drug com...

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities, Phage Types, and Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Meat in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalender, H.; Sen, S.; Hasman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed...

  15. Prevalence of Gram-negative Pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in bacterial meningitis in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Pal Chugh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and spectrum of Gram negative pathogens causing bacterial meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (3-5 ml was collected from 638 admitted children clinically suspected of septic meningitis. Bacterial isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Of the 638 samples tested 102 (15.99% were culture positive. Male to female (M:F ratio was 1.62:1. The maximum incidence of 45 (44.12% cases was found in children (1-12 yrs; in institutional deliveries the incidence was 58 (56.86% cases. Further, the incidence of 51 cases was found from May to August. Escherichia coli (E. coli were commonest, seen in 9 (25% cases followed by Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. with 6 (16.67% cases each. Enterobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in 3 (8.33% cases each. E. coli, Acinetobacter spp, Citrobacter spp and Klebsiella spp isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam and 100% resistant to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline. All strains of Neisseria spp, Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas spp. were 100% susceptible to meropenem followed by gatifloxacin. These were 100% resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Neisseria spp. were also 100% susceptible to pristinamycin. In septic meningitis Gram negative organisms are less common (35.29%. Of the isolates, more common Gram negative isolates included E. coli, Acinetobacter Spp., Citrobacter Spp., and Klebsiella spp. and these isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobacatam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Hence, empirical therapy should be formulated according to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobi...

  17. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from acne patients in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roger; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo, Jorge; Hinojosa-Robles, Rosa M; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Delaney, Mary L; Gómez, Minerva

    2010-09-01

    Antimicrobials are essential in acne therapy. In the last decades, Propionibacterium acnes has become resistant to different antibiotics. To determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of P. acnes to frequently used drugs. Cutaneous lesion samples were obtained from 50 patients with acne vulgaris, which were cultured in anaerobic media to demonstrate the presence of P. acnes. After that, antimicrobial susceptibility tests to tetracycline, minocycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, azithromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and levofloxacin were performed. In the general study group, resistance to azithromycin was 82%, the most prevalent one (P Resistance bias were similar when subgroups with and without the previous antimicrobial therapy were performed, finding a low prevalence of resistance to tetracyclines and levofloxacin in both groups. In our region, P. acnes is highly resistant to azithromycin, SXT, erythromycin and clindamycin; and being very susceptible to minocycline, levofloxacin and tetracycline, in vitro in both groups: with and without the previous antibiotic use. To our knowledge, high resistance prevalence to azithromycin and SXT has never been reported.

  18. EUCAST recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing applied to the three main Campylobacter species isolated in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifré, Elodie; Salha, Ben Amor; Ducournau, Astrid; Floch, Pauline; Chardon, Hubert; Mégraud, Francis; Lehours, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Campylobacter isolates is of great importance for treatment options especially in systemic diseases. The European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recently proposed epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) for a limited number of antimicrobial compounds and for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli only. In the present study, the EUCAST method was used after minor modifications to define antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for, 1997 C. jejuni, 419 C. coli and 100 Campylobacter fetus strains received at the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters. Our results show that the ECOFFs defined by EUCAST for tetracycline and ciprofloxacin can be used for C. jejuni and C. coli. The same ECOFF can be used for erythromycin for the three species. The C. jejuni and C. coli ECOFFs for ciprofloxacin however cannot be applied to C. fetus. We also provide data to categorise two 2 β-lactams of interest for systemic diseases, ampicillin and amoxicillin+clavulanate, for the three species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility of Aeromonas Hydophila Isolates to Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stojanov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is a microorganism widely distributed in nature: in water, soil, food. It is also part of the normal bacterial flora of many animals. As an opportune microorganism it is a secondary biological agent that contributes to the occurrence of a fish disease and its deterioration. Frequently, its presence is an indication of bad zoohygiene and zootechnical conditions in fish ponds. Reduced quality and quantity of feed, mechanical injuries, parasitosis, seasonal oscillation in temperature present some of the factors that produce favorable conditions for bacterial proliferation of aeromonas in fish ponds, so clinical symptoms of the disease occur. Aeromonas is almost always present in clinical isolates and may be unjustly accused for bad health of fish. Antibiotic therapy is applied even when the clinical findings are clear, what certainly effects the susceptibility to chemotherapeutics. The subject of our work was bacteriological examination of the material obtained from the carps with the observed skin changes and the carps without these changes. Also, antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas hydrophila was tested. The aim of this research was to determined the presence of Aeromonas hydrophilia in the carp ponds and to test antibiotic susceptibility. The material consisted of the samples from the fish ponds where the carps were with and without changed skin. The method the isolation of Aeromonas hydrophila was used. The diffusion disk technique was used for testing antibiotic susceptibility. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to Florephenikol, Flumequine, Olaqindox and Oxitetracycline. The obtained results point that antimicrobial susceptibility was the same regardless of the origin of the samples, i.e. the resistance was the same for both groups of samples (the strains isolated from the fish with skin changes and the strains from fish without changes on skin. The strains were highly resistant: 35% were resistant to

  20. Urinary Escherichia coli antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their relationship with community antibiotic use in Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meumann, Ella M; Mitchell, Brett G; McGregor, Alistair; McBryde, Emma; Cooley, Louise

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed urinary Escherichia coli antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Tasmania, Australia, and examined their association with community antibiotic use. The susceptibility profiles of all urinary E. coli isolates collected in Tasmania between January 2010 and December 2012 were included. The amount of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS)-subsidised use of amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), cefalexin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was retrieved (at the Tasmanian population level) and the number of defined daily doses per 1000 population per day in Tasmania for these antibiotics was calculated for each month during the study period. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were assessed for changes over time in the 3-year study period. Antimicrobial use and susceptibility data were assessed for seasonal differences and lag in resistance following antibiotic use. Excluding duplicates, 28145 E. coli isolates were included. Resistance levels were low; 35% of isolates were non-susceptible to amoxicillin, 14% were non-susceptible to trimethoprim and antibiotics for treatment of respiratory tract infections in winter. Quinolone use is restricted by the PBS in Australia, which is the likely explanation for the low levels of quinolone use and resistance identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Serovariedades y patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de Salmonella aisladas de alimentos en Cuba Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella strains isolated from food in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Puig Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los serotipos de 178 cepas de Salmonella enterica aisladas de alimentos en diferentes regiones de Cuba entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009, y el patrón de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de 100 aislados seleccionados mediante muestreo por estratos. Se identificaron 20 serovariedades de Salmonella entre las que predominaron S. Enteritidis (23%; S. Agona (13,5% y S. London (11,2%. Del total, 75% de las cepas fueron resistentes o presentaron resistencia intermedia a al menos uno de los fármacos probados, en el siguiente orden, según su frecuencia: tetraciclina (70,7%; ampicilina (22,7% y ácido nalidíxico (14,7%. Se identificaron 10 patrones de resistencia diferentes y predominaron las cepas resistentes o conresistencia intermedia a un fármaco (89,3%. Tres cepas (S. Infantis, S. Derby y S. Enteritidis fueron multirresistentes y una, de S. Enteritidis, dio un resultado no sensible al ácido nalidíxico y la ciprofloxacina. Se destaca la necesidad de extremar la vigilancia sanitaria integrada en el país para el control de la salmonelosis.The serotypes of 178 isolates of Salmonella enterica taken from food in different regions of Cuba between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 selected isolates was determined by strata sampling. A total of 20 Salmonella serotypes were identified, with a predominance of S. Enteritidis (23%, S. Agona (13.5%, and S. London (11.2%. Of all the strains, 75% were resistant or presented intermediate resistance to at least one of the drugs tested, in the following order: tetracycline (70.7%, ampicillin (22.7%, and nalidixic acid (14.7%. Ten different resistance patterns were identified. The most frequent patterns corresponded to strains that were either drugresistant or had intermediate resistance (89.3%. Three strains (identified as S. Infantis, S. Derby, and S. Enteritidis were multiresistant, and one of them, S. Enteritidis, was

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter clinical isolates and emerging antibiogram trends for nosocomial infection management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: The drug resistant Acinetobacter strains are important causes of nosocomial infections that are difficult to control and treat. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter strains isolated from different clinical specimens obtained from patients belonging to different age groups. METHODS: In total, 716 non-duplicate Acinetobacter isolates were collected from the infected patients admitted to tertiary-care hospitals at Lahore, Pakistan, over a period of 28 months. The Acinetobacter isolates were identified using API 20E, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: The isolation rate of Acinetobacter was high from the respiratory specimens, followed by wound samples. Antibiotic susceptibility analyses of the isolates revealed that the resistance to cefotaxime and ceftazidime was the most common, in 710 (99.2% specimens each, followed by the resistance to gentamicin in 670 (93.6% isolates, and to imipenem in 651 (90.9% isolates. However, almost all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, colistin, and polymyxin B. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed the alarming trends of resistance of Acinetobacter strains isolated from clinical specimens to the various classes of antimicrobials. The improvement of microbiological techniques for earlier and more accurate identification of bacteria is necessary for the selection of appropriate treatments.

  3. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents, and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. Methods A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575...... patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates. Results A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding...... to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic...

  4. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik’s Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:29112122

  5. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria: Rubik's Cube of Clinical Microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdács, Márió; Spengler, Gabriella; Urbán, Edit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic bacteria have pivotal roles in the microbiota of humans and they are significant infectious agents involved in many pathological processes, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Their isolation, cultivation and correct identification differs significantly from the workup of aerobic species, although the use of new technologies (e.g., matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whole genome sequencing) changed anaerobic diagnostics dramatically. In the past, antimicrobial susceptibility of these microorganisms showed predictable patterns and empirical therapy could be safely administered but recently a steady and clear increase in the resistance for several important drugs (β-lactams, clindamycin) has been observed worldwide. For this reason, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic isolates for surveillance purposes or otherwise is of paramount importance but the availability of these testing methods is usually limited. In this present review, our aim was to give an overview of the methods currently available for the identification (using phenotypic characteristics, biochemical testing, gas-liquid chromatography, MALDI-TOF MS and WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (agar dilution, broth microdilution, disk diffusion, gradient tests, automated systems, phenotypic and molecular resistance detection techniques) of anaerobes, when should these methods be used and what are the recent developments in resistance patterns of anaerobic bacteria.

  6. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter species isolated from blood samples of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Zafar, A.; Ejaz, H.; Zubair, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acinetobacter species is a major nosocomial pathogen causing serious infections in immuno-compromised and hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in blood samples of paediatric patients. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during January to October, 2011 at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 12,032 blood samples were analysed during the study period. Acinetobacter species were Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The blood cultures showed growth in 1,141 cultures out of which 46 (4.0%) were Acinetobacter species. The gender distribution of Acinetobacter species was 29 (63.0%) in males and 17 (37.0%) in females. A good antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species was seen with sulbactam-cefoperazone (93.0%), imepenem and meropenem (82.6% (30.4%) was poor. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows high rate of resistance of Acinetobacter species with cephalosporins in nosocomial infections. The sulbactam-cefoperazone, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam showed effective antimicrobial susceptibility against Acinetobacter species. (author)

  7. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical Staphylococcus aureus from healthcare institutions in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egyir, Beverly; Guardabassi, Luca; Sørum, Marit

    2014-01-01

    characterized by antibiotyping, spa typing and PCR detection of Panton Valentine leukocin (PVL) genes. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were confirmed by PCR detection of mecA gene and further characterized by SCCmec and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance......The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and clonal diversity of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Ghana. A total of 308 S. aureus isolates from six healthcare institutions located across Northern, Central and Southern Ghana were......-positive S. aureus in Africa, low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and high diversity of MRSA lineages in Ghana compared to developed countries and other African countries. The detection of known pandemic MRSA clones in the absence of routine MRSA identification in most Ghanaian clinical microbiology...

  8. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    dans les deux centres hospitaliers universitaires de l'Etat d'Osun au Nigéria et pour déterminer leurs profils de sensibilité aux antimicrobiens. Méthodes: ... des échantillons d'urine de patients hospitalisés et ambulatoires de cas d'infection des voies urinaires. ... the current trends of UTI in these two places to ease diagnosis ...

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chronic pelvic pain, infertility, acute urethritis, cervicitis and proctitis or pharyngitis [5]. N. gonorrhoeae infections represent 106 million of the estimated 498 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infection that occur globally every year [5]. Previous studies have estimated. 3.4 million cases of gonorrhea among ...

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high levels of bacterial resistance against ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin and spectinomycin, should be taken into account in developing any new guidelines in the management of the infection. Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Female infertility Drug Resistance, Ciprofloxacin, Tetracycline, ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of one hundred and twenty eight (128) stool samples were collected from patients attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria and Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, and screened for the presence of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Out of the one hundred and twenty eight samples analyzed 4 ...

  12. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of aeromonas hydrophila among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ¹Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, P.M.B.1026, Kaduna. State, Nigeria. ² Department of Applied Sciences, College of Science and Technology P.M.B.2021 Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna,. Nigeria. ³ Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, P.M.B.1026 ...

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lactamase producing isolates has presented a serious set back in the treatment option for urogenital tract infection. Emergence and spread of these strains resulted in treatment failure and disease complications. This study was aimed to determine the ...

  14. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates has presented a serious set back in the treatment option for urogenital tract infection. Emergence and spread of these strains resulted in treatment failure and disease complications. This study was aimed to ...

  15. Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory tract diseases, mainly of bacterial origin, have been identified as important problems accounting for up to 54% of the overall mortality of sheep in the central highlands of Ethiopia. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on sheep reared at Debre Berhan Agricultural Research Centre. It is aimed at ...

  16. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... might be the possible reservoir of blaCTX-M gene and may contribute to the dissemination and transfer of these β-lactamase genes to humans through food chain. The high rate of occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the mackerel fish indicates that there is an established reservoir of these bacteria in the mackerel fish.

  17. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... mackerel fish might be the possible reservoir of blaCTX-M gene and may contribute to the dissemination and transfer of these β-lactamase genes to humans through food chain. The high rate of occurrence of. ESBL-producing E. coli in the mackerel fish indicates that there is an established reservoir of these.

  18. Isolation, identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inspected for the presence of any unusual findings, such as disproportional symmetry, swelling, firmness and blindness. Viscosity and appearance ... with a color ranging from grey-white to orange and sub-cultured on mannitol salt agar media (Oxoid, UK) and incubated aerobically at 37 °C for 24-48 h. The cultured colonies ...

  19. Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae susceptibility to human antimicrobial peptides may mediate intraspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Michelle G J L; Rozen, Daniel E; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2012-09-22

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a facultative pathogen inhabiting the nasopharynx of humans where it is exposed to a range of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of the innate immune response. It is possible therefore that the susceptibility of strains to AMPs plays a role in determining their ability to colonize, and furthermore, that AMPs could mediate competitive interactions between co-colonizing genotypes. However, little is known about patterns of natural variation in AMP susceptibility of S. pneumoniae, and it is unclear whether the susceptibilities of an isolate to multiple human AMPs are correlated. We tested this by characterizing the susceptibility of 31 S. pneumoniae natural isolates to human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) (α-defensin) and LL-37 (cathelicidin). We observed significant variation in susceptibility between isolates to both AMPs, and in the majority of isolates, susceptibilities to HNP-1 and LL-37 were uncorrelated. Clinical isolates were more susceptible to AMPs than were carriage isolates. The polysaccharide capsule of S. pneumoniae is thought to protect cells against AMPs. However, serotype alone could not explain the observed variation in susceptibility suggesting that genetic background plays an equally important role. We tested directly whether AMPs could mediate competition between isolates using competition experiments in the presence and absence of AMPs. These experiments demonstrated that AMPs could indeed reverse the outcome of competition between selected isolates. AMP-mediated competition could therefore contribute to the maintenance of intraspecific genetic diversity in S. pneumoniae.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at STI clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 consecutive patients who attended a sexually transmitted infections clinic were studied. Thirteen had gonococcal urethritis, of which 10 showed growth of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on culture. All the isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP method and beta lactamase production by chromogenic cephalosporin test. Four patients were co-infected with each of the following: HIV, HBV and Chlamydia trachomatis . Gonococcal urethritis (13% was found more in male patients. Ten percent gonococcal isolates were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae , and another 10% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae .

  1. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderón-Jaimes Ernesto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. MATHERIAL AND METHODS: During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E. faecalis and 37 E. faecium were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS. Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi2 of Fisher exact fest. RESULTS: Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5% to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4% were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32% to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7% to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment . All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides.

  2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Jaimes, Ernesto; Arredondo-García, José Luis; Aguilar-Ituarte, Felipe; García-Roca, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    To describe the antimicrobial activity of several antimicrobial agents against 97 clinical significant isolates of Enterococcus spp. During a 2-year prospective study at Instituto Nacional de Pediatria (National Institute of Pediatrics) in Mexico City. Ninety seven strains of Enterococcus spp. (60 E faecalis and 37 E. faecium) were tested against 11 antibiotics. Susceptibility tests were performed with agar, according to the standards of the sNational Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Isolates were screened for high-level resistance (HLR) to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and other antibiotics, as well as for vancomycin-phenotypes. Differences between proportions were evaluated with chi 2 of Fisher exact fest. Overall resistance rates to the antibiotics tested were: 17/97 (17.5%) to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and imipenem. There was neither HLR nor beta-lactamase production; 74/97 (48.4%) were resistant to erythromycin; 60% to ciprofloxacin; 31/97 (32%) to gentamicin, and 55/97 (56.7%) to streptomycin. Seven strains were vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), all of them identified as E. faecium; 5/7 with Van A and 2/7 with Van B phenotypes. All the isolates were susceptible to linezolid. The difference in susceptibility among species was significant. Mutidrug-resistant enterococci is a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. The microbiology laboratory is the first line of defense against the spread of multiantibiotic-resistan enterococci in the hospital environment. All the strains recovered should be tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin and glycopeptides. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  3. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains on liver surfaces of pigs and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Altrock, A; Roesler, U; Merle, R; Waldmann, K-H

    2010-09-01

    A study to determine the occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica on surfaces of slaughtered pig livers and the antimicrobial resistant pattern of the isolates was carried out in a slaughterhouse in Lower Saxony, Germany. During the slaughtering process, 1,500 surfaces of pig livers from 50 fattening herds were swabbed in order to isolate and characterize Y. enterocolitica isolates by serotyping, detecting the virulence plasmid coding the yopT gene, and resistance testing. Of the livers tested, 4.7% were positive for Y. enterocolitica O:3, which was the only identified serotype. The virulence gene yopT was found in 90.0% of these isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the broth dilution method, and the MICs were determined for 13 antimicrobials. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole but were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, gentamicin, ceftiofur, tetracycline, kanamycin, cefotaxime, and chlorphenicol. Up to now, resistance to florfenicol has always been described in combination with resistance to chloramphenicol. In the present study, 15.3% of the isolates were resistant to florfenicol, while no chloramphenicol-resistant strains could be identified. Multiresistance to three or more antimicrobials was detected in 22 strains (27.3%). Nevertheless, third-generation cephalosporines or fluoroquinolones, which were recommended for extraintestinal Y. enterocolitica infection in humans, were not affected.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria in Ontario, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Austin, Alex; Rawte, Prasad; Toye, Baldwin; Jamieson, Frances B; Farrell, David J; Patel, Samir N

    2014-08-01

    The local epidemiology of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in anaerobic bacteria is important in guiding the empiric treatment of infections. However, susceptibility data are very limited on anaerobic organisms, particularly among non-Bacteroides organisms. To determine susceptibility profiles of clinically-significant anaerobic bacteria in Ontario Canada, anaerobic isolates from sterile sites submitted to Public Health Ontario Laboratory (PHOL) for identification and susceptibility testing were included in this study. Using the E-test method, isolates were tested for various antimicrobials including, penicillin, cefoxitin, clindamycin, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole. The MIC results were interpreted based on guidelines published by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 2527 anaerobic isolates submitted to PHOL, 1412 were either from sterile sites or bronchial lavage, and underwent susceptibility testing. Among Bacteroides fragilis, 98.2%, 24.7%, 1.6%, and 1.2% were resistant to penicillin, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and metronidazole, respectively. Clostridium perfringens was universally susceptible to penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem, whereas 14.2% of other Clostridium spp. were resistant to penicillin. Among Gram-positive anaerobes, Actinomyces spp., Parvimonas micra and Propionibacterium spp. were universally susceptible to β-lactams. Eggerthella spp., Collinsella spp., and Eubacterium spp. showed variable resistance to penicillin. Among Gram-negative anaerobes, Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., and Veillonella spp. showed high resistance to penicillin but were universally susceptible to meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. The detection of metronidazole resistant B. fragilis is concerning as occurrence of these isolates is extremely rare. These data highlight the importance of ongoing surveillance to provide clinically relevant information to clinicians for empiric management of

  5. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant bacterium that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and its antibiotic susceptibility pattern in patients with burns and bedsore. This was a cross- sectional ...

  6. Susceptibility Pattern of Nasopharyngeal Isolates of Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae among nursery school children in Enugu urban and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility pattern particularly the penicillin resistant strains. Methods: Specimens were collected from the nasopharynx of 385 apparently healthy ...

  7. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in India: Prevalence & susceptibility pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR group, India

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is endemic in India and is a dangerous pathogen for hospital acquired infections. This study was conducted in 15 Indian tertiary care centres during a two year period from January 2008 to December 2009 to determine the prevalence of MRSA and susceptibility pattern of S. aureus isolates in India. Methods: All S. aureus isolates obtained during the study period in the participating centres were included in the study. Each centre compiled their data in a predefined template which included data of the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, location of the patient and specimen type. The data in the submitted templates were collated and analysed. Results: A total of 26310 isolates were included in the study. The overall prevalence of methicillin resistance during the study period was 41 per cent. Isolation rates for MRSA from outpatients, ward inpatients and ICU were 28, 42 and 43 per cent, respectively in 2008 and 27, 49 and 47 per cent, respectively in 2009. The majority of S. aureus isolates was obtained from patients with skin and soft tissue infections followed by those suffering from blood stream infections and respiratory infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was low in both MSSA (53% and MRSA (21%. MSSA isolates showed a higher susceptibility to gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, erythromycin and clindamycin as compared to MRSA isolates. No isolate was found resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. Interpretation & conclusions: The study showed a high level of MRSA in our country. There is a need to study epidemiology of such infections. Robust antimicrobial stewardship and strengthened infection control measures are required to prevent spread and reduce emergence of resistance.

  8. A retrospective study on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    emergence of drug resistant pathogens now. Objective: To determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens involved in urinary tract infections within the last three years, January 1st 2008 to December 30th 2010 in Tikur Anbesa Specialized. Teaching Hospital of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from blood cultures of hospitalized patients in the United States in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornsberry Clyde

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infections are associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns should guide the choice of empiric antimicrobial regimens for patients with bacteremia. Methods From January to December of 2002, 82,569 bacterial blood culture isolates were reported to The Surveillance Network (TSN Database-USA by 268 laboratories. Susceptibility to relevant antibiotic compounds was analyzed using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (42.0%, Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%, Enterococcus faecalis (8.3%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.6%, and Enterococcus faecium (3.5% were the most frequently isolated bacteria from blood cultures, collectively accounting for >80% of isolates. In vitro susceptibility to expanded-spectrum β-lactams such as ceftriaxone were high for oxacillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (98.7%, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (99.8%, E. coli (97.3%, K. pneumoniae (93.3%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (97.2%. Susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones were variable for K. pneumoniae (90.3–91.4%, E. coli (86.0–86.7%, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (84.0–89.4%, oxacillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (72.7–82.7%, E. faecalis (52.1%, and E. faecium (11.3%. Combinations of antimicrobials are often prescribed as empiric therapy for bacteremia. Susceptibilities of all blood culture isolates to one or both agents in combinations of ceftriaxone, ceftazdime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam or ciprofloxacin plus gentamicin were consistent (range, 74.8–76.3% but lower than similar β-lactam or ciprofloxacin combinations with vancomycin (range, 93.5–96.6%. Conclusion Ongoing surveillance for antimicrobial susceptibility remains essential, and will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  10. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  12. WHO global salm-surv external quality assurance system (EQAS): an important step toward improving the quality of Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Angulo, F. J.

    2002-01-01

    susceptibility testing through international training courses and an External Quality Assurance System (EQAS). In 2000, 44 WHO Global Salm-Surv member laboratories from 35 countries determined the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for eight "blinded" Salmonella isolates. For serotyping, 73...

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Prevalencia de microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias y fungemias en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos: Patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of microorganisms causing bacteremia and fungemia in pediatric oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Cheguirián

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la distribución y frecuencia de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias y fungemias en los pacientes oncológicos internados en el Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, así como describir sus patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos. Se estudiaron 59 episodios de bacteriemias y fungemias ocurridos entre enero de 2006 y abril de 2007 en 44 pacientes. Del total de los aislamientos recuperados, el 45,8% fueron bacilos gram-negativos, el 35,6% cocos gram-positivos y el 18,6% levaduras. La distribución global de los microorganismos más prevalentes fue: Klebsiella spp. 15,3%; Staphylococcus aureus 11,9%; Candida parapsilosis 11,9%; estafilococos coagulasa negativos 10,2%; Escherichia coli 8,5% y Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6,8%. El 41,2% de las enterobacterias aisladas presentó un fenotipo compatible con la presencia de alguna b-lactamasa de espectro extendido, y el 20,0% de los bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores presentó multirresistencia a los antibióticos ensayados. En cuanto a los cocos gram-positivos, el 38,5% de los Staphylococcus spp. fue resistente a meticilina. Se puede concluir que los microorganismos más prevalentes en la población estudiada fueron los bacilos gram-negativos; dentro de este grupo las enterobacterias fueron las que presentaron mayor porcentaje de resistencia a los antibióticos ensayados.The purpose of our research was to know the frequency of microorganisms causing bacteremia and/or fungemia in oncology patients from Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, as well as to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from January 2006 to April 2007. A total of 59 bacteremia and fungemia cases in 44 patients were studied. From the total number of isolations, 45.8% were gram-negative bacilli, 35.6% were gram-positive cocci, and 18.6% were yeasts. The global distribution of the most prevalent microorganisms was the following: Klebsiella spp. 15

  15. Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Brucellosis and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella Isolates in Hamedan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkaman Asadi, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Seyyed Hamid; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Naseri, Zahra

    2017-05-24

    Current drug regimens for brucellosis are associated with relatively high rates of therapeutic failure or relapse. Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella spp. has been proposed recently as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Brucella melitensis clinical isolates by E-test method in Hamadan, west of Iran. In a 15-month period, all patients with suspected brucellosis were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected for diagnosis of brucellosis by BACTEC system and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates to 7 antibiotics was assessed by the E-test method. One hundred forty-nine patients with brucellosis were evaluated. 38.3% of cultures of clinical samples were positive for BACTEC system, of which 91.2% were associated with a positive serological test result. No significant associations were found between serology and the culture method. All Brucella isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. However, decreased sensitivity to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in 35.1% and 3.5% of isolates, respectively. Because of the high rates of intermediate sensitivity to rifampin among Brucella isolates, this drug should be prescribed with caution. We recommend restricting the use of rifampin for treatment of brucellosis except as an alternative drug for special situations.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus suis isolated from clinically healthy swine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Paduan, Karina dos Santos; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This study is the first to report on the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis isolated from clinically healthy pigs in Brazil; the fourth major pork producer in the world. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 260 strains was determined by disc diffusion method. Strains were commonly susceptible to ceftiofur, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol, with more than 80% of the strains being susceptible to these antimicrobials. A high frequency of resistance to some of the antimicrobial agents was demonstrated, with resistance being most common to sulfa-trimethoprim (100%), tetracycline (97.69%), clindamycin (84.61%), norfloxacin (76.92%), and ciprofloxacin (61.15%). A high percentage of multidrug resistant strains (99.61%) were also found. The results of this study indicate that ceftiofur, cephalexin, and florfenicol are the antimicrobials of choice for empirical control of the infections caused by S. suis.

  17. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the

  18. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T; Espindola, Julia P; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  19. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maboni, Grazieli; Gressler, Leticia T.; Espindola, Julia P.; Schwab, Marcelo; Tasca, Caiane; Potter, Luciana; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented. PMID:26273272

  20. Species-specific difference in antimicrobial susceptibility among viridans group streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2015-03-01

    Viridans group streptococci (VGS) are both commensal microbes and potential pathogens. Increasing resistance to penicillin in VGS is an ongoing issue in the clinical environment. We investigated the difference in susceptibility and resistance to penicillin among various VGS species. In total 1,448 VGS isolated from various clinical specimens were analyzed over a two-yr period. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the automated VITEK 2 system (bioMerieux, France) or the MicroScan MICroSTREP system (Siemens, Germany). Among the 1,448 isolates, 412 were isolated from blood (28.4%). Streptococcus mitis group was the most frequently isolated (589 isolates, 40.7%), followed by the S. anginosus group (290 isolates, 20.0%), S. sanguinis group (179 isolates, 12.4%) and S. salivarius group (57 isolates, 3.9%). In total, 314 isolates could not be identified up to the species level. The overall non-susceptibility to penicillin was observed to be 40.0% (resistant, 11.2% and intermediately resistant, 28.8%) with uneven distribution among groups; 40.2% in S. sanguinis group (resistant, 5.0% and intermediately resistant, 35.2%), 60.3% in S. mitis group (resistant, 20.9% and intermediately resistant, 39.4%), 78.9% in S. salivarius group (resistant, 8.8% and intermediately resistant, 70.1%), and 6.2% in S. anginosus group (resistant, 1.7% and intermediately resistant, 4.5%). Antimicrobial resistance patterns towards penicillin show differences among various VGS; this should be considered while devising an effective antimicrobial treatment against VGS.

  1. [Consensus for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Enterobacteriaceae. Subcommittee on Antimicrobials, SADEBAC (Argentinian Society of Clinical Bacteriology), Argentinian Association of Microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, A; Quinteros, M; Vázquez, M; Marín, M; Nicola, F; Radice, M; Galas, M; Pasterán, F; Bantar, C; Casellas, J M; Kovensky Pupko, J; Couto, E; Goldberg, M; Lopardo, H; Gutkind, G; Soloaga, R

    2005-01-01

    Taking into account previous recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), the Antimicrobial Committee, Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología Clínica (SADEBAC), Asociación Argentina de Microbiología (AAM), and the experience from its members and some invited microbiologists, a consensus was obtained for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and interpretation in most frequent enterobacterial species isolated from clinical samples in our region. This document describes the natural antimicrobial resistance of some Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the resistance profiles due to their own chromosomal encoded beta-lactamases. A list of the antimicrobial agents that should be tested, their position on the agar plates, in order to detect the most frequent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and considerations on which antimicrobial agents should be reported regarding to the infection site and patient characteristics are included. Also, a description on appropriate phenotypic screening and confirmatory test for detection of prevalent extended spectrum beta-lactamases in our region are presented. Finally, a summary on frequent antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and their probably associated resistance mechanisms, and some infrequent antimicrobial resistance profiles that deserve confirmation are outlined.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from the broiler chicken industry in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C; Fish, N A

    1977-01-01

    Antibacterial drug resistance among 219 salmonella isolates recovered during 1974 from poultry and poultry environments at the various production stages of broiler chickens in three integrated Ontario companies are recorded. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole complex, furazolidone, cephaloridine and amoxicillin. A relative increase in resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin with an accompanying decrease in resistance to triple sulfa compound was recorded when compared to a previous investigation of avian salmonella isolates in Ontario. The percentage and patterns of antimicrobial resistance were comparable at the various stages of production. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was the most common pattern found among both Salmonella typhimurium and other serotypes. A notably high prevalence of resistance was found among Salmonella enteritidis isolates including some isolates with R factors for chloramphenicol resistance. This latter finding is of particular concern because of the high prevalence of this serotype in poultry and in human salmonellosis. PMID:318909

  3. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from hosts affected by various diseases in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, Lucilla; Massacci, Francesca Romana; Sebastiani, Carla; Mangili, Piermario; Bano, Luca; Cocchi, Monia; Luppi, Andrea; Ortenzi, Roberta; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca

    2017-03-31

    Pasteurella multocida is a widespread pathogen associated with major animal diseases of economic significance. Despite this, little is known about the capsular types, virulence gene pattern, and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from hosts affected by different diseases, and no data are available in Italy. One hundred eighty six isolates of P. multocida, were taken from different species in different states of health in several Italian regions, and were tested for genes encoding for capsular types (cap) and major virulence factors (tbpA, toxA, hgbB and pfhA). Antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated with the agar diffusion test. The majority of isolates was capA+. However, the distribution differed according to species and disease of origin, with a greater heterogeneity in isolates from rabbits; capE was never found, while capB was detected once. Only capA+ and capF+ strains tested positive for pfhA. Conversely, almost all capD+ isolates were hgbB+. In bovine respiratory disease, pfhA+/tbpA+/capA+ isolates predominated, while tbpA+/toxA+/capD+ isolates predominated in sheep. Overall, low levels of resistance were found, with full susceptibility to ceftiofur and florfenicol. Lower susceptibility to older antimicrobials was recorded, since only approximately 1/3 of the isolates showed susceptibility to tylosin and erythromycin, and resistance to tetracycline (7.5%), and trimethoprim - sulphametoxazole (4.8%) was also observed.

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility Surveillance - The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, 27 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Harvey, Alesia; Papp, John R; Del Rio, Carlos; Soge, Olusegun O; Holmes, King K; Hook, Edward W; Kubin, Grace; Riedel, Stefan; Zenilman, Jonathan; Pettus, Kevin; Sanders, Tremeka; Sharpe, Samera; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-07-15

    exhibited reduced cefixime or ceftriaxone susceptibility (Cfx-RS and Cro-RS, respectively). The prevalence of Cfx-RS (MIC ≥0.25 µg/mL) increased from 0.1% in 2006 to 1.4% in both 2010 and 2011, decreased to 0.4% in 2013, and increased to 0.8% in 2014. Cro-RS (MIC ≥0.125 µg/mL) increased following a similar pattern but at lesser percentages (increased from 0.1% in 2008 to 0.4% in 2011 and decreased to 0.1% in 2013 and 2014). The percentage of isolates resistant to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, penicillin, or all three antimicrobials, was greater in isolates from MSM than from MSW. This is the first report to present comprehensive surveillance data from GISP and summarize gonococcal susceptibility over time, as well as underscore the history and public health implications of emerging cephalosporin resistance. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns vary by geographic region within the United States and by sex of sex partner. Because dual therapy with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin is the only recommended gonorrhea treatment, increases in azithromycin and cephalosporin MICs are cause for concern that resistance to these antimicrobial agents might be emerging. It is unclear whether increases in the percentage of isolates with Azi-RS mark the beginning of a trend. The percentage of isolates with elevated cefixime MICs increased during 2009-2010, then decreased during 2012-2013 after treatment recommendations were changed in 2010 to recommend dual therapy (with a cephalosporin and a second antibiotic) and a higher dosage of ceftriaxone. Subsequently, the treatment recommendations were changed again in 2012 to no longer recommend cefixime as part of first-line therapy (leaving ceftriaxone-based dual therapy as the only recommended therapy). Despite the MIC decrease (i.e., trend of improved cefixime susceptibility) during 2012-2013, the increase in the number of strains with Cfx-RS in 2014 underscores the potential threat of cephalosporin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. The National

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Isolated Vibrio cholerae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Hajia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholera is a potentially life-threatening acute diarrheal disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. Antibiotics should be selected using local antibiotic susceptibility testing patterns. Objectives: This study was performed to identify the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates collected from laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera during three years, from 2011 to 2013. Materials and Methods: All isolates at the Health Reference Laboratory were tested by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC Test using Liofilchem against ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, cefixime, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The following organisms were used as quality control strains for MIC E-testing; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Results: Results of susceptibility testing showed complete sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and amplicillin for both isolated Inaba and Ogawa serotypes except all isolated Inaba serotypes from year 2011, which were resistant to cefixime. These resistant Inaba serotypes were not isolated in the next year. Inaba serotypes showed an increased resistance rate of up to 100% to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazone, while Ogawa serotypes were 100% sensitive at the end of year 2013. The susceptibility pattern of erytromycine was similar in these two types. Sensitivity to erythromycin was decreased in both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Conclusions: The analyzed results indicate that tetracycline should not be considered as a first line antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Ogawa serotypes. Also, national guidelines for confirmation of cholera should be improved by responsible authorities to cover new resistance during outbreaks.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Bartonella species to 17 antimicrobial compounds: comparison of Etest and agar dilution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbecker, C.; Sander, A.; Oberle, K.; Schulin-Casonato, T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In vitro susceptibility testing of 31 Bartonella spp. strains including 21 Bartonella henselae isolates was performed for 17 antimicrobial agents (telithromycin, four macrolides, five fluoroquinolones, five aminoglycosides, doxycycline and rifampicin). METHODS: MICs were determined by

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Characterisation of Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolated from Malaysian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Ceftazidime (CAZ, the synthetic β-lactam, is normally used as the first-line antibiotic therapy for treatment of melioidosis. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, leading to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different antibiotic(s in a timely manner. In this study, susceptibilities of 81 B. pseudomallei isolates to nine different antimicrobial agents were determined using the disk diffusion method, broth microdilution test and Etest. Highest percentage of susceptibility was demonstrated to CAZ, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, meropenem, imipenem, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Although these drugs demonstrated the highest percentage of susceptibility in B. pseudomallei, the overall results underline the importance of the emergence of resistance in this organism. PCR results showed that, of the 81 B. pseudomallei, six multidrug resistant (MDR isolates carried bpeB, amrB, and BPSS1119 and penA genes. Genotyping of the isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed six different PCR fingerprinting patterns generated from the six MDR isolates clusters (A and eight PCR fingerprinting patterns generated for the remaining 75 non-MDR isolates clusters (B.

  8. Preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility: possibility of early and effective therapy during treatment of septic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood cultures have the drawback of requiring long time to be carried out. Our study was designed with the aim of early reports on both causing agents and preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility. We carried out a direct antimicrobial susceptibility on 79 positive blood cultures (42 for Gram-negative bacteria of which 21 MDRO; 22 for staphylococci of which 15 S. aureus; and 15 Enterococci/Streptococci employing E-test strips deposited on Müller-Hinton Agar for staphylococci and Gram-negative bacteria, and Müller-Hinton Agar + 5% of blood for enterococci/streptococci. MICs were compared to the antimicrobial susceptibility tests carried out using Vitek2. On the basis of the interpretative criteria (SIR, the comparison between the direct antimicrobial susceptibility and the routine antimicrobial susceptibility, showed a concordance from 92.6% up to 100% for Gram-negative bacteria; from 90.0% up to 100% for staphylococci; from 86.7% up to 100% for streptococci/enterococci, respectively. With regard to MICs comparison, good concordance was detected on the basis of ± 1 doubling dilution. Moreover, this work allowed, in the case of Gram-negative bacteria, either the early identification of multidrug-resistant organisms or providing the MIC evaluation in a broader interval than it would be possible by the reference antimicrobial susceptibility.

  9. Epidemiology and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of the main Nocardia species in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Garrido, Noelia; Carrasco, Gema; Medina-Pascual, María J; Villalón, Pilar; Navarro, Ana M; Saéz-Nieto, Juan A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the clinical distribution, by species, of the genus Nocardia and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the 10 most prevalent species identified in Spain. Over a 10 year period (2005-14), 1119 Nocardia strains were molecularly identified and subjected to the Etest. The distribution and resistance trends over the sub-periods 2005-09 and 2010-14 were also examined. Of the strains examined, 82.9% belonged to the following species: Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (25.3%), Nocardia nova (15.0%), Nocardia abscessus (12.7%), Nocardia farcinica (11.4%), Nocardia carnea (4.3%), Nocardia brasiliensis (3.5%), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (3.1%), Nocardia flavorosea (2.6%), Nocardia rhamnosiphila (2.6%) and Nocardia transvalensis (2.4%). Their prevalence values were similar during 2005-09 and 2010-14, except for those of N. abscessus , N. farcinica and N. transvalensis , which fell significantly in the second sub-period ( P ≤  0.05). The major location of isolation was the respiratory tract (∼86%). Half (13/27) of all strains from the CNS were N. farcinica . Significant differences in MIC results were recorded for some species between the two sub-periods. According to the CLSI's breakpoints, low resistance rates (≤15%) were recorded for seven species with respect to cefotaxime, imipenem and tobramycin; five species showed similar rates with respect to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Linezolid and amikacin were the most frequently active agents. The accurate identification of the infecting species and the determination of its susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, given the large number of strains with atypical patterns, are crucial if patients with nocardiosis are to be successfully treated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens spp. Isolated in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, María T.; Chung, Whasun O.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Fierro, José F.

    1998-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 143 Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens isolates to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. All P. gingivalis isolates were susceptible. In contrast, some Prevotella spp. (17%) were resistant to β-lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, or tetracycline and carried resistance genes, ermF or tetQ, or β-lactamases.

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens spp. Isolated in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, María T.; Chung, Whasun O.; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Fierro, José F.

    1998-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 143 Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Prevotella nigrescens isolates to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. All P. gingivalis isolates were susceptible. In contrast, some Prevotella spp. (17%) were resistant to β-lactams, erythromycin, clindamycin, or tetracycline and carried resistance genes, ermF or tetQ, or β-lactamases. PMID:9797247

  12. Enterotoxin production and antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococci isolated from traditional raw milk cheeses in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulajic, Snezana; Colovic, Svetlana; Misic, Dusan; Djordjevic, Jasna; Savic-Radovanovic, Radoslava; Asanin, Jelena; Ledina, Tijana

    2017-12-02

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of coagulase positive staphylococci (CPS) by examining a total of 71 raw milk cheeses. Additionally, enterotoxigenicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of mecA and mecC genes in the staphylococcal isolates were investigated. The isolation and enumeration procedure of CPS followed the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard. The presumptive staphylococci were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using the VITEK MS system. VIDAS® Staph enterotoxin II assay was used for the detection of classical enterotoxins. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was accomplished performing the disk diffusion method. All suspected methicillin resistant staphylococci were investigated for the presence of mecA and mecC genes by PCR assay. A high prevalence (87.32%) of CPS was detected in the cheeses at contamination levels up to 5.58 log CFU g -1 . Among 47 staphylococcal isolates screened for enterotoxin production, only one isolate, identified as S. hyicus, was confirmed as being enterotoxigenic. Resistance to penicillin (63.70%) was the most common resistance among the tested Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The dominant phenotypic resistance patterns in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were resistance to ofloxacin and fusidic acid. All CNS isolates were susceptible to the clinically important antibiotics clindamycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mecA and mecC genes were not detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning evaluation of the presence of methicillin resistant staphylococci (MRS) in dairy products in Serbia.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities, phage types, and molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from chickens and chicken meat in turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Hakan; Sen, Selahattin; Hasman, Henrik; Hendriksen, Rene S; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2009-04-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella Enteritidis isolates from chickens and chicken meat in Turkey were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, phage types, plasmid profiles, and resistance genes. Seven different PFGE patterns were observed, with the most common accounting for 71% (X1). The most common phage type was PT4, followed by PT7, PT16, PT1, PT6, and PT35. Different phage types shared the same PFGE pattern. Twenty-one isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested whereas eight were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Six isolates were resistant to gentamicin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and sulphamethoxazole and one of these in addition to nalidixic acid. Two isolates were resistant to ampicillin and nalidixic acid. An additional nine isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid only. All six streptomycin-resistant isolates had aadA located in an integron class 1 structure. Both ampicillin-resistant isolates had the bla(TEM) gene. Five different plasmid profiles were found among the isolates. Sixty-five percent of isolates contained a single plasmid with an approximate size of 55-60 kb. Plasmid profiling confirmed the PFGE pattern.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin: literature review from 1980 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-07-16

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and a common opportunistic pathogen causing mainly infections of the integumentary system in dogs. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, in particular methicillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is a threat to small animal health and highlights the need for antimicrobial resistance surveillance to detect trends and potentially perform timeous interventions. We systematically reviewed 202 published articles to investigate temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical and commensal S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates. Stratified by MSSP and MRSP, no significant increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed over time, except for the penicillinase-labile penicillins (penicillin and ampicillin) among MSSP. However, in recent years, a few studies have reported higher-level of resistance to amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin amongst MSSP. The review highlights inconsistencies between studies as a result of several factors, for example the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation criteria. We recommend that data on susceptibility in important companion animal pathogens are collected and presented in a more harmonized way to allow more precise comparison of susceptibility patterns between studies. One way to accomplish this would be through systematic surveillance either at the country-level or at a larger scale across countries e.g. EU level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Eschericia coli isolates from Arieş river (Romania

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    Andreea BODOCZI FLOREA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR and multiple antimicrobial resistances (MAR among the faecal bacteria found in the Arieş river (Romania affected by strong anthropogenic pressures. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for 12 antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ceftazidin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ticarcycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and norfloxacin. The data of the antimicrobial susceptibility reviled that all the studied E. coli strains were resistant to most of the tested antibiotics. The analysis of antibiotic resistance frequencies has showed an incidence of 46.66% strains resistant to more than 4 different antibiotics. Moreover, a high incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances was detected in each of the studied samples.

  16. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) epidemiological minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) cut-off values in a routine setting. Metronidazole and vancomycin zone diameters from 2702 isolates were recorded. Fifteen isolates had a metronidazole zone diameter below...... the published breakpoint (vancomycin zone diameter below the published breakpoint (

  17. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni from Kuwait to tigecycline & other antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M John Albert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: There is an increasing frequency of resistance of Campylobacter jejuni to antimicrobial agents making treatment difficult. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of C. jejuni isolates collected over an eight year period was tested against tigecycline, a glycylcycline, the previously tested antimicrobial agents in Kuwait, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline, and other antimicrobial agents not previously tested in Kuwait, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, imipenem and meropenem. Methods: A total of 97 C. jejuni isolates from diarrhoeal stools of Kuwaiti patients during 2002-2010 were studied for susceptibility to the above antimicrobial agents by E test. Results: Erythromycin resistance increased from 5.0 per cent in 2002-2003 to 13.8 per cent in 2007-2010. The figures for ciprofloxacin resistance for the same periods were 53 and 65.5 per cent, respectively. Tetracycline resistance increased from 40.0 per cent in 2003-2006 to 62.1 per cent in 2007-2010 (P=0.05. However, all isolates were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline and other antimicrobial agents. Interpretation & conclusions: There was a progressive increase in the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. As all isolates were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline, this antimicrobial agent can be considered as a potential candidate for treatment in clinical studies.

  19. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains.

  20. Mycoplasma bovis: mechanisms of resistance and trends in antimicrobial susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna eLysnyansky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  1. Mycoplasma bovis: Mechanisms of Resistance and Trends in Antimicrobial Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysnyansky, Inna; Ayling, Roger D

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a cell-wall-less bacterium and belongs to the class Mollicutes. It is the most important etiological agent of bovine mycoplasmoses in North America and Europe, causing respiratory disease, mastitis, otitis media, arthritis, and reproductive disease. Clinical disease associated with M. bovis is often chronic, debilitating, and poorly responsive to antimicrobial therapy, resulting in significant economic loss, the full extent of which is difficult to estimate. Until M. bovis vaccines are universally available, sanitary control measures and antimicrobial treatment are the only approaches that can be used in attempts to control M. bovis infections. However, in vitro studies show that many of the current M. bovis isolates circulating in Europe have high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for many of the commercially available antimicrobials. In this review we summarize the current MIC trends indicating the development of antimicrobial resistance in M. bovis as well as the known molecular mechanisms by which resistance is acquired.

  2. Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Biofilm Formation ofCronobacterspp. Recovered from Spices and Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhong; Yu, Huan; Jiang, Hua; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Yaodong; Shao, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Cronobacter species are important food-borne opportunistic pathogens which have been implicated in the cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and meningitis in neonates and infants. However, these bacteria are routinely found in foodstuffs, clinical specimens, and environmental samples. This study investigated the genetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility, and biofilm formation of Cronobacter isolates ( n = 40) recovered from spices and cereals in China during 2014-2015. Based on the fus A sequencing analysis, we found that the majority (23/40, 57.5%) of Cronobacter isolates in spices and cereals were C. sakazakii , while the remaining strains were C. dublinensis (6/40, 15.0%), C. malonaticus (5/40, 12.5%), C. turicensis (4/40, 10.0%), and C. universalis (2/40, 5.0%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis produced 30 sequence types (STs) among the 40 Cronobacter isolates, with 5 STs (ST4, ST13, ST50, ST129, and ST158) related to neonatal meningitis. The pattern of the overall ST distribution was diverse; in particular, it was revealed that ST148 was the predominant ST, presenting 12.5% within the whole population. MLST assigned 12 isolates to 7 different clonal complexes (CCs), 4, 13, 16, 17, 72, 129, and 143, respectively. The results of O-antigen serotyping indicated that C. sakazakii serotype O1 and O2 were the most two prevalent serotypes. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the 40 Cronobacter isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested except for ceftriaxone, meropenem, and aztreona. Of the 40 Cronobacter strains tested, 13 (32.5%) were assessed as weak bioflim producers, one (2.5%) was a moderate biofilm producer, one (2.5%) was strong biofilm producer, and the others (62.5%) were non-biofilm producers. MLST and O-antigen serotyping have indicated that Cronobacter strains recovered from spices and cereals were genetically diverse. Isolates of clinical origin, particularly the C. sakazakii ST4 neonatal

  3. Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Biofilm Formation of Cronobacter spp. Recovered from Spices and Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter species are important food-borne opportunistic pathogens which have been implicated in the cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and meningitis in neonates and infants. However, these bacteria are routinely found in foodstuffs, clinical specimens, and environmental samples. This study investigated the genetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility, and biofilm formation of Cronobacter isolates (n = 40 recovered from spices and cereals in China during 2014–2015. Based on the fusA sequencing analysis, we found that the majority (23/40, 57.5% of Cronobacter isolates in spices and cereals were C. sakazakii, while the remaining strains were C. dublinensis (6/40, 15.0%, C. malonaticus (5/40, 12.5%, C. turicensis (4/40, 10.0%, and C. universalis (2/40, 5.0%. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST analysis produced 30 sequence types (STs among the 40 Cronobacter isolates, with 5 STs (ST4, ST13, ST50, ST129, and ST158 related to neonatal meningitis. The pattern of the overall ST distribution was diverse; in particular, it was revealed that ST148 was the predominant ST, presenting 12.5% within the whole population. MLST assigned 12 isolates to 7 different clonal complexes (CCs, 4, 13, 16, 17, 72, 129, and 143, respectively. The results of O-antigen serotyping indicated that C. sakazakii serotype O1 and O2 were the most two prevalent serotypes. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the 40 Cronobacter isolates were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested except for ceftriaxone, meropenem, and aztreona. Of the 40 Cronobacter strains tested, 13 (32.5% were assessed as weak bioflim producers, one (2.5% was a moderate biofilm producer, one (2.5% was strong biofilm producer, and the others (62.5% were non-biofilm producers. MLST and O-antigen serotyping have indicated that Cronobacter strains recovered from spices and cereals were genetically diverse. Isolates of clinical origin, particularly the C. sakazakii ST4 neonatal

  4. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in community acquired urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.Y.H; Ahmad, N.; Shah, S.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most frequent disease for which patients seek medical care. The antimicrobial agents causing UTI and their sensitivity patterns have remarkably changed throughout the world over the past few years. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the uropathogens and their susceptibility to various molecules in our region. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Medical C Unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from January 2015 to January 2016. Patients with clinical features of UTI were evaluated using Urine R/E and Urine culture and sensitivity. Ten antibiotics were checked for susceptibility. Results were analysed using SPSS 17. Results: A total of 630 patients presented with urinary complaints. Of these, 236 patients had more than 8-10 pus cells on urine R/E. They were further evaluated using culture and sensitivity and positive culture was obtained in 75 patients. Of these 34 (45.3%) were males and 41 (54.7%) were females. E Coli was the predominant isolate being present in 49 (65.3%) patients. This was followed by Klebsiella in 9 (12%) patients. Tazobactam-piperacillin and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most sensitive drugs having overall sensitivity of 96% and 93.3% respectively. The isolates were highly resistant to Fluoroquinolones 77.3% followed by Penicillins 72% and TMP-SMX 69.3%.Conclusion: Antibiotic sensitivity patterns have enormously changed over the past decade. Newer agents are quite efficacious but their use should be highly judicious to prevent the development of resistance to these molecules. (author)

  6. A Survey on Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Different Antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 3rd ed, approved standard. NCCLS,. Pennsylvania. Document M7-A3 (1997). Turner, SM; Scott-Tucker, A; Cooper, LM; Henderson, IR. (2006). Weapons of mass destruction: virulence factors of the global killer enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

  7. Isolation rates and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual proportions of E. coli isolates that were susceptible to. Ampicillin, Teracycline and Streptomycin were generally average and showed a general decline over the years though this was not obviously consistent. The annual proportions of Streptococci isolates were moderately sensitive to all the antimicrobials ...

  8. Urinary tract pathogens and antimicrobial sensitivity patterns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate treatment and control of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) depends on a good knowledge of the agents causing the infection. The study was designed to assess the aetiology of childhood UTI and the susceptibility of these pathogens to the commonly available antimicrobial agents. Methodology: Children ...

  9. Comparison of identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identified isolates were compared with presumptive identities obtained by growth on MSA, tube coagulation and slide agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer technique while MRSA was screened for by growth on chromIDTM MRSA plate and confirmed ...

  10. Comparison of identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on MSA, tube coagulation and slide agglutination tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates was per- formed by Kirby Bauer technique while MRSA was screened for by growth on chromIDTM MRSA plate and confirmed by. PCR-amplification of mecA/mecC genes. Results: From the 185 staphylococci that ...

  11. [Antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of occurrence of clinical blood isolates in Sfax-Tunisia (1993-1998)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jemaa, Z; Mahjoubi, F; Ben Haj H'mida, Y; Hammami, N; Ben Ayed, M; Hammami, A

    2004-03-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility and frequency of occurrence of clinical blood isolates in Sfax-Tunisia (1993-1998). The choice of antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of bacteremia is often empirical and based on the knowledge of susceptibility profiles of the most common bacteria causing such infections. This study determines the bacterial etiology of bacteremic episodes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns recorded at a teaching hospital, from January 1993 to December 1998. We collected 2979 strains responsible for bacteremia. Gram negative bacteria were predominant (60%). The organisms recovered most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus (18.9%), Escherichia coli (14.7%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.6%). The incidence of resistance to methicillin were 17.4% for Staphylococcus aureus and 26.8% for coagulase negative Staphylococcus. No resistance to glycopeptides was observed among the enterococci and staphylococci studied. 27.7% of enterobacteriaceae were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. Imipenem was the most active agent against gram negative bacteria. To carry out a surveillance of bacteremic episodes occurring at every hospital, it is necessary to provide valuable information which should be the basis for effective empiric therapy.

  12. Nasopharyngeal carriage and susceptibility patterns of Streptococcu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple antimicrobial resistance was also noted especially among drugs readily available and commonly used. These data impact treatment choices in pneumococcal disease. Vaccine may play an important role in disease limitation. An effort to curtail the misuse of anitibiotics, by prescription and otherwise, may prevent ...

  13. Ten years of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella from Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study analysed the trends in antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella serovars and phage types from pigs in Denmark from 1997 to 2006. Methods: Salmonella isolates collected through the Salmonella surveillance programme in pigs were serotyped and phage-typed, and susceptibilities...... to the following antimicrobials were determined: ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, colistin, streptomycin, sulphonamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim. Results: No significant development of resistance occurred within the most important serovars, except Salmonella Typhimurium. A major...... decrease in Salmonella Typhimurium DT12 occurred from 46.5% in 1998 to 16.8% in 2006 while DT120, DT170 and DT104 increased. Throughout the study period, 80.9% of the DT12 isolates remained susceptible to the antimicrobials tested despite an increase in antimicrobial consumption in pigs during the period...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a pigeon slaughterhouse in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, P; Vergara, A; Muscariello, l T; Ianieri, A

    2005-11-01

    No information is available concerning the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pigeon slaughterhouses. In the present study, 59 staphylococcal strains isolated from a pigeon slaughterhouse in central Italy were compared according to their antibiotic resistance. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. The strains were checked for the productions of enterotoxins A, B, C, D by reversed passive latex agglutination. Resistance to 26 antibiotics was also determined paying particular attention to resistance to those antimicrobial agents frequently used in human medicine and in poultry breeding. Only one strain was positive for the production of enterotoxins type C and D. It was isolated from the evisceration tube after slaughtering. Enterotoxin B was produced by 2 strains isolated from the eyebrows and conjunctivas of the worker operating the crop rinsing tube. As to the susceptibility to antibiotics, all strains were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, cephalothin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, linezolid, oxacillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin. Some (15.2%) of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and to penicillin G; 6.8% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 20.3% to enrofloxacin, 16.9% to erythromycin and to ciprofloxacin, 8.5% to clindamycin, and 11.9% to lincomycin. The highest percentages of strains were resistant to tetracycline and oleandomicin (37.3 and 25.4% respectively). Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were also found (3.4%). Only one strain had a multiple antibiotic resistance index > 0.30. The results were statistically analyzed and clustered in 6 groups. This work provides the antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus strains isolated from a pigeon slaughtering plant and represents a study on a quite unknown field in meat production.

  15. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from animals and humans in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in Clostridium difficile strains isolated from animals and humans in Brazil. The 54 C. difficile strains used were isolated from stool samples from piglets (n=16, dogs (n=13, humans (n=13, foals (n=8 calves (n=2, an ocelot (n=1 and a maned wolf (n=1. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the serial plate agar dilution method for penicillin, florfenicol, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, metronidazole and tylosin. The C. difficile strains assessed were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Florfenicol resistance was rarely observed; 52 (96.4% strains were sensitive to this antimicrobial. Five (9.3%, five (9.3%, 14 (25.9% and 20 (37.0% strains were resistant to oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin and erythromycin respectively.

  17. Uterine Microbiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Isolated Bacteria from Mares with Fertility Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Albihn, A; Båverud, V; Magnusson, U

    2003-01-01

    Uterine microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in 239 mares with fertility problems in a prospective study in Sweden. Uterine swab samples were collected with double guarded swabs and transported overnight before being cultured. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) was determined for a panel of antimicrobials. From 152 of the 239 mares at least one bacterial species was isolated, most frequently E. coli (104 isolates), β-haemolytic streptococci (31) and fungi (...

  18. Short Communication Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cropped' boil and suppuration in susceptible host. People with diabetes and suppressed immune system or acne are at great risk (Zimakoff et al.,. 1988). Staphylococcus aureus isolated from furunculosis are drug resistant (El-Gilany and Hanan, ...

  19. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESKAPE pathogens from urinary tract infections in a referral laboratory, Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Salehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESKAPE pathogens from Neyshabur, Iran during 2013–2015. Methods: A total of 345 isolates including 62 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 38 Enterobacter spp. (including 14 Enterobacter agglomerans, 6 Enterobacter aerogenes and other 18 Enterobacter spp., 123 Enterococcus faecium, 78 Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 34 Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates was conducted with Kirby Bauer method. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software using F- and t-tests. Results: Among S. aureus isolates, the highest resistance was observed against nalidixic acid (81.35% and cefixime (74.50%. Thirty-three (53.22% S. aureus isolates were cefoxitin resistant (methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The majority of Enterobacter species was resistant to amikacin (100.00% and cephalotin (66.60%. Most Enterococcus faecium isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (89.43% and amikacin (83.33%, but vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolates were not detected. Moreover, among Klebsiella pneumonia, the highest resistance was observed to nalidixic acid (20.98% and cotrimoxazole (28.39%. Furthermore, all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (100.00% and majority to nitroforantoin (88.80%. Acinetobacter baumannii isolates showed the highest and the lowest resistance to cefotaxime (100.00% and cefixime (88.71%, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ESKAPE pathogens from northeast region was low, but majority of them exhibited high rate of antibiotic resistance to common used antimicrobial agents.

  20. Study of Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Blood Culture Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobola, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Definitive diagnosis is by bacteriologic culture of blood samples to identify organisms and establish antibiotic susceptibility. Between July and September 2009, 249 blood samples collected from patients at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were processed. Positive cultures which accounted for 48(19.3% of total samples screened, were purified and identified according to standard methods. Sensitivity of bacteria to different antibiotics was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Microorganisms recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%, Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis (12.5% respectively, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis (8.3% respectively and Citrobacter freundii (6.3% . The highest antibiotic activities against Gram positive isolates were observed for ofloxacin (90.9%, nitrofurantoin (81.8% and gentamicin (72.7%, while in Gram negative bacteria, ofloxacin (81.1% and nalidixic acid (45.9% were most effective. The possibility of drug resistance acquisition by bacteria makes continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria essential as this will enhance efforts to identify resistance and attempt to limit its spread.

  1. Antimicrobial Sysceptibility Pattern of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC in Paediatric Diarrhoeal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimu Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC mediated infantile diarrhoea among children is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of EPEC strains isolated from children under 5 years of age was studied. Stool samples from 272 patients with diarrhoea were collected from two tertiary care hospitals. Out of 272 stool samples, 20 (7.35% isolates were identified as EPEC on the basis of presence of bfpA gene detected by polymerase chain reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on these EPEC strains by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that the EPEC isolates were highly resistant to ampicillin (100%, nalidixic acid (95% and tetracycline (95% and were sensitive to ceftazidime (95%, cefotaxime (90%, ceftriaxone (95%, imipenem (100% and levofloxacin (85%. Isolation of EPEC is of great importance since they are responsible for acute diarrhoeal diseases in large number of children under the age of five years. The high antimicrobial resistance observed in our study indicates indiscriminate or improper use of antimicrobials, besides the risks of self-medication. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2014; 8(1: 12-16

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes and genotypes of Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with swine pneumonia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jih-Ching; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Chou, Chi-Chung; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2017-09-21

    Pasteurella multocida (PM) can cause progressive atrophic rhinitis and suppurative bronchopneumonia in pigs. The present study performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotype and genotype identification on the 62 PM strains isolated from the lungs of diseased pigs with respiratory symptoms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing examined 13 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin, cefazolin, doxycycline, flumequine, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, kanamycin, lincomycin, Linco-Spectin (lincomycin and spectinomycin), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and tiamulin). Antimicrobial resistance ratios were over 40% in all of the antimicrobial agents except for cefazolin. The highest levels of resistance (100%) were found for kanamycin, erythromycin and tylosin. The majority of isolated strains was serotype D:L6 (n=35) followed by A:L3 (n=17). Comparison of the antimicrobial resistance levels between the two serotypes showed that the antimicrobial resistance rates were higher in D:L6 than in A:L3 for all the tested antimicrobials except for tylosin and tilmicosin. For PM with erm (B), erm (T) or erm (42), the results showed no significant difference compared with non-resistance gene strains in phenotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping using Apa I restriction digestion of the genomic DNA demonstrated that there were 17 distinct clusters with a similarity of 85% or more, and the genotyping result was similar to that of serotyping. The results of the present study demonstrated that the PM isolated from diseased pigs in Taiwan was resistant to multiple antimicrobials, and the distribution of antimicrobial resistance was associated with pulsotype and serotype. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus parasuis and Histophilus somni from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Angen, Øystein

    2004-01-01

    A total of 52 Haemophilus parasuis and 80 Histophilus somni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by MIC-determinations. None of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florphenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin......, or tilmicosin. Two H. parasuis isolates were resistant to trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole. Six H. parasuis isolates had reduced susceptibility (0.06-0.5 mug/ml) to ciprofloxacin and 10 reduced susceptibility to TMP + sulfamethoxazole (1-2 mug/ml). This study showed that Danish isolates of H. parasuis and H....... somni in general are fully susceptible to antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment of infections with these pathogens. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    during susceptibility testing: Escherichia coli 25922, Staphylococcus au reus 25923, Brucella abortus 2308, Brucella melitensis rev- I, and Bmcel/a canis...2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Antin1icrobial Susceptibility of Brucella melitensis Isolates in Peru 9 Ryan C. Maves,1...48 human Brucella melitensis biotype 1 strains from Peru between 2000 and 2006. MICs of isolates to doxycycline, azithromycin, gentamicin, rifampin

  6. Susceptibility of Colistin-Resistant, Gram-Negative Bacteria to Antimicrobial Peptides and Ceragenins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Marjan M; Rovig, John; Weber, Scott; Hilton, Brian; Forouzan, Mehdi M; Savage, Paul B

    2017-08-01

    The susceptibility of colistin-resistant clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceragenins and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) suggests that there is little to no cross-resistance between colistin and ceragenins/AMPs and that lipid A modifications are found in bacteria with modest changes in susceptibility to ceragenins and with high levels of resistance to colistin. These results suggest that there are differences in the resistance mechanisms to colistin and ceragenins/AMPs. Copyright © 2017 Hashemi et al.

  7. Susceptibilities of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum strains to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Laak, E A; Noordergraaf, J H; Verschure, M H

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the susceptibility of various strains of Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma dispar, and Ureaplasma diversum, which are prevalent causes of pneumonia in calves, to 16 antimicrobial agents in vitro. The MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by a serial broth dilution method for 16 field strains and the type strain of M. bovis, for 19 field strains and the type strain of M. dispar, and for 17 field strains of U. diversum. Final MICs for M. bovis and M. dispar were read after 7 days and final MICs for U. diversum after 1 to 2 days. All strains tested were susceptible to tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin but were resistant to nifuroquine and streptomycin. Most strains of U. diversum were intermediately susceptible to oxytetracycline but fully susceptible to chlortetracycline; most strains of M. bovis and M. dispar, however, were resistant to both agents. Strains of M. dispar and U. diversum were susceptible to doxycycline and minocycline, but strains of M. bovis were only intermediately susceptible. Susceptibility or resistance to chloramphenicol, spiramycin, spectinomycin, lincomycin, or enrofloxacin depended on the species but was not equal for the three species. The type strains of M. bovis and M. dispar were more susceptible to various antimicrobial agents, including tetracyclines, than the field strains. This finding might indicate that M. bovis and M. dispar strains are becoming resistant to these agents. Antimicrobial agents that are effective in vitro against all three mycoplasma species can be considered for treating mycoplasma infections in pneumonic calves. Therefore, tylosin, kitasamycin, and tiamulin may be preferred over oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline.

  8. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    OpenAIRE

    Maboni,Grazieli; Gressler,Leticia T.; Espindola,Julia P.; Schwab,Marcelo; Tasca,Caiane; Potter,Luciana; Vargas,Agueda Castagna de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxe...

  9. Relative performance of antimicrobial susceptibility assays on clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Skye; Abraham, Sam; Saputra, Sugiyono; Trott, Darren J; Turnidge, John; Mitchell, Tahlia; Caraguel, Charles G B; Jordan, David

    2018-02-01

    The assessment of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria derived from animals is often performed using the disc diffusion assay. However broth-microdilution is the preferred assay for national antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of disc diffusion relative to broth-microdilution across a panel of 12 antimicrobials using data from a collection of 994 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals. Disc diffusion performance was evaluated by diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio pairs and receive-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Data was dichotomised using CLSI susceptible and resistant clinical breakpoints. In addition, disc diffusion breakpoints produced using diffusion Breakpoint Estimation Testing Software (dBETS) were evaluated. Analysis revealed considerable variability in performance estimates for disc diffusion susceptible and resistant breakpoints (AUC ranges: 0.78-0.99 and 0.92-1.0, respectively) across the panel of antimicrobials. Ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and ampicillin estimates were robust across both breakpoints, whereas estimates for several antimicrobials including amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and gentamicin were less favourable using susceptible breakpoints. Overall performance estimates were moderately improved when dBETS susceptible breakpoints were applied. For most antimicrobials, disc diffusion was accurate at predicting resistance of clinical E. coli from animals that could otherwise be determined by broth-microdilution. While disc diffusion is suboptimal for assessing the proportion of fully susceptible isolates for some drugs, sensitivity and specificity estimates provided here allow for the use of standard formula to correct this. For this reason, disc diffusion has applicability in national surveillance provided the performance of the assay is taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard versus biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Valerie; Ratjen, Felix

    2017-10-05

    The antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis are typically chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. To compare biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy to conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. Most recent search: 19 June 2017.We also searched two ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Most recent searches: 24 August 2017 and 05 September 2017. Randomized controlled trials of antibiotic therapy based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Both authors independently selected trials, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data from eligible trials. Additionally, the review authors contacted the trial investigators to obtain further information. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. The searches identified two multicentre, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials eligible for inclusion

  11. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Antibiotics susceptibility tests including, ESBL screening and confirmation, were carried out by disc diffusion technique using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results: Ten different types of bacteria genera were observed from nine different clinical samples.

  12. Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species identification of Candida isolates was done using phenotypic methods including germ tube test, Rice Tween-80 agar, Chrom ID (CAN2) agar and API 20C AUX, while PCR-RFLP was used as the gold standard method. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done using the disk diffusion method. Results: Vaginal swab ...

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Sensitivity to 15 antimicrobials (based on availability of sensitivity disc) was tested using ... In general, the pattern of bacteriuria and their sensitivity in the SCA group was similar to the pattern in the control ... Departments of Paediatrics and 1Medical Microbiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital,.

  14. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Broiler and Layer Chicken with Colisepticemia in Sudan. ... management of collibacillosis in the farms should be based on the result of susceptibility tests because other than poultry health problems transmission of resistant e coli to human can occur.

  15. Bacterial resistance and susceptibility to antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citterio, Linda

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a global challenge and there is urgent need for new and alternative compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are under investigation as novel antibiotics. These are part of the immune defense of all living organisms; hence, they represen...... be a threat to our immunity may be overestimated. In conclusion, this PhD project supports the belief that bacteria hold the potential to develop resistance to each novel antibacterial agent. Nevertheless, strategies to circumvent resistance exist and must be pursued.......Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has become a global challenge and there is urgent need for new and alternative compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are under investigation as novel antibiotics. These are part of the immune defense of all living organisms; hence, they represent...... are one class of such synthetic modified peptides. The purpose of this PhD project was to determine the antibacterial spectrum and potential use of synthetic antimicrobial peptides and peptidomimetics. Another key investigation has been the experimental development of resistance to these novel...

  16. In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Selected Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Owusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The current definitive treatment of Buruli ulcer with antibiotics makes the issue of antimicrobial drug resistance an unavoidable one. This is as a result of drug misuse by health personnel and patients’ noncompliance to treatment regimen. Monitoring of these factors and screening for new effective antimicrobials are crucial to effective management of Buruli ulcer disease. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics against isolates of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Methods. Activity of eight antibiotics was tested against twelve M. ulcerans isolates (2 reference strains and 10 clinical isolates. The anti-M. ulcerans activities were determined by the agar dilution method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by the agar proportion method. Results. All antimicrobials investigated had activity against M. ulcerans isolates tested. The MICs ranged from 0.16 μg/mL to 2.5 μg/mL. Azithromycin recorded the highest inhibitory activity at a mean MIC of 0.39 μg/mL, whilst clofazimine a second-line antileprosy drug, recorded the lowest at a mean MIC of 2.19 μg/mL. Among the four antituberculosis drugs, rifampicin had the highest activity with a mean MIC of 0.81 μg/mL. Conclusion. Azithromycin could be considered as a lucrative alternative to existing treatment methods for inhibiting M. ulcerans in Ghana.

  17. Assessment of diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brachyspira species using a ring test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasback, T.; Fellstrøm, C.; Bergsjo, B.

    2005-01-01

    There is no ring test for quality assessment available in Europe for diagnostics and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious, anaerobic bacteria of the genus Brachyspira. Therefore, an international ring test for Brachyspira spp. was performed once a year during 2002-2004. Two sets...

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility of listeria monocytogenes from food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knöchel, Susanne; Hasman, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    for susceptibility to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin, trimethoprim, and co-trimoxazole, and the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and triclosan, by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All...... isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, but susceptible to the other antibiotics. A single isolate had a MIC of 4 mg/L for ciprofloxacin. For tiamulin. the MIC values were around the breakpoint used. Most isolates had MICs for triclosan at 16 mg/L. The MICs for benzalkonium chloride formed a bimodal...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  20. Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Testing of Leptospira spp. Using Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) Agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Langla, Sayan; White, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Leptospira Vanaporn Wuthiekanun (LVW) agar was used to develop a disk diffusion assay for Leptospira spp. Ten pathogenic Leptospira isolates were tested, all of which were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doripenem, doxycycline, gentamicin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and tetracycline). All 10 isolates had no zone of growth inhibition for four antimicrobials (fosfomycin, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Of the ten Leptospira, seven had a growth inhibition zone of ≤ 21 mm for aztreonam, the zone diameter susceptibility break point for Enterobacteriaceae. This assay could find utility as a simple screening method during the epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Leptospira spp. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  2. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  3. [Spanish scientific production in antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures during period 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Gutiérrez, F; Royo, G

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production of Spanish authors on antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests during the period 1990-2002. Articles from Spanish scientific institutions of microbiology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology published and recorded in the MEDLINE database (WEBSPIRS version 4.2) during the period 1990-2002 were selected. Only articles about antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures were reviewed. A total of 5,259 documents were analyzed, of which 1,041 (19.8%) were about antimicrobal agents. The annual number of documents increased by two-fold (from 48 in 1990 to 101 in 2002). The journal that published most documents was Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, with 183 (17.1%). The main field of interest of the documents was antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests (765; 73.5%) and in vitro resistance analyses (265; 25.5%). The highest number of contributions came from hospitals (571; 54.9%), followed by universities (351; 33.7%). The institutions with most documents published were the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (8.6%), and Seville University Faculty of Medicine (6%). The most productive autonomous communities were Madrid (43.4%), Catalonia (16.4%) and Andalusia (4.7%). A total of 787 documents (75.6%) were published in journals with impact factors and the mean expected impact factor was 2.390 +/- 1.546. It was concluded that the scientific production of Spanish researchers in antimicrobial agents had increased during the period 1990-2002, and that hospitals were the most productive institutions in this area of microbiology, with the main areas of interest being antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests.

  4. Carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All isolates were susceptible to nitrofurantoin and linezolid and resistant in high numbers (194, 81.9%) to ampicillin. Resistances to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole were below 20%. The overall prevalence of MRSA among ...

  5. Urinary Pathogens and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catheter stream urine samples were obtained from all patients and cultured on appropriate culture media. Suspected isolates were identified by a combination of standard tests and using MICROBACT GNA12A/B/E. Susceptibility of the isolates against thirteen (13) antibiotics was performed by the disc diffusion method.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Plasmid Profiles of Salmonella typhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA bands were visualized using ultraviolet light transilluminator and molecular weights determined. Plasmid transfer by mating was also performed using Escherichia coli K-12 as recipient. In total, 36 (60.0%) isolates were confirmed to be Salmonella typhi, of which 6 (16.7%) were fully susceptible to all microbial agents ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum isolated from ill poultry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salmonella Gallinarum (S. Gallinarum and Salmonella Pullorum (S. Pullorum are poultry host-specific, agents of fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, respectively. These biovars cause septicemic infections, resulting in high mortality. Outbreaks are frequently reported worldwide, causing losses due to the elimination of infected flocks and treatments. The use of antimicrobial agents is frequent in poultry farms to prevent or treat gastrointestinal infections. In the present research it was evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of 50 S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum isolates, from outbreaks that occurred between 1987 to 1991 and 2006 to 2013. The comparison of the susceptibility profiles showed that all isolates were susceptible to β-lactams. All isolates from 1987-1991 were susceptible to all antibiotics tested except NAL and CIP (78%. The susceptibility profile of S. Gallinarum (2006 - 2013 period was the following NAL (58%, CIP (63%, ENR (67%, TET (92%, FFC (96% and SXT (96%. S. Pullorum isolates (2006 - 2013 period showed the following susceptibility rates to NAL (65%, CIP (71%, ENR (94% and TET (94%. All isolates were susceptible to β-lactams tested, however, resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones increased over time. Furthermore, low levels of resistance to other antibiotics were found in recent isolates, such as tetracyclines.

  8. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans Cells in Biofilms Are Less Susceptible than Planktonic Cells to Antimicrobial Molecules Produced by the Innate Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Luis R.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    The human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can form biofilms on polystyrene plates and medical devices in a process that requires capsular polysaccharide release. Although biofilms are known to be less susceptible to antimicrobial drugs, little is known about their susceptibility to antimicrobial molecules produced by the innate immune system. In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of C. neoformans cells in biofilm and planktonic states to oxidative and nonoxidative antimi...

  10. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  11. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  12. Methods for determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Fernando; Esteban, Jaime; González-Martin, Julià; Palacios, Juan-José

    2017-10-01

    Mycobacteria are a large group of microorganisms, multiple species of which are major causes of morbidity and mortality, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. At present, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are one of the most serious health problems worldwide. Furthermore, in contrast to M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are more frequently isolated and, in many cases, treatment is based on drug susceptibility testing. This article is a review of the different methods to determine the in vitro drug susceptibility of M. tuberculosis complex and the most relevant NTM isolates. The molecular techniques currently used for rapid detection of resistance of clinical specimens are also analysed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofatteh, M R; Shahabian Moghaddam, F; Yousefi, M; Namaei, M H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of bacterial agents in chronic suppurative otitis media and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates among patients. A total of 185 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media were interviewed and middle-ear effusion samples were collected using sterile swabs. All bacterial isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Staphylococci spp. (64.9 per cent) were the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Klebsiella spp. (12.9 per cent) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3 per cent). The most effective antibiotic for treatment of bacterial chronic suppurative otitis media was ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in bacterial infestations among chronic suppurative otitis media patients and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates based on gender and age (p > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of a continuous and periodic evaluation of the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media patients for efficacious treatment of the infection.

  14. An unusual antibiotic susceptibility pattern in a Mycobacterium Cosmeticum strain isolated from the chesapeake bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajini Atukorale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Mycobacterium cosmeticum, first described in 2004, was recovered from a patient undergoing a cosmetic procedure. Subsequently, this species was associated with an outbreak in a nail salon. In all cases, the isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Recently, however, we recovered a strain of M. cosmeticum from the Chesapeake Bay, resistant to 11 of 14 antimicrobials. The objective of this work was to present our findings on the resistance and susceptibility of this isolate to various antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Surface water samples were collected from 10 sites in the Chesapeake Bay and upper tributaries to assess microbial diversity and antibiotic resistance. Site selection was based on proximity to agricultural runoff, industrial contaminants, and sewage effluents. Samples were processed and recovered organisms were identified and subjected to antimicrobial-susceptibility testing. Results: One nontuberculous species, identified as M. cosmeticum, was recovered from Sandy Point State Park. Resistance was detected to several antibiotics: doxycycline (16 μg/mL, tigecycline (≥4 μg/mL, clarithromycin (8 μg/mL, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (≥8/152 μg/mL, imipenem (32 μg/mL, cefoxitin (32 μg/mL, ethionamide (≥20 μg/mL, and streptomycin (16 μg/mL. Of the 14 antibiotics tested, only the fluoroquinolones, linezolid, and amikacin demonstrated potent activity with susceptible minimum inhibitory concentrations. Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance identified in this M. cosmeticum isolates from the Chesapeake Bay raises some important concerns: (a why is the susceptibility pattern in this isolate so different from the previously published reports, (b how did resistance emerge in this isolate, (c is there a source of environmental exposure to antibiotics, (d is it a human isolate transferred to the watershed, or (e is it the result of lateral gene transfer with other resistant organisms in the Bay?

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  16. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex: significance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Felicity K; Milne, Kathleen E N; Stead, David A; Gould, Ian M

    2016-11-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is notorious for the life-threatening pulmonary infections it causes in patients with cystic fibrosis. The multidrug-resistant nature of Bcc and differing infective Bcc species make the design of appropriate treatment regimens challenging. Previous synergy studies have failed to take account of the species of Bcc isolates. Etest methodology was used to facilitate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial combination testing on 258 isolates of Bcc, identified to species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline and minocycline (52.5%, 46.4% and 45.9% of isolates susceptible, respectively). Synergy was observed in 9.2% of the 1799 combinations tested; the most common synergistic combinations were tobramycin + ceftazidime, meropenem + tobramycin and levofloxacin + piperacillin/tazobactam (35.4%, 32.3% and 22.2% synergy, respectively). Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed differences between Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. Disparity in clinical outcome during infection with these two micro-organisms necessitates further investigation into the clinical outcomes of treatment regimens in light of species identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. A survey of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from Sable Island horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, M E; Poissant, J; McLoughlin, P D; Hedlin, C E; Rubin, J E

    2017-03-01

    The feral horses of Sable Island are a geographically isolated population located ∼160 km off the east coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Because these horses have no contact with domestic animals, have minimal contact with people, and have never received antimicrobials, they offer a unique opportunity to study the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in unmanaged populations. As part of an ongoing multidisciplinary and individual-based monitoring program, we collected feces from 508 geolocalized horses (92% of the total population) between July and September 2014. We selectively cultured Escherichia coli on MacConkey and CHROMagar ESBL media. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined, and organisms resistant to β-lactam antimicrobials were screened for β-lactamase genes by PCR. Escherichia coli was recovered from 146 (28.7%) individuals, and the majority of isolates (97%) were susceptible to all drugs tested. Resistance to tetracycline was most common, including organisms isolated from 4 (2.7%) of the colonized horses. A single isolate resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and ceftiofur was identified, which possessed the CTX-M-1 gene. Our findings demonstrate that although antimicrobial resistance is not common in this remote population, clinically relevant resistance genes are present.

  18. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The antibiotic susceptibility patterns and plasmid profile were studied for 18(32.14%) samples of Vibrio cholerae isolates recovered from water samples from Elele Community. All isolates showed a multiple resistance patterns to 7 antibiotics namely amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin,.

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Moradi-Tabriz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is one of the major virulence factors of hospital and community acquired infections. Healthcare workers can be the host of S.aureus for many months. And it is very important due to the possibility of transmission to patients. Theaim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S.aureus nasal carriers, the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and its effective factors on Sina Hospital workers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: healthcare workers from different wards of Sina Hospital were studied in Tehran, Iran in 2010. Samples were taken from both nostrils of each individual. After 18-24hr incubation, the isolates were evaluated by gram stain, catalase, coagulase, DNase and manitol salt agar bywhich staphylococci were isolated. Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests against oxacillin, cefoxitin and vancomycin was performed. Finally, by using PCR, the mecA gene was studied in methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA.Results: 34of the 166 workers, were nasal carriers of S. aureus and one of them was MRSA. The ratio of carriers in operating room workers was more than other wards, without significant relationship (p.value>0.05. S.aureus was found in 34.3% of operating room, 13.8% of nurses and 22.7% of licensed and other personnel. There was a significant relationship betweenoccupations and S.aureus carriage (p.value:0.03.Conclusion: According to the low prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA carriers in Sina hospital, it can be said that the role of the hospital staff as a source of infections caused by S. aureus especially is very low.

  20. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of Globicatella sulfidifaciens isolated from sow's urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Amigo, Cristina R; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2017-12-01

    The Globicatella genus comprises Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, α-hemolytic and catalase negative cocci morphologically and phenotypically very similar to Streptococcus and Aerococcus genus which can lead to misidentification and underestimation of this pathogen. Globicatella species have already been isolated from human and animals with heart and brain disorders. Their clinical relevance in animals, and its zoonotic potential, remains unknown due to the difficulty in their identification. To present the isolation, phenotypic and molecular characterization of G. sulfidifaciens from urinary tract infection in sows. Urine samples from 140 sows of two swine herds located in São Paulo State (Brazil) yielded the isolation of three presumptive G. sulfidifaciens strains. Identification and species confirmation were done by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing. Strains were further characterized by single enzyme amplified fragments length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and broth microdilution techniques. All three isolates were confirmed as G. sulfidifaciens. The SE-AFLP genotyping resulted in distinct fingerprint patterns for each strain. All isolates presented high MIC values to tetracycline, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and tylosin tartrate, which present high usage in human and animal medicine. Globicatella sulfidifaciens could be related to sporadic urinary tract infections in swine and appear to present alarming antimicrobial susceptibility profile. It is necessary to differentiate Streptococcus-like microorganisms in routine laboratory diagnostics for the correct identification of underestimated species potentially pathogenic to animals.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, A A; Gillespie, B E; Oliver, S P

    2009-02-16

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) isolates (n=168) obtained from milk from heifers and dairy cows were screened for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. Of the 10 CNS species included in the study, the predominant species were Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=61), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=37), Staphylococcus hyicus (n=37), and Staphylococcus simulans (n=16). The majority of CNS was susceptible to ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, and ceftiofur. Erythromycin and pirlimycin were also very effective in vitro inhibitors of CNS. The only exception was observed with S. epidermidis. Of 37 S. epidermidis evaluated, 13 (35%) exhibited efflux-based resistance to erythromycin (> or =16 microg/ml) encoded by msrA and one isolate carried ermC encoding ribosomal methylase-based resistance to both erythromycin (> or =64 microg/ml) and pirlimycin (> or =64 microg/ml). A total of 17 S. epidermidis, 11 S. chromogenes, and one S. hyicus exhibited phenotypic resistance to ampicillin (> or =0.5 microg/ml). Constitutive beta-lactamase production was observed in all ampicillin resistant isolates except 4 S. epidermidis that exhibited inducible beta-lactamase production. Induced beta-lactamase production was also observed in 13 S. epidermidis that were phenotypically susceptible to the entire MIC panel. All isolates that produced beta-lactamase either constitutively or by induction carried blaZ. S. epidermidis (n=12, 32%) that were resistant to methicillin (oxacillin > or =0.5 microg/ml) carried low affinity penicillin-binding protein encoded by mecA. Most multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. epidermidis (> or =2 resistance genes) were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and methicillin. All except one MDR S. epidermidis had icaAB, which encodes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis, MDR S. epidermidis were closely related genotypically, and were isolated from different cows on the

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bovine digital dermatitis treponemes identifies macrolides for in vivo efficacy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N J; Brown, J M; Hartley, C; Smith, R F; Carter, S D

    2012-12-07

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious lameness of dairy cattle and sheep considered to be caused by treponemes. The aim of this study was to identify antibiotics effective against DD treponemes that might be useful in the treatment of ruminant DD in the future or to identify antibiotics useful in isolation studies. Here, a microdilution method was used to identify in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of treponemes cultured from DD lesions to eight relevant antibiotics. DD treponemes exhibited highest susceptibility to amoxicillin, azithromycin and gamithromycin. Unfortunately, amoxicillin whilst having potential for DD treatment in other animals (e.g. sheep) would require milk withhold periods in dairy cattle. DD treponemes were not particularly susceptible to two cephalosporins: cefalexin and ceftiofur, which do not require milk withhold. The bacteria demonstrated low susceptibility to trimethoprim and especially colistin suggesting these antimicrobials may be particularly useful in isolation of DD treponemes. The most promising high susceptibility results for macrolides indicate a rationale to consider veterinary licensed macrolides as DD treatments. Furthermore, given the DD treponeme antibiotic susceptibility similarities to established treatments for human treponematoses, identification of treponemacidal, long acting β-lactam analogues not requiring milk withhold may allow for development of a successful treatment for dairy cattle DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ANTIMICIROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. A total of 56 and 24 strains of E. coli and Shigella sp. isolated from children less than five years with diarrhoea attending 3 different hospitals in South South Nigeria were screened for their antibiotic resistance patterns. Approximately 80% of E. coli and 70% of Shigella isolates were resistant to tetracycline.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from piglets with or without diarrhea in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otávio; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; da Costa Cruz Júnior, Eduardo Coulaud; Albefaro, Isabella Silva; de Carvalho Guedes, Roberto Maurício; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 13 antibiotics against Clostridium perfringens isolated from Brazilian piglets. The collection of isolates was performed in June to October 2010. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and ceftiofur, whereas most were resistant to tetracycline and lincomycin. Avilamycin and narasin were more effective against isolates from non-diarrheic than from diarrheic piglets. The other antimicrobials were less active in need of high concentrations to inhibit the growth of the C. perfringens type A. These results suggest the need for further studies evaluating molecular factors related to the antimicrobial resistance of C. perfringens. PMID:24031924

  5. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis cases and close human contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Kock, M M; Ehlers, M M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus spp. recovered from bovine intramammary infections and humans working in close contact with the animals and to evaluate the susceptibility of the staphylococcal isolates to different antimicrobials. A total of 3,387 milk samples and 79 human nasal swabs were collected from 13 sampling sites in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In total, 146 Staph. aureus isolates and 102 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were recovered from clinical and subclinical milk samples. Staphylococcusaureus was isolated from 12 (15.2%) of the human nasal swabs and 95 representative CNS were recovered for further characterization. The CNS were identified using multiplex-PCR assays, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and tuf gene sequencing. Seven Staphylococcus spp. were identified among the CNS of bovine origin, with Staph.chromogenes (78.4%) predominating. The predominant CNS species recovered from the human nasal swabs was Staph.epidermidis (80%) followed by Staph.chromogenes (6.3%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all staphylococcal isolates was evaluated using disk diffusion and was supplemented by screening for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. Ninety-eight (67.1%) Staph.aureus isolates of bovine origin were pansusceptible; 39 (26.7%) isolates were resistant to a single class, and 7 (4.8%) isolates were resistant to 2 classes of antimicrobials. Two Staph. aureus (1.4%) isolates were multidrug-resistant. Resistance to penicillin was common, with 28.8% of the bovine and 75% of the human Staph. aureus isolates exhibiting resistance. A similar observation was made with the CNS, where 37.3% of the bovine and 89.5% of the human isolates were resistant to penicillin. Multidrug-resistance was common among the human CNS, with 39% of the isolates exhibiting resistance to 3 or more classes of antimicrobials. The antimicrobial

  6. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in isolates of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi from Buenos Aires province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Carla P; Marfil, María J; Lanza, Natalia S; Guida, Nora

    2017-11-30

    Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the etiologic agent of strangles, an infectious disease affecting the upper respiratory tract and head and neck lymph nodes of equines. Routine antimicrobial therapy includes penicillin (PEN) as antibiotic of first choice. Streptococci are usually susceptible to PEN and only a few antimicrobial studies had been performed. The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. equi from Buenos Aires, Argentina. Ninety-two isolates were studied by the single disk method to PEN, cefotaxime, erythromycin (ERY), tetracycline, enrofloxacin (ENR), trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMS), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin (CLI), streptomycin (STR) and florfenicol. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to PEN and antibiotics with resistance and intermediate susceptibility were tested. High percentages of susceptibility were obtained by the disk diffusion method and MIC values of PEN, TMS and CLI were found to be under the breakpoint values. Resistant strains of ENR and STR with MIC 50 , MIC 90 and MIC ranges above breakpoints were identified. These findings confirm that PEN may be used empirically because resistant strains were not found in Buenos Aires. Emphasis is placed on the rational use of antibiotics to achieve therapeutic success, to prevent chronicity, recurrence of infections and the emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brazilian Clostridium difficile strains determined by agar dilution and disk diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Geraldo Fraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of diarrhea in hospitalized patients worldwide. While metronidazole and vancomycin are the most prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, teicoplanin, tigecycline and nitazoxanide are alternatives drugs. Knowledge on the antibiotic susceptibility profiles is a basic step to differentiate recurrence from treatment failure due to antimicrobial resistance. Because C. difficile antimicrobial susceptibility is largely unknown in Brazil, we aimed to determine the profile of C. difficile strains cultivated from stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea and a positive toxin A/B test using both agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. All 50 strains tested were sensitive to metronidazole according to CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints with an MIC90 value of 2 μg/mL. Nitazoxanide and tigecycline were highly active in vitro against these strains with an MIC90 value of 0.125 μg/mL for both antimicrobials. The MIC90 were 4 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL for vancomycin and teicoplanin, respectively. A resistance rate of 8% was observed for moxifloxacin. Disk diffusion can be used as an alternative to screen for moxifloxacin resistance, nitazoxanide, tigecycline and metronidazole susceptibility, but it cannot be used for testing glycopeptides. Our results suggest that C. difficile strains from São Paulo city, Brazil, are susceptible to metronidazole and have low MIC90 values for most of the current therapeutic options available in Brazil.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and glycopeptide-resistance of enterococci in vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Torre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, often responsible for nosocomial infections, have frequently been isolated from animal and vegetable foods. In our study we evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci isolated from eight types of vegetables randomly selected from grocery stores in Naples.

    Methods: From July to November 2008, we analyzed 150 samples: the bacteria were isolated with standardized methods and antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method. The resistance to vancomycin versus other antibiotics was assessed by the Kappa test.

    Results: 70% of the samples, mainly parsley (96.2%, showed enterococci. Of these, 59.1% belonged to the species Enterococcus faecium. Strains resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin were isolated respectively in 47.6% and 49.5% of the samples: the first one mainly in curly endive (72.7% and the second one in parsley (76.9%. Almost all the isolated strains showed resistance to methicillin (89%, kanamycin (82% and cephalothin (68%. The Kappa test showed statistically significant associations between resistance to vancomycin and resistance to teicoplanin, erythromycin, methicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

    Conclusions: Because of the possible involvement of food in the transmission of resistant micro-organisms to human intestinal microbiota, our data may provide the basis for future studies.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  10. Susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates in various clinical specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative isolates from various clinical specimens. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Microbiology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to January 2009. Methodology: A total of 308 ESBL producing isolates from various clinical specimens sent to AFIP for culture and sensitivity were identified using standard microbiological techniques and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. At the same time screening for ESBL production was also done. ESBL production was confirmed by combination disc synergy method. The susceptibility pattern of isolates was then recorded in frequency percentages. Results: Out of the 308 ESBL producing isolates more than 99% were susceptible to carbapenems, 84% to tazobactam/ piperacillin, 81% to sulbactam/cefoperazone, 12% to fluoroquinolones, 13% to cotrimoxazole, 59% to amikacin and 18% to gentamicin. Among the urinary isolates 49% were susceptible to Nitrofurontoin and only 5% to Pipemidic acid. Conclusion: Antibiotic choices in case of ESBL producing isolates are limited and at present only carbapenems can be regarded as treatment of choice. As empirical agents, beta-lactam/beta lactamase inhibitor combinations should be used cautiously for serious infections. Fluoroquinolones showed very poor efficacy. Amikacin can be used alternatively in such cases. Nitrofurantoin is still a good oral agent for treating UTI. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence genes, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Limei; Zhou, Xuezhang; He, Yulong; Yong, Changfu; Shen, Mingliang; Szenci, Otto; Han, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureusis the leading pathogen involved inbovine mastitis, but knowledgeabout antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus resulting in bovine mastitis in Ningxia, China, is limited. Therefore, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence gene, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of Staph. aureus were carried out. A total of 327 milk samples from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis in 4 regions of Ningxia were used for the isolation and identification of pathogens according to phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility against 22 antimicrobial agents was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of 8 virulence genes in Staph. aureus isolates was tested by PCR. Genotypes of isolates were investigated based on RAPD. Results showed that 35 isolates obtained from mastitis milk samples were identified as Staph. aureus. The isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (100%), penicillin G (94.3%), ampicillin (94.3%), erythromycin (68.6%), azithromycin (68.6%), clindamycin (25.7%), amoxicillin (11.4%), and tetracycline (5.7%). All of the isolates contained one or more virulence genes with average (standard deviation) of 6.6±1.6. The most prevalent virulence genes were hlb (97.1%), followed by fnbpA, hla, coa (94.3% each), nuc (85.7%), fnbpB (80%), clfA (77.1%), and tsst-1 (40%). Nine different gene patterns were found and 3 of them were the dominant gene combinations (77.1%). Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n=35) were divided into 6 genotypes by RAPD tying, the genotypes III and VI were the most prevalent genotypes. There was greatvariation in genotypes of Staph. aureus isolates, not only among different farms, but also within the same herd in Ningxia province. The study showed a high incidence of Staph. aureus with genomic variation of resistance genes, which is matter of great concern in public and animal health in Ningxia province of China. Copyright © 2016 American

  12. Profile of Antimicrobial Drug Use Patterns in a Nigerian Metropolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate self-medication practices and prescribing patterns of antimicrobial agents. Methods: The study was carried out in Port Harcourt, Nigeria in 6 hospitals/clinics, 4 community pharmacies and the campus of University of Port Harcourt. 1,200 case files or charts of outpatients treated at the selected ...

  13. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of symptomatic urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial organism in women presenting with features of urinary tract infections in pregnancy in Aminu Kano teaching hospital Kano. Methods: Retrospective study carried out between January to December 2010, amongst pregnant women attending our antenatal clinic.

  14. Enterobacter meningitis: organism susceptibilities, antimicrobial therapy and related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David R; Rhoney, Denise H

    2005-06-01

    Meningitis due to Enterobacter species is an uncommon infection in adults; however, when present, treatment is frequently complicated by resistance of many Enterobacter isolates to third-generation cephalosporins and poor central nervous system penetration of other antibiotics. The aim of this study was to retrospectively review cases of meningitis caused by Enterobacter species at our institution, to better characterize patient factors, pathogen characteristics, and treatment options for this infection. We reviewed all cases of Enterobacter meningitis in a 12-year period at a tertiary care center. Data collected included patient demographics, antibiotic sensitivities of Enterobacter isolates, antimicrobial therapy, and patient outcomes. Nineteen cases were identified, primarily in patients with neurotrauma and in neurosurgical patients. Enterobacter cloacae was the most frequent Enterobacter species isolated followed by Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter agglomerans (50%, 34%, and 16% of cultures, respectively). Overall, clinical cure/improvement was achieved in 47% of patients, and the mortality rate was 21%. Antibiotic treatment varied substantially and included third-generation cephalosporins, intravenous and intrathecal aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, and other miscellaneous antibiotics. Treatment with TMP-SMX was associated with a high rate of clinical cure/improvement, whereas third-generation cephalosporins were less efficacious. Enterobacter meningitis is an infrequent complication of neurological insult. Treatment is often complicated by resistance of Enterobacter species to third-generation cephalosporins. Our results indicate that while third-generation cephalosporins are not the most appropriate choice of agents to treat Enterobacter meningitis, TMP-SMX may yield satisfactory results.

  15. Survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian G Loo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin were determined for 300 consecutive strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae collected from physicians’ offices in Ontario. Only four isolates were found to produce beta-lactamase. Of the remaining 296 isolates, five (1.7% had penicillin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 78 (26.3% had tetracycline MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L, 13 (4.4% had cefoxitin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L and 43 (14.5% had erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 1 mg/L. Two isolates (0.7% had high level tetracycline resistance with MICs greater than or equal to 16 mg/L. All N gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and to spectinomycin.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of European human Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains to antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinović, Gorana; Cerar, Tjaša; Strle, Franc; Lotrič-Furlan, Stanka; Maraspin, Vera; Cimperman, Jože; Ružić-Sabljić, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Broth microdilution and macrodilution assays were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of six antimicrobial agents (ceftriaxone, cefuroxime sodium, azithromycin, amoxicillin, doxycycline and amikacin) for nine European human isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). Strains were obtained from patients diagnosed with Lyme borreliosis in Slovenia. Modified Kelly-Pettenkofer medium with a final inoculum of 10⁵ Borrelia cells/mL and incubation periods of 72 h and of 3 weeks and 6 weeks were used in the determination of MICs and MBCs, respectively. Observed MICs indicated that all isolates were susceptible to all the tested antimicrobial agents with the exception of amikacin. Cefuroxime sodium (MIC₉₀=0.063 mg/L), azithromycin (MIC₉₀=0.22 mg/L) and ceftriaxone (MIC₉₀=0.25 mg/L) displayed the lowest MICs, followed by amoxicillin (MIC₉₀=1 mg/L) and doxycycline (MIC₉₀=2 mg/L); no strain was susceptible to amikacin (MIC₉₀=256 mg/L). MBCs after incubation for 3 weeks and 6 weeks were determined for amoxicillin (MBC₉₀=32 mg/L), doxycycline (MBC₉₀)=32 mg/L) and amikacin (MBC₉₀=1024 mg/L) and were found to be high (but not defined) for azithromycin (MBC₉₀>0.88 mg/L), cefuroxime sodium (MBC₉₀>4 mg/L) and ceftriaxone (MBC₉₀>4 mg/L). In determination of borrelial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents, intrinsic low susceptibility or methodological factors could result in low in vitro susceptibility of individual strains. This study is the first report on the antibiotic susceptibility of a series of European human isolates of B. burgdorferi s.s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of avian Escherichia coli isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... this study is to test the antibiotic sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains which were isolated in Tabriz. A total of 100 E. coli ... and K1 capsule, presence of type 1 and P fimbriae, and temperature-sensitive ... Drug resistance patterns of 100 Escherichia coli strains isolated from colibacillosis. S/N Antibiotic type.

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Baky, R M; Sakhy, M; Gad, G F M

    2014-01-01

    To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6%) samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni) were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and genotyping of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Abd El-Baky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter species isolated from children suffering from gastroenteritis . Materials and Methods: A total of 125 stool samples were collected from children with gastroenteritis. The identification of isolates was performed with conventional methods as well as with molecular methods based on 16SrRNA species-specific gene amplification by PCR and product analysis. Resistance pattern of the isolated strains was determined using agar dilution method. Results: Conventional methods including sodium hippurate hydrolysis revealed that 12 (9.6% samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Ten out of 12 Campylobacter spp. were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 2 as Campylobacter coli but PCR assay revealed that five samples only were positive for Campylobacter and all were C. jejuni. Antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 antimicrobials was performed and all isolates (five isolates of C. jejuni were susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamicin and amikacin but all were resistant to ceftriaxone. Conclusion: PCR assay method allows reliable detection of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was the most prevalent Campylobacter species. Gentamicin, amikacin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotic.

  20. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial susceptibility in Escherichia coli on small- and medium-scale pig farms in north-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ström

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25 and medium-scale (n = 27 pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. Methods Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires. Faecal samples were collected from three healthy sows at each farm, and Escherichia coli was cultured and analysed for antimicrobial susceptibility using the broth microdilution method. Multilevel regression models were used to compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from small- and medium-scale farms. Results All farms included in the study administered antimicrobials to their sows. Small-scale farmers most commonly (64% decided themselves when to give antimicrobials and the majority (60% bought the medicines at the local store or pharmacy, whereas farmers on medium-scale farms always discussed antimicrobial treatment with a veterinarian. Medium-scale farms used a greater diversity of antimicrobials than small-scale farms and did also administer antimicrobials in feed to a higher extent. High levels of antimicrobial resistance to several critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (including ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and ampicillin were found in isolates from both small- and medium-scale farms. Resistance levels were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in isolates from medium-scale farms for several of the antimicrobials tested, as well as the level of multidrug-resistance (P = 0.026. Conclusion The routines regarding access and administration of antimicrobials differed between the small- and

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and a common opportunistic pathogen causing mainly infections of the integumentary system in dogs. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, in particular methicillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is a threat to small animal...... health and highlights the need for antimicrobial resistance surveillance to detect trends and potentially perform timeous interventions. We systematically reviewed 202 published articles to investigate temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical and commensal S. pseudintermedius isolated...... from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates...

  2. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC...... and Parvimonas micra (formerly Peptostreptococcus micros), isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, metronidazole, vancomycin and linezolid. Twenty-one isolates (7%) were resistant to penicillin (n=13) and/or to clindamycin (n=12). Four isolates were resistant...... to both agents. The majority of resistant isolates were identified as F. magna and originated from blood, abscesses and soft tissue infections....

  3. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates by digital time-lapse microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, M; Rosenvinge, F S; Spillum, E

    2015-01-01

    (168 antimicrobial agent-organism combinations) demonstrated 3.6 % minor, no major and 1.2 % very major errors of the oCelloScope system compared to conventional susceptibility testing, as well as a rapid and correct phenotypic detection of strains with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA......Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is essential for early and appropriate therapy. Methods with short detection time enabling same-day treatment optimisation are highly favourable. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a digital time-lapse microscope system, the o......CelloScope system, to perform rapid AST. The oCelloScope system demonstrated a very high accuracy (96 % overall agreement) when determining the resistance profiles of four reference strains, nine clinical isolates, including multi-drug-resistant isolates, and three positive blood cultures. AST of clinical isolates...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from frozen game meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Vargas, Rafael H; Atanassova, Viktoria; Reich, Felix; Klein, Günter

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae both in veterinary and human medicine, the dissemination of these bacteria in several environments and their possible repercussions on human health is causing concern. Game meat is usually seen as free of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current antimicrobial susceptibility status in generic Escherichia coli isolated from packed frozen game meat from a game handling establishment in Germany. A total of 229 E. coli isolates were obtained from cuts of red deer, roe deer and wild boar. The susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents was evaluated by a broth microdilution method according to ISO 20776-1:2006. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were compared to breakpoints and cut-off values published by the EUCAST. Isolates showing MICs above the reference values were further studied for associated resistance determinants and phylogrouping by PCR. Overall, 16 E. coli isolates (7.0%) showed resistance (microbiological or clinical) to at least one antimicrobial agent tested. Clinical resistance was recorded to ampicillin (5/229) and chloramphenicol (4/229), whereas the MIC of 9 isolates exceeded the epidemiological cut-off value for doxycycline. One of the ampicillin-resistant isolates showed resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic derivatives tested, cephalosporines and aztreonam. Three of 9 non-wild-type isolates for doxycycline were positive for tet (B) genes. The ß-lactam-resistant isolate was found to harbour bla CTX-M-1 gene. These data show a low prevalence of resistant E. coli in packed game meat compared to studies on conventional meat. Although isolates obtained in this study may also be originating from the processing environment and not necessarily from animals, based on our results, it is important to monitor the development of antimicrobial resistance in game animals and products in order to identify future threats for the

  5. Salmonella enterica isolated from infections in Australian livestock remain susceptible to critical antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Groves, Mitchell D; Trott, Darren J; Chapman, Toni A; Turner, Bernadette; Hornitzky, Michael; Jordan, David

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen causing a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Many countries are reporting an increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. enterica in food animals. The aim of this study was to determine whether S. enterica isolated from livestock in New South Wales, Australia, have similar resistance traits to those reported internationally. Salmonella enterica (n=165) from clinical infections in food animals between 2007 and 2011 were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Also, 22 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), 3 integrons and 18 plasmid replicon types were screened for using PCR. Most isolates (66.1%) remained susceptible to all antimicrobials; 8.5% of the isolates were resistant to four or more antimicrobials. Antimicrobials with the highest prevalence of resistance were sulfafurazole (28.5%), ampicillin (17.0%), tetracycline (15.8%) and trimethoprim (8.5%). There was no resistance to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins. The most common ARGs were blaTEM (15.2%), sul2 (10.3%), tetB (9.1%), tetA (5.5%), aphA1 (4.8%) and dhfrV (4.8%). Class 1 integrons (7.9%) and IncFIIA (69.7%) were the most commonly detected integron and plasmid replicon types, respectively. Class 1 integrons were positively associated with MDR phenotypes and ARG carriage (P≤0.001). Internationally prominent MDR serovars associated with severe disease in humans (e.g. AmpC-positive Salmonella Newport) were not detected. Overall, the comparatively favourable resistance status of S. enterica in Australian livestock represents minimal public health risk associated with MDR strains and supports a conservative approach to the registration of antimicrobial drug classes in food-producing animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  7. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüller, Sandra; Rensch, Ulrike; Meemken, Diana; Kaspar, Heike; Kopp, Peter A.; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1–2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147), blaOXA-2, (n = 4), strA and strB (n = 17), sul1 (n = 10), sul2 (n = 73), dfrA7 (n = 3) and tet(A) (n = 8) were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes. PMID:26275219

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  9. Genetic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Biofilm Formation of Cronobacter spp. Recovered from Spices and Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanhong Li; Huan Yu; Hua Jiang; Yang Jiao; Yaodong Zhang; Jihong Shao

    2017-01-01

    Cronobacter species are important food-borne opportunistic pathogens which have been implicated in the cause of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and meningitis in neonates and infants. However, these bacteria are routinely found in foodstuffs, clinical specimens, and environmental samples. This study investigated the genetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility, and biofilm formation of Cronobacter isolates (n = 40) recovered from spices and cereals in China during 2014–2015. Based on th...

  10. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Farm Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong Hui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp. can indirectly infect humans via transfer from animals and animal-derived food products, and thereby cause potentially fatal diseases. Therefore, gaining an understanding of Salmonella infection in farm animals is increasingly important. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of serotypes in Salmonella samples isolated from chickens (n = 837, pigs (n = 930, and dairy cows (n = 418 in central China (Henan, Hubei, and Hunan provinces in 2010–2011, and investigate the susceptibility of strains to antimicrobial agents. Salmonella isolates were identified by PCR amplification of the invA gene, serotypes were determined by using a slide agglutination test for O and H antigens, and susceptibility to 24 antimicrobials was tested using the agar dilution method. In total, 248 Salmonella strains were identified: 105, 105, and 38 from chickens, dairy cows, and pigs, respectively. Additionally, 209 strains were identified in unhealthy pigs from the Huazhong Agricultural University veterinary hospital. Among these 457 strains, the dominant serotypes were Typhimurium in serogroup B, IIIb in serogroup C, and Enteritidis in serogroup D. In antimicrobial susceptibility tests, 41.14% of Salmonella spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents, 48.14% were resistant to at least one, and 34.72% were resistant to more than three classes. Strains were highly resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (39.61%, nalidixic acid (39.17%, doxycycline (28.22%, and tetracycline (27.58%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones ranged from 5.25% to 7.44% and 19.04% to 24.51%, respectively. Among penicillin-resistant and cephalosporin-resistant strains, 25 isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing Salmonella strains identified in healthy animals here will present a challenge for veterinary medicine and farm animal husbandry, and could also pose a threat to public health

  11. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hayami, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shingo; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Ito, Shin; Narita, Harunori; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Sumii, Toru; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Kawai, Shuichi; Kawano, Hiromi; Takayama, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Endo, Katsuhisa; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Horie, Masanobu; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sato, Takashi; Konishi, Takatoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Ishihara, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Masaru

    2013-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is one of the most important pathogens causing sexually transmitted infection, and strains that are resistant to several antimicrobials are increasing. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance. The urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 51 medical facilities from April 2009 to October 2010. Of the 156 specimens, 83 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents. The prevalence of β-lactamase-producing strains and chromosomally mediated resistant strains were 7.2 % and 16.5 %, respectively. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ceftriaxone for 7 strains (8.4 %) was 0.125 μg/ml. One strain was resistant to cefixime (MIC 0.5 μg/ml). The MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and tosufloxacin, showed a bimodal distribution. The MIC of sitafloxacin was lower than those of the three fluoroquinolones listed here, and it was found that the antimicrobial activity of sitafloxacin was stronger than that of the fluoroquinolones. The MIC of azithromycin in 2 strains was 2 μg/ml, but no high-level resistance to macrolides was detected.

  12. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains Isolated from Water and Clinical Samples: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genetic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I.; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A.; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species. PMID:23560050

  13. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from international travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India from 2006 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang-Latimer, Jeannette; Jafri, Syed; VanTassel, Audrey; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Gurleen, Kaur; Rodriguez, Savio; Nandy, Ranjan K; Ramamurthy, Thandavaryan; Chatterjee, Santanu; McKenzie, Robin; Steffen, Robert; DuPont, Herbert L

    2011-02-01

    The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained high for the last 50 years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and use of prophylactic drugs for TD. We last examined the in vitro susceptibilities of commonly used antibiotics against TD pathogens in 1997. We now examine 456 enteropathogens isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala with diarrhea acquired between 2006 and 2008 to determine changes in susceptibility against 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline, continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first-line antibiotic agents, including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin, showed significantly higher MICs than in our earlier study, and MIC(90) levels were above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when Central America was compared with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates showed increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.023) and levofloxacin (P = 0.0078) in India compared with Central America. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed increased resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics tested. Compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there were 4- to 10-fold increases in MIC(90) values for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs. Rising MICs over time imply the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and geographically specific recommendations in TD therapy.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria in a University Hospital Centre Split, Croatia in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Anita; Rubic, Zana; Dogas, Varja; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Radic, Marina; Tonkic, Marija

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria play a significant role in many endogenous polymicrobial infections. Since antimicrobial resistance among anaerobes has increased worldwide, it is useful to provide local susceptibility data to guide empirical therapy. The present study reports recent data on the susceptibility of clinically relevant anaerobes in a University Hospital Centre (UHC) Split, Croatia. A total of 63 Gram-negative and 59 Gram-positive anaerobic clinical isolates from various body sites were consecutively collected from January to December 2013. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using standardized methods and interpreted using EUCAST criteria. Patient's clinical and demographic data were recorded by clinical microbiologist. Among 35 isolates of Bacteroides spp., 97.1% were resistant to penicillin (PCN), 5.7% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), 8.6% to piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), 29.0% to clindamycin (CLI) and 2.9% to metronidazole (MZ). Percentages of susceptible strains to imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM) and ertapenem (ETP) were 94.3. Resistance of other Gram-negative bacilli was 76.0% to PCN, 8.0% to AMC, 12.0% to TZP, 28.0% to CLI and 8% to MZ. All other Gram-negative strains were fully susceptible to MEM and ETP, while 96.0% were susceptible to IPM. Clostridium spp. isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested antibiotics except to CLI (two of four tested isolates were resistant). Propionibacterium spp. showed resistance to CLI in 4.3%, while 100% were resistant to MZ. Among other Gram-positive bacilli, 18.2% were resistant to PCN, 9.1% to CLI and 54.5% to MZ, while 81.8% of isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Gram-positive cocci were 100% susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except to MZ, where 28.6% of resistant strains were recorded. Abdomen was the most common source of isolates (82.5%). The most prevalent types of infection were abscess (22.1%), sepsis (14.8%), appendicitis (13.9%) and peritonitis (6.6%). Twenty four patients (19

  15. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from acute gastrointestinal infections to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Farías, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance may hamper the antimicrobial management of acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial susceptibility to rifaximin, an antibiotic that achieves high fecal concentrations (up to 8,000μg/g), has not been evaluated in Mexico. To determine the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico. Bacterial strains were analyzed in stool samples from 1,000 patients with diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The susceptibility to rifaximin (RIF) was tested by microdilution (<100, <200, <400 and <800μg/ml) and susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), fosfomycin (FOS), ampicillin (AMP) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was tested by agar diffusion at the concentrations recommended by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute and the American Society for Microbiology. Isolated bacteria were: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (EPEC) 531, Shigella 120, non-Typhi Salmonella 117, Aeromonas spp. 80, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 54, Yersinia enterocolitica 20, Campylobacter jejuni 20, Vibrio spp. 20, Plesiomonas shigelloides 20, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC 0:157) 18. The overall cumulative susceptibility to RIF at <100, <200, <400, and <800μg/ml was 70.6, 90.8, 99.3, and 100%, respectively. The overall susceptibility to each antibiotic was: AMP 32.2%, T-S 53.6%, NEO 54.1%, FUR 64.7%, CIP 67.3%, CLO 73%, and FOS 81.3%. The susceptibility to RIF <400 and RIF <800μg/ml was significantly greater than with the other antibiotics (p<0.001). Resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics used in gastrointestinal infections is high. Rifaximin was active against 99-100% of these enteropathogens at reachable concentrations in the intestine with the recommended dose. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella strains from feedlot water-sprinkled cattle: hides and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The disinfectant and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 145 Salmonella strains obtained from feedlot water sprinkled cattle were determined. A low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed; resistance was primarily observed to streptomycin (29.7%) and sulfamethoxazole (8.3%). ...

  17. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Anuska Zeni CONDAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%, cephalexin (100% and ceftiofur (100%, while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43% and ampicillin (29%. However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test, only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

  18. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%, tetracycline (55.86% and nalidixic acid (55.17%. Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  19. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-02-19

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  20. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  1. Patterns of infections, aetiological agents and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care hospital in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumburu, Happiness Houka; Sonda, Tolbert; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Alifrangis, Michael; Lund, Ole; Kibiki, Gibson; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods, and disc diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates. A total of 249 (42.2%) specimens were culture-positive yielding a total of 377 isolates. A wide range of bacteria was isolated, the most predominant being Gram-negative bacteria: Proteus spp. (n = 48, 12.7%), Escherichia coli (n = 44, 11.7%), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 40, 10.6%) and Klebsiella spp (n = 38, 10.1%). Wound infections were characterised by multiple isolates (n = 293, 77.7%), with the most frequent being Proteus spp. (n = 44, 15%), Pseudomonas (n = 37, 12.6%), Staphylococcus (n = 29, 9.9%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 28, 9.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus tested were resistant to penicillin (n = 22, 100%) and susceptible to vancomycin. Significant resistance to cephalosporins such as cefazolin (n = 62, 72.9%), ceftriaxone (n = 44, 51.8%) and ceftazidime (n = 40, 37.4%) was observed in Gram-negative bacteria, as well as resistance to cefoxitin (n = 6, 27.3%) in S. aureus. The study has revealed a wide range of causative agents, with an alarming rate of resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, the bacterial spectrum differs from those often observed in high-income countries. This highlights the imperative of regular generation of data on aetiological agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns especially in infectious disease endemic settings. The key steps would be to ensure the diagnostic capacity at a sufficient number of sites and implement structures to routinely exchange, compare, analyse and report data. Sentinel sites

  2. Isolation and Antibiotics Susceptibility Patterns of Escherichia Coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic Susceptibility profile showed that all the isolates were resistant to one or multiple antibiotics, resulting in six different resistance patterns. Sulphadimidine resistance was the highest with all the isolates (100%) exhibited resistance to this drug while streptomycin had the highest sensitivity. Out of the seventeen E .coli ...

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Beta-Lactamase Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Biomedical Sciences Vol.3(2) 2004: The study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns and beta-lactamase production of Campylobacter jejuni/coli isolates obtained from stool specimens from children with diarrhoea at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex ...

  4. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of different bacteria isolates in 150 wound infections in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria and their antibacterial susceptibility patterns. Methods: Wound swab samples were collected from general culture bench of the Microbiology Department, after obtaining consent from ...

  5. Trends towards Lower Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Characterization of Acquired Resistance among Clinical Isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Alvaro; Carvajal, Ana; Vester, Birte

    2011-01-01

    with a change of the neighboring base pair at positions 2057 to 2611. The role of additional point mutations in the vicinity of the peptidyl transferase center and mutations in the L3 at amino acids 148 and 149 and their possible involvement in antimicrobial susceptibility are considered. An association between......The antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Spain was monitored, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of resistance were investigated. MICs of tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylvalosin were determined for 87 B. hyodysenteriae isolates...... by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. A comparison with antimicrobial susceptibility data from 2000 to 2007 showed an increase in pleuromutilin resistance over time, doubling the number of isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin. No alteration in susceptibility was detected...

  6. Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolates among Patients Admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, ... Wound swab and venous blood samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a foodborne illness that affects mainly pregnant women, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. The primary treatment is a combination of ampicillin with an aminoglycoside, in addition to a second-choice drug represented by chloramphenicol, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifampicin. The aim of this study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of strains isolated from human sources in the last four decades. METHODS: Sixty-eight strains were selected from the culture collection of the Laboratory of Bacterial Zoonoses/LABZOO/FIOCRUZ isolated in different regions of Brazil from 1970 to 2008 and primarily isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. Susceptibility tests to antimicrobials drugs were evaluated using the criteria established by Soussy using the Kirby-Bauer method and E-Test strips were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. RESULTS: Among the strains tested, serovar L4b (60.3% was the most prevalent, followed by serovar 1/2a (20.6%, 1/2b (13.2% and the more uncommon serovars 1/2c, 3b and 4ab (5.9%. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalothin, erythromycin, gentamicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Only one strain (1.5% showed resistance to rifampin, and two (3% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MICs with values up to 2μg/ml reinforce the need for microbiological surveillance. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated low prevalence of strains resistant to the antimicrobial drugs indicated in the treatment of human listeriosis. Monitoring antimicrobial resistance profile is still very important to determine adequate treatment, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...

  9. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards breakpoints, the percentage of concordant results increased to 98.4% and the performance between laboratories varied between 94.2 and 99.4% concordant results. For E. coli, S., aureus, and Salmonella, all laboratories except one had more than 97% concordant results......A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries......, whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...

  10. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant......The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...

  11. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...... 3, Diagnostic Sensitivity Test Agar) have been used in addition to media (Brain Heart Infusion Agar, Heart Infusion Agar, Columbia Blood Agar) normally utilized for cultivating fastidious bacteria. When testing marine pathogens, sodium chloride or seawater has been included in the media. Media...... normally used for cultivation of pathogens with specific growth requirements like Flavobacterium species and Renibacterium salmoninarum have been used for susceptibility testing. The Mueller-Hinton Agar and different modifications of this medium was used most frequently in published studies on resistant...

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Michele Anholt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Trueperella pyogenes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida, and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica (p < 0.001 and P. multocida (p = 0.002. Compared to previous studies, this study suggests an increasing trend of resistance in BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria That Cause Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, R Michele; Klima, Cassidy; Allan, Nick; Matheson-Bird, Heather; Schatz, Crystal; Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Otto, Simon Jg; Peters, Delores; Schmid, Karin; Olson, Merle; McAllister, Tim; Ralston, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important illness of feedlot cattle. Disease management targets the associated bacterial pathogens, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni , and Trueperella pyogenes . We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant BRD pathogens using a collaborative network of veterinarians, industry, government, and a diagnostic laboratory. Seven private veterinary practices in southern Alberta collected samples from both living and dead BRD-affected animals at commercial feedlots. Susceptibility testing of 745 isolates showed that 100% of the M. haemolytica, M. bovis, P. multocida , and T. pyogenes isolates and 66.7% of the H. somni isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial class. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobials (90.2% of all isolates) was notable for their importance to beef production and human medicine. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was high in all target pathogens with 47.2% of the isolates resistant to four or five antimicrobial classes and 24.0% resistance to six to nine classes. We compared the MDR profiles of isolates from two feedlots serviced by different veterinary practices. Differences in the average number of resistant classes were found for M. haemolytica ( p  BRD pathogens against the antimicrobials used to manage the disease in Alberta. For the veterinary clinician, the results emphasize the importance of ongoing susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens to inform treatment protocols. Surveillance studies that collect additional epidemiological information and manage sampling bias will be necessary to develop strategies to limit the spread of resistance.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  15. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Staphylococcus intermedius clinical isolates from canine pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiere, J-P; Medaille, C; Mangion, C

    2005-02-01

    A total of 50 Staphylococcus intermedius strains isolated in France from canine pyodermas in 2002 were investigated for their susceptibility to various antimicrobial drugs. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using a 2-fold serial dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. About 62% of the 50 strains tested were producers of beta-lactamase and categorized as penicillin-resistant. About 26% demonstrated resistance to sulphonamides, 46% to oxytetracycline, 30% to chloramphenicol, 28% to streptomycin, kanamycin, neomycin or erythromycin, 22% to clindamycin, 6% to doxycycline, 2% to gentamicin, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin or pradofloxacin. Acquired resistance was not observed to a clavulanic acid-amoxicillin combination, oxacillin, cephalosporins (cephalexin, ceftiofur and cefquinome), trimethoprim, a sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination and florfenicol. About 42% were simultaneously resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes (multiresistance). All isolates with acquired resistance to erythromycin were also resistant to streptomycin and neomycin/kanamycin. About 22% of isolates exhibited cross-resistance between erythromycin and clindamycin and all clindamycin-resistant isolates also exhibited resistance to erythromycin. Resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol was also positively associated with resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin.

  16. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter cuniculorum isolated from rabbits reared in intensive and rural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Piva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA, modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated.

  18. Uterine Microbiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Isolated Bacteria from Mares with Fertility Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson U

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Uterine microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated in 239 mares with fertility problems in a prospective study in Sweden. Uterine swab samples were collected with double guarded swabs and transported overnight before being cultured. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC was determined for a panel of antimicrobials. From 152 of the 239 mares at least one bacterial species was isolated, most frequently E. coli (104 isolates, β-haemolytic streptococci (31 and fungi (16. β-haemolytic streptococci were more frequently (p E. coli (p β-haemolytic streptococcal isolates some resistance was noted for 4 of 11 tested antibiotics, however, all isolates were susceptible to the widely used penicillin G. Among E. coli isolates enrofloxacin was the only of the 10 tested antibiotics for which no resistance was noted. Resistance was most commonly noted to cephalothin (39% of the isolates, streptomycin (22%, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (15% and ampicillin (11%. In conclusion, we show that both E. coli and β-haemolytic streptococci are frequently associated with fertility problems in mares and that antimicrobial resistance is a common feature of E. coli but also recognised for β-haemolytic streptococcal uterine isolates.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Moradzadeh, Mina; Eshaghi, Hamid; Ramezani, Amitis; Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Keshavarz Valian, Sepideh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2017-08-01

    studies on the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in these species is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility in Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, K; Hoshinoo, K; Ueno, Y; Kohmoto, M; Mikami, O

    2013-12-27

    A total of 378 isolates of Pasteurella multocida from clinically healthy and diseased calves were characterised for their susceptibility to 9 antimicrobial agents and screened by PCR for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and 22 genes virulence-associated, including capsule biosynthesis genes. Of the 378 isolates, 102 (27.0%) were resistant to at least one of the 9 tested antimicrobial agents. Resistance to oxytetracycline (21.7%) was the most frequently observed phenotype among the isolates. The tet(H) gene were the primary determinant detected. The resistance rates for thiamphenicol, ampicillin, kanamycin and florfenicol were 13.2%, 5.8%, 9.0% and 0.5%, respectively. Cefazolin, ceftiofur, cefquinome and enrofloxacin were effective antimicrobial agents, with no resistant isolates emerging over the course of the investigation. Most isolates were identified as capsular type A, only 6.3% belonged to capsular type D and no other capsular type was identified. Four of the virulence-associated genes (pfhA, tadD, tbpA and HAS) exhibited associations to the capsular type, and three (pfhA, tbpA and hgbB) were associated with the disease status of the animals. These virulence genes have been considered as epidemiological markers and are hypothesised to have a strong positive association with the outcome of disease in cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biofilm Production by Salmonella sp. Strains Isolated from Frozen Poultry Carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Sereno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance and the biofilm-producing ability of Salmonella sp. strains isolated from frozen poultry carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk-diffusion method. Biofilm-producing ability was determined in 96-well polystyrene microplates stained with crystal violet at 1%. Out of the 22 strains tested, all were multiresistant, that is, resistant to more than three antimicrobial classes, and 72.7% were able to form biofilms. The highest resistance rates obtained were against sulfonamides, tetracycline, and quinolones. On the other hand, 100% of the strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. According to the rate of biofilm formation, 3 (13.6% and 13 (59.1% strains were classified as moderate and weak biofilm-producers, respectively, and 27.3% did not form biofilms. Biofilms increase the tolerance of microorganisms to stress, reducing their sensitivity to disinfectants and antimicrobials; favor equipment corrosion; and act as substrates for the adhesion of bacteria with lower biofilm-producing capacity. The results of the present study stress the importance of cleaning procedures in food processing plants and highlight the public health risks related to the emergence of multiresistant strains.

  2. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Wound Isolates of Obligate Anaerobes from Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian K.; Mende, Katrin; Weintrob, Amy C.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Zera, Wendy C.; Lu, Dan; Bradley, William; Tribble, David R.; Schnaubelt, Elizabeth R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2015-01-01

    Data from recent conflicts related to war wounds and obligate anaerobes are limited. We define the epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobes from Iraq and Afghanistan casualties (6/2009–12/2013), as well as their association with clinical outcomes. Susceptibility against eleven antibiotics (7 classes) was tested. Overall, 59 patients had 119 obligate anaerobes identified (83 were first isolates). Obligate anaerobes were isolated 7–13 days post-injury, primarily from lower extremity wounds (43%), and were largely Bacteroides spp. (42%) and Clostridium spp. (19%). Patients with pelvic wounds were more likely to have Bacteroides spp. and concomitant resistant gram-negative aerobes. Seventy-three percent of isolates were resistant to ≥1 antimicrobials. Bacteroides spp. demonstrated the most resistance (16% of first isolates). Patients with resistant isolates had similar outcomes to those with susceptible strains. Serial recovery of isolates occurred in 15% of patients and was significantly associated with isolation of Bacteroides spp., along with resistant gram-negative aerobes. PMID:26607420

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella isolates in Awassa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of resistance was particularly documented against the following antibiotics: ampicillin (93%), erythromycin (90%), and tetracycline (90%). Fifty-six percent of Shigella flexneri Group B isolates were found to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, which is one of the drugs of choice for treating shigellosis is ...

  5. Genotypic and phenotypic patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa S. Fathi

    2013-04-22

    Apr 22, 2013 ... 100% and 25% for metronidazole and ciprofloxacin respectively from 16 isolated H. pylori strains. Improving the knowledge of resistance mechanisms, the elaboration of rational and efficacious associations for the treatment H. pylori infection are of high importance especially in determining the therapeutic ...

  6. A study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in clinical isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in most of the countries wherever it is sought for. MRSA is one of the important pathogens implicated in hospital acquired infection. The main objectives of this study was to find out the ...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for ...

  8. 62 original article in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    chloramphénicol (54,2%), à la gentamicine (43,4), à la streptomycine (31,3%) et à la tétracycline (51,8%). L'ampicilline n'a produit aucune zone d'inhibition contre 29 (96,7%) souches provenant d'échantillons cliniques et seulement légèrement inhibées avec une zone d'inhibition de 8mm. Dix-neuf souches ont manifesté ...

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is currently recognized as one of the most common chronic bacterial infections worldwide. Eradication of bacteria is effective in healing peptic ulcers, preventing ulcer relapses, and potentially decreasing the risk of progression to gastric carcinoma. For successful eradication of bacteria, it is ...

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Oral Microbial Isolates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral hygiene measures and treatment with appropriate antibiotics prevent this negative effect. Both periodontal diseases and negative pregnancy outcomes are common among pregnant women in Nigeria; however, oral health care is not presently an integral part of antenatal care in our environment. We investigated the ...

  11. Invitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outcome of 532 wound swabs received from patients with wound infections in different units of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital Ilorin, Nigeria, over a one year period (July 2000 June 2001), and routinely procesed by Gram staining and culture in the Microbiology Laboratory, is reported. 444(83.5) of all samples ...

  12. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... and diarrhoeic mink. Rectal swabs were taken from healthy and diseased animals, on six different farms. once at the onset of disease and again approximately 2 weeks later. The swabs were subjected to bacteriological investigation: a total of 210 E. coli were isolated, 98 from healthy animals and 112 from...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...

  13. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. Vet...... species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre...

  14. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

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    Marcelo Hisano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%. Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively. For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin.

  15. Antimicrobial Non-Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from Outpatients and Patients Visiting Emergency Rooms in Taiwan.

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    Jann-Tay Wang

    Full Text Available Longitudinal nationwide surveillance data on antimicrobial non-susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs as well as AmpC β-lactamases producers among Escherichia coli from different sources in the community settings are limited. Such data may impact treatment practice. The present study investigated E. coli from outpatients and patients visiting emergency rooms collected by the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program. A total of 3481 E. coli isolates were studied, including 2153 (61.9% from urine and 1125 (32.3% from blood samples. These isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from a total of 28 hospitals located in different geographic regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using methods recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The prevalence and factors associated with the presence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were determined. Significant increases in non-susceptibility to most β-lactams and ciprofloxacin occurred during the study period. By 2012, non-susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin reached 21.1% and 26.9%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers also increased from 4.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in 2002-2004, to 10.7% for both in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M and CMY-types, respectively. Non-susceptibility of urine isolates to nitrofurantoin remained at around 8% and to fosfomycin was low (0.7% but to cefazolin (based on the 2014 CLSI urine criteria increased from 11.5% in 2002-2004 to 23.9% in 2010-2012 (P <0.001. Non-susceptibility of isolates from different specimen types was generally similar, but isolates from elderly patients were significantly more resistant to most antimicrobial agents and associated with the presence of ESBL- and AmpC- β-lactamases. An additional concern is that decreased ciprofloxacin

  16. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PhoP, a Two-Component Response Regulator, Involved in Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

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    Ming-Che Liu

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, a gram-negative bacterium, has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. It is well-known for resistance to a variety of antimicrobial agents including cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (CAPs. Resistance to polymyxin B, a kind of CAPs, is known to be controlled by the two-component system PhoPQ. To unravel the role of PhoPQ in polymyxin B resistance of S. maltophilia, a phoP mutant was constructed. We found MICs of polymyxin B, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin decreased 2-64 fold in the phoP mutant. Complementation of the phoP mutant by the wild-type phoP gene restored all of the MICs to the wild type levels. Expression of PhoP was shown to be autoregulated and responsive to Mg2+ levels. The polymyxin B and gentamicin killing tests indicated that pretreatment of low Mg2+ can protect the wild-type S. maltophilia from killing but not phoP mutant. Interestingly, we found phoP mutant had a decrease in expression of SmeZ, an efflux transporter protein for aminoglycosides in S. maltophilia. Moreover, phoP mutant showed increased permeability in the cell membrane relative to the wild-type. In summary, we demonstrated the two-component regulator PhoP of S. maltophilia is involved in antimicrobial susceptibilities and low Mg2+ serves as a signal for triggering the pathway. Both the alteration in membrane permeability and downregulation of SmeZ efflux transporter in the phoP mutant contributed to the increased drug susceptibilities of S. maltophilia, in particular for aminoglycosides. This is the first report to describe the role of the Mg2+-sensing PhoP signaling pathway of S. maltophilia in regulation of the SmeZ efflux transporter and in antimicrobial susceptibilities. This study suggests PhoPQ TCS may serve as a target for development of antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant S. maltophilia.

  17. The detection and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Shigella isolates from meat and swab samples at butchers' shops in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Garedew, Legesse; Hagos, Zenabu; Zegeye, Bidir; Addis, Zelalem

    2016-01-01

    Food borne pathogens are major causes of deaths, illnesses and billions of dollars of expenses. The burden of food borne illness is worsened by the ever increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance microbes. Shigella, a bacterial pathogen associated with food, is reported to account for higher prevalence rates of food borne illness in different settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10 to June 30, 2013, at the butcher houses of Gondar town in the Northwest of Ethiopia to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella. Cattle raw meat and swab samples from selected critical control points, including knives, chopping boards, and the hands and noses of butchers, were collected and analyzed. The identification of Shigella was carried out using colony characteristics, the Gram reaction, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The overall hygienic status of the butcher shops was also assessed using a checklist. An observational analysis revealed that the sanitary condition of the butcher shops and their premises was poor. Of 306 samples screened, 10.5% were positive for Shigella. Approximately 7.4% of meat samples and 10.2% of swab samples were contaminated with Shigella. Out of the total Shigella isolates, 90.6%, 46.9%, 18.8% and 9.4% were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone and tetracycline, respectively. A multidrug resistance pattern was recorded in 27.8% of the isolates. In conclusion, the safety of meat sold at Gondar butchers houses was poor. The identified Shigella isolates showed high levels of drug resistance and multidrug resistance patterns for commonly used antimicrobials in veterinary and human medicine. Practicing wise use of antimicrobials and strict sanitary interventions at different critical control points is strongly recommended, in addition to further in-depth studies to prevent unprecedented consequences from

  18. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. in dogs with and without periodontitis.

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    Senhorinho, Gerusa N A; Nakano, Viviane; Liu, Chengxu; Song, Yuli; Finegold, Sydney M; Avila-Campos, Mario J

    2012-08-01

    The occurrence of Porphyromonas gulae, Porphyromonas macacae, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Fusobacterium canifelinum in subgingival plaque from dogs with and without periodontitis as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility were evaluated. From 50 dogs with periodontitis were identified 38 P. gulae, 8 P. macacae, 26 F. nucleatum and 15 F. canifelinum, and from 50 dogs without periodontitis were identified 15 P. gulae, 12 F. nucleatum and 11 F. canifelinum. All strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested, however, different resistance rates to clarithromycin, erythromycin and metronidazole among strains were observed. The role of P. gulae, P. macacae, F. nucleatum and F. canifelinum in periodontal disease of household pets needs to be defined to a better prevention and treatment of the canine periodontitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

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    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  20. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakensen, Monique; Vickers, David M; Ziola, Barry

    2009-09-07

    Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol). Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin) by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM) used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence gene profiles of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerling, Jessica; Barth, Stefanie A; Schlez, Karen; Willems, Hermann; Herbst, Werner; Ewers, Christa

    2018-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important diarrheal disease in pigs caused by different strongly hemolytic Brachyspira (B.) species, such as B. hyodysenteriae, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Possible associations of epidemiologic data, such as multilocus sequence types (STs) to virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility are rather scarce, particularly for B. hyodysenteriae isolates from Germany. In this study, B. hyodysenteriae (n = 116) isolated from diarrheic pigs between 1990 and 2016 in Germany were investigated for their STs, susceptibility to the major drugs used for treatment of SD (tiamulin and valnemulin) and genes that were previously linked with virulence and encode for hemolysins (tlyA, tlyB, tlyC, hlyA, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS09085, BHWA1_RS04705, and BHWA1_RS02195), outer membrane proteins (OMPs) (bhlp16, bhlp17.6, bhlp29.7, bhmp39f, and bhmp39h) as well as iron acquisition factors (ftnA and bitC). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that 79.4% of the isolates belonged to only three STs, namely ST52 (41.4%), ST8 (12.1%), and ST112 (25.9%) which have been observed in other European countries before. Another 24 isolates belonged to twelve new STs (ST113-118, ST120-123, ST131, and ST193). The temporal distribution of STs revealed the presence of new STs as well as the regular presence of ST52 over three decades (1990s-2000s). The proportion of strains that showed resistance to both tiamulin und valnemulin (39.1%) varied considerably among the most frequent STs ranging from 0% (0/14 isolates resistant) in ST8 isolates to 46.7% (14/30), 52.1% (25/48), and 85.7% (6/7) in isolates belonging to ST112, ST52, and ST114, respectively. All hemolysin genes as well as the iron-related gene ftnA and the OMP gene bhlp29.7 were regularly present in the isolates, while the OMP genes bhlp17.6 and bhmp39h could not be detected. Sequence analysis of hemolysin genes of selected isolates revealed co-evolution of tlyB, BHWA1_RS02885, BHWA1_RS

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Stockholm, Sweden: Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities to ceftaroline, linezolid, mupirocin and vancomycin in 2014.

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    Fang, Hong; Fröding, Inga; Gian, Boisan; Hæggman, Sara; Tollström, Ulla-Britt; Ullberg, Måns; Nord, Carl Erik

    2016-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of MRSA strains in Stockholm, Sweden in 2014. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to characterise the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibilities to ceftaroline, linezolid and mupirocin were determined by the disc diffusion method. Etest was used to determine vancomycin susceptibility and to confirm resistance to ceftaroline, mupirocin and linezolid in non-susceptible strains. High-level ceftaroline-resistant strains [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)≥4mg/L] were confirmed by the broth microdilution method. spa typing was carried out on strains that were non-susceptible to the antibiotics tested. In total, 743 consecutive non-duplicate MRSA strains recovered in Stockholm in 2014 were investigated. PFGE analysis of the isolates revealed a population with 271 different PFGE patterns and three non-typeable strains. No PFGE type accounted for >10% of all strains. The most common PFGE types were MRSA-00-02 (6.9%) and MRSA-05-02 (4.6%). MRSA-05-02 is a USA300-like strain. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of the strains were as follows: ceftaroline, 98.5%; linezolid, 100%; mupirocin, 99.3%; and vancomycin, 100%. Two strains with spa t001 displayed ceftaroline MICs of 4mg/L. Three strains with spa types t002, t064 and t437 showed high-level mupirocin resistance (MIC>1024mg/L). In conclusion, there was a diverse genetic population among the MRSA isolates and no predominant genotype was found. This study identified a few strains with high-level ceftaroline resistance, high-level mupirocin resistance and high-risk genotypes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

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    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  4. Serotypes, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of vaginal and fecal isolates of Escherichia coli from giant pandas.

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    Wang, Xin; Yan, Qigui; Xia, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yanming; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Chen, Shijie; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    Although Escherichia coli typically colonizes the intestinal tract and vagina of giant pandas, it has caused enteric and systemic disease in giant pandas and greatly impacts the health and survival of this endangered species. In order to understand the distribution and characteristics of E. coli from giant pandas, 67 fecal and 30 vaginal E. coli isolates from 21 giant pandas were characterized for O serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. In addition, these isolates were tested for the presence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) by multiplex PCR detection of specific virulence genes. The most prevalent serogroups for all E. coli isolates were O88, O18, O167, O4, and O158. ExPEC isolates were detected mostly in vaginal samples, and DEC isolates were detected only in fecal samples. Phylogenetic group B1 predominated in fecal isolates, while groups B2 and D were frequently detected in vaginal isolates. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was most frequently observed, followed by resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. All except five isolates were typeable by using XbaI and were categorized into 74 PFGE patterns. Our findings indicate that panda E. coli isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance, and potentially pathogenic E. coli isolates were present in giant pandas. In addition, these E. coli isolates were genetically diverse. This study may provide helpful information for developing strategies in the future to control E. coli infections of giant pandas.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Siam, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:19778428

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

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    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  7. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of urine isolates from asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, A.M.; Khan, H.U.; Mashud, I.U.; Ashiq, B.; Shah, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Screening women for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on the first antenatal visit is a part of standard obstetric care. Treating women with ASB decreases the chances of maternal and foetal complications. This study was conducted to find out the spectrum of urine pathogens and their drug susceptibility pattern for ASB during pregnancy. The study was conducted in the Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre Karachi, from September 2001 to March 2002. Two hundred and ninety women, apparently normal with confirmed pregnancy, were registered. A voided midstream urine specimen was collected and cultured. A significant growth i.e. >105 organisms/ml was identified with Analytical Profile Index 20 tests for identification of Enterobacteriaceae (API-20-E) and for Gram positive cocci by other standard methods. The prevalence of ASB was found 6.2%. Antimicrobial sensitivity was determined by disc diffusion Kirby Bauyer method after matching the turbidity with 0.5 McFarland's standard. Most of the recommended drugs were found to have encouraging results, however, Escherichia coli showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. Enterobacters showed 100% resistance to ampicillins, cephalosporins and nitrofurantoin. Staphylococcus saprophyticus showed 66.67% resistance to ampicillins and sulphonamides. It was concluded that detection of ASB during pregnancy and appropriate use of antimicrobials is only possible after culture of urine. Empirical anti-microbial therapy cannot be relied upon because of possible risk of resistance. (author)

  8. From CLSI to EUCAST guidelines in the interpretation of antimicrobial susceptibility: What is the effect in our setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bautista, Antonia; Coy, Javier; García-Shimizu, Patricia; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2018-04-01

    Implementation of the breakpoints established in the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines in comparison with those of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) means that the criteria for interpreting the susceptibility of some antimicrobials have been modified, resulting in changes in the reports of accumulated antibiotic susceptibility. The effect of applying EUCAST breakpoints in 10,359 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. was analysed. By applying EUCAST breakpoints, most antimicrobial susceptibility percentages did not change or changed very slightly. However, a decrease in aminoglycoside susceptibility was observed in Gram-negative bacilli, mainly for amikacin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.2%), although only 5.7% were completely resistant; a notably decrease in the percentage of isolates susceptible to aztreonam was also observed. There was also a marked increase in the number of Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to clindamycin (51.5%) and aminoglycosides (gentamicin 43.1%). Switching from CLSI to EUCAST criteria in some pathogens alters the percentages of resistance to several antimicrobials, and therefore the local epidemiology of the resistance. These changes should be implemented by a multidisciplinary group in order to analyse the influence of the new data on the empirical treatment protocols of each centre. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Gillespie, Barbara E; Nguyen, Lien T; Headrick, Susan I; Murinda, Shelton E; Oliver, Stephen P

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance patterns and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes and class 1 integrons in 35 Escherichia coli O26 isolated from humans and food-producing animals were evaluated. All isolates were resistant to cefaclor, cefalothin and sulfonamide and were susceptible to amikacin, gentamicin, cefmetazole, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and trimethoprim. Most isolates were resistant to aztreonam, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and kanamycin. All ampicillin- and streptomycin-resistant E. coli O26 carried ampC and strA-strB gene sequences, respectively. Florfenicol- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates carried floR but not cmlA. Class1 integrons were identified in 14% of E. coli O26 isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli O26 isolated from human and animal origins.

  10. Etiological agents and antimicrobial susceptibility in hospitalized children with acute pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Martins, Tânia; Teixeira, Ana; Pinto, Helena; Botelho-Moniz, Edgar; Caldas-Afonso, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance driven by antibiotic use remains a major public health and professional concern. Our aim was to know the local prevalence of uropathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute pyelonephritis. A prospective study of patients admitted in a level III Pediatric Department ward with acute pyelonephritis from 1994 to 2012 was performed in Northern Portugal. Etiological agents and their antimicrobial sensitivity profile were evaluated in four timed periods (G1: 1994-97; G2: 2002; G3: 2007; G4: 2012). We evaluated 581 patients, 66% female with median age 22 months. Escherichia coli was the leading uropathogen and its prevalence remained stable during the last 18 years. It showed an increased sensitivity to amoxicillin-clavulanate from 71% in G1 to 81.5% in G4 (p = 0.001) and a decreased resistance rate from 8.7% in G1 to 2.8% in G4 (p = 0.008). Its sensitivity to 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporin was more than 90% (p = ns) and more than 95% to nitrofurantoin (p = ns). Resistance rate of cotrimoxazole increased from 22% to 26% (p = 0.008). Escherichia coli remains the main uropathogen responsible for acute pyelonephritis, reason why its antimicrobial sensitivity profile will determine the empirical therapeutic choice. Amoxicillin-clavulanate remains a good first-line choice for empirical treatment of acute pyelonephritis in our inpatient health care.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of non-enterococcal intrinsic glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Carlos; Cittadini, Roxana; Barberis, Claudia; Hernán Rodríguez, Carlos; Perez Martínez, Herminia; Genero, Fabiana; Famiglietti, Angela

    2007-02-01

    Non-enterococcal Gram-positive bacteria that are intrinsically vancomycin-resistant have been infrequently isolated in association with serious infections. However, well-documented infections have lately been reported with increasing frequency. Because these organisms may be pathogens, we tested the MICs of 19 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method for predicting susceptibility. The activity of these antimicrobial agents was assessed against 28 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 6; Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1; Lactobacillus casei, 1; Lactobacillus fermentum, 2; Lactobacillus brevis, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1; Weissella confusa, 2; Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 7; Leuconostoc lactis, 4; Pediococcus acidilactici, 2; Pediococcus pentosaceus, 1), isolated from clinical specimens in an Argentinian university hospital from 1997 to 2003. The MICs of penicillin for 67% of the Lactobacillus strains and 100% of the Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. strains tested were in the 0.25-2 microg/mL range. Erythromycin was the most active antimicrobial overall. Multiresistance was observed in 2 strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 1; Lactobacillus plantarum, 1).

  12. Current trends of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal salmonellae isolated at tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.M.; Irfan, F.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current trend of antimicrobial susceptibility of typhoidal Salmonellae. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from January 2014 to December 2015. Methodology: Blood culture samples received from the wards and outpatient departments were included. Isolates of Salmonella were dealt with standard microbiological procedures. The antimicrobial sensitivity against the typhoidal Salmonellae was determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2013). Results: A total of 460 typhoidal Salmonellae were isolated; out of which 270 were Salmonella typhi and 190 were Salmonella paratyphiA. The percentage of MDR isolates of S. typhi was 57% and that of S. paratyphiA was 42%. None of the isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, while sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (07% and 0% for S. typhiand S. paratyphiA, respectively) was very low. Conclusion: There is high percentage of MDR isolates of typhoidal Salmonellae in our region. The antimicrobial sensitivity of typhoidal Salmonellae to conventional agent has not improved enough to recommend their empirical use. There is almost complete resistance to fluoroquinolones as well, leaving very limited available treatment options. (author)

  13. Can disc diffusion susceptibility tests assess the antimicrobial activity of engineered nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmouli, Angeliki; Valenti, Marco; van Rijn, Erwin; Beaumont, Hubertus J. E.; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas; Biskos, George

    2018-03-01

    The use of disc diffusion susceptibility tests to determine the antibacterial activity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is questionable because their low diffusivity practically prevents them from penetrating through the culture media. In this study, we investigate the ability of such a test, namely the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test, to determine the antimicrobial activity of Au and Ag ENPs having diameters from 10 to 40 nm on Escherichia coli cultures. As anticipated, the tests did not show any antibacterial effects of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of their negligible diffusivity through the culture media. Ag NPs on the other hand exhibited a strong antimicrobial activity that was independent of their size. Considering that Ag, in contrast to Au, dissolves upon oxidation and dilution in aqueous solutions, the apparent antibacterial behavior of Ag NPs is attributed to the ions they release. The Kirby-Bauer method, and other similar tests, can therefore be employed to probe the antimicrobial activity of ENPs related to their ability to release ions rather than to their unique size-dependent properties. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

  15. Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Milk in Tanzania

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    Jibril Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Forty-six coagulase positives (CP and two CN S. aureus were identified. Most strains were resistant to penicillin (72%, and 3 isolates: 2 CN S. aureus and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin and were confirmed to carry mecA. Resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline was 23.9%, 30.4%, and 41.3%, respectively. Twelve isolates exhibited multidrug resistance; however, only one mecA positive strain among the three was typeable and belonged to spa type t2603. This study reports for the first time the presence of CN variant of MRSA, which was assigned the spa type t2603, and the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from bovine milk in Morogoro, Tanzania.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Japanese secondary care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yumiko; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Matsuda, Junichi; Yamaryo, Takeshi; Kawakami, Kenji; Matsuo, Hidenori; Kosai, Kosuke; Uno, Naoki; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is prevalent in Japan, and the Staphylococcus cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type II is common among hospital-acquired MRSA isolates. Information pertaining to MRSA characteristics is limited, including SCCmec types, in primary or secondary care facilities. A total of 128 MRSA isolates (90 skin and soft tissue isolates and 38 blood isolates) were collected at a secondary care facility, Kawatana Medical Center, from 2005 to 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for anti-MRSA antibiotics and molecular testing for SCCmec and virulence genes (tst, sec, etb, lukS/F-PV) were performed. Strains positive for lukS/F-PV were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and phage open-reading frame typing. SCCmec typing in skin and soft tissue isolates revealed that 65.6% had type IV, 22.2% had type II, 8.9% had type I, and 3.3% had type III. In blood isolates, 50.0% had type IV, 47.4% had type II, and 2.6% had type III. Minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC(50)/MIC(90), against vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and arbekacin increased slightly in SCCmec II isolates from skin and soft tissue. MICs against daptomycin were similar between sites of isolation. SCCmec type II isolates possess tst and sec genes at a greater frequently than SCCmec type IV isolates. Four lukS/F-PV-positive isolates were divided into two clonal patterns and USA300 was not included. In conclusion, SCCmec type IV was dominant in blood, skin, and soft tissue isolates in a secondary care facility in Japan. Because antimicrobial susceptibility varies with the SCCmec type, SCCmec typing of clinical isolates should be monitored in primary or secondary care facilities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of listeria species from ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Taddese, Ayele; Biru, Tigist; Nigatu, Seleshe; Kebede, Elias; Ejo, Mebrat; Fikru, Abraham; Birhanu, Tamiru

    2015-05-12

    Listeriosis, mostly caused by Listeria monocytogenes species, has become a major concern to public health authorities due to its clinical severity and high mortality rate, particularly in high risk groups. Currently, there is limited information regarding the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of listeria species in ready-to-eat foods of animal origin in Gondar town, Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Listeria species isolated from ready-to-eat food of animal origin from public dinning places in Gondar town, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study on ready-toeat foods of animal origin sampled from major supermarkets, butcher shops, pastry shops, restaurants and hotels was carried out. Culture, biochemical and sugar tests were conducted for listeria species identification and disc diffusion test was performed to study the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolates. Out of 384 food samples examined, 96 (25%) were positive for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 24 (6.25%) of the samples. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cake, raw meat, ice cream, minced beef, fish, unpasteurized milk and pizza in that order from higher to lower rate. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes revealed the presence of four multi-drug resistant isolates. The higher resistance rate was recorded for penicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, in decreasing order. All L. monocytogenes identified in the current study were sensitive to amoxicillin, cephalothin, cloxacillin, sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin and vancomycin. The presence of L. monocytogenes including drug resistant and multidrug resistant isolates in some ready-to-eat food items is an indicator of the presence of public health hazards to the consumer, particularly to the high-risk groups. Hence awareness creation on food safety and implementation of regulations

  18. Rapid nanoparticle-mediated monitoring of bacterial metabolic activity and assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility in blood with magnetic relaxation.

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    Charalambos Kaittanis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increased incidence of bacterial infections and the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria at the global level, we designed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nanosensors for the assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility through magnetic relaxation. In this report, we demonstrate that iron oxide nanosensors, either dextran-coated supplemented with Con A or silica-coated conjugated directly to Con A, can be used for the fast (1 quantification of polysaccharides, (2 assessment of metabolic activity and (3 determination of antimicrobial susceptibility in blood. The use of these polysaccharide nanosensors in the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility in the clinic or the field, and the utilization of these nanoprobes in pharmaceutical R&D are anticipated.

  19. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in Greek female outpatients, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Nioti, Eleni; Stafylaki, Dimitra; Minadakis, George

    2017-11-28

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France). Ureaplasma spp. was isolated from 116 patients (11.5%), M. hominis from 6 (0.6%), while coinfection with both mycoplasmas was demonstrated in 17 (1.7%). All Ureaplasma strains were susceptible to josamycin and doxycycline. Doxycycline, minocycline and ofloxacin were the most potent antibiotics against M. hominis. Docycycline was proved the most active and is still the drug of choice for the treatment of genital mycoplasma infections. Local surveillance to monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities is necessary to guide treatment strategies.

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing and Concordance Between Antimicrobial Susceptibility Genotypes and Phenotypes of Bacterial Isolates Associated with Bovine Respiratory Disease

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    Joseph R. Owen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended laboratory culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing timelines hinder rapid species identification and susceptibility profiling of bacterial pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease, the most prevalent cause of cattle mortality in the United States. Whole-genome sequencing offers a culture-independent alternative to current bacterial identification methods, but requires a library of bacterial reference genomes for comparison. To contribute new bacterial genome assemblies and evaluate genetic diversity and variation in antimicrobial resistance genotypes, whole-genome sequencing was performed on bovine respiratory disease–associated bacterial isolates (Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida from dairy and beef cattle. One hundred genomically distinct assemblies were added to the NCBI database, doubling the available genomic sequences for these four species. Computer-based methods identified 11 predicted antimicrobial resistance genes in three species, with none being detected in M. bovis. While computer-based analysis can identify antibiotic resistance genes within whole-genome sequences (genotype, it may not predict the actual antimicrobial resistance observed in a living organism (phenotype. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 64 H. somni, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates had an overall concordance rate between genotype and phenotypic resistance to the associated class of antimicrobials of 72.7% (P < 0.001, showing substantial discordance. Concordance rates varied greatly among different antimicrobial, antibiotic resistance gene, and bacterial species combinations. This suggests that antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes are needed to complement genomically predicted antibiotic resistance gene genotypes to better understand how the presence of antibiotic resistance genes within a given bacterial species could potentially impact optimal bovine respiratory

  1. Quality-control ranges for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth dilution of the Brachyspira hyodysenteriae type strain (ATCC 27164(T))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bergsjø, B.

    2006-01-01

    There are no approved standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the fastidious spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. An interlaboratory study was performed to establish MIC quality control ranges for six antimicrobial agents for the type strain of B. hyodysenteriae using broth diluti....... The results showed that B. hyodysenteriae B78(T) ATCC 27164(T) is a suitable quality control strain. This is a first step toward standardization of methods regarding this anaerobe....

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Poland, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In Poland, gonorrhoea has been a mandatorily reported infection since 1948, however, the reported incidences are likely underestimated. No antimicrobial resistance (AMR) data for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been internationally reported in nearly four decades, and data concerning genetic characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae are totally lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate the AMR to previously and currently recommended gonorrhoea treatment options, the main genetic resistance determinant (penA) for extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and genotypic distribution of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Poland in 2010-2012. Methods N. gonorrhoeae isolates cultured in 2010 (n = 28), 2011 (n = 92) and 2012 (n = 108) in Warsaw and Bialystok, Poland, were examined using antimicrobial susceptibility testing (Etest), pyrosequencing of penA and N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Results The proportions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates showing resistance were as follows: ciprofloxacin 61%, tetracycline 43%, penicillin G 22%, and azithromycin 8.8%. No isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefixime or spectinomycin were found. However, the proportion of isolates with an ESC MIC = 0.125 mg/L, i.e. at the resistance breakpoint, increased significantly from none in 2010 to 9.3% and 19% in 2012 for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. Furthermore, 3.1% of the isolates showed multidrug resistance, i.e., resistance to ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, azithromycin, and decreased susceptibility to cefixime (MIC = 0.125 mg/L). Seventy-six isolates (33%) possessed a penA mosaic allele and 14 isolates (6.1%) contained an A501V/T alteration in penicillin-binding protein 2. NG-MAST ST1407 (n = 58, 25% of isolates) was the most prevalent ST, which significantly increased from 2010 (n = 0) to 2012 (n = 46; 43%). Conclusions In Poland, the diversified gonococcal population displayed a high resistance to most antimicrobials

  3. Comparative antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative bacteria from community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem in Taiwan

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    Fung Chang-Phone

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India

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    Harichandran D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deepa Harichandran, Kavitha Radhakrishnan Dinesh Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, clinical outcome and serotype distribution pattern of clinical isolates belonging to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica. Methodology: All clinical isolates of S. enterica obtained from blood, sterile body fluids, as well as stool and urine samples at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kerala, India, between August 2011 and July 2013 were included in the study and processed based on standard microbiology protocols. Results: A total of 118 isolates of Salmonella were obtained during the study period. Out of these, 79 were of S. Typhi (66.95%, followed by isolates of S. Paratyphi A (22; 18.64% and S. Typhimurium 12 (10.17%. Five isolates could not be identified further. There was 100% susceptibility to ceftriaxone in all S. enterica subspecies. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was 32.91% for S. Typhi and 40.90% for S. Paratyphi A as determined by the disk diffusion method. The susceptibility profile of S. Typhi isolates to different antimicrobials was as follows: chloramphenicol (94.93%, ampicillin (77.21%, cotrimoxazole (75.94% and azithromycin (78.48%. For S. Typhi, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin required to inhibit the growth

  5. Quality assurance for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Latin American and Caribbean countries, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Pam; Martin, Irene; Galarza, Patricia; Carvallo, Marıa Elena Trigoso; Araya Rodriguez, Pamela; Cruz, Olga Marina Sanabria; Hernandez, Alina Llop; Martinez, Mario Fabian; Borthagaray, Graciela; Payares, Daisy; Moreno, José E; Chiappe, Marina; Corredor, Aura Helena; Thakur, Sidharath Dev; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2018-04-19

    A Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility quality control comparison programme was re-established in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure antimicrobial susceptibility data produced from the region are comparable nationally and internationally. Three panels, consisting of N. gonorrhoeae isolates comprising reference strains and other characterised isolates were sent to 11 participating laboratories between 2013 and 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibilities for these isolates were determined using agar dilution, Etest or disc diffusion methods. Modal minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for each panel isolate/antibiotic combination were calculated. The guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute were used for interpretations of antimicrobial susceptibility. The agreement of MICs with the modal MICs was determined for each of the participating laboratories as well as for each of the antibiotics tested. Five of 11 laboratories that participated in at least one panel had an overall average agreement between participants' MIC results and modal MICs of >90%. For other laboratories, agreements ranged from 60.0% to 82.4%. The proportion of agreement between interpretations for all the antibiotics, except penicillin and tetracycline, was >90%. The percentages of agreement between MIC results and their modes for erythromycin, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were >90%. Tetracycline, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin agreement ranged from 84.5% to 89.1%, while penicillin had 78.8% agreement between MICs and modal MICs. The participating laboratories had acceptable results, similar to other international quality assurance programmes. It is important to ensure continuation of the International Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Quality Control Comparison Programme to ensure that participants can identify and correct any problems in antimicrobial susceptibility testing for N. gonorrhoeae as they arise and continue to generate reproducible

  6. Haemophilus influenzae Isolated From Men With Acute Urethritis: Its Pathogenic Roles, Responses to Antimicrobial Chemotherapies, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Shimuta, Ken; Kondo, Hiromi; Mizutani, Kosuke; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohinishi, Makoto; Deguchi, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    There have been few comprehensive studies on Haemophilus influenza-positive urethritis. In this retrospective study, we enrolled 68 men with H. influenzae-positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or genital mycoplasmas: 2, 3, 20, and 43 treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, and extended-release azithromycin (azithromycin-SR), respectively. We assessed microbiological outcomes in 54 men and clinical outcomes in 46 with H. influenzae-positive monomicrobial nongonococcal urethritis. We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 antimicrobial agents for 59 pretreatment isolates. H. influenzae was eradicated from the men treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, or sitafloxacin. The eradication rate with azithromycin-SR was 85.3%. The disappearance or alleviation of urethritis symptoms and the decreases in leukocyte counts in first-voided urine were significantly associated with the eradication of H. influenzae after treatment. For the isolates, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline MICs were ≤0.008-0.25, 0.008-0.5, 0.001-0.008, 0.12-1, 0.25-16, and 0.25-2 μg/mL, respectively. The azithromycin MICs for 3 of 4 strains persisting after azithromycin-SR administration were 1 μg/mL. H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL increased chronologically. H. influenzae showed good responses to the chemotherapies for urethritis. The significant associations of the clinical outcomes of the chemotherapies with their microbiological outcomes suggested that H. influenzae could play pathogenic roles in urethritis. All isolates, except for one with decreased susceptibility to tetracyclines, were susceptible to the examined agents. However, the increase in H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL might threaten efficacies of azithromycin regimens on H. influenzae-positive urethritis.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 6 antimicrobial agents in Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates by using EUCAST breakpoints compared with previously used breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Teresa; Urruzuno, Pedro; Martínez, Maria Josefa; Domingo, Diego; Llorca, Laura; Correa, Ana; López-Brea, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differences in percentage resistance in H. pylori clinical isolates using EUCAST breakpoints compared with previously used breakpoints. MIC value distribution in H. pylori clinical isolates was also studied. Susceptibility to amoxicillin, tetracycline, metronidazole, clarithromycin, rifampicin and levofloxacin was performed by E-test in 824 H. pylori clinical isolates. EUCAST and previous breakpoints defined resistance as follows: MIC >0.12mg/L and ≥2mg/L for amoxicillin, >8mg/L and ≥8mg/L for metronidazole, >0.5mg/L and ≥1mg/L for clarithromycin, >1mg/L and ≥32mg/L for rifampicin, and >1mg/L and ≥4mg/L for tetracycline and >1mg/L levofloxacin. Overall resistance rate by EUCAST and by previous breakpoints was 8.5% and 3.2% for amoxicillin, 0.6% and 0.1% for tetracycline, 39.2% and 39.7% for metronidazole, 51.2% and 51.2% for clarithromycin, 32% and 3.1% for rifampicin, and 6.7% and 6.7% for levofloxacin. When using the different breakpoints for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, similar results were found with most antibiotics tested (tetracycline, metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin), except for amoxicillin and rifampicin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Pathogen Isolated from Bovine Mastitis Milk in Transylvania, Romania

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    Cosmina Bouari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in cows, one of the most common and economically important infectious diseases of dairy cattle, all over the world, with significant impact due to economic losses, occurs when the udder becomes inflamed because the leukocytes are released into the mammary gland usually in response to bacteria invasion of the teat canal. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from milk in order to design specific control programs for bovine mastitis in this area. A total of 204 milk samples aseptically collected both from farms and private owners were processed during May 2014 and March 2016 within the Microbiology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The microbiological examination was carried out by inoculation on blood agar and MacConkey medium. After the overnight incubation in aerobic conditions, the identification of the isolates was performed using microscopic, cultural and biochemical methods. Biochemical identification was based on API 20 Biomerieux system. Susceptibility to antibiotics was evaluated using Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar; the antibiotics were represented by Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid, Ceftiofur, Florfenicol, Mastidiscs, Enrofloxacin, Penicillin and Tetracycline. Staphylococcus spp. was the most common isolated pathogen, in 54.9% of the specimens, followed by Streptococcus spp. in 20.1%, Escherichia coli in 10.78%, Klebsiella spp. in 8.34%, Bacillus spp. in 5.88%. The most frequent associations were represented by staphylococci-streptococci in 62.7% of the samples, followed by streptococci-bacillus in 19.8% of the samples. The most important etiological agents identified were Staphylococcus aureus, S uberis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the total isolates revealed good sensitivity to Enrofloxacin, Mastidiscs and Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of selected bacteraemic pathogens from private institutions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Adrian; Moolman, Johan; da Silva, Mark Cruz; Botha, Maria

    2007-04-01

    The National Antimicrobial Surveillance Forum is a continuous surveillance organisation comprising all academic/public and private sector laboratories in South Africa. The antibiotic susceptibility of blood culture isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus from patients in private hospitals in five major centres were investigated. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by 12 participating laboratories according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) production was determined in selected species of Enterobacteriaceae irrespective of source. The overall prevalence of ampicillin resistance in blood culture isolates of E. coli (N = 471) was 84%, and 20% were resistant to the fluoroquinolones. Considerable geographical differences were noted between the centres with regard to the K. pneumoniae (N = 636) resistance rates for ceftriaxone and/or cefotaxime (39 - 87%). The most active agents in the Enterobacter spp. (N = 244) were imipenem/meropenem, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and cefepime, with 100%, 94%, 88%, 87% and 80% susceptibility, respectively. Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa (N = 382) varied between 42% and 45%, and in the case of A. baumannii (N = 190) resistance varied between 32% and 33% for meropenem and imipenem respectively. The nationwide incidence of oxacillin resistance in S. aureus (N = 629) was 36%. Overall, the prevalence of ESBL production among all isolates of K. pneumoniae was 26% (N = 7 514), while in Enterobacter spp. it was 12% (N = 4 031) and in E. coli 5% (N = 28 412). The data highlight the widespread problem of antibiotic resistance among important bacteraemic pathogens in private institutions in South Africa. Continued surveillance is vital to guide appropriate empirical therapy for invasive infections.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus recovered from recreational and commercial areas of Chesapeake Bay and Maryland Coastal Bays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi S Shaw

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in the estuarine-marine environment are of human health significance and may be increasing in pathogenicity and abundance. Vibrio illness originating from dermal contact with Vibrio laden waters or through ingestion of seafood originating from such waters can cause deleterious health effects, particularly if the strains involved are resistant to clinically important antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility among these pathogens. Surface-water samples were collected from three sites of recreational and commercial importance from July to September 2009. Samples were plated onto species-specific media and resulting V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus strains were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction assays and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Descriptive statistics, Friedman two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Vibrio vulnificus (n = 120 and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 77 were isolated from all sampling sites. Most isolates were susceptible to antibiotics recommended for treating Vibrio infections, although the majority of isolates expressed intermediate resistance to chloramphenicol (78% of V. vulnificus, 96% of V. parahaemolyticus. Vibrio parahaemolyticus also demonstrated resistance to penicillin (68%. Sampling location or month did not significantly impact V. parahaemolyticus resistance patterns, but V. vulnificus isolates from St. Martin's River had lower overall intermediate resistance than that of the other two sampling sites during the month of July (p = 0.0166. Antibiotics recommended to treat adult Vibrio infections were effective in suppressing bacterial growth, while some antibiotics recommended for pediatric treatment were not effective against some of the recovered isolates. To our knowledge, these are the first antimicrobial

  11. Pan-European monitoring of susceptibility to human-use antimicrobial agents in enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Godinho, Kevin; Schiessl, Brigitte; Klein, Ulrich; Butty, Pascal; Vallé, Michel; Marion, Hervé; Shryock, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Enterococcus from cattle, pigs and chickens across the European Union (EU) using uniform methodology. Intestinal samples (1624) were taken at slaughter across five EU countries. Bacteria were isolated in national laboratories, whilst MICs were determined in a central laboratory for key antimicrobials used in human medicine. Clinical resistance was based on CLSI breakpoints and decreased susceptibility based on European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)/EUCAST epidemiological cut-off values. Isolation rates were high for E. coli (n=1540), low for Salmonella (n=201) and intermediate for Campylobacter (n=940) and Enterococcus (n=786). For E. coli and Salmonella, clinical resistance to newer compounds (cefepime, cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin) was absent or low, but decreased susceptibility was apparent, particularly in chicken strains. Resistance to older compounds (except gentamicin) was variable and higher. Colistin resistance was absent for E. coli, but apparent for Salmonella. For Campylobacter jejuni, ciprofloxacin resistance was markedly prevalent for chickens, whereas clinical resistance and decreased susceptibility to erythromycin was absent or very low. For Campylobacter coli, resistance was notably higher. None of the Enterococcus faecium strains was resistant to linezolid, but some were resistant to ampicillin or vancomycin. Resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin was frequent. Resistance patterns varied widely depending on bacterial species, antibiotics, hosts and region. Resistance varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to newer antibiotics used to treat foodborne disease in humans was generally very low. In the absence of resistance to newer compounds in E. coli and Salmonella, the apparent decreased susceptibility should be monitored.

  12. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates from intramammary infections of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Baele, M; Vaneechoutte, M; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F

    2002-06-20

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is a highly prevalent species in subclinical mastitis with a well-established impact on somatic cell count. Few data are available on its antimicrobial susceptibility. The objective of this study was three-fold: (1) to evaluate simple identification tests by comparing them with a genomic method; (2) to determine minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of different antibiotics; (3) to search for the presence of important resistance mechanisms and resistance-determining genes.Seventy-three staphylococcal strains, all collected on different dairy farms, were tentatively identified as S. chromogenes based on their lack of hemolysis and their characteristic intermediate DNase activity. The identification of 70 strains was confirmed as S. chromogenes by tRNA intergenic spacer PCR (tRNA PCR). Three strains were identified as S. sciuri, a species that is naturally cloxacillin- and lincomycin-resistant. All 70 S. chromogenes strains were found to be normally susceptible to neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, enrofloxacin, and to penicillinase-stable penicillins and cephalosporins, represented in this study by cloxacillin. The latter result was confirmed by the absence of the mecA gene in each of 13 strains in which this gene was searched for. Twenty-seven (38%) strains were penicillinase producers. Three lincomycin-resistant S. chromogenes strains were found to carry the linA gene. It was concluded that S. chromogenes can be identified reliably in routine mastitis bacteriology, and that the only resistance of importance is against penicillinase-susceptible penicillins.

  13. The Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae from Community Settings in Taiwan, a Trend Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wu-Pu; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chang, Feng-Yee; Fung, Chang-Phone; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Chen, Yao-Shen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Tan, Mei-Chen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling

    2016-11-08

    Drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, especially extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or AmpC β-lactamase-producing strains, is an emerging problem worldwide. However, few data focusing on drug susceptibility of K. pneumoniae from community is available. In this study, we analyzed 1016 K. pneumoniae isolates from outpatients or those visiting emergency rooms collected during 2002-2012 from Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program. Significantly decreased susceptibilities to 3 rd generation cephalosporins and ciprofloxacin were found during the study period. By 2012, susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin was 83.6% and 81.6%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL-producers increased from 4.8% in 2002 to 11.9% in 2012 (P = 0.012), while that of AmpC β-lactamase-producers increased from 0% to 9.5% in the same period (P analysis of the ESBL and AmpC-β-lactamase-producers by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus sequence typing revealed wide genetic diversity even among the most common sequence type 11 isolates (33.0%). By multivariate analysis, later study year, elderly, and urine isolates were associated with carriage of ESBL genes, while only urine isolates were associated with carriage of AmpC β-lactamase genes. Further studies are needed to determine which antibiotics are reasonable empirical therapy options for patients presenting with severe sepsis that might be caused by K. pneumoniae.

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Koozeh cheeses of Urmia retails

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    B. Abbasinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Koozeh cheese is of the local traditional cheeses of Azerbaijan and Kurdistan areas of Iran, and this cheese has high consumption among the people of these regions. Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen, and because of its growth at refrigeration temperatures has great concern in public health. In the present research, prevalence rate of L. monocytogenes in Koozeh cheeses of Urmia retails was surveyed. Moreover, antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was studied. One hundred samples of Koozeh cheese were collected randomly from Urmia retails in the spring of 2013. Samples were cultured in L-PALCAM Listeria selective enrichment broth with supplement. The enriched samples were transferred to PALCAM Listeria selective agar with antibiotics. For the identification of Listeria species, specific biochemical tests were performed. Antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined by disk diffusion method using penicillin G, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, and gentamicin. Among the 100 tested samples, L. monocytogenes was isolated from 3 of the samples. Antibiogram results showed that all L. monocytogenes isolates were susceptible to the tested antibiotics. However, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin were shown larger diameter of inhibition zone than the others. Although the prevalence rate of L. monocytogenes in Koozeh cheeses was low, its capability to growth in refrigerator conditions along with the pathogenicity of the bacterium to humans, hygienic production and distribution of these cheeses are recommended.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Horie, Kengo; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Shimuta, Ken; Ohnishi, Makoto; Muratani, Tetsuro; Nakano, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 41 antimicrobial agents for 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis and examined the strains for the production of β-lactamase. We also compared their antimicrobial susceptibilities with those of H. influenzae strains from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections that were reported in Japan. The proportion of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis appeared to be lower, but that of β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains appeared to be higher, compared with those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. However, their antimicrobial susceptibilities to a variety of other antimicrobial agents would be similar to those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. Almost all of the strains of H. influenzae from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis were susceptible to the agents, including ceftriaxone, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, commonly prescribed for treatment of acute urethritis based on the MIC breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Ceftriaxone and quinolones could be effective on H. influenzae-induced urethritis. However, azithromycin treatment failures were reported in acute urethritis caused by H. influenzae strains considered susceptible to azithromycin. Further studies will be needed to determine MIC breakpoints of antimicrobial agents, which are recommended for treatment of urogenital infections, for H. influenzae strains causing these infections. Nevertheless, this study provides useful data regarding antimicrobial susceptibilities of H. influenzae strains isolated from the urogenital tract, which have rarely been studied. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae and the emergence of carbapenem-resistant strains: A retrospective study from a university hospital in Morocco, North Africa

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    M.C. El Bouamri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of urinary K. pneumoniae isolates showed a significantly high resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents. These data highlight the need for regular surveillance of microbial resistance to improve infection control and guide the use of antimicrobial agents.

  17. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Chih; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Lo, Dan-Yuan; Chen, Chiou-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chen; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Kuo, Jung-Che; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-01-01

    We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 48 (44%) had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  18. An association of genotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Salmonella isolates from pigs and humans in Taiwan.

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    Hung-Chih Kuo

    Full Text Available We collected 110 Salmonella enterica isolates from sick pigs and determined their serotypes, genotypes using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials and compared the data with a collection of 18,280 isolates obtained from humans. The pig isolates fell into 12 common serovars for human salmonellosis in Taiwan; S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, S. Derby, S. Livingstone, and S. Schwarzengrund were the 5 most common serovars and accounted for a total of 84% of the collection. Of the 110 isolates, 106 (96% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 48 (44% had PFGE patterns found in human isolates. S. Typhimurium, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Schwarzengrund were among the most highly resistant serovars. The majority of the 3 serovars were resistant to 8-11 of the tested antimicrobials. The isolates from pigs and humans sharing a common PFGE pattern displayed identical or very similar resistance patterns and Salmonella strains that caused severe infection in pigs were also capable of causing infections in humans. The results indicate that pigs are one of the major reservoirs to human salmonellosis in Taiwan. Almost all of the pig isolates were MDR, which highlights the necessity of strictly regulating the use of antimicrobials in the agriculture sector in Taiwan.

  19. Emerging antimicrobial resistance pattern of Helicobacter pylori in central Gujarat

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    H B Pandya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a growing problem in H. pylori treatment. The study was intended to evaluate the prevalence of resistance amongst 80 H.pylori isolates cultured from biopsy taken during routine endoscopies in 2008-2011. Materials and Methods: 855 gastro duodenal biopsies were collected and cultured on H.pylori selective medium (containing Brucella agar and Columbia agar (Hi media, with Skirrow′s supplement (antibiotic supplement and 7% human blood cells. H.pylori was isolated from 80 specimens. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H.pylori isolates was carried out by the Kirby Bauer technique against metronidazole (5 µg, clarithromycin (15 µg, ciprofloxacin (5 µg, amoxicillin (10 µg, tetracycline (30 µg, erythromycin (15 µg, levofloxacin (5 µg, and furazolidone (50 µg (Sigma- Aldrich, MO. Results: 83.8% isolates were resistant to metronidazole, 58.8% were resistant to Clarithromycin 72.5% were resistant to Amoxicillin, 50% to Ciprofloxacin and 53.8% to tetracycline. furazolidone, erythromycin and Levofloxacin showed only 13.8% resistance to H.pylori. Multi drug resistance with metronidazole+ clarithromycin+ tetracycline was 85%. For all the drugs Antimicrobial resistance rate was found higher in males compare to females. Metronidazole and amoxicillin resistance was found noteworthy in patients with duodenal ulcer (p = 0.018, gastritis (P = 0.00, and in reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance was suggestively linked with duodenitis (P = 0.018, while furazolidone, erythromycin and levofloxacin showed excellent sensitivity in patients with duodenitis (P value- 0.018, gastritis (P= 0.00 and reflux esophagitis (P = 0.00. Resistance with metronidazole (P = 0.481, clarithromycin (P= 0.261, amoxicillin (P = 0.276, tetracycline (P = 0.356, ciprofloxacin (P = 0.164 was not correlated well with Age-group and Gender of the patients. Conclusion: A very high percentage of patients were infected

  20. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

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    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility survey of pathogens isolated from selected patients in Northern Italy

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    Elisabetta Maioli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of the University of Genoa participated, during the year 2003, in an international antimicrobial surveillance program.The collection of isolates was done according to the site of infection and/or type of patient. Four hundred twenty (420 clinical isolates were analyzed during this year and the frequencies of the different pathogens were investigated. A reference centre carried out susceptibility tests. Oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus represented 47.6% of all S. aureus isolates from blood stream infections and 33.3% of all S. aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalised patients.These strains showed resistance to most of the antimicrobial agents evaluated, except vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid which registered 100% of susceptibility. Some isolates from blood stream infections such as E. coli demonstrated resistance to ciprofloxacin (23.3%, levofloxacin (20%, and gatifloxacin (16.6%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was resistant (18% to all fluoroquinolones tested. Pseudomonas aeruginosa manifested resistance to ciprofloxacin (16.6%, while 27.7% of these strains were resistant both to levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. All the Enterobacter cloacae isolated from blood were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis collected from community-acquired respiratory tract infections were all inhibited by ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin. E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections in hospitalised patients were resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin (2.7%. All Salmonella spp. collected from samples of patients affected by infections of the gastro-intestinal tract were susceptible to all fluoroquinolones. Penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae was found in 21.4% of isolates from patients with respiratory tract infections. Fluoroquinolone resistance was

  2. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia Coli O157 Isolated From Raw Milk Marketed in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Md. Kauser-Ul Alam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is an emerging public health concern in most countries of the world. It is an important cause of food-borne human disease. The present study assessed the prevalence and determined the antibiotic resistance patterns of E. coli from raw milk marketed in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Of the raw milk marketed in Chittagong ~33(18% of the 186 raw milk samples of it contains E. coli, indicator bacteria for any enteric pathogens. The mean viable count of total bacteria was 4.04×108 cfu/ml and the mean viable count of E. coli in the contaminated raw milk was 1.88×106 cfu/ml. E. coli from only six (18.2% of the 33 positive samples yielded colourless colonies across the CT-SMAC, suggesting the probable presence of populations belonging to the serotype O157 and rest of the isolates 27 (81.82% produced coloured colony on CT-SMAC considering the probable presence of populations belonging to the serotype non-O157. Growth of probable E. coli O157, as evidenced by the colourless colonies on CT-SMAC compared to coloured colonies from other bacteria. Confirmed isolates were further subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the Agar disc diffusion technique. Antibiotics susceptibility profile showed that all the isolates in case of E. coli O157, penicillin (100%, tetracycline (100%, amoxicillin (83.33% and erythromycin (83.33% were the most resistant whereas ciprofloxacin (66.67%, gentamicin (50.0%, and streptomycin (50.0% were the most sensitive antibiotics. In case of E.coli non-O157 susceptibility profile showed that chloramphenicol (40.74%, erythromycin (40.74% and oxacillin (37.04% were the most resistant whereas ciprofloxacin (70.37%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (S/T (59.26% and gentamycin (55.55% were the most sensitive antibiotics. The antimicrobial resistance exhibited by E. coli O157and non-O157 strains in this study is an indication of possible antibiotic abuse.

  3. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from pig farms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fashae, Kayode; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    Kingston (n = 13; 5.7 %). The most widely distributed serovars among the farms were Salmonella Give (six farms) and Salmonella Elisaberthville (six farms). Resistance to chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline ranged from 11.6 % (n = 26) to 22.8 % (n = 51). Resistance...... of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pooled fresh pen floor fecal samples of pigs collected from 31 pig farms were cultured; the Salmonella isolates were serotyped and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. PMQR genes were screened by polymerase chain...... ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was low (n = 2; 0.9 %). Multiply resistant isolates included Salmonella Kentucky, the most resistant serovar. qnrB19 was found in two isolates of Salmonella Corvallis and one isolate of Salmonella Larochelle, respectively, while qnrS1 was found in two isolates of Salmonella Derby...

  4. Secular trends in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary-care hospital: increasing prevalence and accelerated decline in antimicrobial susceptibility

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    Rodrigo de Carvalho Santana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION Klebsiella pneumoniae has become an increasingly important etiologic agent of nosocomial infections in recent years. This is mainly due to the expression of virulence factors and development of resistance to several antimicrobial drugs. METHODS This retrospective study examines data obtained from the microbiology laboratory of a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital. To assess temporal trends in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility, K. pneumoniae isolates were analyzed from 2000 to 2013. The relative frequencies of K. pneumoniae isolation were calculated among all Gram-negative bacilli isolated in each period analyzed. Susceptibility tests were performed using automated systems. RESULTS: From 2000-2006, K. pneumonia isolates comprised 10.7% of isolated Gram-negative bacilli (455/4260. From 2007-2013, this percentage was 18.1% (965/5331. Strictly considering isolates from bloodstream infections, the relative annual prevalence of K. pneumoniae increased from 14-17% to 27-32% during the same periods. A progressive decrease in K. pneumoniae susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents assessed was detected. Partial resistance was also observed to antimicrobial drugs that have been used more recently, such as colistin and tigecycline. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicates that K. pneumoniae has become a major pathogen among hospitalized patients and confirms its recent trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Multicenter Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Streptococcus Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sandra S.; Howard, Wanita J.; Weinstein, Melvin P.; Bruckner, David A.; Hindler, Janet F.; Saubolle, Michael; Doern, Gary V.

    2007-01-01

    This multicenter study evaluated the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System STREP panel (BD Diagnostic Systems). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) with 13 agents was performed on 2,013 streptococci (938 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates; 396 group B streptococci [GBS]; 369 viridans group streptococci [VGS]; 290 beta-hemolytic streptococcus groups A, C, and G; and 20 other streptococci) with the Phoenix system and a broth microdilution reference method. Clinical and challenge isolates were tested against cefepime, cefotaxime (CTX), ceftriaxone (CTR), clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, linezolid, meropenem, penicillin (PEN), tetracycline (TET), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Clinical isolates with major errors or very major errors (VMEs) were retested in duplicate by both methods. The final results for clinical isolates showed the following trends. For all of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested, categorical agreement (CA) was 92 to 100%, with one exception—VGS-PEN (87% CA; all errors were minor). For S. pneumoniae, there was one major error with CLI (0.1%) and one or two VMEs with CTX (4%), CTR (4.5%), ERY (0.9%), and TET (0.7%). For groups A, C, and G, the CA was 97 to 100% and the only VMEs were resolved by additional reference laboratory testing. For GBS, there was only one VME (TET, 0.3%) and D-zone testing of 23 isolates with CLI major errors (one isolate unavailable) revealed inducible CLI resistance. For VGS, the major error rates were 0 to 3% and VMEs occurred with seven agents (3.5 to 7.1%). The mean times required for organism groups to generate results ranged from 8.4 to 9.4 h. The Phoenix system provided reliable and rapid AST results for most of the organism-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. PMID:17652483

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in Maluti Adventist Hospital patients, 2011

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    Phillip Mubanga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are amongst the most common infections encountered globally and are usually treated empirically based on bacterial resistance to antibiotics for a given region. Unfortunately in Lesotho, no published studies are available to guide doctors in the treatment of UTIs. Treatment protocols for Western countries have been adopted, which may not be applicable for this region.Aim: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of uropathogens in outpatients at the Maluti Adventist Hospital.Setting: The study was conducted at the outpatient department of the Maluti Adventist Hospital in Mapoteng, Lesotho.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study using consecutive sampling of patients with clinical symptoms of UTI. Midstream urine samples were screened through chemistry and microscopy, then positive urine samples were cultured. The isolated uropathogens underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inclusion continued until 200 culture samples were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis.Results: The top five cultured uropathogens were Escherichia coli (61.5%, Staphylococcus aureus (14%, Pseudomonasspecies (6.5%, Enterococcus faecalis (5.5% and Streptococcus agalactiae (5%. The isolated uropathogens showed low sensitivity to cotrimoxazole (32.5% – 75.0% and amoxicillin (33.2% – 87.5% and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (84.0% – 95.1% and nitrofurantoin (76.9% – 100%.Conclusion: In the Maluti setting, cotrimoxazole and amoxicillin should be avoided as first-line drugs for the empirical treatment of community-acquired UTI. We recommend the use of nitrofurantoin as first choice.

  7. Comparing the disk-diffusion and agar dilution tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing

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    Hsi Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France, respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC: ceftriaxone (CRO, cefixime (CFX, and cefpodoxime (CPD. Methods One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI and manufacturer’s standards for each of the three methods. The measured diameters by the disk diffusion method were tested for correlation with the MIC values by agar dilution. In addition, comparisons with the Etest® were made. Categorical results for concordance, based on standard CLSI cutoffs, between the disk diffusion and the other two methods, respectively, were tested using the Chi-square statistics. Reproducibility was tested for CFX across a 6-month interval by repeated disk tests. Results Across all 115 specimens, the disk diffusion tests produced good categorical agreements, exhibiting concordance of 93.1%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with agar dilution and 93.0%, 92.1%, and 90.4% with Etest®, for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. Pearson correlations between disk-diffusion diameters and agar dilution MIC’s were -0.59, -0.67, and -0.81 for CRO, CFX, and CPD, respectively. The correlations between disk diffusion and Etest® were -0.58, -0.73, and -0.49. Pearson correlation between the CFX disk readings over a 6-month interval was 91%. Conclusions Disk diffusion tests remain to be a useful, reliable and fast screening method for qualitative antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ceftriaxone, cefixime, and cefpodoxime.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

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    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  9. Antimicrobial treatment of infective endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin: historic overview and future considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, D. W. M.; Vedder, A. C.; Speelman, P.; van der Meer, J. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we present the path that led to current concepts regarding antimicrobial treatment of endocarditis caused by viridans streptococci highly susceptible to penicillin. Early treatment trials indicate that some patients with subacute endocarditis can be cured with shorter treatment

  10. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections in 20 Chinese Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaoli; Cavaco, Lina; Lv, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 222 urinary Escherichia coli isolates from 20 tertiary hospitals in 15 different provinces and 4 municipalities in mainland China were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, phylogrouping, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. A subset of 138 suspected...

  11. The influence of chronic renal failure on the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in community-acquired acute pyelonephritis presenting as a positive urine culture

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    Shin Ho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chronic renal failure (CRF in the antimicrobial resistance of uropathogens in patients with community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (APN remains poorly understood. Method We performed a retrospective analysis of 502 adults (54 men, 448 women; mean age 61.7 ± 16.0 years, range 18-98 years who were treated for community-acquired APN at Kosin University Gospel Hospital (Busan, Republic of Korea during a ten-year period (January 2000 to December 2009. We evaluated the spectra and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of uropathogens in CRF and non-CRF patients with community-acquired APN that presented as a positive urine culture. Results The 502 adult subjects were classified as either non-CRF APN patients (336 patients, 66.9% or CRF APN patients (166 patients, 33.1% according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate. No significant differences in the sensitivity of E. coli to a third cephalosporin, aminoglycoside (except gentamycin, or ciprofloxacin were observed between non-CRF and CRF patients. Conclusions In our series of patients with community-acquired APN that initially presented as a positive urine culture, CRF did not influence the isolation rates of different uropathogens or their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobials.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken carcasses in Bandung, Indonesia.

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    Sugiri, Yoni Darmawan; Gölz, Greta; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Kleer, Josef; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Alter, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and quantify the number of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in chicken carcasses was 15.8% (29/184). When comparing samples from traditional markets and supermarkets, no significant difference in the L. monocytogenes prevalence was detectable (15.2 versus 16.3%). Of the samples, 97.3% had L. monocytogenes counts study were grouped into the molecular serogroup IIb, comprising the serovars 1/2b, 3b, and 7.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Blood Stream Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Gram Negative Bacteria in a Tertiary Care Cancer Hospital

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    Radha Rani D

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial bloodstream infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial profile of bloodstream infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the clinically diagnosed cases of sepsis in cancer patients. Methods: In the present study, etiological and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of blood cultures over a period of 1 year at a tertiary cancer care hospital was done. Blood culture positive isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the organisms was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration was done by Fully automated BD Phoenix 100. Results: There were 1178 blood culture samples, of which 327 (27.7% were identified to be culture positive. Out of 327 positive cultures, 299 (91.4% showed bacterial growth, Gram negative were 161 (53.8% and Gram positive were 138 (46.1%. Candida species were isolated from 13 (3.97% of positive samples and 15 samples showed contamination. The most common Gram-negative isolate was. Escherichia coli (37.80% and Gram-positive isolate was coagulasenegative staphylococci (52.80%. Escherichia coli showed highest sensitivity to amikacin (83.60% and sensitivity to piperacillin+ tazobactum and cefaperazone+sulbactam was 54.09% and 52.45% respectively. High degree of resistance was found to cephalosporins and levofloxacin. Conclusion: The results indicate high level of antimicrobial resistance among Gram negative bacilli in septicemic patients. The results warrant continuous monitoring of antimicrobial pattern so as to build geographical epidemiological data.

  14. In vitro susceptibility of contagious ovine digital dermatitis associated Treponema spp. isolates to antimicrobial agents in the UK.

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    Angell, Joseph W; Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Duncan, Jennifer S; Grove-White, Dai H; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an important cause of infectious lameness in sheep in the UK and Ireland and has a severe impact on the welfare of affected individuals. The three treponemal phylogroups Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like, Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema pedis spirochaetes have been associated with clinical CODD lesions and are considered to be a necessary cause of disease. There are scant data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of the treponemes cultured from CODD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro the miniumum inhibitory concentration/ minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) of antimicrobials used in the sheep industry for isolates of the three CODD associated treponeme phylogroups T. medium/T. vincentii-like, T. phagedenis-like and T. pedis. Twenty treponeme isolates; from 19 sheep with clinical CODD lesions. A microdilution method was used to determine in vitro the MIC/MBC of 10 antimicrobial agents for 20 treponeme isolates (five T. medium/T. vincentii-like, 10 T. phagedenis-like and five T. pedis). The antimicrobials tested were penicillin G, amoxicillin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, lincomycin, spectinomycin, tylosin, tildipirosin, tulathromycin and gamithromycin. The treponeme isolates tested showed low MICs and MBCs to all 10 antimicrobials tested. They were most susceptible to gamithromycin and tildipirosin (MIC90: 0.0469 mg/L), and were least susceptible to lincomycin, spectinomycin and oxytetracycline (MIC90: 48 mg/L, 24 mg/L and 3 mg/L, respectively). These data are comparable to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data for treponemes cultured from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. Dependent on local licensing, penicillin and tilmicosin appear to be the best candidates for future in vivo studies. © 2015 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

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    Klein, Ulrich; de Jong, Anno; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Leon, Rocio; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Rose, Markus; Maes, Dominiek; Pridmore, Andrew; Thomson, Jill R; Ayling, Roger D

    2017-05-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MIC 50/ MIC 90 values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC 90 values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC 90 value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis lesions in Japan.

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    Yano, Takahisa; Moe, Kyaw Kyaw; Chuma, Takehisa; Misawa, Naoaki

    2010-03-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 23 Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Japan were investigated by a broth microdilution method using 15 antimicrobial agents. Although all MIC values showed a monomodal distribution, the MICs of the antimicrobial agents for 90% (MIC(90)) of the isolates tested varied among the agents examined. The MIC(90) values for penicillin G, ampicillin, and erythromycin were 128 microg/ml. Oxytetracycline, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, and gentamicin showed intermediate values, i.e., 0.5~32 microg/ml. The present study suggested that no isolate had acquired resistance to the antimicrobial agents examined, although they may have natural resistance to some agents. Furthermore, the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data would provide helpful information for PDD treatment and the development of a selective medium for isolating the organism effectively.

  17. Effect of antimicrobial peptides on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Kristof, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Szabó, Dóra

    2015-12-01

    In this study susceptibility to different antimicrobial peptides was investigated on colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant identical pulsotype strains of KPC-2 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 as well as colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant Enterobacter asburiae strains isolated from clinical samples. In our test, bacteria were exposed to 50 mg/ml lactoferrin, lysozyme and protamine - cationic antimicrobial peptides belonging to innate immune system and having structural similarity to polymyxins - in separate reactions. After 18 hours incubation of colonies were counted. 40% of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae strains and 97% of colistin-susceptible counterpart strains were lysed by protamine whereas 87% and 100% colony forming unit decrease by lysozyme was seen, respectively. In the case of colistin-resistant E. asburiae strains 1 log10 cell count increase were observed after treatment with lysozyme and 1.56 log10 after lactoferrin exposure compared to the initial number whereas the colistin-susceptible showed no relevant cell count increase. Our findings suggest that acquired colistin-resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is associated with tolerance against antimicrobial peptides.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Environmental Enterobacteriaceae Isolates From Karun River, Iran

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    Neda Nazarzadeh Zaree

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a worldwide problem. Enterobacteriaceae resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is typically caused by the production of β-lactamases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Karun River in Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 water samples were collected from nine stations along Karun River in Iran, during spring and summer of 2012. In this research, different waterborne bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified using the membrane filtration technique and analytical profile index system for Enterobacteriaceae (API 20E. Then, disk diffusion method (CLSI, 2010; M2-A9 was used for testing the antibiotic resistance susceptibility. Enterobacteriaceae genera were tested against sixteen antibiotics: ampicillin, carbencillin, methicillin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, vancomycin, amikacin, ofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, chloramphenicol, and amoxycillin. Results: The results of this study suggested that the level of fecal contamination in Karun water was very high. Among the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, there were 287 strains of (65% Escherichia coli, 162 (27% Enterobacter aeogenes, 73 (12.16% Citrobacter freundii, 58 (9.66% Proteus vulgaris, and 20 (3.3% Salmonella typhi. All Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed 100% resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, methicillin, vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracycline. They failed to exhibit resistance to norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Other antibiotics showed intermediate activity, and some isolates were resistant. Conclusions: Detection of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli in more than 75% of water samples indicates the possible presence of other bacteria causing infectious diseases.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa.

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    Jonker, A; Picard, J A

    2010-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multi-resistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility in thermophilic Campylobacter species isolated from pigs and chickens in South Africa

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    A. Jonker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of sporadic food-borne bacterial disease in humans. In intensive poultry and pig rearing systems the use of oral antibiotics is essential to maintain health. Consequently, there is a high risk for the thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli resident in the intestinal tract of food animals to develop resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Contamination of meat or eggs with pathogenic strains of resistant Campylobacter could, therefore, result in a form of campylobacteriosis in humans that is difficult to treat. The aim of this investigation was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from pigs and poultry by the broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test. A total of 482 samples from the Western Cape and Gauteng provinces was collected and analysed. Thirty-eight Campylobacter isolates were obtained. Analysis of data revealed that C. jejuni strains mainly of poultry origin were more resistant to the fluoroquinolones, macrolides and tetracyclines and the C. coli strains were more resistant to the macrolides and lincosamides. Multiresistance was also detected in 4 Campylobacter strains from the Western Cape. With the exception of tetracyclines, strains from high health Gauteng broiler farms were susceptible to antibiotics used to treat Campylobacter infections.

  1. Emerging Resistance, New Antimicrobial Agents  …  but No Tests! The Challenge of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing in the Current US Regulatory Landscape.

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    Humphries, R M; Hindler, J A

    2016-07-01

    Accurate and timely performance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by the clinical laboratory is paramount to combating antimicrobial resistance. The ability of laboratories in the United States to effectively perform ASTs is challenged by several factors. Some, such as new resistance mechanisms and the associated evolution of testing recommendations and breakpoints, are inevitable. Others are entirely man-made. These include unnecessarily strict US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limitations on how commercial AST systems can be used for diagnostic testing, the absence of up-to-date performance data on these systems, and the lack of commercially available FDA-cleared tests for newer antimicrobial agents or for older agents with updated breakpoints. This viewpoint will highlight contemporary AST challenges faced by the clinical laboratory, and propose some solutions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Phenotypic, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and virulence factors of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from buffalo and cow mastitic milk

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    Osman, Kamelia M; Hassan, Hany M; Orabi, Ahmed; Abdelhafez, Ahmed S T

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence and virulence genes of Klebsiella mastitis pathogens in a buffalo population are undocumented. Also, the association of rmpA kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, K1 and K2 virulent factors with K. pneumoniae buffalo, and cow mastitis is unreported. The virulence of K. pneumoniae was evaluated through both phenotypic and molecular assays. In vivo virulence was assessed by the Vero cell cytotoxicity, suckling mouse assay and mice lethality test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion method. The 45 K. pneumoniae isolates from buffalo (n = 10/232) and cow (n = 35/293) milk were isolated (45/525; 8.6%) and screened via PCR for seven virulence genes encoding uridine diphosphate galactose 4 epimerase encoding gene responsible for capsule and smooth lipopolysaccharide synthesis (uge), siderophores (kfu and aerobactin), protectines or invasins (rmpA and magA), and the capsule and hypermucoviscosity (K1 and K2). The most common virulence genes were rmpA, kfu, uge, and magA (77.8% each). Aerobactin and K1 genes were found at medium rates of 66.7% each and K2 (55.6%). The Vero cell cytotoxicity and LD (50) in mice were found in 100% of isolates. A multidrug resistance pattern was observed for 40% of the antimicrobials. The distribution of virulence profiles indicate a role of rmpA, kfu, uge, magA, Aerobactin, and K1 and K2 in pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae in udder infections and invasiveness, and constitutes a threat for vulnerable animals, even more if they are in combination with antibiotic resistance. PMID:24915048

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

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    George Cosmin Nadas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders (nasal discharge aged 6 to 9 weeks in 2 series, using sterile swabs. Samples were initially inoculated on blood agar and MacConkey agar following the characteristics of the colonies and microscopic examination that enabled the identification of bacterial species. Isolated strains were used to flood Mueller-Hinton agar to carry out sensitivity testing. The antibiotics tested were represented by: Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, Gentamicin, Florfenicol, Enrofloxacin, Marbofloxacin, Penicillin G, Cefquinone, Tulathromycin, Ceftiofur, Tylosin and Cephalotin. Results: Genus Streptococcus have been identified in 23 samples, followed by Staphylococcus identified in 14 samples, and Bacillus spp., in 10 nasal swabs; The most common bacteria associations were represented by Streptococcus-Staphylococcus, Streptococcus-Staphylococcus-Bacillus, and Streptococcus-E.coli. The most efficient antibiotic was Cefquinome (Cobactan, followed by Penicillin G and Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (Amoxiclav; the least effective antibiotics were Florfenicol and Tulathromycin. Conclusions: The study carried out on nasal discharge samples collected from calves with respiratory disorders and their antimicrobial profile testing led to the following conclusions: 1 Low susceptibility to Florfenicol is caused by previous treatments when this molecule was excessively used and without prior sensitivity testing. 2 Cefquinome may represent an emergency therapeutic antibiotic for respiratory

  4. Data Mining Validation of Fluconazole Breakpoints Established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Laguna, Fernando; Rodriguez-Pardo, Dolors; Almirante, Benito; Pahissa, Albert; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2009-01-01

    European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints classify Candida strains with a fluconazole MIC ≤ 2 mg/liter as susceptible, those with a fluconazole MIC of 4 mg/liter as representing intermediate susceptibility, and those with a fluconazole MIC > 4 mg/liter as resistant. Machine learning models are supported by complex statistical analyses assessing whether the results have statistical relevance. The aim of this work was to use supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used to produce EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints. Five supervised classifiers (J48, Correlation and Regression Trees [CART], OneR, Naïve Bayes, and Simple Logistic) were used to analyze two cohorts of patients with oropharyngeal candidosis and candidemia. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variables consisted of values for the MIC or the proportion between the dose administered and the MIC of the isolate (dose/MIC). Statistical power was assessed by determining values for sensitivity and specificity, the false-positive rate, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). CART obtained the best statistical power for a MIC > 4 mg/liter for detecting failures (sensitivity, 87%; false-positive rate, 8%; area under the ROC curve, 0.89; MCC index, 0.80). For dose/MIC determinations, the target was >75, with a sensitivity of 91%, a false-positive rate of 10%, an area under the ROC curve of 0.90, and an MCC index of 0.80. Other classifiers gave similar breakpoints with lower statistical power. EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints have been validated by means of machine learning methods. These computer tools must be incorporated in the process for developing breakpoints to avoid researcher bias, thus enhancing the statistical power of the model. PMID:19433568

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma in Malaysia

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    Chia W. Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2% were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from <3 to >105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2% followed by minimarkets (89.1% and hypermarkets (83.3%. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+ were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130 of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a

  6. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteremia in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Ng, Lily Siew Yong; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Eng, Li Ching

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009 to 2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Susceptibilities to amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin and piperacillin-tazobactam were performed using Etest strips with categorical interpretations according to current CLSI breakpoints. Metronidazole-resistant and carbapenem-resistant anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were screened for the nim and cfiA genes. Clinical data was obtained retrospectively from electronic medical records. During the 3 year period, Bacteroides fragilis group (41%), Clostridium species (14%), Propionibacterium species (9%) and Fusobacterium species (6%) were the most commonly isolated anaerobes. Patients with anaerobic bacteraemia that were included in the study were predominantly above 60 years of age, with community-acquired infections. The most commonly used empiric antibiotic therapies were beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (44%) and metronidazole (10%). The crude mortality was 25%, and appropriate initial antibiotic therapy was not significantly associated with improved survival. Intra-abdominal infections (39%) and soft-tissue infections (33%) accounted for nearly three-quarters of all bacteraemia. Antibiotics with the best anaerobic activity were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with in-vitro susceptibility rates of 95%, 95%, 94% and 92% respectively. Susceptibilities to penicillin (31%), clindamycin (60%) and moxifloxacin (84%) were more variable. Two multidrug

  7. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015.

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    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P

    2017-02-01

    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in

  8. Development of Similar Broth Microdilution Methods to Determine the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum.

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    Gieseker, Charles M; Crosby, Tina C; Mayer, Tamara D; Bodeis, Sonya M; Stine, Cynthia B

    2016-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum are major fish pathogens that cause diseases that may require antimicrobial therapy. Choice of appropriate treatment is dependent upon determining the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates. Therefore we optimized methods for broth microdilution testing of F. columnare and F. psychrophilum to facilitate standardizing an antimicrobial susceptibility test. We developed adaptations to make reproducible broth inoculums and confirmed the proper incubation time and media composition. We tested the stability of potential quality-control bacteria and compared test results between different operators. Log phase occurred at 48 h for F. columnare and 72-96 h for F. psychrophilum, confirming the test should be incubated at 28°C for approximately 48 h and at 18°C for approximately 96 h, respectively. The most consistent susceptibility results were achieved with plain, 4-g/L, dilute Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with dilute calcium and magnesium. Supplementing the broth with horse serum did not improve growth. The quality-control strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658, yielded stable minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against all seven antimicrobials tested after 30 passes at 28°C and 15 passes at 18°C. In comparison tests, most MICs of the isolates agreed 100% within one drug dilution for ampicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline. The agreement was lower with the ormetoprim-sulfdimethoxine combination, but there was at least 75% agreement for all but one isolate. These experiments have provided methods to help standardize antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these nutritionally fastidious aquatic bacteria. Received June 24, 2015; accepted October 2, 2015.

  9. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Diabetic Patients with Controlled and Uncontrolled Glycemia in Kuwait

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    May Sewify

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of glycemic control in diabetic patients on UTI prevalence, type of strains, and their antimicrobial drugs susceptibility. This study was conducted on urine samples from 722 adult diabetic patients from which 252 (35% samples were positive for uropathogens. Most UTI cases occurred in the uncontrolled glycemic group (197 patients versus 55 patients with controlled glycemia. Higher glycemic levels were measured in uncontrolled glycemia group (HbA1c = 8.3 ± 1.5 and 5.4 ± 0.4, resp., P<0.0001. Females showed much higher prevalence of UTI than males in both glycemic groups (88.5% and 11.5%, resp., P<0.0001. In the uncontrolled glycemia group 90.9% of the UTI cases happened at ages above 40 years and a clear correlation was obtained between patient age ranges and number of UTI cases (r=0.94; P=0.017, whereas in the group with controlled glycemia no trend was observed. Escherichia coli was the predominant uropathogen followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and they were together involved in 76.2% of UTI cases. Those species were similarly present in both diabetic groups and displayed comparable antibiotic resistance pattern. These results highlight the importance of controlling glycemia in diabetic patients to reduce the UTI regardless of age and gender.

  10. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Wayne A; Kuang, Shan N; Hernandez, Rina; Chong, Melissa C; Ewing, Peter J; Fleischer, Jen; Meng, Jia; Chu, Sheena; Terashita, Dawn; English, L'Tanya; Chen, Wangxue; Xu, H Howard

    2016-05-04

    Antibiotic resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have been responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial infections including bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this study, we analyzed 38 isolates of A. baumannii obtained from two hospital outbreaks in Los Angeles County for the molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis, tri-locus multiplex PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (Pasteur scheme) were used to examine clonal relationships of the outbreak isolates. Broth microdilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates. PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing were employed to characterize antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Trilocus multiplex PCR showed these isolates belong to Global Clones I and II, which were confirmed to ST1 and ST2, respectively, by multi-locus sequence typing. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis identified two clonal clusters, one with 20 isolates (Global Clone I) and the other with nine (Global Clone II), which dominated the two outbreaks. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using 14 antibiotics indicated that all isolates were resistant to antibiotics belonging to four or more categories of antimicrobial agents. In particular, over three fourth of 38 isolates were found to be resistant to both imipenem and meropenem. Additionally, all isolates were found to be resistant to piperacillin, four cephalosporin antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Resistance phenotypes of these strains to fluoroquinolones were correlated with point mutations in gyrA and parC genes that render reduced affinity to target proteins. ISAba1 was detected immediately upstream of the bla OXA-23 gene present in those isolates that were found to be resistant to both carbapenems. Class 1 integron-associated resistance gene cassettes appear to contribute to resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The two outbreaks were

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenicEscherichia coliisolated from broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Gamal; Awad, Amal; Mohamed, Nada

    2017-10-01

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers. In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E. coli , and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion method. In addition, E. coli isolates were screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of a number of resistance genes including aadA1 gene encodes streptomycin/neomycin, tetA encodes resistance to tetracycline, sul1 encodes sulfonamides, and β-lactamase encoding genes (bla TEM and bla SHV ). A total of 73 (36.5%) isolates were biochemically identified as E. coli strains. O78, O2, and O1 are the most prevalent serotypes detected. E. coli displayed a high resistance against penicillin (100%), followed by cefepime (95.8%) and a low resistance to norfloxacin (36.9%), and chloramphenicol (30%). Depending on the results of PCR, sul 1 gene was the most predominant antibiotic resistant gene (87%) followed by bla TEM (78%), tetA genes (60%), and aadA (54%). However, bla SHV had the lowest prevalence (23%). The obtained results demonstrated the importance of studies on APEC and antibiotic resistance genes in our region which associated with intensive poultry industry, aiming to acquire preventive measures to minimize losses due to APEC and associated multidrug-resistance and resistance genes that of high significance to the rational use of antibiotics in clinical and public health.

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens

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    Gamal Younis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers. Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E. coli, and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion method. In addition, E. coli isolates were screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of a number of resistance genes including aadA1 gene encodes streptomycin/neomycin, tetA encodes resistance to tetracycline, sul1 encodes sulfonamides, and β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM and blaSHV. Results: A total of 73 (36.5% isolates were biochemically identified as E. coli strains. O78, O2, and O1 are the most prevalent serotypes detected. E. coli displayed a high resistance against penicillin (100%, followed by cefepime (95.8% and a low resistance to norfloxacin (36.9%, and chloramphenicol (30%. Depending on the results of PCR, sul1 gene was the most predominant antibiotic resistant gene (87% followed by blaTEM (78%, tetA genes (60%, and aadA (54%. However, blaSHV had the lowest prevalence (23%. Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the importance of studies on APEC and antibiotic resistance genes in our region which associated with intensive poultry industry, aiming to acquire preventive measures to minimize losses due to APEC and associated multidrug-resistance and resistance genes that of high significance to the rational use of antibiotics in clinical and public health.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from retail shrimps in Malaysia

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    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine and estuarine bacterium that has been the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks which leads to a significant threat to human health worldwide. Consumption of seafood contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes acute gastroenteritis in individuals. The bacterium poses two main virulence factor including the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh which is a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimps purchased from wetmarkets and supermarkets. The toxR-based PCR assay indicated that a total of 57.8% (185/320 isolates were positive for V. parahaemolyticus. Only 10% (19/185 toxR-positive isolate exhibit the TDH-related hemolysin (trh gene and none of the isolates were tested positive for thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh. The MAR index was measured for 14 common antimicrobial agents. The results indicated 98% of the isolates were highly susceptible to imipenem, ampicillin sulbactam (96%, chloramphenicol (95%, trimethoprim-sulfamet (93%, gentamicin (85%, levofloxacin (83% and tetracycline (82%. The chloramphenicol (catA2 and kanamycin (aphA-3 resistance genes were detected in the resistant V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Our results demonstrate that shrimps are contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus, some of which carry the trh-gene thus being potential to cause food borne illness. The occurrence of multidrug resistance strains in the environment could be an indication of excessive usage of antibiotics in agriculture and aquaculture fields.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food and food processing environment in Poland.

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    Korsak, Dorota; Borek, Anna; Daniluk, Sylwia; Grabowska, Anna; Pappelbaum, Krystyna

    2012-09-03

    A total of 471 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from different types of food and food-related sources in Poland during 2004-2010 were examined. This number includes 200 isolates from fish, 144 from fresh and frozen vegetables, 43 ready-to-eat products (deli foods, cold cuts), 13 from dairy products, 16 from raw meats, 15 from confectionery products and 40 directly from processing plants. All isolates were subjected to serotyping and lineage assays using PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility using E-test and a broth microdilution method. Of all isolates, 256 (54.4%), 120 (25.5%), 59 (12.5%), 36 (7.6%) were identified as serotypes 1/2a (or 3a), 1/2c (or 3c), 1/2b (or 3b or 7), and 4b (or 4d or 4e), respectively. A direct correlation between the most common serotypes and three L. monocytogenes lineages was also observed. All L. monocytogenes isolates belonged to lineages I (20.2%) and II (79.8%). All strains were sensitive to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin, trimethoprim, rifampicin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazol. Two of the L. monocytogenes strains (0.42%) showed phenotypic resistance. One strain was resistant to tetracycline and minocycline due to the presence of tet(M). It did not carry gene int, which may indicate that the tet(M) gene in this strain was not integrated in the transposon Tn916-Tn1545 family. The resistance of the second strain to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin was attributed to active efflux associated with overexpression of gene lde. Our data indicate the low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among L. monocytogenes isolates from food and food-related sources in Poland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and chickens (2008-2011).

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    de Jong, Anno; Smet, Annemieke; Ludwig, Carolin; Stephan, Bernd; De Graef, Evelyne; Vanrobaeys, Mia; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2014-07-16

    Using the agar dilution method, antimicrobial susceptibility to human-use antibiotics was determined among Belgian faecal Salmonella isolates from healthy pigs and broiler chickens. Both epidemiological cut-off values and clinical breakpoints were applied for interpretation of the results. Cephalosporin-resistant isolates were examined for the presence of genes encoding CTX-M, SHV, TEM and CMY β-lactamases. All isolates with decreased quinolone susceptibility were screened for plasmid-borne genes qnr, qepA and aac(6')-Ib-cr. In all, 368 Salmonella isolates were recovered from pigs and 452 from chickens. Clinical resistance to ciprofloxacin was absent in isolates of both host species, and was 1.9 and 13.1% to cefotaxime in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Decreased susceptibility to cefotaxime amounted to 2.2 and 0.7%, whereas for ciprofloxacin this was 3.0 and 23.0% in pig and poultry isolates, respectively. Ciprofloxacin decreased susceptibility was limited to few serovars, mainly Paratyphi B. Multidrug resistance was markedly higher for pig isolates (39.7%) than for chicken isolates (17.3%). Sixty-six cefotaxime-resistant isolates, 59 from chickens and 7 from pigs, were phenotypically determined as ESBL/AmpC producers; predominantly Paratyphi B and Typhimurium serovars. BlaCTX-M (mostly blaCTXM-1, but also blaCTXM-2 and blaCTXM-9) and blaTEM-52 were the predominant ESBL genes. Only few isolates expressed SHV-12 or an AmpC enzyme (CMY-2). Isolates of four serovars carried qnr genes: Brandenburg and Llandof from pigs, both qnrS; Indiana and Paratyphi B from chickens with qnrB and qnrA. The latter isolate carried blaCTX-M-9 and was the only strain with a plasmid-borne quinolone resistance gene among the ESBL/AmpC producers. This Salmonella survey confirms that the ESBL/AmpC producers are particularly prevalent in chickens (12.8%), and much less in pigs (1.9%). A link between plasmid-borne quinolone resistance genes and ESBLs/AmpC was uncommon. Copyright

  16. Susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of bacteria isolated in patients with acute gastrointestinal infections in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Farias, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E

    Enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in Mexico City have shown a high rate of resistance to different antibiotics, with the exception of rifaximin (RIF). RIF is a nonabsorbable antibiotic that reaches high fecal concentrations (≈ 8,000μg/g). Susceptibility to antimicrobials can vary in different geographic regions. To study the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobials of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated in patients with acute diarrhea in the southeastern region of Mexico. A total of 614 strains of bacteria isolated from patients with acute diarrhea from 4 cities in Southeast Mexico were analyzed. An antibiogram with the following antibiotics was created: ampicillin (AMP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), chloramphenicol (CHL), and fosfomycin (FOS), assessed through the agar diffusion method at the standard concentrations recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), and RIF, assessed through microdilution at 4 concentrations. The bacteria were Escherichia coli (55%), as the majority, in all its pathogenic variants, Shigella (16.8%), Salmonella (15.3%), Aeromonas (7.8%), and less than 5% Campylobacter, Yersinia, Vibrio, and Plesiomonas. The accumulated overall susceptibility to RIF was 69.1, 90.8, 98.9, and 100% at concentrations of 100, 200, 400, and 800μg/ml, respectively. Overall susceptibility to other antibiotics was FOS 82.8%, CHL 76.8%, CIP 73.9%, FUR 64%, T-S 58.7%, NEO 55.8%, and AMP 23.8%. Susceptibility to RIF at 400 and 800μg was significantly greater than with the other antimicrobials (P 98% of the bacterial strains and a high frequency of resistance to several common antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from sputum culture of patients with cystic fibrosis: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a serious concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Farahmand, Fateme; Motamed, Farzaneh; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-11-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sputum specimens were cultured for the following bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. cepacia complex. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In our study, 54% of the patients (n = 93) harbored at least once S. aureus, 30% (n = 52) P. aeruginosa, and 2% (n = 3) Burkholderia cepacia. In 40 patients (23%), none of these organisms was grown. An increasing colonization rate of P. aeruginosa in the second decade of life was found. In contrast, the colonization rate of S. aureus was constant in both decades of life. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 40 isolates (43%). Among MRSA, no resistance against vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin occurred. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to meropenem, imipenem, doripenem, levofloxacin and polymixin B were more than 90%. The prevalence of MRSA has been rising. Since its impact on clinical outcomes, optimal prevention and treatment strategies are unclear, further studies to expand the knowledge about the infection control strategies and MRSA treatment are highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication: Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Poland.

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    Jagielski, T; Puacz, E; Lisowski, A; Siedlecki, P; Dudziak, W; Międzobrodzki, J; Krukowski, H

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative agent of bovine mastitis, a disease that remains a major economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the antimicrobial resistance patterns and the genetic composition of 80 S. aureus mastitis isolates collected from 14 dairy farms in Eastern Poland were determined. Of the 10 antimicrobial agents evaluated, only testing for penicillin G produced drug resistance. As 41% of the S. aureus isolates were penicillin resistant, this drug along with other β-lactamase-sensitive β-lactams, should rather not be considered for the treatment of bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus. Upon genotyping, with a triplex PCR method, a total of 11 distinct PCR types were produced. The population structure of S. aureus isolates was highly clonal, with 1 predominant genotype circulating on each farm. The observed similarities in the genotype composition of S. aureus populations from geographically distant farms underscore the significance of interfarm transmission of S. aureus in Poland. This, in turn, argues for the establishment of a nationwide surveillance program for bovine mastitis due to this pathogen. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation in Outpatient Oral Antimicrobial Use Patterns among Canadian Provinces, 2000 to 2010

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    Shiona K Glass-Kaastra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The volume and patterns of antimicrobial drug use are key variables to consider when developing guidelines for prescribing, and programs to address stewardship and combat the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Because drug programs are regulated at the provincial level, there is an expectation that antibiotic use may vary among provinces.

  20. Contributions of culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests to the retreatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

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    Bruno Horta Andrade

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the efficacy of retreatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB with regard to treatment outcomes and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ST profiles. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 144 patients treated at a referral hospital in Brazil. All of them had undergone prior treatment, were smear-positive for TB and received a standardized retreatment regimen. Fisher's 2-tailed exact test and the χ2 test were used; RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results The patients were cured in 84 (58.3% cases. Failure was associated with relapsed treatment and abandonment (n=34. Culture tests were obtained for 103 (71.5% cases; 70 (48.6% had positive results. ST results were available for 67 (46.5% cases; the prevalence of acquired resistance was 53.7%. There were no significant differences between those who achieved or not therapeutic success (p=0.988, despite being sensitive or resistant to 1 or more drugs. Rifampicin resistance was independently associated with therapeutic failure (OR: 4.4, 95% CI:1.12-17.37, p=0.034. For those cases in which cultures were unavailable, a 2nd model without this information was built. In this, return after abandonment was significantly associated with retreatment failure (OR: 3.59, 95% CI:1.17-11.06, p=0.026. Conclusions In this cohort, the general resistance profile appeared to have no influence on treatment outcome, except in cases of rifampicin resistance. The form of reentry was another independent predictor of failure. The use of bacterial culture identification and ST in TB management must be re-evaluated. The recommendations for different susceptibility profiles must also be improved.

  1. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial sensitivity test was carried out on bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and children with HbAA in Maiduguri. Urine specimens were collected and cultured by standard methods. Sensitivity to 15 antimicrobials (based on availability of sensitivity ...

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria, isolated from patients treated at Jesenice General hospital in the period between 2004 and 2006

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    Helena Ribič

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is still one of the mayor problems in medicine. In the year 2006, microbiologists of the Institute of Public Health Kranj together with clinicians and pharmacist of Jesenice General Hospital prepared the programm of antimicrobial resistance surveillance of patients treated in the hospital. Some of the results are presented in this article.Methods: In the retrospective study, bacterial strains, isolated from different samples were analysed. The strains were isolated and studied during the routine work of microbiology laboratory of IPH Kranj in the period between 2004 and 2006.Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria from haemocultures was Escherichia coli (35.4 %. In the years 2004 and 2006, susceptibility of strains for ciprofloxacin was 95.7 % and 97.2 %, for parenteral cefuroxime (95.7 % and 94.4 %, for cefotaxime and gentamicin in both years 100 %. Susceptibility of E. coli strains from urine samples in patients from the department for internal medicine was in 2004 and 2006 for co-amoxiclav 88.5 % and 70.1 %, for co-trimoxazole 60.3 % and 81.3 %, for cefaclor 94.9 % and 89.7 %, for ciprofloxacin 83.3 % and 82.2 %. Among strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 100 % were sensitive to vancomycin and 99.3 % to linezolid in 2006. Among methicillin susceptible strains, sensitivity to erythromycin, clindamycin and ciprofloxacin lowered slightely in the three years period; in 2006 it was 87.6 %, 90.6 % and 89.1 %. Susceptibility of strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa was in 2006 similar comparing to 2004; it was 92 % for ceftazidime, 75 % for gentamicin, 64.6 % for ciprofloxacin and 96 % for imipenem. Among strains of Acinetobacter spp., sensitivity rate to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, piperacillin with tazobactam and gentamicin significantly fell in the year 2005 and stayed low in 2006.Conclusions: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance and trends of susceptibility are intended to guide

  3. Patterns of Antimicrobial Prescribing in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Abdulrahman Al-Yamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been designed to measure and improve the use of antimicrobials to achieve optimal clinical outcomes and reduce bacterial resistance. The aim of this study was to review patterns of antimicrobial prescribing for hospitalized patients in the acute care setting and assess the appropriateness of antimicrobial use among prescribers in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective audit of the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing in patients admitted to acute care settings in a tertiary care hospital in Oman over a four-week period (1 November to 28 November 2012. The data of all discharged patients were retrieved from the department databases. Patient records and prescriptions were reviewed by an infectious disease consultant. The rationality of antimicrobial use was evaluated, analyzed, and judged based on local standard guidelines and the experience of the evaluating consultant. Results: There were 178 patients discharged from acute medical teams over the study period. Sixty-four percent of the patients received a total of 287 antimicrobial agents during admission. The average number of antimicrobials prescribed per patient in those prescribed antimicrobials was 2.5±1.1. The most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent was piperacillin/tazobactam. Most patients had infections from gram-negative organisms, and high rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms were observed. Cultures were obtained before antimicrobial initiation in 25% of patients. Variability in antimicrobial selection for common infections was observed. Conclusions: National guidelines for the management of common infections are needed to minimize the overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in tertiary care hospitals. A large surveillance study on antimicrobial prescribing appropriateness in different hospital settings is warranted.

  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Microorganisms Isolated from Blood Cultures of Hospitalized Patients in Intensive Care Units

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    Emine Küçükateş

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate microorganism growth in blood cultures of hospitalized patients in our intensive care units and to determine appropriate antimicrobial agents for treatment. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the blood cultures obtained from the patients hospitalized in the Coronary and Surgical Intensive Care Units at the Institute of Cardiology, İstanbul University, between July 2013 and December 2014. All microorganisms were identified using the conventional methods. Results: A total of 1034 blood cultures were obtained from 324 patients. Microbial growth was detected in 174 (16.8% blood cultures of 68 patients. Among all microbial growth, 113 (58.55% were gram-positive bacteria, 69 (35.75% were gram-negative rods and 11 (5.7% were fungi. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent microorganism (48; 24.87%, followed by coagulasenegative Staphylococci (35; 18,13%, Enterococcus spp. (30; 15,54%, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. 60.4% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin-resistant and 65.7% of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were also methicillin-resistant. All Staphylococci and Enterococci were not resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline. All the gram-negative rods were susceptible to colistin and tigecycline, followed by imipenem (71.6% and meropenem (70.7%. Conclusions: We assume that infection control measures must be increased due to high antibiotic resistance and besides, antibiotic policies should be improved.

  5. Correcting a Fundamental Flaw in the Paradigm for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

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    Selvi C. Ersoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing cause of death worldwide, resulting in a global ‘call to action’ to avoid receding into an era lacking effective antibiotics. Despite the urgency, the healthcare industry still relies on a single in vitro bioassay to determine antibiotic efficacy. This assay fails to incorporate environmental factors normally present during host-pathogen interactions in vivo that significantly impact antibiotic efficacy. Here we report that standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST failed to detect antibiotics that are in fact effective in vivo; and frequently identified antibiotics that were instead ineffective as further confirmed in mouse models of infection and sepsis. Notably, AST performed in media mimicking host environments succeeded in identifying specific antibiotics that were effective in bacterial clearance and host survival, even though these same antibiotics failed in results using standard test media. Similarly, our revised media further identified antibiotics that were ineffective in vivo despite passing the AST standard for clinical use. Supplementation of AST medium with sodium bicarbonate, an abundant in vivo molecule that stimulates global changes in bacterial structure and gene expression, was found to be an important factor improving the predictive value of AST in the assignment of appropriate therapy. These findings have the potential to improve the means by which antibiotics are developed, tested, and prescribed.

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Molecular Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobing; Cao, Zaiqiu; Dai, Zhifeng; Li, Yuan; He, Xiaohong; Hu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Fuyun; Ren, Yihui

    2017-05-24

    Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have rapidly spread through clinical units worldwide. This study investigated the epidemiology and resistance profiles of K. pneumoniae strains isolated in central China between 2009 and 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemase production by these K. pneumoniae strains, and the prevalence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was investigated by multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenem resistance has emerged as a major concern in K. pneumoniae infections, as phenotype testing has detected carbapenemases in nearly 20% of isolates. KPC-producing isolates in a local epidemic were clonally related, with ST11 being the reservoir for the bla KPC-2 gene and ESBL genes. During the 6-year collection period, the prevalence of ESBLs was dynamic, and suggested that bla CTX-M-55 might become prevalent in the future. Our findings demonstrate the high prevalence of carbapenemase- and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in central China and predict a future local epidemic of KPC-2 and CTX-M-55.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  8. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Miniaturized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test by Combining Concentration Gradient Generation and Rapid Cell Culturing

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    Samuel C. Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of bacterial infection relies on timely diagnosis and proper prescription of antibiotic drugs. The antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST is one of the most crucial experimental procedures, providing the baseline information for choosing effective antibiotic agents and their dosages. Conventional methods, however, require long incubation times or significant instrumentation costs to obtain test results. We propose a lab-on-a-chip approach to perform AST in a simple, economic, and rapid manner. Our assay platform miniaturizes the standard broth microdilution method on a microfluidic device (20 × 20 mm that generates an antibiotic concentration gradient and delivers antibiotic-containing culture media to eight 30-nL chambers for cell culture. When tested with 20 μL samples of a model bacterial strain (E. coli ATCC 25922 treated with ampicillin or streptomycin, our method allows for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations consistent with the microdilution test in three hours, which is almost a factor of ten more rapid than the standard method.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bifidobacterium breve strains and genetic analysis of streptomycin resistance of probiotic B. breve strain Yakult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwaki, Mayumi; Sato, Takashi

    2009-09-15

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 17 antimicrobials for 26 Bifidobacterium breve strains of various origins were determined by broth microdilution. MIC distributions for 17 antimicrobials except streptomycin and tetracycline were unimodal for all strains tested, whereas bimodal distributions were observed for streptomycin and tetracycline. The probiotic strain B. breve strain Yakult showed intrinsic susceptibility to all antimicrobials except streptomycin to which the strain showed an atypically higher MIC of >256 microg/ml. Because this strain is a commercial strain, which is often ingested by many consumers on a daily basis, it is very important to determine the genetic basis for streptomycin resistance of this strain. Molecular analysis revealed that a mutation of the rpsL gene for ribosomal protein S12 was responsible for this streptomycin resistance. The resistance of B. breve strain Yakult to streptomycin, therefore, is caused by a chromosomal mutation and very unlikely to be transferred to other microorganisms.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  12. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  13. Effects of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Ihara, Yuichiro; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates was also investigated. Patients with acute phases of chronic periodontitis were subjected to clinical examination and microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples by culture technique. Sitafloxacin was then administered (100 mg/day for 5 days) systemically. The clinical and microbiological examinations were repeated 6-8 days after administration. Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to various antimicrobials were determined using the broth and agar dilution methods. From the sampled sites in 30 participants, a total of 355 clinical isolates (34 different bacterial species) were isolated and identified. Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus mitis were the most prevalent cultivable bacteria in acute sites. Systemic administration of sitafloxacin yielded a significant improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. Among the antimicrobials tested, sitafloxacin was the most potent against the clinical isolates with an MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml at baseline. After administration, most clinical isolates were still highly susceptible to sitafloxacin although some increase in MICs was observed. The results suggest that systemic administration of sitafloxacin is effective against subgingival bacteria isolated from acute periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of clonal relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal Escherichia coli from healthy dogs and their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenske, Katherine A; Bemis, David A; Gillespie, Barbara E; D'Souza, Doris H; Oliver, Stephen P; Draughon, Francis A; Matteson, Karla J; Bartges, Joseph W

    2009-09-01

    To determine prevalence of within-household sharing of fecal Escherichia coli between dogs and their owners on the basis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), compare antimicrobial susceptibility between isolates from dogs and their owners, and evaluate epidemiologic features of cross-species sharing by use of a questionnaire. 61 healthy dog-owner pairs and 30 healthy control humans. 3 fecal E coli colonies were isolated from each participant; PFGE profiles were used to establish relatedness among bacterial isolates. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials was determined via disk diffusion. A questionnaire was used to evaluate signalment, previous antimicrobial therapy, hygiene, and relationship with dog. A wide array of PFGE profiles was observed in E coli isolates from all participants. Within-household sharing occurred with 9.8% prevalence, and across-household sharing occurred with 0.3% prevalence. No behaviors were associated with increased clonal sharing between dog and owner. No differences were found in susceptibility results between dog-owner pairs. Control isolates were more likely than canine isolates to be resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Owners and control humans carried more multdrug-resistant E coli than did dogs. Within-household sharing of E coli was detected more commonly than across-household sharing, but both direct contact and environmental reservoirs may be routes of cross-species sharing of bacteria and genes for resistance. Cross-species bacterial sharing is a potential public health concern, and good hygiene is recommended.

  15. The second nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from male urethritis in Japan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Uehara, Shinya; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Hosobe, Takahide; Ito, Shin; Ito, Kenji; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Masayasu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Matsumura, Masaru; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Takayama, Kazuo; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Sumii, Toru; Kadena, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Maeda, Shinichi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Shirane, Takeshi; Yoh, Mutsumasa; Akiyama, Kikuo; Imai, Toshio; Kano, Motonori

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the most important concern in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections is the increase in antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains including resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, fluoroquinolones or macrolides. To investigate the trends of antimicrobial susceptibility among N. gonorrhoeae strains isolated from male patients with urethritis, a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the second nationwide surveillance study. Urethral discharge was collected from male patients with urethritis at 26 medical facilities from March 2012 to January 2013. Of the 151 specimens, 103 N. gonorrhoeae strains were tested for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. None of the strains was resistant to ceftriaxone, but the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90% of ceftriaxone increased to 0.125 μg/ml, and 11 (10.7%) strains were considered less susceptible with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. There were 11 strains resistant to cefixime, and the MICs of these strains were 0.5 μg/ml. The distributions of the MICs of fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin, were bimodal. Sitafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, showed strong activity against all strains, including strains resistant to other three fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and tosufloxacin. The azithromycin MICs in 2 strains were 1 μg/ml. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Enteropathogens Isolated from International Travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India from 2006 to 2008▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang-Latimer, Jeannette; Jafri, Syed; VanTassel, Audrey; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Gurleen, Kaur; Rodriguez, Savio; Nandy, Ranjan K.; Ramamurthy, Thandavaryan; Chatterjee, Santanu; McKenzie, Robin; Steffen, Robert; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained high for the last 50 years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and use of prophylactic drugs for TD. We last examined the in vitro susceptibilities of commonly used antibiotics against TD pathogens in 1997. We now examine 456 enteropathogens isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala with diarrhea acquired between 2006 and 2008 to determine changes in susceptibility against 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline, continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first-line antibiotic agents, including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin, showed significantly higher MICs than in our earlier study, and MIC90 levels were above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when Central America was compared with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates showed increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.023) and levofloxacin (P = 0.0078) in India compared with Central America. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed increased resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics tested. Compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there were 4- to 10-fold increases in MIC90 values for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs. Rising MICs over time imply the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and geographically specific recommendations in TD therapy. PMID:21115800

  17. Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns in Brazilian hospitals: summary of results from three years of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio S. Sader

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns may vary significantly from country to country and also in different hospitals within a country. Thus, regional surveillance programs are essential to guide empirical therapy and infection control measures. METHODS: Rank order of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic species causing bloodstream infections (BSI, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI, wound or skin and soft tissue infections (WSSTI, and urinary tract infections (UTI in hospitalized patients were determined by collecting consecutive isolates over a specified period of time, as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program (SENTRY. All isolates were tested by reference broth microdilution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 3,728 bacterial strains were obtained from January, 1997, to December, 1999, from 12 Brazilian hospitals located in 4 states. The largest number of isolates were obtained from patients with BSI (2,008, followed by LRTI (822 cases, UTI (468 cases, and WSSTI (430 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in general (22.8% - 852 isolates, followed by E. coli (13.8% - 516 cases and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.3% - 496 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was also the most common species isolated from BSI (23.6% and WSSTI (45.8%, and P. aeruginosa was the most frequent species isolated from patients with LRTI (29.4%. The main bacterial resistance problems found in this study were: imipenem resistance among P. aeruginosa (69.8% susceptibility and Acinetobacter spp. (88.1% susceptibility; ESBL production among K. pneumoniae (48.4% and E. coli (8.9%; resistance to third generation cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp. (68.1% susceptible to ceftazidime and oxacillin resistance among S. aureus (34.0% and coagulase negative staphylococci (80.1%. Only the carbapenems (88.1% to 89.3% susceptibility showed reasonable activity against the Acinetobacter spp

  18. Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns in Brazilian hospitals: summary of results from three years of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sader Helio S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen frequency and resistance patterns may vary significantly from country to country and also in different hospitals within a country. Thus, regional surveillance programs are essential to guide empirical therapy and infection control measures. METHODS: Rank order of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic species causing bloodstream infections (BSI, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI, wound or skin and soft tissue infections (WSSTI, and urinary tract infections (UTI in hospitalized patients were determined by collecting consecutive isolates over a specified period of time, as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program (SENTRY. All isolates were tested by reference broth microdilution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 3,728 bacterial strains were obtained from January, 1997, to December, 1999, from 12 Brazilian hospitals located in 4 states. The largest number of isolates were obtained from patients with BSI (2,008, followed by LRTI (822 cases, UTI (468 cases, and WSSTI (430 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen in general (22.8% - 852 isolates, followed by E. coli (13.8% - 516 cases and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.3% - 496 cases. Staphylococcus aureus was also the most common species isolated from BSI (23.6% and WSSTI (45.8%, and P. aeruginosa was the most frequent species isolated from patients with LRTI (29.4%. The main bacterial resistance problems found in this study were: imipenem resistance among P. aeruginosa (69.8% susceptibility and Acinetobacter spp. (88.1% susceptibility; ESBL production among K. pneumoniae (48.4% and E. coli (8.9%; resistance to third generation cephalosporins among Enterobacter spp. (68.1% susceptible to ceftazidime and oxacillin resistance among S. aureus (34.0% and coagulase negative staphylococci (80.1%. Only the carbapenems (88.1% to 89.3% susceptibility showed reasonable activity against the Acinetobacter spp

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30% to chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin. Strains were found susceptible to cefoxitim (100%), cefotaxim (99.04 %), cephalotin (90.38%), amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (92.31%) and gentamycin (89.42%). Keywords: Salmonella, raw chicken gizzards, serogroups, antibiotic susceptibility, Cote dfIvoire.

  20. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin while the enteric bacteria were generally more resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The findings show that there is a high rate of wound infection in Kano, ...

  1. Quantitative susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to antimicrobial agents licenced in veterinary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Salmon, S.A.; Mevius, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus suis strains (n = 384) isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries to 10 antimicrobial agents was determined. For that purpose a microbroth dilution method was used according to CLSI recommendations. The following antimicrobial agents were tested:

  2. Enterococcus Species in the Oral Cavity: Prevalence, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Edson Yukio; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B.; Balducci, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are considered as transient constituent components of the oral microbiome that may cause a variety of oral and systemic infections. As there is sparse data on the oral enterococcal prevalence, we evaluated the Enterococcus spp. and their virulence attributes including antimicrobial resistance in a healthy Brazilian cohort. A total of 240 individuals in different age groups were studied (children 4–11 yrs, adolescents 12–17 yrs, young adults 18–29 yrs, adults 30–59 yrs, elderly over 60 yrs). Oral rinses were collected and isolates were identified by API 20 Strep and confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. E. faecalis isolates, in particular, were evaluated for virulence attributes such as their biofilm formation potential, and susceptibility to antimicrobials and an antiseptic, chlorhexidine gluconate. A total of 40 individuals (16.6%) and 10% children, 4% adolescents, 14% young adults, 30% adults, and 25% elderly carried oral enterococci. The oral enterococcal burden in adolescents was significantly lower than in the adults (p = 0.000) and elderly (p = 0.004). The proportion of carriers was higher among females (p = 0.001). E. faecalis was the most frequent isolate in all the age groups (p = 0.000), followed by E. durans and E. faecium. Whilst all the clinical isolates were able to form biofilms, only a proportion of them were able to produce lipase (92%), hemolysin (38%), and gelatinase (39%). Of all the isolates 53.8% were resistant to tetracycline, 12.3% to amoxicillin, 16.0% to ampicillin, 20.8% to chloramphenicol and 43.4% to erythromycin. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Our data suggest that in this Brazilian cohort the oral cavity may act as a significant reservoir of rather virulent and antibiotic resistant enterococci, with an increasing degree of carriage in the adults and elderly. Hence clinicians should be cognizant of this silent reservoir of virulent enterococci that may pose a particular threat of nosocomial infection

  3. Retrospective evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing pattern in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was followed by quinolones and cephalosporin. Ciprofloxacin and cephalexin were the most commonly prescribed quinolones and cephalosporins respectively. Gentamycin was ... Conclusion: Broad spectrum and older generation antibacterials were the predominantly utilized antimicrobials in this survey. Agents like ...

  4. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance ...

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring of Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs and Cats Across Europe: ComPath Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaert, Hilde; Morrissey, Ian; de Jong, Anno; El Garch, Farid; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Thiry, Julien; Youala, Myriam

    2017-04-01

    ComPath is a pan-European antimicrobial surveillance program collecting bacterial pathogens from dogs and cats not recently exposed to antimicrobials. We present minimum inhibitory concentration data obtained using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology for 616 urinary tract infection (UTI) isolates collected between 2008 and 2010. In both dogs and cats, the most common pathogen was Escherichia coli (59.8% and 46.7%, respectively). Antimicrobial activity against E. coli in dogs and cats was similar with fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility >90%. Ampicillin susceptibility was ∼80%. Staphylococcus intermedius Group isolates from dogs (67/437, 15.3%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (>90%) toward beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Four canine isolates (6%) were oxacillin resistant, and harbored mecA. Proteus mirabilis from dogs (48/437, 11.0%) had high antimicrobial susceptibility (∼90%) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, and marbofloxacin and slightly lower susceptibility (∼80-85%) to ampicillin and orbifloxacin. Streptococcus canis isolates (35/437, 8.0%) from dogs were all susceptible to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and >90% susceptible to marbofloxacin. Although resistance was not observed, high intermediate susceptibility was seen for both enrofloxacin (28.6%) and orbifloxacin (85.7%). Overall, antimicrobial in vitro activity appears to be high in UTI pathogens from dogs and cats with low multidrug resistance, although a lack of specific dog and cat breakpoints for important antimicrobials such as cefovecin, cephalexin, and ibafloxacin prevents analysis of susceptibility for these agents.

  6. A successful antimicrobial therapeutic strategy for the discitis caused by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans under unknown drug susceptibility: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shunsuke; Horiuchi, Yosuke; Uchida, Takae; Yonaha, Akiko; Miyata, Takanori; Nagano, Eiko; Kodama, Takao; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2018-04-20

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is well-known as the pathogen of gingivitis or periodontitis, and discitis or vertebral osteomyelitis cases caused by this organism have rarely been reported. Ampicillin or amoxicillin has been used in the previously reported discitis cases; however, no cases have been reported that is treated with levofloxacin. We report the first published case we chose levofloxacin to treat. We failed to perform the susceptibility testing because of the poor growth and fastidious nature of the organism, and the result of susceptibility of amoxicillin was unclear. Levofloxacin, which A. actinomycetemcomitans is usually susceptible to, can be an effective alternative oral antimicrobial agent in such cases. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan and Bhutan in 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007–2011. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40), Pakistan (n=18) and Bhutan (n=7) using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials) and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. Results The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%), followed by penicillin G (68%), erythromycin (62%), tetracycline (55%), and azithromycin (7.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin. Thirty-four (52%) of the isolates were producing β-lactamase. No penA mosaic alleles or A501-altered alleles of penicillin-binding protein 2 were identified. Forty-nine NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 42 STs have not been previously described worldwide. Conclusions Based on this study, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin can be used as an empirical first-line therapy for gonorrhoea in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan, whereas ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin should not be. It is imperative to strengthen the laboratory infrastructure in this region, as well as to expand the phenotypic and genetic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, emergence of new resistance, particularly, to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular epidemiology. PMID:23347339

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan and Bhutan in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sunil; Golparian, Daniel; Bala, Manju; Dorji, Dorji; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Jabeen, Kausar; Unemo, Magnus

    2013-01-24

    Knowledge on antimicrobial drug resistance and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates circulating in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan is sorely lacking. In this paper, we describe the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India, Pakistan, and Bhutan in 2007-2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility and β-lactamase production were tested for 65 N. gonorrhoeae isolates from India (n=40), Pakistan (n=18) and Bhutan (n=7) using Etest methodology (eight antimicrobials) and nitrocefin solution, respectively. Resistance determinants, i.e. penA, mtrR, porB1b, gyrA, and parC, were sequenced. N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) was performed for molecular epidemiology. The highest resistance level was observed for ciprofloxacin (94%), followed by penicillin G (68%), erythromycin (62%), tetracycline (55%), and azithromycin (7.7%). All the isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin. Thirty-four (52%) of the isolates were producing β-lactamase. No penA mosaic alleles or A501-altered alleles of penicillin-binding protein 2 were identified. Forty-nine NG-MAST STs were identified, of which 42 STs have not been previously described worldwide. Based on this study, ceftriaxone, cefixime, and spectinomycin can be used as an empirical first-line therapy for gonorrhoea in India, Pakistan, and Bhutan, whereas ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and azithromycin should not be. It is imperative to strengthen the laboratory infrastructure in this region, as well as to expand the phenotypic and genetic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, emergence of new resistance, particularly, to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and molecular epidemiology.

  9. Comparison of adhesin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities between uropathogenic and intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaohua; Hu, Fupin; Wu, Shi; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Minggui

    2013-01-01

    The presence of adhesins is arguably an important determinant of pathogenicity for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by agar dilution method, fifteen adhesin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was analyzed in 70 UPEC isolates and 41 commensal E. coli strains. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was determined with confirmatory test. The prevalence of ESBL-producers in UPEC (53%, 37/70) was higher than the commensal intestinal isolates (7%, 3/41), and 97% (36/37) of the ESBL-producing UPEC harbored bla CTX-M genes. afa was present in 36% (10/28) UPEC isolates from recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI), and none in the acute pyelonephritis, acute uncomplicated cystitis or commensal strains (PUPEC isolates, while 5% (2/41) of the commensal strains were papG positive (P = 0.0025), and the prevalence of papG was significantly higher in acute pyelonephritis group (71%) than the other two UTI groups (PUPEC isolates than in the commensal strains. ESBL-producing UPEC showed a lower prevalence of adhesin genes compared with non-ESBL-producing strains. The MLST profiles were different between UPEC and commensal strains, with ST131 (19%, 13/70) and ST10 (20%, 8/41) being the most common MLSTs, respectively. This study demonstrated that several adhesin genes were more prevalent in UPEC isolates than in commensal E. coli, and afa may be associated with recurrent lower UTI whereas papG is more frequently associated with acute pyelonephritis.

  10. Incidence and susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates from pus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    wound, eye and ear) randomly collected from the Medical Microbiology Laboratory of University College Hospital. (UCH),Ibadan, Nigeria was determined. Their susceptibility to selected antibiotics and Carica papaya.

  11. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility for azithromycin and ceftriaxone in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2012 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Carolien M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van Dam, Alje P; de Vries, Henry Jc; van der Helm, Jannie J

    2017-01-05

    Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin and ceftriaxone has been increasing in the past years. This is of concern since the combination of these antimicrobials is recommended as the first-line treatment option in most guidelines. To analyse trends in antimicrobial resistance, we retrospectively selected all consultations with a positive N. gonorrhoeae culture at the sexually transmitted infection clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from January 2012 through September 2015. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for azithromycin and ceftriaxone were analysed per year, and determinants associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC > 0.25 mg/L) or ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.032 mg/L) were assessed. Between 2012 and 2015 azithromycin resistance (MIC > 0.5 mg/L) was around 1.2%, the percentage of isolates with intermediate MICs (> 0.25 and ≤ 0.5 mg/L) increased from 3.7% in 2012, to 8.6% in 2015. Determinants associated with decreased azithromycin susceptibility were, for men who have sex with men (MSM), infections diagnosed in the year 2014, two infected sites, and HIV status (HIV; associated with less decreased susceptibility); for heterosexuals this was having ≥ 10 sex partners (in previous six months). Although no ceftriaxone resistance (MIC > 0.125 mg/L) was observed during the study period, the proportion of isolates with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility increased from 3.6% in 2012, to 8.4% in 2015. Determinants associated with decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility were, for MSM, infections diagnosed in 2014, and pharyngeal infections; and for heterosexuals, infections diagnosed in 2014 or 2015, being of female sex, and having ≥ 10 sex partners. Continued decrease of azithromycin and ceftriaxone susceptibility will threaten future treatment of gonorrhoea. Therefore, new treatment strategies are warranted. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from symptomatic men attending the Nanjing sexually transmitted diseases clinic (2011-2012): genetic characteristics of isolates with reduced sensitivity to ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sai; Su, Xiao-Hong; Le, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Fa-Xing; Wang, Bao-Xi; Rice, Peter A

    2014-11-27

    Evolving gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to public health. The aim of this study was to: update antimicrobial susceptibility data of Neisseria gonorrhoeae recently isolated in Nanjing, China and identify specific deteminants of antimicrobial resistance and gentoypes of isolates with decreased sensitivity to ceftriaxone. 334 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected consecutively from symptomatic men attending the Nanjing STD Clinic between April 2011 and December 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for penicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin and ceftriaxone were determined by agar plate dilution for each isolate. Penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG) were examined and typed for β-lactamase and tetM encoding plasmids respectively. Isolates that displayed elevated MICs to ceftriaxone (MIC ≥0.125 mg/L) were also tested for mutations in penA, mtrR, porB1b, ponA and pilQ genes and characterized by Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). 98.8% (330/334) of N. gonorrhoeae isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; 97.9% (327/334) to tetracycline and 67.7% (226/334) to penicillin. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (MIC ≤0.25 mg/L) and spectinomycin (MIC ≤32 mg/L). Plasmid mediated resistance was exhibited by 175/334 (52%) of isolates: 120/334 (36%) of isolates were PPNG and 104/334 (31%) were TRNG. 90.0% (108/120) of PPNG isolates carried the Asia type β-lactamase encoding plasmid and 96% (100/104) of TRNG isolates carried the Dutch type tetM containing plasmid. Elevated MICs for ceftriaxone were present in 15 (4.5%) isolates; multiple mutations were found in penA, mtrR, porB1b and ponA genes. The 15 isolates were distributed into diverse NG-MAST sequence types; four different non-mosaic penA alleles were identified, including one new type. N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Nanjing generally retained similar antimicrobial

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Gram-negative bacteria, the production of beta-lactamases is the most important mechanism of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. In the Banja Luka region, there were no extensive researches on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates. Objective. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of ESBL producing E. coli isolates as the cause of the urinary tract infections in outpatients, the distribution of these ESBL isolates according to age and gender of patients and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Methods. Urine specimens obtained from outpatients were cultured on chromogenic CPS-ID3 media. All plates showing significant (>105 cfu/ml growth of E. coli in pure culture were further processed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on VITEK TWO Compact using AST-GN27 cards for testing Gram negative bacteria and detection of ESBL producers. Results. Out of 2,195 isolates, 177 (8.1% were ESBL producers. Ninety-two isolates were obtained from female patients (5% of E. coli isolated from women and 85 isolates from male patients (23% of E. coli isolated from men. High percentage of ESBL isolates was detected in the infant age group under one year (36.7% and in the age group over 60 years (28.8%. All ESBL isolates were susceptible to imipenem and resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, cefazolin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime. There was a significant resistance to amikacin (79.1%, gentamicin (76.8%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (54.8% and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (45.8%. Resistance to nutrofurantoin was 13.6%. Conclusion. This study has demonstrated the presence of ESBL producing E. coli urinary isolates in outpatients, and their extensive susceptibility to imipenem and nitrofurantoin.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in China: SMART China 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Minjun; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends program monitors the activity of antibiotics against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs) from intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients worldwide. In 2011, 1 929 aerobic and facultative GNBs from 21 hospitals in 16 cities in China were collected. All isolates were tested using a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents, and susceptibility was determined following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Among the Gram-negative pathogens causing IAIs, Escherichia coli (47.3%) was the most commonly isolated, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.1%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 78.8% (1521/1929) of the total isolates. Among the antimicrobial agents tested, ertapenem and imipenem were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 95.1% and 94.4%, followed by amikacin (93.9%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (87.7%). Susceptibility rates of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefepime against Enterobacteriaceae were 38.3%, 38.3%, 61.1%, and 50.8%, respectively. The leastactive agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (25.9%). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rates among E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis were 68.8%, 38.1%, 41.2%, and 57.7%, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and the most active agents against the study isolates (including those producing ESBLs) were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin. Including the carbapenems, most agents exhibited reduced susceptibility against ESBL-positive and multidrug-resistant isolates.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer strains isolated from geese and ducks in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Éva; Wehmann, Enikő; Czeibert, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor

    2017-06-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer causes anatipestifer disease in many avian species. A total of 185 R. anatipestifer strains isolated in Hungary between 2000 and 2014 from geese and ducks were tested against 13 antibiotics (ampicillin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, sulphonamide compounds, and tetracycline) by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The majority of the strains were susceptible to florfenicol (97.9%), ampicillin (95.1%), penicillin (93%), sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (92.4%), and spectinomycin (86.5%). The highest resistance rates were observed for flumequine, tetracycline, erythromycin and streptomycin (94%, 91.4%, 75.1% and 71.4% resistance, respectively). The resistance patterns showed some variation depending on the geographical origin of the strains. The average rate of extensive drug resistance was 30.3%, and its proportion tended to increase in the period examined.

  16. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk (PIF) in NICU ward: First report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan

    2013-09-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is a Gram-negative rod in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is reported as both commensal and opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans. This organism is potential candidates as powdered infant milk formula-borne opportunistic pathogen. The aim of our study was to perform isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk (PIF) in NICU ward. A of total 125 powdered infant formula milk (PIF) samples were purchased from hospital drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. P. agglomerans was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Out of the 125 samples investigated, 8 (6.4%) samples were positive for P. agglomerans and these were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline, chloramphenicol, cefepime, levofloxacin, minocycline and colistin. Fifty percent of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, moxifloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ticarcillin. Controlling the primary populations of P. agglomerans during the PIF production process and preventing post processing contamination, by using suitable microbiological guidelines, is accessible. Sanitary practices for the preparation of infant formula in both the home and hospitals should be carefully controlled.

  17. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of organisms causing urinary tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a larger project on childhood urinary tract infection, antimicrobial sensitivity tests were carried out on the bacterial isolates from the urine of febrile children seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Methodology: Midstream urine specimens were collected from 171 sickle cell anaemia children and ...

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Salmonella Isolates from Gondar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonellosis is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Moreover, Salmonella species are becoming resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials in most parts of the world. Nevertheless, studies on Salmonella are limited in Ethiopia. The aim of this paper is, therefore to determine the antibiotic ...

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials in enterococci from poultry has been found throughout the world and is generally recognized as associated with antimicrobial use. This study was conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterococcal isolates of intensive (indoor) and free range chickens from 2008/09 and 2000 in order to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance associated with different management systems. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in faecal enterococci isolates were determined by agar dilution. Resistance to bacitracin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, lincomycin, tylosin and tetracycline was more common among meat chickens (free range and intensive) than free range egg layers (Pfree range meat chickens.

  20. Meat industry wastewater: microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolates, case study in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stošić, Milena; Čučak, Dragana; Kovačević, Srđan; Perović, Marija; Radonić, Jelena; Turk Sekulić, Maja; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana; Radnović, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from meat processing industries is a fusion of compounds with a high load of organic matter, and pathogen microorganisms like Escherichia coli, and Salmonella sp. The aim of this research was to determine microbiological characteristics of the wastewater discharged from the meat processing industry in order to get a more detailed insight into meat industry wastewater pollution, and to evaluate the resistance of bacterial strains E. coli and Salmonella sp. to antibiotics. The evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on 37 strains of E. coli and eight strains of Salmonella sp. to nine different antibiotics. The number of faecal pollution indicators was very high in all samples. From a total of 37 strains of E. coli, a moderate degree of resistance was shown to tetracycline (37.83%); a low degree of resistance to ampicillin (21.62%), streptomycin (24.32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol (18.92%) and nalidixic acid (16.22%); and very low to: chloramphenicol (13.51%), ciprofloxacin (2.7%), gentamicin and cefotaxime (0.0%). The results for eight strains of Salmonella sp. show that all eight isolates had some degree of susceptibility to nine tested antimicrobial agents and six strains were fully susceptible to all tested antibiotics.

  1. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Characterization of Shigella Strains by Plasmid Profile Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns in a Pediatric Hospital in Ahvaz

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    Amin Sakhaei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: High incidences of dysentery and diarrhea were reported in a pediatric hospital in Ahvaz, Iran during March to April, 2013. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken to identify the causative agents. Patients and Methods: A total of 230 diarrhea samples were collected from the patients and analyzed by routine bacteriological methods. Bacterial identification, serological assay, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs screening and plasmid profile analysis were performed according to the standard guidelines. Results: A total of 70 Shigella strains including %70 (n = 49 S. sonnei and 30% (n = 21 S. flexneri were isolated from diarrhea samples. Most of the Shigella isolates showed high degrees of resistance to ampicillin, ulafamethoxazole- trimethoprime and cefexim. Concurrent resistance to sulafametoxazole- trimethoprime and ampicillin was the most common resistance pattern. Overall, 11.4% of Shigella isolates showed the ESBL producer criteria. The plasmid profile patterns of all the strains were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. By plasmid profile analysis 23 genotypes were identified among all the isolates, 14 and 9 genotypes among the S. sonnei and S. Flexneri respectively. S. sonnei and S. flexneri isolates demonstrated unique plasmid profiles. Conclusions: These data demonstrated that S. sonnei strains are the main cause of shigellosis as the prevalent Shigella serotype in Iran. We also found that the antibiotic resistance rates are increasing among Shigella strains. Plasmid profile analysis is more reliable than antibiotic susceptibility patterns in epidemiologic studies.

  3. Genetic identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinically isolated anaerobic bacteria: A prospective multicenter surveillance study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Michio; Hamano, Kyoko; Nakano, Satoshi; Noguchi, Taro; Nagao, Miki; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    This prospective multicenter surveillance study was designed to provide antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of clinical anaerobic bacteria with genetic species identification in Japan. In 2014, a total of 526 non-duplicate clinical anaerobic isolates were collected from 11 acute-care hospitals in the Kyoto and Shiga regions of Japan. Genetic identification was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined in the central laboratory and were interpreted using the CLSI criteria. Genetic analysis provided species-level identification for 496 isolates (83 species in 40 genera) and genus-level identification for 21 isolates (13 genera). Among these 517 isolates, the most frequent anaerobes were Bacteroides spp. (n = 207), Prevotella spp. (n = 43), Clostridium spp. (n = 40), and Peptoniphilus spp. (n = 40). B. fragilis was the most common species (n = 107) and showed 91.6%-97.2% susceptibility to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs; ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam) and carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) as well as 100% susceptibility to metronidazole. Gram-negative anaerobes were highly susceptible to metronidazole (99.0%) followed by BLBLIs and carbapenems (>90% each). BLBLIs or carbapenems also retained activity against Gram-positive anaerobes (99.5%-100%) except Clostridioides difficile. All isolates were susceptible to combinations of metronidazole with BLBLIs or carbapenems. Thus, BLBLIs or carbapenems are first choices for empirical therapy of anaerobic infections in Japan, and these antimicrobials in combination with metronidazole should be reserved for very severe infections and targeted therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasmid profiles and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukoya, D K; Asielue, J O; Olasupo, N A; Ikea, J K

    1995-06-01

    In an investigation into the problems of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria, 100 strains were isolated from various hospitals in Lagos. The strains were screened for the presence of plasmids and for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Plasmids were extracted by modification of the method of Takahashi and Nagono[1]. The plasmids were diverse in nature. The strains were found to be highly resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular detection of chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Qin; Cui, Bao-An; Zhang, Su-Mei; Shen, Jian-Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Seventy Escherichia coli isolates recovered from diseased chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis in Henan Province, China, between 2004 and 2005 were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility profiles via a broth doubling dilution method. Overall, the isolates displayed resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (100%), oxytetracycline (100%), ampicillin (83%), enrofloxacin (83%), and ciprofloxacin (81%), respectively. Among the phenicols, resistance was approximately 79% and 29% for chloramphenicol and florfenicol, respectively. Molecular detection revealed that the incidence rates of the floR, cmlA, cat1, cat2 and cat3 were 29, 31, 16, 13, and 0%, respectively. Additionally, 10% of the isolates were positive for both floR and cmlA. As these antimicrobial agents may potentially induce cross-resistance between animal and human bacterial pathogens, their prudent use in veterinary medicine is highly recommended. PMID:17679770

  6. Antimicrobial activity evaluation and comparison of methods of susceptibility for Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Zendrini Rechenchoski

    Full Text Available Abstract The production of KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase is the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenem agents in enterobacterias. In this context, forty KPC-producing Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates were studied. It was evaluated the activity of antimicrobial agents: polymyxin B, tigecycline, ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem, and was performed a comparison of the methodologies used to determine the susceptibility: broth microdilution, Etest® (bioMérieux, Vitek 2® automated system (bioMérieux and disc diffusion. It was calculated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for each antimicrobial and polymyxin B showed the lowest concentrations for broth microdilution. Errors also were calculated among the techniques, tigecycline and ertapenem were the antibiotics with the largest and the lower number of discrepancies, respectively. Moreover, Vitek 2® automated system was the method most similar compared to the broth microdilution. Therefore, is important to evaluate the performance of new methods in comparison to the reference method, broth microdilution.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Staphylococcus species isolated from cats presented at a veterinary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Sebola, Dikeledi; Oguttu, James Wabwire; Odoi, Agricola

    2017-09-15

    Antimicrobial resistance is becoming increasingly important in both human and veterinary medicine. This study investigated the proportion of antimicrobial resistant samples and resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from cats presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Records of 216 samples from cats that were submitted to the bacteriology laboratory of the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012 were evaluated. Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against a panel of 15 drugs using the disc diffusion method. Chi square and Fisher's exact tests were used to assess simple associations between antimicrobial resistance and age group, sex, breed and specimen type. Additionally, associations between Staphylococcus infection and age group, breed, sex and specimen type were assessed using logistic regression. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified in 17.6% (38/216) of the samples submitted and 4.6% (10/216) of these were unspeciated. The majority (61.1%,11/18) of the isolates were from skin samples, followed by otitis media (34.5%, 10/29). Coagulase Positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) comprised 11.1% (24/216) of the samples of which 7.9% (17/216) were S. intermedius group and 3.2% (7/216) were S. aureus. Among the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (1.9%, 4/216), S. felis and S. simulans each constituted 0.9% (2/216). There was a significant association between Staphylococcus spp. infection and specimen type with odds of infection being higher for ear canal and skin compared to urine specimens. There were higher proportions of samples resistant to clindamycin 34.2% (13/25), ampicillin 32.4% (2/26), lincospectin 31.6% (12/26) and penicillin-G 29.0% (11/27). Sixty three percent (24/38) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to one antimicrobial agent and 15.8% were multidrug resistant (MDR). MDR was more common among S. aureus 28.6% (2/7) than S. intermedius group isolates 11.8% (2

  8. Patterns of antibiotics susceptibility of isolates and plasmid analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    we surveyed the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates from postoperative wound infections and determined whether resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was genetically mediated. A total of 161 isolates were obtained from 153 swab samples of infected wounds using cultural, morphological, and ...

  9. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  10. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  11. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Escherichia coli strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the susceptibility of E coli strains isolated from broiler and layer chicken with colisepticemia to antibiotics used in poultry industry in the country. A total of fifty seven E. coli strains isolated from 43 broiler and14 layer farms with colisepticemia in Khartoum and Gezera state were ...