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Sample records for antimicrobial resistance class

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance, class 1 integrons, and genomic island 1 in Salmonella isolates from Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An T T Vo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic resistance and the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants from Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The susceptibility of 297 epidemiologically unrelated non-typhoid Salmonella isolates was investigated by disk diffusion assay. The isolates were screened for the presence of class 1 integrons and Salmonella genomic island 1 by PCR. The potential for the transfer of resistance determinants was investigated by conjugation experiments. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamides, and tetracycline was found in 13 to 50% of the isolates. Nine distinct integron types were detected in 28% of the isolates belonging to 11 Salmonella serovars including S. Tallahassee. Gene cassettes identified were aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, bla(PSE-1, bla(OXA-30, dfrA1, dfrA12, dfrA17, and sat, as well as open reading frames with unknown functions. Most integrons were located on conjugative plasmids, which can transfer their antimicrobial resistance determinants to Escherichia coli or Salmonella Enteritidis, or with Salmonella Genomic Island 1 or its variants. The resistance gene cluster in serovar Emek identified by PCR mapping and nucleotide sequencing contained SGI1-J3 which is integrated in SGI1 at another position than the majority of SGI1. This is the second report on the insertion of SGI1 at this position. High-level resistance to fluoroquinolones was found in 3 multiresistant S. Typhimurium isolates and was associated with mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance was common among Vietnamese Salmonella isolates from different sources. Legislation to enforce a more prudent use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine should be implemented by the authorities in Vietnam.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  8. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Natália; Meneghetti, Karine Lena; de Almeida, Clara Ponzi; da Rosa Bastos, Marina; Otton, Letícia Muner; Corção, Gertrudes

    2016-01-01

    Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacEΔ1 gene at the 3' conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2014 NARMS ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. A new class of nifuroxazide analogues: synthesis of 5-nitrothiophene derivatives with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunari, Andrea; Tavares, Leoberto Costa

    2007-06-15

    Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been an increasing problem worldwide since the initial reports over 40 years ago. To examine new drug leads with potential antibacterial activities, 14 p-substituted benzoic acid [(5-nitro-thiophen-2-yl)-methylene]-hydrazides were designed, synthesized, and tested against standard and multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains by serial dilution tests. All compounds exhibited significant bacteriostatic activity and some of them also showed bactericidal activity. The results confirmed the potential of this class of compounds as an alternative for the development of selective antimicrobial agents.

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  13. Characterization of the variable region in the class 1 integron of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Canal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacE Δ1 gene at the 3′ conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.

  14. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Productivity, and Class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli from Healthy Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkaew, Kanjana; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Nakajima, Chie; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals increases the risk of higher antimicrobial resistance in the normal intestinal flora of these animals. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains and to characterize class 1 integrons in Escherichia coli in healthy swine in Thailand. All 122 of the tested isolates had drug-resistant phenotypes. High resistance was found to ampicillin (98.4% of isolates), chloramphenicol (95.9%), gentamicin (78.7%), streptomycin (77.9%), tetracycline (74.6%), and cefotaxime (72.1%). Fifty-four (44.3%) of the E. coli isolates were confirmed as ESBL-producing strains. Among them, blaCTX-M (45 isolates) and blaTEM (41 isolates) were detected. Of the blaCTX-M-positive E. coli isolates, 37 carried the blaCTX-M-1 cluster, 12 carried the blaCTX-M-9 cluster, and 5 carried both clusters. Sequence analysis revealed blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135, and blaTEM-175 in 38, 2, and 1 isolate, respectively. Eighty-seven (71%) of the 122isolates carried class 1 integrons, and eight distinct drug-resistance gene cassettes with seven different integron profiles were identified in 43 of these isolates. Gene cassettes were associated with resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, aadA2, aadA22, or aadA23), trimethoprim (dfrA5, dfrA12, or dfrA17), and lincosamide (linF). Genes encoding β-lactamases were not found in class 1 integrons. This study is the first to report ESBL-producing E. coli with a class 1 integron carrying the linF gene cassette in swine in Thailand. Our findings confirm that swine can be a reservoir of ESBL-producing E. coli harboring class 1 integrons, which may become a potential health risk if these integrons are transmitted to humans. Intensive analyses of animal, human, and environmental isolates are needed to control the spread of ESBL-producing E. coli strains.

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  18. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  19. Effect of a policy for restriction of selected classes of antibiotics on antimicrobial drug cost and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, M E; Bliziotis, I A; Michalopoulos, A; Sermaides, G; Papaioannou, V E; Nikita, D; Choulis, N

    2007-04-01

    Based on the instructions of the National Organization of Pharmaceutical Agents (Greece) from July 1, 2003, quinolones, 3( rd )and 4(th )generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, glycopeptides, oxazolidinones, and streptogramins were considered as "restricted" antibiotics that could be used only with the approval of an Infectious Disease specialist. We analyzed the effect of the policy on the consumption and cost of antibiotics as a group and of specific classes, adjusted for the patient load, as well as on the antimicrobial resistance of isolated bacteria. We analyzed 5 trimesters (2 prior and 3 after the implementation of the new policy). A 20% and 16% reduction in adjusted consumption [in daily defined doses (DDDs)] and cost, respectively, of the restricted antibiotics was accomplished during the first trimester after implementation of the new policy. However, this was accompanied by a 36% and 56% increase in adjusted consumption and cost, respectively, of unrestricted antibiotics. A logistic regression model that we performed showed that the new policy had an independent positive effect on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p=0.051) but not of Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli isolates. Our data suggest that there are considerable limitations to the programs aiming to reduce the consumption of restricted antibiotics through the approval of their use by specialists, at least in some settings.

  20. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  1. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  4. Haemophilus ducreyi Is Resistant to Human Antimicrobial Peptides▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mount, Kristy L. B.; Townsend, Carisa A.; Bauer, Margaret E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi to antimicrobial peptides likely to be encountered in vivo during human infection. H. ducreyi was significantly more resistant than Escherichia coli to the bactericidal effects of all peptides tested. Class I and II H. ducreyi strains exhibited similar levels of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

  5. Haemophilus ducreyi is resistant to human antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Kristy L B; Townsend, Carisa A; Bauer, Margaret E

    2007-09-01

    We examined the susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi to antimicrobial peptides likely to be encountered in vivo during human infection. H. ducreyi was significantly more resistant than Escherichia coli to the bactericidal effects of all peptides tested. Class I and II H. ducreyi strains exhibited similar levels of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

  6. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons among commensal Escherichia coli isolates from infants and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kõljalg Siiri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to compare the presence of the intI1 gene and its associations with the antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli strains in children with/without previous antibiotic treatments and elderly hospitalized/healthy individuals. Methods One-hundred-and-fifteen intestinal E. coli strains were analyzed: 30 strains from 10 antibiotic-naive infants; 27 from 9 antibiotic-treated outpatient infants; 30 from 9 healthy elderly volunteers; and 28 from 9 hospitalized elderly patients. The MIC values of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were measured by E-test and IntI1 was detected by PCR. Results Out of the 115 strains, 56 (49% carried class 1 integron genes. Comparing persons without medical interventions, we found in antibiotic-naive children a significantly higher frequency of integron-bearing strains and MIC values than in healthy elderly persons (53% versus 17%; p Conclusion The prevalence of integrons in commensal E. coli strains in persons without previous medical intervention depended on age. The resistance of integron-carrying and non-carrying strains is more dependent on influencing factors (hospitalization and antibiotic administration in particular groups than merely the presence or absence of integrons.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus delphini together comprise the S. intermedius group (SIG). Within the SIG, S. pseudintermedius represents the major pathogenic species and is involved in a wide variety of infections, mainly in dogs, but to a lesser degree also in other animal species and humans. Antimicrobial agents are commonly applied to control S. pseudintermedius infections; however, during recent years S. pseudintermedius isolates have been identified that are meticillin-resistant and have also proved to be resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents approved for veterinary applications. This review deals with the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance properties in S. pseudintermedius and other SIG members. A summary of the known resistance genes and their association with mobile genetic elements is given, as well as an update of the known resistance-mediating mutations. These data show that, in contrast to other staphylococcal species, S. pseudintermedius seems to prefer transposon-borne resistance genes, which are then incorporated into the chromosomal DNA, over plasmid-located resistance genes.

  8. Combating antimicrobial resistance: antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shu-Hui; Lee, Chun-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Yen, Che-Chieh; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2012-04-01

    Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Healthcare-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance are also current challenges to the treatment of infectious diseases in Taiwan. Government health policies and the health care systems play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of interventions to contain antimicrobial resistance. National commitment to understand and address the problem is prerequisite. We analyzed and reviewed the antibiotic resistance related policies in Taiwan, USA, WHO and draft antimicrobial stewardship program to control effectively antibiotic resistance and spreading in Taiwan. Antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan includes establishment of national inter-sectoral antimicrobial stewardship task force, implementing antimicrobial-resistance management strategies, surveillance of HAI and antimicrobial resistance, conducting hospital infection control, enforcement of appropriate regulations and audit of antimicrobial use through hospital accreditation, inspection and national health insurance payment system. No action today, no cure tomorrow. Taiwan CDC would take a multifaceted, evidence-based approach and make every effort to combat antimicrobial resistance with stakeholders to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reduce the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Coast, J.

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibil...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses ...

  11. Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... What Everyone Should Know What You Can Do Antibiotic Resistance Q&As Fast Facts Antibiotics Quiz Glossary ...

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance of Faecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Pig Farms with Different Durations of In-feed Antimicrobial Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, J F; Boland, F; Egan, J; Fanning, S; Markey, B K; Leonard, F C

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial use and resistance in animal and food production are of concern to public health. The primary aims of this study were to determine the frequency of resistance to 12 antimicrobials in Escherichia coli isolates from 39 pig farms and to identify patterns of antimicrobial use on these farms. Further aims were to determine whether a categorization of farms based on the duration of in-feed antimicrobial use (long-term versus short-term) could predict the occurrence of resistance on these farms and to identify the usage of specific antimicrobial drugs associated with the occurrence of resistance. Escherichia coli were isolated from all production stages on these farms; susceptibility testing was carried out against a panel of antimicrobials. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected, and farms were categorized as long term or short term based on these. Resistance frequencies and antimicrobial use were tabulated. Logistic regression models of resistance to each antimicrobial were constructed with stage of production, duration of antimicrobial use and the use of 5 antimicrobial classes included as explanatory variables in each model. The greatest frequencies of resistance were observed to tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole and streptomycin with the highest levels of resistance observed in isolates from first-stage weaned pigs. Differences in the types of antimicrobial drugs used were noted between long-term and short-term use farms. Categorization of farms as long- or short-term use was sufficient to predict the likely occurrence of resistance to 3 antimicrobial classes and could provide an aid in the control of resistance in the food chain. Stage of production was a significant predictor variable in all models of resistance constructed and did not solely reflect antimicrobial use at each stage. Cross-selection and co-selection for resistance was evident in the models constructed, and the use of trimethoprim/sulphonamide drugs in particular was

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

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    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  14. Use and Misuse of Antimicrobial Drugs in Poultry and Livestock: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Toni Poole* and Cynthia Sheffield

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Food safety begins on the farm with management practices that contribute to an abundant, safe, and affordable food supply. To attain this goal antimicrobials have been used in all stages of food animal production in the United States and elsewhere around the world at one time or another. Among food–production animals antimicrobials are used for growth promotion, disease prophylaxis or disease treatment, and are generally administered to the entire flock or herd. Over many decades bacteria have become resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes in a cumulative manner. Bacteria exhibit a number of well characterized mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobials that include: 1 modification of the antimicrobial; 2 alteration of the drug target; 3 decreased access of drug to target; and 4 implementation of an alternative metabolic pathway not affected by the drug. The mechanisms of resistance are complex and depend on the type of bacterium involved (e.g. Gram–positive or Gram–negative and the class of drug. Some bacterial species have accumulated resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes due to a combination of intrinsic and acquired processes. This has and will continue to lead to clinical failures of antimicrobial treatment in both human and animal medicine.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance: cost and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    There is growing evidence that antimicrobial resistance causes serious consequences for individuals as well as leading to increased healthcare costs. The containment of resistance is therefore a policy problem which will impact on all health systems in the next few years. Unfortunately, there is, as yet, no definitive evidence suggesting that particular control measures are successful in containing either the emergence or transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, few studies contain information about costs and even where there is such information it is generally inadequate because of the narrow perspectives from which analyses are conducted. In part, this is due to methodological problems associated with the inclusion of cost data: measuring and valuing what are often intangible costs; identifying costs associated with organizational change; and accounting for interaction between costs at levels from the individual to the international. Good quality research, including both economic evaluation and comprehensive economic modelling, is required to determine the most cost-effective combination of strategies to pursue in combating resistance, and to find ways around these methodological difficulties.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae

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    B N Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: arsenal of resistance mechanisms, decades of changing resistance profiles, and future antimicrobial therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Al Thani, Asmaa A; Webster, Thomas J; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Schweizer, Herbert P; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Marei, Hany E; Ashour, Hossam M

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health issues facing humans since the discovery of antimicrobial agents. The frequent, prolonged, and uncontrolled use of antimicrobial agents are major factors in the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant variants. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. The abundant data on the increased resistance to antipseudomonal agents support the need for global action. There is a paucity of new classes of antibiotics active against P. aeruginosa. Here, we discuss recent antibacterial resistance profiles and mechanisms of resistance by P. aeruginosa. We also review future potential methods for controlling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as phage therapy, nanotechnology and antipseudomonal vaccines.

  18. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  19. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  20. Molecular characterization of multidrug resistant hospital isolates using the antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A Leski

    Full Text Available Molecular methods that enable the detection of antimicrobial resistance determinants are critical surveillance tools that are necessary to aid in curbing the spread of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we describe the use of the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM that targets 239 unique genes that confer resistance to 12 classes of antimicrobial compounds, quaternary amines and streptothricin for the determination of multidrug resistance (MDR gene profiles. Fourteen reference MDR strains, which either were genome, sequenced or possessed well characterized drug resistance profiles were used to optimize detection algorithms and threshold criteria to ensure the microarray's effectiveness for unbiased characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in MDR strains. The subsequent testing of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital isolates revealed the presence of several antibiotic resistance genes [e.g. belonging to TEM, SHV, OXA and CTX-M classes (and OXA and CTX-M subfamilies of β-lactamases] and their assemblages which were confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis. When combined with results from the reference strains, ~25% of the ARDM content was confirmed as effective for representing allelic content from both Gram-positive and -negative species. Taken together, the ARDM identified MDR assemblages containing six to 18 unique resistance genes in each strain tested, demonstrating its utility as a powerful tool for molecular epidemiological investigations of antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

  1. Polymyxins resistance: old antimicrobials, last therapeutic options

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    Raquel Girardello

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polypeptide antimicrobials that act in the cell membranes and promote decrease of the cell wall integrity. These antimicrobials are used in the clinical practice for treatment of the multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacilli infections as the last therapeutic option. The polymyxin resistance involves lipopolysaccharide modifi cations that decrease the affi nity of the antimicrobial with the cell surface. These modifi cations are regulated by two component systems that are active by environmental infl uences as cation presence, pH or polymyxin exposure. The environmental infl uences initiate the action of the genes that develop the polymyxins resistant phenotype. The polymyxins viability maintenance is essential for the treatment for multi-drug resistant bacilli infections, while new therapeutic options are not available.KEYWORDS polimixins antimicrobial resistance

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Adithan, C; Harish, B N; Sujatha, S; Roy, Gautam; Malini, A

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses the situational analysis of antimicrobial resistance with respect to its problem, determinants and challenges ahead with strategies required in future to reduce the burden in India. Recent data from Google search, Medline and other sources were collected which was reviewed and analyzed by the authors. Hospital based studies showed higher and varied spectrum of resistance in different regions while there are limited number of community based studies at country level. There exists lacunae in the structure and functioning of public health care delivery system with regard to quantification of the problem and various determining factors related to antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need to develop and strengthen antimicrobial policy, standard treatment guidelines, national plan for containment of AMR and research related to public health aspects of AMR at community and hospital level in India.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: the missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-14

    The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents used in nine European countries from 2005 to 2011, and compares by univariate analysis the correlations between consumptions of each of the following antimicrobial classes; tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and macrolides. An overview of resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe focusing on Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter sp. and Enterococcus sp., during the same period of time based on monitoring programs is also assessed. With the exception of cephalosporins, linear regressions showed strong positive associations between the consumption of the four different antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1 kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite the withdrawn of a specific antimicrobial from "on farm" use, persistence over the years of bacteria resistant to this particular antimicrobial agent, was still observed. There were also differences in trends of resistance associated to specific animal species. In order to correlate the use of antimicrobial agents to the presence of resistance, surveillance of antimicrobial consumption by animal species should be established. Subsequently, intervention strategies could be designed to minimize the occurrence of resistance.

  4. Resistencia bacteriana Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesualdo Fuentes

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available

    class="MsoNormal">Se presenta un panorama de la resistencia bacteriana incluyendo su fisiopatogenia y formas de presentación y se establecen algunas consideraciones generales de tipo clínico como auxiliares para racionalizar el uso de los antimicrobianos y evitar o retardar el problema de la resistencia; éste plantea la necesidad de un reordenamiento definitivo en la prescripción de antimicrobianos. No será tanto la creación o descubrimiento de nuevos antibióticos sino la racionalización del manejo de los existentes lo que permitirá alcanzar victorias sobre estos microorganismos. Es Importante mantener educación continua sobre el uso adecuado de los antimicrobianos desde los puntos de vista epidemiológico, farmacocinético y fisiopatogénico.

    class="MsoNormal">An overview on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is presented. It includes the different genetic mechanisms for Its development and the biochemical phenomena that explain It. Some clinical considerations are proposed in order to rationalize the use of these drugs and to avoid or delay the appearance of resistance.

  5. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirijan Santajit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species are the leading cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world. Most of them are multidrug resistant isolates, which is one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice. Multidrug resistance is amongst the top three threats to global public health and is usually caused by excessive drug usage or prescription, inappropriate use of antimicrobials, and substandard pharmaceuticals. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of these bacteria is crucial for the development of novel antimicrobial agents or other alternative tools to combat these public health challenges. Greater mechanistic understanding would also aid in the prediction of underlying or even unknown mechanisms of resistance, which could be applied to other emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. In this review, we summarize the known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of ESKAPE pathogens.

  6. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore;

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  7. Insights on antimicrobial resistance, biofilms and the use of phytochemicals as new antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria J; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health problems. This is of particular concern when bacteria become resistant to various antimicrobial agents simultaneously and when they form biofilms. Consequently, therapeutic options for the treatment of infections have become limited, leading frequently to recurrent infections, treatment failure and increase of morbidity and mortality. Both, persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance, in combination with decreased effectiveness and increased toxicity of current antibiotics have emphasized the urgent need to search alternative sources of antimicrobial substances. Plants are recognized as a source of unexplored chemical structures with high therapeutic potential, including antimicrobial activity against clinically important microorganisms. Additionally, phytochemicals (plant secondary metabolites) present several advantages over synthetic molecules, including green status and different mechanisms of action from antibiotics which could help to overcome the resistance problem. In this study, an overview of the main classes of phytochemicals with antimicrobial properties and their mode of action is presented. A revision about the application of phytochemicals for biofilm prevention and control is also done. Moreover, the use of phytochemicals as scaffolds of new functional molecules to expand the antibiotics pipeline is reviewed.

  8. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  9. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  10. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  12. Risk assessment of antimicrobial usage in Danish pig production on the human exposure to antimicrobial resistant bacteria from pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struve, Tina

    to antimicrobials are influenced by the use of antimicrobial agents, and the prudence of antimicrobial use have been emphasized since the Swann report in 1969 recommended that antibiotics used in human medicine should not be used as growth promoters in food-producing animals. In 2007, the World Health Organisation......During the last decades, bacteria with resistance to all commonly used antimicrobial agents have been detected, thereby posing a major threat to public health. In worst case, infections with resistant bacteria can lead to treatment failure and death of humans. The evolution of bacteria resistant...... (WHO) pronounced a list of the antimicrobial classes critically important for the treatment of infectious diseases in humans. On this list occurred among others the third and fourth generation cephalosporins. Cephalosporins have been used increasingly worldwide throughout the recent years to treat...

  13. European recommendations for antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, G; Hryniewicz, W; Jarlier, V; Kahlmeter, G; Mittermayer, H; Stratchounski, L; Baquero, F

    2004-04-01

    The problem of antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Europe has been debated extensively in many excellent documents issued by national committees that often assume the value of national guidelines. However, a comprehensive document addressing the whole matter from a European perspective, as well as reviewing its present status and drafting future perspectives, has been lacking. The present recommendations have been produced by the ESCMID Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ESGARS) through a consensus process involving all members of the Study Group. The recommendations focus on the detection of bacterial resistance and its reporting to clinicians, public health officers and a wider-and ever-increasing-audience. The leading concept is that the basis for resistance monitoring is microbiological diagnostics. The prerequisites for resistance monitoring are findings of adequate quality and quantity, which have been recorded properly and evaluated correctly. Different types of surveillance studies should fulfil different requirements with regard to data collection and reporting, the expected use of data, and the prerequisites for networking such activities. To generate relevant indicators, bacterial resistance data should be reported using adequate denominators and stratification. Reporting of antimicrobial resistance data is necessary for selection of empirical therapy at the local level, for assessing the scale of the resistance problem at the local, national or international levels, for monitoring changes in resistance rates, and for detecting the emergence and spread of new resistances types. Any type of surveillance study should conclude, where appropriate, with a proposal for intervention based on the data obtained.

  14. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and integrons in Escherichia Coli from Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance was studied in Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine samples of 457 patients suffering from urinary tract infection. High prevalence of class 1 integrons (43.56%, sulfamethoxazole resistance genes sul1 (45.54% and sul2 (51.48% along with occurrence of quinolone resistance genes was detected in multi drug resistance isolates.

  15. Danish integrated antimicrobial in resistance monitoring and research program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a s...... activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries....... a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research......Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish...

  16. Synthetic RNA silencing in bacteria - antimicrobial discovery and resistance breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E.M. Stach

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria threatens the antibiotic miracle. Conventional antimicrobial drug development has failed to replace the armamentarium needed to combat this problem, and novel solutions are urgently required. Here we review both natural and synthetic RNA silencing and its potential to provide new antibacterials through improved target selection, evaluation and screening. Furthermore, we focus on synthetic RNA silencers as a novel class of antibacterials and review their unique properties.

  17. Determination of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Belgode N; Menezes, Godfred A

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. Salmonella are one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in humans. There are many types of Salmonella but they can be divided into two broad categories: those that cause typhoid and those that do not. The typhoidal Salmonella (TS), such as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars Typhi and S. Paratyphi only colonize humans and are usually acquired by the consumption of food or water contaminated with human fecal material. The much broader group of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) usually results from improperly handled food that has been contaminated by animal or human fecal material. Antimicrobials are critical to the successful outcome of invasive Salmonella infections and enteric fever. Due to resistance to the older antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin [fluoroquinolone (FQ)] has become the first-line drug for treatment. Nevertheless, switch to FQ has led to a subsequent increase in the occurrence of salmonellae resistant to this antimicrobial agent. The exact mechanism of this FQ resistance is not fully understood. FQ resistance has driven the use of third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, there are sporadic worldwide reports of high level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins (such as ceftriaxone) in TS and in NTS it has been recognized since 1988 and are increasing in prevalence worldwide. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance leading to treatment failure. Spread of such resistance would further greatly limit the available therapeutic options, and leave us with only the reserve antimicrobials such as carbapenem and tigecycline as possible treatment options. Here, we describe the methods involved in the genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates of salmonellae.

  18. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, SLAM; Cars, O; Buchholz, U; Molstad, S; Goettsch, W; Veldhuijzen, IK; Kool, JL; Sprenger, MJW; Degener, JE

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antibiotic sales. Information was collected o

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Libya: 1970-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Rahouma, Amal; Tawil, Khaled; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Franka, Ezzedin

    2013-03-27

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is a major health problem that affects the whole world. Providing information on the past state of antimicrobial resistance in Libya may assist the health authorities in addressing the problem more effectively in the future. Information was obtained mainly from Highwire Press (including PubMed) search for the period 1970-2011 using the terms 'antibiotic resistance in Libya', 'antimicrobial resistance in Libya', 'tuberculosis in Libya', and 'primary and acquired resistance in Libya' in title and abstract. From 1970 to 2011 little data was available on antimicrobial resistance in Libya due to lack of surveillance and few published studies. Available data shows high resistance rates for Salmonella species in the late 1970s and has remained high to the present day. High prevalence rates (54-68%) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were reported in the last decade among S. aureus from patients with burns and surgical wound infections. No reports were found of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) or vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA) using standard methods from Libya up to the end of 2011. Reported rates of primary (i.e. new cases) and acquired (i.e. retreatment cases) multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) from the eastern region of Libya in 1971 were 16.6 and 33.3% and in 1976 were 8.6 and 14.7%, in western regions in 1984-1986 were 11 and 21.5% and in the whole country in 2011 were estimated at 3.4 and 29%, respectively. The problem of antibiotic resistance is very serious in Libya. The health authorities in particular and society in general should address this problem urgently. Establishing monitoring systems based on the routine testing of antimicrobial sensitivity and education of healthcare workers, pharmacists, and the community on the health risks associated with the problem and benefits of prudent use of antimicrobials are some steps that can be taken to tackle the problem in the future.

  20. Control of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the era of evolving antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Lindley A; Dombrowski, Julia C

    2013-12-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all previous first-line antimicrobial therapies over the past 75 years. Today the cephalosporins, the last available antibiotic class that is sufficiently effective, are also threatened by evolving resistance. Screening for asymptomatic gonorrhea in women and men who have sex with men, treating with a dual antibiotic regimen, ensuring effective partner therapy, and remaining vigilant for treatment failures constitute critical activities for clinicians in responding to evolving antimicrobial resistance. This article reviews the epidemiology, history of antimicrobial resistance, current screening and treatment guidelines, and future treatment options for gonorrhea.

  1. [Antimicrobial resistance forever? Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliano, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. In 1928, at the time when penicillin was discovered, it could not be imagined that bacterial resistance to antibiotics would develop so rapidly: the introduction of every new class of antibiotics has been shortly followed by the emergence of new strains of bacteria resistant to that class. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is a huge concern. In this respect, an action plan against antimicrobial resistance has been devised in the United States that is targeted for a 50% reduction over the next five years.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and the activities of the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, A V; Mackay, Carolissen

    2012-04-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission has been working on the subject of antimicrobial resistance, mainly through the activities of the Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods and the ad hoc Intergovernmental Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance. Principal texts developed by Codex include the 'Code of Practice to Minimize and Contain Antimicrobial Resistance (CAC/RCP 61-2005) and 'Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance' (CAC/GL 77-2011). The successful containment of antimicrobial resistance requires the collaboration of a wide range of stakeholders, working together to protect consumer health by ensuring the safety of food products of animal origin.

  3. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Anibal; Tapha-Sosseh Ndey; Nweneka Chidi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a le...

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND ITS GLOBAL SPREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Sharma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery during the 20th century, antimicrobial agents (antibiotics and related medicinal drugs have substantially reduced the threat posed by infectious diseases. The use of these “wonder drugs”, combined with improvements in sanitation, housing, and nutrition, and the advent of widespread immunization programmes, has led to a dramatic drop in deaths from diseases that were previously widespread, untreatable, and frequently fatal. Over the years, antimicrobials have saved the lives and eased the suffering of millions of people. By helping to bring many serious infectious diseases under control, these drugs hav also contributed to the major gains in life expectancy experienced during the latter part of the last century. These gains are now seriously jeopardized by another recent development: the emergence and spread of microbes that are resistant to cheap and effective first-choice, or “first- line” drugs. The bacterial infections which contribute most to human disease are also those in which emerging microbial resistance is most evident: diarrhoeal diseases, respiratory tract infections, meningitis, sexually transmitted infections, and hospital-acquired infections. Some important examples include penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multi-resistant salmonellae, and multi-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The development of resistance to drugs commonly used to treat malaria is of particular concern, as is the emerging resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Treatment, resu.lting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death, Treatment failures also lead to longer periods of infectivity, which increase the numbers of infected people moving in the community and thus expose the general population to the risk of contracting a resistant strain of infection. When infections become resistant to first-line antimicrobials, treatment has to be switched

  5. Resistance to antimicrobial agents used for animal therapy in pathogenic , zoonotic and indicator bacteria isolated from different food animals in Denmark: A baseline study for the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programme (DANMAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Bager, Flemming; Jensen, N. E.

    1998-01-01

    collected from October 1995 through December 1996 were tested for susceptibility to all major classes of antimicrobial agents used for therapy in Denmark. Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Acquired resistance to all antimicrobials...... was found. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. In general, resistance was observed more frequently among isolates from pigs than from cattle and broilers. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed......, as is the occurrence of resistance in other countries. The results of this study show the present level of resistance to antimicrobial agents among a number of bacterial species isolated from food animals in Denmark. Thus, the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies has been established, enabling...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Imported Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Dongryeoul; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Ashraf A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine antimicrobial resistance and elucidate the resistance mechanism in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from food products imported into the United States from 2011 to 2013. Food products contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica were mainly imported from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. PCR, DNA sequencing, and plasmid analyses were used to characterize antimicrobial resistance determinants. Twentythree of 110 S. enterica isolates were resistant to various antimicrobial classes, including β-lactam, aminoglycoside, phenicol, glycopeptide, sulfonamide, trimethoprim, and/or fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Twelve of the isolates were multidrug resistant strains. Antimicrobial resistance determinants blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-9, blaOXA-1, tetA, tetB, tetD, dfrA1, dfrV, dhfrI, dhfrXII, drf17, aadA1, aadA2, aadA5, orfC, qnrS, and mutations of gyrA and parC were detected in one or more antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal S. enterica strains. Plasmid profiles revealed that 12 of the 23 antimicrobial-resistant strains harbored plasmids with incompatibility groups IncFIB, IncHI1, IncI1, IncN, IncW, and IncX. Epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance monitoring data combined with molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Salmonella strains isolated from imported food products may provide information that can be used to establish or implement food safety programs to improve public health.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Herman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages. A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Chain: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23812024

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in the food chain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verraes, Claire; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Van Meervenne, Eva; Van Coillie, Els; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs; Van Huffel, Xavier; Imberechts, Hein; Dierick, Katelijne; Daube, George; Saegerman, Claude; De Block, Jan; Dewulf, Jeroen; Herman, Lieve

    2013-06-28

    Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production. A second route is the possible presence of resistance genes in bacteria that are intentionally added during the processing of food (starter cultures, probiotics, bioconserving microorganisms and bacteriophages). A last way is through cross-contamination with antimicrobial resistant bacteria during food processing. Raw food products can be consumed without having undergone prior processing or preservation and therefore hold a substantial risk for transfer of antimicrobial resistance to humans, as the eventually present resistant bacteria are not killed. As a consequence, transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between bacteria after ingestion by humans may occur. Under minimal processing or preservation treatment conditions, sublethally damaged or stressed cells can be maintained in the food, inducing antimicrobial resistance build-up and enhancing the risk of resistance transfer. Food processes that kill bacteria in food products, decrease the risk of transmission of antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Dealing with antimicrobial resistance - the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2000-01-01

    Following the discovery in 1994 and 1995 that use of the glycopeptide antimicrobial avoparcin for growth promotion was associated with the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in food animals and in food, the Danish Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries banned the use...... of avoparcin in May 1995. The ban was later extended by the European Commission to include all EU member states. In May 1999, the EU Scientific Steering Committee recommended that use for growth promotion of antimicrobials, which are or may be used in human or veterinary medicine should be phased out as soon...... (DANMAP), which monitors resistance among bacteria from food animals, food and humans. A programme to monitor all use of prescription medicine in food animals at the herd level is presently being implemented. Another initiative was the elaboration of a series of practical recommendations to veterinarians...

  11. Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals and Enterococcus faecium resistance to therapeutic antimicrobial drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1999-01-01

    Supplementing animal feed with antimicrobial agents to enhance growth has been common practice for more than 30 years and is estimated to constitute more than half the total antimicrobial use worldwide. The potential public health consequences of this use have been debated; however, until recently......, clear evidence of a health risk was not available. Accumulating evidence now indicates that the use of the glycopeptide avoparcin as a growth promoter has created in food animals a major reservoir of Enterococcus faecium, which contains the high level glycopeptide resistance determinant vanA, located...... on the Tn1546 transposon. Furthermore, glycopeptide-resistant strains, as well as resistance determinants, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Two antimicrobial classes expected to provide the future therapeutic options for treatment of infections with vancomycin-resistant enterococci have analogues...

  12. Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides in Vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrios are associated with a broad diversity of hosts that produce antimicrobial peptides (AMPs as part of their defense against microbial infections. In particular, vibrios colonize epithelia, which function as protective barriers and express AMPs as a first line of chemical defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown they can also colonize phagocytes, key components of the animal immune system. Phagocytes infiltrate infected tissues and use AMPs to kill the phagocytosed microorganisms intracellularly, or deliver their antimicrobial content extracellularly to circumvent tissue infection. We review here the mechanisms by which vibrios have evolved the capacity to evade or resist the potent antimicrobial defenses of the immune cells or tissues they colonize. Among their strategies to resist killing by AMPs, primarily vibrios use membrane remodeling mechanisms. In particular, some highly resistant strains substitute hexaacylated Lipid A with a diglycine residue to reduce their negative surface charge, thereby lowering their electrostatic interactions with cationic AMPs. As a response to envelope stress, which can be induced by membrane-active agents including AMPs, vibrios also release outer membrane vesicles to create a protective membranous shield that traps extracellular AMPs and prevents interaction of the peptides with their own membranes. Finally, once AMPs have breached the bacterial membrane barriers, vibrios use RND efflux pumps, similar to those of other species, to transport AMPs out of their cytoplasmic space.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray for analysis of multi-drug resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Leski, Tomasz; Stenger, David; Vora, Gary J.; House, Brent; Nicklasson, Matilda; Pimentel, Guillermo; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Craft, David; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Bangurae, Umaru; Ansumana, Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections in personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has made it challenging for physicians to choose effective therapeutics in a timely fashion. To address the challenge of identifying the potential for drug resistance, we have developed the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM) to provide DNAbased analysis for over 250 resistance genes covering 12 classes of antibiotics. Over 70 drug-resistant bacteria from different geographic regions have been analyzed on ARDM, with significant differences in patterns of resistance identified: genes for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, and macrolide-lincosamidesulfonamide drugs were more frequently identified in isolates from sources in Iraq/Afghanistan. Of particular concern was the presence of genes responsible for resistance to many of the last-resort antibiotics used to treat war traumaassociated infections.

  14. The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Klausen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy over the years has saved millions of lives, but antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a current threat to human health. An interesting review on AMR has recently been presented in the Journal of American Medical Association (Marston et al., 2016). The review is authored by five staff...... members at National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, and the purpose of the review was to identify factors associated with AMR, the current epidemiology of important resistant organisms, and possible solutions to the AMR problem. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. Antimicrobial hydrogels: a new weapon in the arsenal against multidrug-resistant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor W L; Chan, Julian M W; Sardon, Haritz; Ono, Robert J; García, Jeannette M; Yang, Yi Yan; Hedrick, James L

    2014-11-30

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microbes is becoming an imminent global public health problem. Treatment with conventional antibiotics often leads to resistance development as the majority of these antibiotics act on intracellular targets, leaving the bacterial morphology intact. Thus, they are highly prone to develop resistance through mutation. Much effort has been made to develop macromolecular antimicrobial agents that are less susceptible to resistance as they function by microbial membrane disruption. Antimicrobial hydrogels constitute an important class of macromolecular antimicrobial agents, which have been shown to be effective in preventing and treating multidrug-resistant infections. Advances in synthetic chemistry have made it possible to tailor molecular structure and functionality to impart broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity as well as predictable mechanical and rheological properties. This has significantly broadened the scope of potential applications that range from medical device and implant coating, sterilization, wound dressing, to antimicrobial creams for the prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant infections. In this review, advances in both chemically and physically cross-linked natural and synthetic hydrogels possessing intrinsic antimicrobial properties or loaded with antibiotics, antimicrobial polymers/peptides and metal nanoparticles are highlighted. Relationships between physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity/selectivity, and possible antimicrobial mechanisms of the hydrogels are discussed. Approaches to mitigating toxicity of metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated in hydrogels are reviewed. In addition, challenges and future perspectives in the development of safe and effective antimicrobial hydrogel systems especially involving co-delivery of antimicrobial polymers/peptides and conventional antimicrobial agents for eventual clinical applications are presented.

  16. 2012年中国三级医院分离的肠杆菌科细菌耐药监测报告%Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from first class hospitals in China of 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕媛; 郑波; 崔兰卿; 刘玉村

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解2012年度中国三级医院临床分离肠杆菌科细菌对常用抗菌药物的耐药状况。方法中国557家三级医院按照监测方案要求,收集临床肠杆菌科细菌,进行药物敏感性测试;根据美国实验室与标准化研究所( CLSI )2012标准,判断敏感性,用Whonet5.6软件处理数据。结果2012年度,共收集肠杆菌科细菌372060株,分离量名列前3位的细菌是大肠埃希菌(161211株,43.3%)、肺炎克雷伯菌(112600株,30.3%)和阴沟肠杆菌(31887株,8.6%)。碳青霉烯类对肠杆菌科细菌的耐药率最低,大肠埃希菌对碳青霉烯类耐药率不足2.5%,奇异变形菌对亚胺培南、美罗培南的耐药率不到5%,其余肠杆菌科对碳青霉烯类的耐药率也多在10%以下;哌拉西林/他唑巴坦、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、阿米卡星对肠杆菌科细菌显示较高的抗菌活性,耐药率多不到10%。比较全国七大地区分离的肠杆菌科细菌对各抗菌药物的耐药率,各地区肠杆菌科耐药率差异不大,华中地区分离的菌株对抗菌药物的耐药率略高于全国整体水平,但是这种差异无统计学意义。结论我国三级医院分离的肠杆菌科细菌对抗菌药物呈现不同程度的耐药,碳青霉烯类抗菌药仍然是活性最高的药物,但已经出现耐药菌株,应引起足够的重视。%Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients of first class hospitals in China in 2012.Methods All the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected and the susceptibility tests of the isolates were performed by 557 first class hospitals around China from 1st Jan.2012 to 31st Dec.2012.The susceptibilities of isolates to antimicrobial agents were determined by using CLSI (2010) guideline and the susceptibility data were processed with Whonet 5.6 software.Results A total of 372052 clinical

  17. Associations between Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, Antimicrobial Resistance Genes, and Virulence Genes of Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Grow-Finish Pigs ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli often carries linked antimicrobial resistance genes on transmissible genetic elements. Through coselection, antimicrobial use may select for unrelated but linked resistance or virulence genes. This study used unconditional statistical associations to investigate the relationships between antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance genes in 151 E. coli isolates from healthy pigs. Phenotypic resistance to each drug was significantly associated with phenotyp...

  18. Where Sepsis and Antimicrobial Resistance Countermeasures Converge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Urosevic, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science–clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance. We propose an AMR sepsis register, similar in concept to a cancer registry, to aid coordination of AMR countermeasures. PMID:28220145

  19. The challenges of antimicrobial resistance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Flávia

    2011-05-01

    Brazil is a country with continental proportions with high geographic and economic diversity. Despite its medical centers of excellence, antimicrobial resistance poses a major therapeutic challenge. Rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are up to 60% and are related to an endemic Brazilian clone. Local resistance to vancomycin in Enterococci was first related to Enterococcus faecalis, which differs from European and American epidemiology. Also, local Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases have a much higher prevalence (40%-50% and 10%-18%, respectively). Carbapenem resistance among the enterobacteriaceae group is becoming a major problem, and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase isolates have been reported in different states. Among nonfermenters, carbapenem resistance is strongly related to SPM-1 (Pseudomonasaeruginosa) and OXA-23 (Acinetobacter baumannii complex) enzymes, and a colistin-only susceptible phenotype has also emerged in these isolates, which is worrisome. Local actions without loosing the global resistance perspective will demand multidisciplinary actions, new policies, and political engagement.

  20. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa Anibal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions

  1. Curbing the menace of antimicrobial resistance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweneka, Chidi Victor; Tapha-Sosseh, Ndey; Sosa, Anibal

    2009-11-19

    Several reports suggest that antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem; but like most pandemics, the greatest toll is in the less developed countries. The dismally low rate of discovery of antimicrobials compared to the rate of development of antimicrobial resistance places humanity on a very dangerous precipice. Since antimicrobial resistance is part of an organism's natural survival instinct, total eradication might be unachievable; however, it can be reduced to a level that it no longer poses a threat to humanity. While inappropriate antimicrobial consumption contributes to the development of antimicrobial resistance, other complex political, social, economic and biomedical factors are equally important. Tackling the menace therefore should go beyond the conventional sensitization of members of the public and occasional press releases to include a multi-sectoral intervention involving the formation of various alliances and partnerships. Involving civil society organisations like the media could greatly enhance the success of the interventions.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  3. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations.

  4. Regulation of antimicrobial resistance by extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2017-01-30

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors are a subfamily of σ(70) sigma factors that activate genes involved in stress-response functions. In many bacteria, ECF sigma factors regulate resistance to antimicrobial compounds. This review will summarize the ECF sigma factors that regulate antimicrobial resistance in model organisms and clinically relevant pathogens.

  5. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among food animals: Principles and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2004-01-01

    Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria...... pathogenic for animals or humans. Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimes to limit the development of resistance......, there are major differences between programmes designed to detect changes in a national population, individual herds or groups of animals. In addition, programmes have to be designed differently according to whether the aim is to determine changes in resistance for all antimicrobial agents or only...

  6. Class 1 integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that integrons class 1 were widely distributed among Salmonella enterica isolates. Surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance, including screening for integrons as likely indicators of drug resistance and acquisition of new resistance traits, are necessary steps in planning effective strategies for containing this phenomenon within foodborne infection organisms.

  7. Clonal spread of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates among pups in two kennels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toshio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the dog breeding industry is common in many countries, the presence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria among pups in kennels has been infrequently investigated. This study was conducted to better understand the epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from kennel pups not treated with antimicrobials. We investigated susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobials, and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL in 86 faecal E. coli isolates from 43 pups in two kennels. Genetic relatedness among all isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Susceptibility tests revealed that 76% of the isolates were resistant to one or more of tested antimicrobials, with resistance to dihydrostreptomycin most frequently encountered (66.3% followed by ampicillin (60.5%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (41.9%, oxytetracycline (26.7%, and chloramphenicol (26.7%. Multidrug resistance, defined as resistance against two or more classes of antimicrobials, was observed in 52 (60.5% isolates. Three pups in one kennel harboured SHV-12 ESBL-producing isolates. A comparison between the two kennels showed that frequencies of resistance against seven antimicrobials and the variation in resistant phenotypes differed significantly. Analysis by PFGE revealed that clone sharing rates among pups of the same litters were not significantly different in both kennels (64.0% vs. 88.9%, whereas the rates among pups from different litters were significantly different between the two kennels (72.0% vs. 33.3%, P E. coli clones, including multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing clones. It is likely that resistant and susceptible bacteria can clonally spread among the same and/or different litters thus affecting the resistance prevalence.

  8. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from cases of calf enteritis during the spring-calving season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, James F; Boland, Fiona; Buckley, James F; Butler, Francis; Egan, John; Fanning, Séamus; Markey, Bryan K; Leonard, Finola C

    2014-05-14

    Neonatal enteritis is a common condition of young calves and can be caused by pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We hypothesised that on-farm antimicrobial use would result in an increased frequency of resistance in these strains during the calving season. We also sought to determine if the frequency of resistance reflected on-farm antimicrobial use. Faecal samples were collected from cases of calf enteritis on 14 spring-calving dairy farms during two 3 week periods: Period 1 - February 11th through March 2nd 2008 and Period 2 - April 14th through May 5th 2008. E. coli were cultured from these samples, pathogenic strains were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out on these pathogenic isolates. Antimicrobial prescribing data were collected from each farm for the previous 12 months as an indicator of antimicrobial use. The correlation between antimicrobial use and resistance was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between resistance, sampling period and pathotype. Penicillins and aminopenicillins, streptomycin, and tetracyclines were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobials and the greatest frequencies of resistance were detected to these 3 antimicrobial classes. A strong correlation (ρ=0.879) was observed between overall antimicrobial use and frequencies of antimicrobial resistance on farms. Sampling period was significant in the regression model for ampicillin resistance while pathotype was significant in the models for streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole resistance. The frequencies of resistance observed have implications for veterinary therapeutics and prudent antimicrobial use. Resistance did not increase during the calving season and factors other than antimicrobial use, such as calf age and bacterial pathotype, may influence the occurrence of resistance in pathogenic E. coli.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides: a new class of antimalarial drugs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno eVale

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of antimicrobial peptides (AMP exhibit activity on malaria parasites, Plasmodium spp, in their blood or mosquito stages, or both. These peptides include a diverse array of both natural and synthetic molecules varying greatly in size, charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure features. Along with an overview of relevant literature reports regarding AMP that display antiplasmodial activity, this review makes a few considerations about those molecules as a potential new class of antimalarial drugs.

  11. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  12. An economic perspective on policy to reduce antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, J; Smith, R D; Millar, M R

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial drugs is increasing worldwide. This resistance is, at least in part, associated with high antimicrobial usage. Despite increasing awareness, economists (and policy analysts more generally) have paid little attention to the problem. In this paper antimicrobial resistance is conceptualised as a negative externality associated with the consumption of antimicrobials and is set within the broader context of the costs and benefits associated with antimicrobial usage. It is difficult to determine the overall impact of attempting to reduce resistance, given the extremely limited ability to model the epidemiology of resistant and sensitive micro-organisms. It is assumed for the purposes of the paper, however, that dealing with resistance by reducting antimicrobial usage would lead to a positive societal benefit. Three policy options traditionally associated with environmental economics (regulation, permits and charges) are examined in relation to their potential ability to impact upon the problem of resistance. The primary care sector of the U.K.'s National Health Service provides the context for this examination. Simple application of these policies to health care is likely to be problematic, with difficulties resulting particularly from the potential reduction in clinical freedom to prescribe when appropriate, and from the desire for equity in health care provision. The paper tentatively concludes that permits could offer the best policy response to antimicrobial resistance, with the caveat that empirical research is needed to develop the most practical and efficient system. This research must be conducted alongside the required epidemiological research.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe: The missing link between consumption and resistance in veterinary medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents...

  14. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella infections from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; García Migura, Lourdes; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    . ; Results: Of the isolates, 25 (68%) were S. sonnei phase II, with 5 (14%) S. flexneri, 5 (14%) Shigella dysenteriae type 2, and 2 (5%) Shigella boydii type 2. Resistance to at least threeclasses of antimicrobials was detected in all species. The presence of blaCTX-M-15 and the AmpC β-lactamase producer bla...... or the presence of an endemic clone in Iran. ; Conclusions: This is the first known description of ESBL-producing and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Shigella and of PMQR Shigella in Iran. The emergence of CTX-15, CMY-2 and qnrS1 genes may compromise the treatment of shigellosis. Strategies to minimize the spread...

  15. Analysis on Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical Bacteria Isolated from County Hospitals and a Teaching Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ziyong; LI Li; ZHU Xuhui; MA Yue; LI Jingyun; SHEN Zhengyi; JIN Shaohong

    2006-01-01

    The distinction of antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital was investigated. Disc diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital. The data was analyzed by WHONET5 and SPSS statistic software. A total of 655 strains and 1682 strains were collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital, respectively, in the year of 2003. The top ten pathogens were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), E. coli, Klebsiella spp. , S. areus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. , Enterobacter spp. , otherwise Salmonella spp. , Proteus spp. , Shigella spp. in county hospitals and Streptococcus spp. , Acinetobacter spp. , X. maltophilia in the teaching hospital. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was 5% (4/86) of methicillin-resistant S. areus (MRSA), 12% (16/133) and 15.8 % (9/57) of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. , respectively, in county hospitals. All of the three rates were lower than that in the teaching hospital and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). However, the incidence of methicillin-resistant CNS (MRCNS) reached to 70 % (109/156) in the two classes of hospitals. Generally, the antimicrobial resistant rates in the county hospitals were lower than those in the teaching hospital, except the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, SMZco which were similar in the two classes of hospitals. There were differences between county hospitals and the teaching hospital in the distribution of clinical isolates and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. It was the basis of rational use of antimicrobial agents to monitor antimicrobial resistance by each hospital.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world's sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasovský, Dušan; Littmann, Jasper; Zorzet, Anna; Cars, Otto

    2016-08-01

    This commentary examines how specific sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected by antimicrobial resistance and suggests how the issue can be better integrated into international policy processes. Moving beyond the importance of effective antibiotics for the treatment of acute infections and health care generally, we discuss how antimicrobial resistance also impacts on environmental, social, and economic targets in the SDG framework. The paper stresses the need for greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and suggests steps towards a broader engagement of countries and United Nations agencies to foster global intersectoral action on antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Jill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

  19. A trend analysis of antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from several livestock species in Belgium (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Jean-Baptiste; Jaspers, Stijn; Butaye, Patrick; Wattiau, Pierre; Méroc, Estelle; Aerts, Marc; Imberechts, Hein; Vermeersch, Katie; Van der Stede, Yves

    2015-12-01

    A temporal trend analysis was performed on antimicrobial resistance data collected over 4 consecutive years (2011-2014) in the official Belgian antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme. Commensal Escherichia coli strains were isolated from faecal samples of four livestock categories (veal calves, young beef cattle, broiler chickens and slaughter pigs) and the trends of resistance profiles were analysed. The resistance prevalence remained high (>50%) during the study period for ampicillin in veal calves and chickens, for ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid in chickens, for sulfamethoxazole in veal calves, chickens and pigs and for tetracycline in veal calves. Using logistic regression and Generalized Estimating Equation and after p value adjustment for multiple testing (Linear step-up method), statistically significant decreasing temporal trends were observed for several of the 11 tested antimicrobials in several livestock categories: in veal calves (10/11), in chickens (6/11) and in pigs (5/11). A significant increasing trend was observed for the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin in chickens. Multi-resistance, considered as the resistance to at least three antimicrobials of different antibiotic classes, was observed in the four livestock categories but was significantly decreasing in veal calves, chickens and pigs. Overall, the prevalence of resistance and of multi-resistance was lowest in the beef cattle livestock category and highest in broiler chickens. These decreasing temporal trends of antimicrobial resistance might be due to a decrease of the total antimicrobial consumption for veterinary use in Belgium which was reported for the period between 2010 and 2013. The methodology and statistical tools developed in this study provide outputs which can detect shifts in resistance levels or resistance trends associated with particular antimicrobial classes and livestock categories. Such outputs can be used as objective evidence to evaluate the possible

  20. Antimicrobial resistance and related issues: An overview of Bangladesh situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sayedur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to understand Bangladesh situation about antimicrobial resistance. Half of the Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella showed resistance against older and common antimicrobials. Most (50% common reasons to prescribe antimicrobial are fever, respiratory and urinary tract infection. About 70% prescriber mentioned diagnostic uncertainty and emergence of resistance as causes for increase in antimicrobial prescribing. 51.9% of prescribers opined that physicians prescribe antimicrobial more than the actual need. About two-third of 5th year medical students answered correctly on different issues related to antimicrobials and resistance. Antimicrobial and resistance received little emphasis in Pharmacology and Microbiology written questions at both undergraduate (0.7 to 16.1% and postgraduate (0.9 to 18.4% level. Print (0.02% to 2.0% and electronic media (0.0 to 0.6% attaches small importance on the issues. Nothing related to ‘antimicrobials’ and ‘measure to contain resistance’ were mentioned in related policy documents.

  1. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridkin, Scott K; Cleveland, Angela A; See, Isaac; Lynfield, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Across the United States, antimicrobial drug-resistant infections affect a diverse population, and effective interventions require concerted efforts across various public health and clinical programs. Since its onset in 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program has provided robust and timely data on antimicrobial drug-resistant infections that have been used to inform public health action across a spectrum of partners with regard to many highly visible antimicrobial drug-resistance threats. These data span several activities within the Program, including respiratory bacterial infections, health care-associated infections, and some aspects of foodborne diseases. These data have contributed to estimates of national burden, identified populations at risk, and determined microbiological causes of infection and their outcomes, all of which have been used to inform national policy and guidelines to prevent antimicrobial drug-resistant infections.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world's sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This commentary examines how specific sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected by antimicrobial resistance and suggests how the issue can be better integrated into international policy processes. Moving beyond the importance of effective antibiotics for the treatment of acute infections and health care generally, we discuss how antimicrobial resistance also impacts on environmental, social, and economic targets in the SDG framework. The paper stresses the need for greater internation...

  3. Mechanisms and Biological Costs of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Lofton Tomenius, Hava

    2016-01-01

    The global increasing problem of antibiotic resistance necessarily drives the pursuit and discovery of new antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) initially seemed like promising new drug candidates. Already members of the innate immune system, it was assumed that they would be bioactive and non-toxic. Their common trait for fundamental, non-specific mode of action also seemed likely to reduce resistance development. In this thesis, we demonstrate the ease with which two species o...

  4. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Antimicrobial drug resistance ofStaphylococcus aureus in dairy products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasidharan S; Prema B; Yoga Latha L

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of multidrug resistantStaphylococcus aureus(S. aureus) in dairy products.Methods:Isolation and identification ofS. aureus were performed in3 dairy-based food products. The isolates were tested for their susceptibility to5 different common antimicrobial drugs.Results:Of50 samples examined,5 (10%) were contaminated with S. aureus. Subsequently, the5 isolates were subjected to antimicrobial resistance pattern using five antibiotic discs (methicillin, vancomycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline). Sample 29 showed resistance to methicillin and vancomycin. Sample18 showed intermediate response to tetracycline. The other samples were susceptible to all the antibiotics tested.Conclusions:The results provide preliminary data on sources of food contamination which may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistantStaphylococcus.Therefore, it enables us to develop preventive strategies to avoid the emergence of new strains of resistantS. aureus.

  6. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in finfish aquaculture environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D. Miranda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demand for affordable fish drives the ever-growing global aquaculture industry. The intensification and expansion of culture conditions in the production of several finfish species has been coupled with an increase in bacterial fish disease and the need for treatment with antimicrobials. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance prevalent in aquaculture environments is important to design effective disease treatment strategies, to prioritize the use and registration of antimicrobials for aquaculture use, and to assess and minimize potential risks to public health. In this brief article we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in finfish aquaculture environments and highlight specific research that should provide the basis of sound, science-based policies for the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture.

  7. Increased survival of experimentally evolved antimicrobial peptide-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an animal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Adam J; Purves, Joanne; Rolff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been proposed as new class of antimicrobial drugs, following the increasing prevalence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Synthetic AMPs are functional analogues of highly evolutionarily conserved immune effectors in animals and plants, produced in response to microbial infection. Therefore, the proposed therapeutic use of AMPs bears the risk of 'arming the enemy': bacteria that evolve resistance to AMPs may be cross-resistant to immune effectors (AMPs) in their hosts. We used a panel of populations of Staphylococcus aureus that were experimentally selected for resistance to a suite of individual AMPs and antibiotics to investigate the 'arming the enemy' hypothesis. We tested whether the selected strains showed higher survival in an insect model (Tenebrio molitor) and cross-resistance against other antimicrobials in vitro. A population selected for resistance to the antimicrobial peptide iseganan showed increased in vivo survival, but was not more virulent. We suggest that increased survival of AMP-resistant bacteria almost certainly poses problems to immune-compromised hosts.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance and its association with tolerance to heavy metals in agriculture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyi; Gunn, Lynda; Wall, Patrick; Fanning, Séamus

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a recognized public health challenge that since its emergence limits the therapeutic options available to veterinarians and clinicians alike, when treatment is warranted. This development is further compounded by the paucity of new antibiotics. The agri-food industry benefits from the availability of antimicrobial compounds for food-animal production and crop protection. Nonetheless, their improper use can result in the selection for bacteria that are phenotypically resistant to these compounds. Another class of agents used in agriculture includes various cationic metals that can be included in animal diets as nutritional supplements or spread on pastures to support crop growth and protection. Heavy metals, in particular, are giving rise to concerns among public health professionals, as they can persist in the environment remaining stable for prolonged periods. Moreover, bacteria can also exhibit resistance to these chemical elements and the genes encoding this phenotype can be physically localized to plasmids that may also contain one or more antimicrobial resistance-encoding gene(s). This paper reviews our current understanding of the role that bacteria play in expressing resistance to heavy metals. It will describe how heavy metals are used in agri-food production, and explore evidence available to link resistance to heavy metals and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, possible solutions to reduce the impact of heavy metal resistance are also discussed, including using organic minerals and reducing the level of trace minerals in animal feed rations.

  9. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Band

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are important innate immune defenses that inhibit colonization by pathogens and contribute to clearance of infections. Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are a major target, yet many of them have evolved mechanisms to resist these antimicrobials. These resistance mechanisms can be critical contributors to bacterial virulence and are often crucial for survival within the host. Here, we summarize methods used by Gram-negative bacteria to resist CAMPs. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to new therapeutic strategies against pathogens with extensive CAMP resistance.

  10. Distribution of virulence determinants among antimicrobial-resistant and antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli implicated in urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAM Stephenson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC rely on the correlation of virulence expression with antimicrobial resistance to persist and cause severe urinary tract infections (UTIs. Objectives: We assessed the virulence pattern and prevalence among UPEC strains susceptible and resistant to multiple antimicrobial classes. Methods: A total of 174 non-duplicate UPEC strains from patients with clinically significant UTIs were analysed for susceptibility to aminoglycoside, antifolate, cephalosporin, nitrofuran and quinolone antibiotics for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and for the presence of six virulence determinants encoding adhesins (afimbrial, Type 1 fimbriae, P and S-fimbriae and toxins (cytotoxic necrotising factor and haemolysin. Results: Relatively high resistance rates to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (82%, 78%, 62% and 59%, respectively were observed. Fourteen distinct patterns were identified for the virulence determinants such as afaBC, cnfI, fimH, hylA, papEF and sfaDE. The toxin gene, cnfI (75.3%, was the second most prevalent marker to the adhesin, fimH (97.1%. The significant association of sfaDE/hylA (P < 0.01 among antimicrobial resistant and susceptible strains was also observed notwithstanding an overall greater occurrence of virulence factors among the latter. Conclusions: This study provides a snapshot of UPEC complexity in Jamaica and highlights the significant clonal heterogeneity among strains. Such outcomes emphasise the need for evidence-based strategies in the effective management and control of UTIs.

  11. Associations between host characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddat, I; Tietze, E; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L

    2014-10-01

    A collection of Salmonella Typhimurium isolates obtained from sporadic salmonellosis cases in humans from Lower Saxony, Germany between June 2008 and May 2010 was used to perform an exploratory risk-factor analysis on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using comprehensive host information on sociodemographic attributes, medical history, food habits and animal contact. Multivariate resistance profiles of minimum inhibitory concentrations for 13 antimicrobial agents were analysed using a non-parametric approach with multifactorial models adjusted for phage types. Statistically significant associations were observed for consumption of antimicrobial agents, region type and three factors on egg-purchasing behaviour, indicating that besides antimicrobial use the proximity to other community members, health consciousness and other lifestyle-related attributes may play a role in the dissemination of resistances. Furthermore, a statistically significant increase in AMR from the first study year to the second year was observed.

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance among Salmonella and Shigella Isolates in Five Canadian Provinces (1997 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah J Martin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR among Salmonella and Shigella isolates reported in five Canadian provinces, focusing on clinically important antimicrobials.

  13. Mechanobiology of Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajkarimi, Mehrdad; Harrison, Scott H; Hung, Albert M; Graves, Joseph L

    2016-01-01

    A majority of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections in the United States are associated with biofilms. Nanoscale biophysical measures are increasingly revealing that adhesive and viscoelastic properties of bacteria play essential roles across multiple stages of biofilm development. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) applied to strains with variation in antimicrobial resistance enables new opportunities for investigating the function of adhesive forces (stickiness) in biofilm formation. AFM force spectroscopy analysis of a field strain of Listeria innocua and the strain Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 revealed differing adhesive forces between antimicrobial resistant and nonresistant strains. Significant increases in stickiness were found at the nanonewton level for strains of Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli in association with benzalkonium chloride and silver nanoparticle resistance respectively. This advancement in the usage of AFM provides for a fast and reliable avenue for analyzing antimicrobial resistant cells and the molecular dynamics of biofilm formation as a protective mechanism.

  14. The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Zeckhauser

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Diversity in Salmonella from Humans and Cattle, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afema, J A; Mather, A E; Sischo, W M

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understand source and transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) and Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans and cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST and SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST and SN from humans (P Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, and this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans and cattle, the expected and observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella and associated resistance from humans and cattle may not be wholly derived from a common population.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (PE. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from commensal isolates to potential pathogenic

  17. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use....... There was a steady increase in the use of antimicrobials during the period 2001-2006, the majority of the prescribed amount being extended spectrum penicillins followed by aminoglycosides, sulphonamides with trimethoprim, and macrolides....... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54...

  18. Narrow grass hedges reduce tylosin and associated antimicrobial resistance genes in agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural runoff from areas receiving livestock manure can potentially contaminate surface water with antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of narrow grass hedges (NGHs) on reducing the transport of antimicrobial...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance among enterococci from pigs in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2002-01-01

    Enterococci from pigs in Denmark, Spain, and Sweden were examined for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and copper and the presence of selected resistance genes. The greatest levels of resistance were found among isolates from Spain and Denmark compared to those from Sweden, which correspond...

  20. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter: prevalence and trends in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igimi, S; Okada, Y; Ishiwa, A; Yamasaki, M; Morisaki, N; Kubo, Y; Asakura, H; Yamamoto, S

    2008-09-01

    Campylobacter is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan and throughout the world. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans has emerged in many countries during the past 15 years because fluoroquinolones are the drug of choice for the treatment of suspected bacterial gastroenteritis. Food contaminated with Campylobacter is the usual source of human infection; therefore, the presence of antimicrobial resistance strains in the food chain has raised concerns that the treatment of human infections will be compromised. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals and in veterinary medicine is suspected to be correlated with an increase in quinolone-resistant strains of Campylobacter in food animals, especially in poultry products. In contrast to macrolide resistance in C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from humans showing a stable low rate, resistant Campylobacter spp. to quinolones have emerged in Japan. The paper summarizes food-borne Campylobacter infection in Japan, and the prevalence and trends of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter from the authors' data and other Japanese papers which reported the antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter.

  2. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [page 77] Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae [page 79] Drug-resistant tuberculosis [page 81] Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Concerning Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ... Streptococcus [page 87] Clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus [page ...

  3. Short communication: Genetic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter isolates recovered from bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, M D; Gurung, M; Nam, H M; Kim, S R; Jang, G C; Jung, S C; Lim, S K

    2014-02-01

    A total of 176 Acinetobacter isolates, including 57 Acinetobacter baumannii originally obtained from 2,287 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples in Korea was investigated for the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance using molecular methods. In addition, the occurrence and cassette content of integrons were examined and the genetic diversity of A. baumannii strains identified was evaluated. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes were detected in 15 (88.2%) of the 17 aminoglycoside-resistant Acinetobacter isolates tested. The most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene identified was adenylyltransferase gene aadB (n = 9), followed by phosphotransferase genes aphA6 (n = 7) and aphA1 (n = 5). Of the 31 isolates resistant to tetracycline, tet(39) was detected in 20 of them. The genetic basis of resistance to sulfonamide was identified in 15 (53.6%) of 28 trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates and 9 (32.1%) of them carried both sul1 and sul2 genes. A blaADC-7-like gene was detected in 1 β-lactam-resistant A. baumannii. Furthermore, class 1 integron was identified in 11 Acinetobacter isolates. Two gene cassettes dfrA15, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA2, conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, were identified in 8 Acinetobacter isolates. None of the isolates was positive for class 2 or class 3 integrons. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that most of the A. baumannii strains from BTM samples were genetically diverse, indicating that the occurrence of A. baumannii strains in BTM was not the result of dissemination of a single clone. Elucidation of resistance mechanisms associated with the resistance phenotype and a better understanding of resistance genes may help in the development of strategies to control infections, such as mastitis, and to prevent further dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from

  4. The Risk of Some Veterinary Antimicrobial Agents on Public Health Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance and their Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Sander, Pascal; Iqbal, Zahid; Wang, Yulian; Cheng, Guyue; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The risk of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals on public health associated with antimicrobial resistance continues to be a current topic of discussion as related to animal and human public health. In the present review, resistance monitoring data, and risk assessment results of some important antimicrobial agents were cited to elucidate the possible association of antimicrobial use in food animals and antimicrobial resistance in humans. From the selected examples, it was apparent from reviewing the published scientific literature that the ban on use of some antimicrobial agents (e.g., avoparcin, fluoroquinolone, tetracyclines) did not change drug resistance patterns and did not mitigate the intended goal of minimizing antimicrobial resistance. The use of some antimicrobial agents (e.g., virginiamycin, macrolides, and cephalosporins) in food animals may have an impact on the antimicrobial resistance in humans, but it was largely depended on the pattern of drug usage in different geographical regions. The epidemiological characteristics of resistant bacteria were closely related to molecular mechanisms involved in the development, fitness, and transmission of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27803693

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus strains isolated from healthy domestic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Salvadori, Claudia; Lotti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico; Ebani, Valentina Virginia

    2016-12-15

    Enterococci are opportunistic bacteria that cause severe infections in animals and humans, capable to acquire, express, and transfer antimicrobial resistance. Susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested by the disk diffusion method in 222 Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from the fecal samples of 287 healthy domestic dogs. Vancomycin and ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) tests were also performed. Isolates showed resistance mainly to streptomycin (88.7%), neomycin (80.6%), and tetracycline (69.4%). Forty-two (18.9%) isolates showed an HLAR to streptomycin and 15 (6.7%) to gentamicin. Vancomycin and ampicillin MIC values showed 1 and 18 resistant strains, respectively. One hundred and thirty-six (61.2%) strains were classified as multidrug resistant and six (2.7%) strains as possibly extensively drug-resistant bacteria. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were the most prevalent antimicrobial resistant species. Companion animals, which often live in close contact with their owners and share the same environment, represent a serious source of enterococci resistant to several antibiotics; for this reason, they may be a hazard for public health by providing a conduit for the entrance of resistance genes into the community.

  6. Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: part II: antimicrobial resistance, pharmacodynamic concepts, and antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Fujitani, Shigeki; Quintiliani, Richard; Yu, Victor L

    2011-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa carries a notably higher mortality rate than other pneumonia pathogens. Because of its multiple mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, therapy has always been challenging. This problem has been magnified in recent years with the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens often unharmed by almost all classes of antimicrobials. The objective of this article is to assess optimal antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro activity, animal studies, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) observations so that evidence-based recommendations can be developed to maximize favorable clinical outcomes. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance of P aeruginosa are reviewed. A selective literature review of laboratory studies, PK/PD concepts, and controlled clinical trials of antibiotic therapy directed at P aeruginosa pneumonia was performed. P aeruginosa possesses multiple mechanisms for inducing antibiotic resistance to antimicrobial agents. Continuous infusion of antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotics enhances bacterial killing. Although the advantages of combination therapy remain contentious, in vitro and animal model studies plus selected meta-analyses of clinical trials support its use, especially in the era of MDR. Colistin use and the role of antibiotic aerosolization are reviewed. An evidence-based algorithmic approach based on severity of illness, Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, and combination antibiotic therapy is presented; clinical outcomes may be improved, and the emergence of MDR pathogens should be minimized with this approach.

  7. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and narrowing therapeutics in typhoidal salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurthe, Jaspal

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever (MDRTF) is a major public health problem in developing countries and is an emerging problem in the developed world. Because of the difficulties in preventing typhoid by public health measures or immunization in developing countries, great reliance is placed on antimicrobial chemotherapy. The treatment should commence as soon as the clinical diagnosis is made rather than after the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests but the existence of MDRTF poses a serious clinical dilemma in the selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy. With the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin became the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. However, of late the efficacy of fluoroquinolones too has been questioned, mainly due to increasing reports of increasing defervescence time and poor patient response. This indicates that the organism has begun to develop resistance to fluoroquinolones, and is corroborated by a steady increase in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, the emergence of extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) in typhoidal Salmonellae poses a new challenge and would greatly limit the therapeutic options leaving only tigecycline and carbepenems as secondary antimicrobial drugs. This increasing resistance is alarming and emphasizes the need of effective preventive measures to control typhoid and to limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  8. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Anne Michael

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: 1/ The increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes amongst microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials. 2/ The large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity. 3/ The extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: The rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education programme will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  9. The antimicrobial resistance crisis: causes, consequences, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Carolyn Anne; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Labbate, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis is the increasing global incidence of infectious diseases affecting the human population, which are untreatable with any known antimicrobial agent. This crisis will have a devastating cost on human society as both debilitating and lethal diseases increase in frequency and scope. Three major factors determine this crisis: (1) the increasing frequency of AMR phenotypes among microbes is an evolutionary response to the widespread use of antimicrobials; (2) the large and globally connected human population allows pathogens in any environment access to all of humanity; and (3) the extensive and often unnecessary use of antimicrobials by humanity provides the strong selective pressure that is driving the evolutionary response in the microbial world. Of these factors, the size of the human population is least amenable to rapid change. In contrast, the remaining two factors may be affected, so offering a means of managing the crisis: the rate at which AMR, as well as virulence factors evolve in microbial world may be slowed by reducing the applied selective pressure. This may be accomplished by radically reducing the global use of current and prospective antimicrobials. Current management measures to legislate the use of antimicrobials and to educate the healthcare world in the issues, while useful, have not comprehensively addressed the problem of achieving an overall reduction in the human use of antimicrobials. We propose that in addition to current measures and increased research into new antimicrobials and diagnostics, a comprehensive education program will be required to change the public paradigm of antimicrobial usage from that of a first line treatment to that of a last resort when all other therapeutic options have failed.

  10. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolaia, V.; Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Guardabassi, L.

    2016-01-01

    and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission...... interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin -producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to topical antimicrobials in atopic dermatitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Giancarlo Rezende; Quinto, Vanessa Petry; Machado, Daiane Corrêa; Lipnharski, Caroline; Weber, Magda Blessmann; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Background Topical antimicrobial drugs are indicated for limited superficial pyodermitis treatment, although they are largely used as self-prescribed medication for a variety of inflammatory dermatoses, including atopic dermatitis. Monitoring bacterial susceptibility to these drugs is difficult, given the paucity of laboratory standardization. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus topical antimicrobial drug resistance in atopic dermatitis patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of children and adults diagnosed with atopic dermatitis and S. aureus colonization. We used miscellaneous literature reported breakpoints to define S. aureus resistance to mupirocin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, neomycin and bacitracin. Results A total of 91 patients were included and 100 S. aureus isolates were analyzed. All strains were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We found a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance (1.1% and 5.9%, respectively), but high levels of neomycin and bacitracin resistance (42.6% and 100%, respectively). Fusidic acid resistance was associated with more severe atopic dermatitis, demonstrated by higher EASI scores (median 17.8 vs 5.7, p=.009). Our results also corroborate the literature on the absence of cross-resistance between the aminoglycosides neomycin and gentamicin. Conclusions Our data, in a southern Brazilian sample of AD patients, revealed a low prevalence of mupirocin and fusidic acid resistance of S. aureus atopic eczema colonizer strains. However, for neomycin and bacitracin, which are commonly used topical antimicrobial drugs in Brazil, high levels of resistance were identified. Further restrictions on the use of these antimicrobials seem necessary to keep resistance as low as possible. PMID:27828633

  12. How Fitness Reduced, Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Survive and Spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2014-01-01

    antimicrobials are used? To investigate these questions, we created a model where multiple strains of bacteria coexist in the intestines of pigs sharing a pen, and explored the parameter limits of a stable system; both with and without an antimicrobial treatment. The approach taken is a deterministic bacterial......More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given...... population model with stochastic elements of bacterial distributions and transmission. The rates that govern the model are process-oriented to represent growth, excretion, and uptake from environment, independent of herd and meta-population structures. Furthermore, an entry barrier and elimination process...

  13. How Fitness Reduced, Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria Survive and Spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils;

    2014-01-01

    More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given that there are mul......More than 30% of E. coli strains sampled from pig farms in Denmark over the last five years were resistant to the commonly used antimicrobial tetracycline. This raises a number of questions: How is this high level sustained if resistant bacteria have reduced growth rates? Given...... for the individual strains in each pig were implemented. We demonstrate how competitive growth between multiple bacterial strains in individual pigs, and the transmission between pigs in a pen allow for strains of antimicrobial resistant bacteria to persist in a pig population to different extents, and how quickly...... homogenous and how resistant the bacterial population becomes. Most important: resistant bacteria are demonstrated to survive with a disadvantage in growth rate of well over 10%....

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli in veal calves is associated with antimicrobial drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, J.A.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Mevius, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between farm management factors, including antimicrobial drug usage, and resistance in commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the faeces of white veal calves. Ninety E. coli isolates from one pooled sample per farm (n = 48) were tested for the

  15. "The Chennai declaration" - Indian doctors' fight against antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, A.; Ghafur, A.

    2013-01-01

    "The Chennai Declaration" is the result of the first ever joint meeting of medical societies in India addressing antibiotic resistance. The declaration is not a policy by itself, but a call for a national policy. The Declaration has looked into all major aspects of the problem of antimicrobial resis

  16. Microbial Ecology of and Antimicrobial Resistance in Stored Swine Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial compounds such as tylosin have been commonly used as feed additives for domestic animals to reduce infection and promote growth. Recent reports have suggested such feeding practices may result in increased microbial resistance to antibiotics, which can have an impact on human health. ...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance: revisiting the “tragedy of the commons”

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    When the NDM1 enzyme-containing “superbugs” struck in India, Pakistan and the United Kingdom earlier this year, media reports blamed medical tourism for its spread. But in this interview, Professor John Conly argues that the overuse and misuse of antibiotics leading to antimicrobial resistance – the theme of World Health Day 2011 – is the more important topic.

  18. "The Chennai declaration" - Indian doctors' fight against antimicrobial resistance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    “The Chennai Declaration” is the result of the first ever joint meeting of medical societies in India addressing antibiotic resistance. The declaration is not a policy by itself, but a call for a national policy. The Declaration has looked into all major aspects of the problem of antimicrobial resistance, has suggested practical solutions, explained in detail the responsibility of each and every stakeholder.

  19. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from livestock animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Jürgen

    2006-06-01

    Facing the problem of development and spreading of bacterial resistance, preventive strategies are considered the most appropriate means to counteract. The establishment of corresponding management options relies on scientifically defensible efforts to obtain objective data on the prevalence of bacterial resistance in healthy and diseased livestock. Additionally, detailed statistics are needed on the overall amount of antimicrobial agents dispensed in Germany. The collection of valid data on the prevalence of resistance requires representative and cross-sectional studies. The German national antimicrobial resistance monitoring of the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) determines the current quantitative resistance level of life-stock pathogens, in order to permit the evaluation and surveillance of the distribution of resistances on a valid basis. Essential key features determining the design of these studies comprise (1) a statistically valid sampling program. This incorporates regional differences in animal population density, (2) the avoidance of "copy strains", (3) testing of no more than two bacterial strains belonging to one species per herd, (4) testing only if no antimicrobial therapy preceded sample collection, and (5) the use of standardized methods [e.g. microdilution broth method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]. The analysis and interpretation of this data permits reliable identification and definition of epidemiological characteristics of resistance and its development in animal associated bacteria, such as geographically and time wise differentiated profiles on its prevalence, the emergence of unknown phenotypes of resistance and an assessment of the threat resistant bacteria from animals pose for humans. In applied antimicrobial therapy, the data can serve as a decision guidance in choosing the antimicrobial agent most adapted to the prevailing epidemiological situation. The susceptibility testing

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM DAKSHINA KANNADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Venkatakrishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infections in hospitals and pose a great challenge to the treating clinicians; even emergence of vancomycin resistance has been reported. Therefore the knowledge of prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial profile becomes necessary. This study is aimed to determine prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Dakshina Kannada.Clinical specimens and carrier samples were cultured as per standard methods. The isolates were identified by using catalase test, coagulase tube test, mannitol fermentation and DNAase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done for the isolates as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; the isolates were also tested for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin discs.A total of 250 isolates were tested (200 clinical isolates and 50 from carriers and 67 MRSA isolates were obtained (52 clinical samples and 15 from carriers. The degree of resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 100%, 100%, 53-56%, 14-16 % and 45-48% respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was not found. As the degree of resistance of MRSA towards antibiotics varies from region to region, in vitro susceptibility testing of every isolate of MRSA in clinical laboratories is inevitable.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial strains isolated from avian cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Avian cellulitis is an inflammatory process in the subcutaneous tissue, mainly located in the abdomen and thighs. This problem is commonly observed in poultry at slaughter and it is considered one of the major causes of condemnation of carcasses in Brazil. The aim of this study was to perform the microbial isolation of lesions of avian cellulitis from a processing plant located in the State of Goiás in order to analyze antimicrobial resistance by antibiogram test and to detect resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. A total of 25 samples of avian cellulitis lesions were analyzed, from which 30 bacterial strains were isolated. There were eleven (44% strains of Escherichia coli, nine (36% strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis, seven (28% strains of Proteus mirabilis and three (12% strains of Manheimiahaemolytica. The antibiogram test showed that all strains were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. The gene of antimicrobial resistance tetB was detected in E. coli, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis strains, and was the most frequently observed gene. The gene of antimicrobial resistance Sul1 was detected in all bacterial species, while tetA was found in E. coli and S. epidermidis strains, SHV in E. coli strains, S. epidermidis and P. mirabilis,and cat1 in one P. mirabilis strain. The results suggest a potential public health hazard due to the ability of these microorganisms to transmit antimicrobial resistancegenes to other microorganisms present in the intestinal tract of humans and animals, which may affect clinical-medical usage of these drugs.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from egg layer flocks and egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Gole, Vaibhav C; McWhorter, Andrea R; Abraham, Sam; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2015-06-16

    This study was conducted to examine the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella spp. isolated from commercial caged layer flocks in New South Wales and South Australia. All Salmonella isolates (n=145) were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of AMR and carriage of integrons. The majority of Salmonella isolates (91.72%) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested in this study. Limited resistance was observed to amoxicillin and ampicillin (5.51%), tetracycline (4.13%), cephalothin (2.06%) and trimethoprim (0.68%). None of the isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, ceftiofur, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, neomycin or streptomycin. A low frequency of Salmonella isolates (4.83%) harboured antimicrobial resistance genes and a class 1 integron. The most commonly detected AMR genes among the Salmonella isolates were blaTEM (2.07%), tet A (1.38%) and dhfrV (0.69%). Overall, Salmonella enterica isolates exhibited a low frequency of AMR and represent a minimal public health risk associated with the emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella spp. from the Australian layer industry.

  3. Systematic Review of Antimicrobial Resistance of Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Iran: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Nikoo, Hadi; Ardebili, Abdollah; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2017-01-13

    Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii has become a medical challenge because of the increasing incidence of multiresistant strains and a lack of viable treatment alternatives. This systematic review attempts to investigate the changes in resistance of A. baumannii to different classes of antibiotics in Iran, with emphasis on the antimicrobial activity of polymyxin B (PMB) and colistin (COL). Biomedical databases were searched for English-published articles evaluating microbiological activity of various antimicrobial agents, including PMB and COL. Then, the available data were extracted and analyzed. Thirty-one studies, published from 2009 to 2015, were identified which contain data for 3,018 A. baumannii clinical isolates. With the exception of polymyxins and tigecycline (TIG), there was a high rate of resistance to various groups of antibiotics, including carbapenems. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges for PMB and COL on A. baumannii isolates tested were 0.12-64 μg/ml and 0.001-128 μg/ml, respectively. Polymyxins showed adequate activity with no significant trends in the resistance rate during most of the study period. The incidence of resistance to TIG was estimated low from 2% to 38.4% among the majority of A. baumannii. The present systematic review of the published literatures revealed that multidrug-resistant (including carbapenem-resistant) strains of A. baumannii have increased in Iran. In these circumstances, the older antibiotics, such as COL or PMB, preferably in combination with other antimicrobials (rifampicin, meropenem), could be considered as the therapeutic solution against the healthcare-associated infections. Designing rational dosage regimens for patients to maximize the antimicrobial activity and minimize the emergence and prevalence of resistance is recommended.

  4. Host defence peptides: antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity and potential applications for tackling antibiotic-resistant infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The rapidly increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant infections and the alarmingly low rate of discovery of conventional antibiotics create an urgent need for alternative strategies to treat bacterial infections. Host defence peptides are short cationic molecules produced by the immune systems of most multicellular organisms; they are a class of compounds being actively researched. In this review, we provide an overview of the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities of natural host defence peptides, and discuss strategies for creating artificial derivatives with improved biological and pharmacological properties, issues of microbial resistance, and challenges associated with their adaptation for clinical use.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes in marine bacteria from salmon aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Q A; Cabello, Felipe C; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Tomova, Alexandra; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Sørum, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) detected by disc diffusion and antimicrobial resistance genes detected by DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction with amplicon sequencing were studied in 124 marine bacterial isolates from a Chilean salmon aquaculture site and 76 from a site without aquaculture 8 km distant. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was present in 81% of the isolates regardless of site. Resistance to tetracycline was most commonly encoded by tetA and tetG; to trimethoprim, by dfrA1, dfrA5 and dfrA12; to sulfamethizole, by sul1 and sul2; to amoxicillin, by blaTEM ; and to streptomycin, by strA-strB. Integron integrase intl1 was detected in 14 sul1-positive isolates, associated with aad9 gene cassettes in two from the aquaculture site. intl2 Integrase was only detected in three dfrA1-positive isolates from the aquaculture site and was not associated with gene cassettes in any. Of nine isolates tested for conjugation, two from the aquaculture site transferred AR determinants to Escherichia coli. High levels of AR in marine sediments from aquaculture and non-aquaculture sites suggest that dispersion of the large amounts of antimicrobials used in Chilean salmon aquaculture has created selective pressure in areas of the marine environment far removed from the initial site of use of these agents.

  6. Azorean wild rabbits as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Catarina; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Silva, Nuno; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Gonçalves, David; Rodrigues, Tiago; Poeta, Patrícia

    2014-12-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is an increasing problem that is not only constrained to the clinical setting but also to other environments that can lodge antibiotic resistant bacteria and therefore they may serve as reservoirs of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance. One hundred and thirty-six faecal samples from European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) were collected on São Jorge Island in Azores Archipelago, and analysed for Escherichia coli isolates. Seventy-seven isolates (56.6%) were recovered and studied for antimicrobial resistance, one isolate per positive sample. Thirteen (16.9%), 19 (24.7%), 25 (32.4%) and 20 (26%) isolates were ascribed to A, B1, B2 and D phylogenetic groups, respectively, by specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Different E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to ampicillin (16.9%), tetracycline (1.3%), streptomycin (42.9%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (1.3%), amikacin (1.3%), tobramycin (2.6%) and nalidixic acid (1.3%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tetA, strA/strB, aadA, sul1, intI, intI2 and qacEΔ+sul1 genes were found in most resistant isolates. This study showed that E. coli from the intestinal tract of wild rabbits from Azores Archipelago are resistant to widely prescribed antibiotics in medicine and they constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant genes, which may play a significant role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, antibiotic resistant E. coli from Azorean wild rabbits may represent an ecological and public health problem.

  7. S. Typhimurium strategies to resist killing by cationic antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamouros, Susana; Miller, Samuel I

    2015-11-01

    S. Typhimurium is a broad host range Gram-negative pathogen that must evade killing by host innate immune systems to colonize, replicate, cause disease, and be transmitted to other hosts. A major pathogenic strategy of Salmonellae is entrance, survival, and replication within eukaryotic cell phagocytic vacuoles. These phagocytic vacuoles and gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces contain multiple cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) which control invading bacteria. S. Typhimurium possesses several key mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs which involve sensing CAMPs and membrane damage to activate signaling cascades that result in remodeling of the bacterial envelope to reduce its overall negative charge with an increase in hydrophobicity to decrease binding and effectiveness of CAMPs. Moreover Salmonellae have additional mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs including an outer membrane protease which targets cationic peptides at the surface, and specific efflux pumps which protect the inner membrane from damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.

  8. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We...

  9. [Investigation of Enterococcus faecalis antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, M M; Cause, M; Solís, F; Rodríz, F; Casal, M

    2009-09-01

    We performed an antibiotic resistance study on Enterococcus faecalis isolated from intrahospitalary and extrahospitalary samples between january 2004 and january 2008. Three different samples were studied; urine, blood and wound swabs, considering a strain per patient. We included in the study a global amount of 3,641 Enterococcus faecalis isolations from clinical samples received at Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía microbiology service in Córdoba (Spain). We employed semiautomatic system WIDER I (Soria Melguizo) for identification and sensibility testing. We considered sensibility and resistance criteria recommended by MENSURA group. We found a sensitivity rate of 98.04% to betalactamics.The highest resistance rates were obtained with aminoglycosides, between 33.82% and 48.01%. Linezolid and Vancomycin sensitivity was 100%. It seems that vancomycin resistance is not a worrying issue today, but it should be controlled.

  10. Efficacy of triclosan as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential impact on antimicrobial resistance: a focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Christopher A; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    Triclosan is a synthetic biocide found in many household products, including antimicrobial hand soap. Levels of triclosan have been found throughout the environment and in human urine, blood, and even breast milk. Increasing levels of exposure to triclosan have led to concerns over the development of resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. We performed a literature search to assess whether the widespread use of triclosan displays a favorable benefit: risk ratio, defined by evaluation of triclosan's efficacy as an antimicrobial hand soap and its potential effect on the development of antimicrobial resistance. Data from laboratory-based studies regarding the efficacy of triclosan are conflicting, although well-designed studies suggest no significant difference in efficacy over nonantimicrobial soap. In addition, when triclosan was introduced in a community setting, no beneficial effects were observed on the reduction of infections over nonantimicrobial soap. Resistance to triclosan and cross-resistance to antimicrobials have been consistently demonstrated in laboratory settings, although overall resistance rates and cross-resistance rates in the community setting are low. Based on the available evidence, the risk of potential antimicrobial resistance outweighs the benefit of widespread triclosan use in antimicrobial soaps.

  11. Epidemiology of nosocomial bacteria resistant to antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina E. Cabrera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are a major challenge for public health because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality generated. It was considered that the excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics triggers the emergence of resistant strains. Among the clinically important bacteria that most commonly cause nososcomial infections, Gram positive multiresistant pathogens stand out such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (VRE, and the Gram negative strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii producing expanded spectrum b-lactamases (ESbL. This review describes the behavior of the main bacterial pathogens resistant to antibiotics that cause infections in Europe, United States, and Latin America, emphasizing studies of molecular epidemiology on a global scale, including the major epidemiological studies in Colombia. The genetic structure of S. aureus and Enterococcus spp strains shows a clonal characteristic favored by the predominance of a small number of clones with the capacity to spread globally, due probably to cross-infection. However, the introduction of MRSA strains from the community encourages genetic diversity, tending to establish a genetic polyclonal endemic structure in places like the United States. In Gram negative bacteria, the high genetic diversity among isolates, mainly in Latin American countries, indicates that the polyclonal spread is influenced by horizontal transfer of plasmids, by excessive exposure to antibiotics, and prolonged hospital stays. In Colombia, there is information on nosocomial resistant pathogens, but molecular epidemiological information is still scarce.

  12. Epidemiology of nosocomial bacteria resistant to antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina E Cabrera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are a major challenge for public health because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality generated. It was considered that the excessive or inappropriate use of antibiotics triggers the emergence of resistant strains. Among the clinically important bacteria that most commonly cause nososcomial infections, Gram positive multiresistant pathogens stand out such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (VRE, and the Gram negative strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii producing expanded spectrum b-lactamases (ESbL. This review describes the behavior of the main bacterial pathogens resistant to antibiotics that cause infections in Europe, United States, and Latin America, emphasizing studies of molecular epidemiology on a global scale, including the major epidemiological studies in Colombia. The genetic structure of S. aureus and Enterococcus spp strains shows a clonal characteristic favored by the predominance of a small number of clones with the capacity to spread globally, due probably to cross-infection. However, the introduction of MRSA strains from the community encourages genetic diversity, tending to establish a genetic polyclonal endemic structure in places like the United States. In Gram negative bacteria, the high genetic diversity among isolates, mainly in Latin American countries, indicates that the polyclonal spread is influenced by horizontal transfer of plasmids, by excessive exposure to antibiotics, and prolonged hospital stays. In Colombia, there is information on nosocomial resistant pathogens, but molecular epidemiological information is still scarce.

  13. Enhancing US-Japan cooperation to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbin, C Sachi

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes "[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms." Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem.

  14. Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance: An Overview of Priority Actions to Prevent Suboptimal Antimicrobial Use in Food-Animal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Raboisson, Didier

    2017-01-01

    The growing concern regarding emergence of bacteria resistant to antimicrobials and their potential for transmission to humans via animal production has led various authorities worldwide to implement measures to decrease antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock production. These measures are influenced by those implemented in human medicine, and emphasize the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, surveillance, infection prevention and control and research. In food producing animals, unlike human medicine, antimicrobials are used to control diseases which cause economic losses. This major difference may explain the failure of the public policies implemented to control antimicrobial usage. Here we first review the specific factors influencing AMU across the farm animal sector and highlighting the farmers’ decision-making process of AMU. We then discuss the efficiency of existing regulations implemented by policy makers, and assess the need for alternative strategies, such as substitution between antimicrobials and other measures for infectious disease control. We also discuss the interests of regulating antimicrobial prices. Finally, we emphasize the value of optimizing antimicrobial regimens, and developing veterinary precision medicine to achieve clinical efficacy in animals while limiting negative impacts on public health. The fight against antimicrobial resistance requires both a reduction and an optimization of antimicrobial consumption. The set of actions currently implemented by policy makers does not adequately address the economic interests of farmers’ use of antimicrobials. PMID:28111568

  15. Time series analysis as a tool to predict the impact of antimicrobial restriction in antibiotic stewardship programs using the example of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Matthias; Marschal, Matthias; Hölzl, Florian; Schröppel, Klaus; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke

    2013-04-01

    The association between antimicrobial consumption and resistance in nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria is well-known. Antimicrobial restriction, implemented in clinical routines by antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs), is considered a means to reduce resistance rates. Whether and how antimicrobial restriction can accomplish this goal is still unknown though. This leads to an element of uncertainty when designing strategies for ASPs. From January 2002 until December 2011, an observational study was performed at the University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, to investigate the association between antimicrobial use and resistance rates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transfer function models were used to determine such associations and to simulate antimicrobial restriction strategies. Various positive associations between antimicrobial consumption and resistance were observed in our setting. Surprisingly, impact estimations of different antimicrobial restriction strategies revealed relatively low intervention expenses to effectively attenuate the observed increase in resistance. For example, a simulated intervention of an annual 4% reduction in the use of meropenem over 3 years from 2009 until 2011 yielded a 62.5% attenuation (95% confidence interval, 15% to 110%) in the rising trend of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (three- and four-class-resistant P. aeruginosa [34MRGN-PA]). Time series analysis models derived from past data may be a tool to predict the outcome of antimicrobial restriction strategies, and could be used to design ASPs.

  16. Using data on resistance prevalence per sample in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Shuyu, Wu; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    2008-01-01

    quantitative data on antimicrobial resistance (resistance prevalence per sample). Methods: In this study, a total of 98 faecal samples from slaughter pigs were tested for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance in Escherichia coli using the single colony method, and these results were compared...... tetracycline resistance prevalence was 22.5% using the resistance prevalence per sample method. Similarly, sulphonamide resistance was 32.7% using the single colony method and 19.6% when using the resistance prevalence per sample method. Although different estimates were obtained by each method...

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and clonality in Acinetobacter baumannii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemec, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain insight into the epidemiology and molecular basis of multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii at the population level. To this aim a number of studies were performed on strains mainly from the Czech Republic (CR) which have shown in particular that (i) the

  18. Aquaculture as yet another environmental gateway to the development and globalisation of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Dölz, Humberto J

    2016-07-01

    Aquaculture uses hundreds of tonnes of antimicrobials annually to prevent and treat bacterial infection. The passage of these antimicrobials into the aquatic environment selects for resistant bacteria and resistance genes and stimulates bacterial mutation, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. The potential bridging of aquatic and human pathogen resistomes leads to emergence of new antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and global dissemination of them and their antimicrobial resistance genes into animal and human populations. Efforts to prevent antimicrobial overuse in aquaculture must include education of all stakeholders about its detrimental effects on the health of fish, human beings, and the aquatic ecosystem (the notion of One Health), and encouragement of environmentally friendly measures of disease prevention, including vaccines, probiotics, and bacteriophages. Adoption of these measures is a crucial supplement to efforts dealing with antimicrobial resistance by developing new therapeutic agents, if headway is to be made against the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance in human and veterinary medicine.

  19. First antimicrobial resistance data and genetic characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Estonia, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Golparian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection with major public health implications and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antimicrobials introduced for treatment. Enhanced surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in N. gonorrhoeae is crucial globally. This is the first internationally reported antimicrobial resistance data for N. gonorrhoeae from Estonia (44 isolates cultured in 2009–2013. A high prevalence of resistance was observed for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. One and two isolates with resistance and decreased susceptibility to the last remaining first-line treatment option ceftriaxone, respectively, were identified. It is crucial to implement surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (ideally also treatment failures in Estonia.

  20. The fight against Antimicrobial Resistance: Important recent publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    to be tackled on a global level. That something is indeed being done to tackle these problems on an international level is documented by the Progress report of the Transatlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance (TATFAR), which was published in May 2014. This report summarizes the progress and the outcomes...... with regard to 17 recommendations that were identified in an earlier TATFAR report to strengthen EU and US communication and cooperation in the area of AMR. These recommendations fall into three key areas: (1) appropriate use of antimicrobial drugs in medicine; (2) prevention of drug resistant infections...... for a period of at least two years. Major outcomes, such as consensus papers, meeting reports, and periodic progress reports, will be posted on the TATFAR website. The extension of the TATFAR mandate is an important and necessary step that can only be welcomed. By re-affirming their commitment, the US...

  1. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Oguttu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in food animals increases the prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among their enteric bacteria. It has been suggested that this resistance can in turn be transferred to people working with such animals, e.g. abattoir workers. Antimicrobial drug resistance was investigated for Escherichia coli from broilers raised on feed supplemented with antimicrobials, and the people who carry out evisceration, washing and packing of intestines in a high-throughput poultry abattoir in Gauteng, South Africa. Broiler carcasses were sampled from 6 farms, on each of which broilers are produced in a separate 'grow-out cycle'. Per farm, 100 caeca were randomly collected 5 minutes after slaughter and the contents of each were selectively cultured for E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate was determined for the following antimicrobials : doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulphamethoxazole, ampicillin, enrofloxacin, fosfomycin, ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid. The same was determined for the faeces of 29 abattoir workers and 28 persons used as controls. The majority of isolates from broilers were resistant, especially to antimicrobials that were used on the farms in the study. Overall median MICs and the number of resistant isolates from abattoir workers (packers plus eviscerators tended to be higher than for the control group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed when the median MICs of antimicrobials used regularly in poultry and percentage resistance were compared, nor could an association between resistance among the enteric E. coli from packers and those from broilers be demonstrated.

  2. Correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Robin, F

    2016-03-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is responsible for a wide range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and liver abscesses. In addition to susceptible clinical isolates involved in nosocomial infections, multidrug-resistant (MDR) and hypervirulent (hvKP) strains have evolved separately in distinct clonal groups. The rapid geographic spread of these isolates is of particular concern. However, we still know little about the virulence of K. pneumoniae except for hvKP, whose secrets are beginning to be revealed. The treatment of K. pneumoniae infections is threatened by the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The dissemination of resistance is associated with genetic mobile elements, such as plasmids that may also carry virulence determinants. A proficient pathogen should be virulent, resistant to antibiotics, and epidemic. However, the interplay between resistance and virulence is poorly understood. Here, we review current knowledge on the topic.

  3. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are benthic animals that play an important ecological role in marine communities occupying diverse trophic levels in the marine food chains. The majority of echinoderms feed on small particles of edible matter, although they can eat many kinds of food (Clark, 1968. Although, some echinoderms species has been facing an emerging demand for human consumption, particularly in Asian and Mediterranean cuisine, where these animals can be eaten raw (Kelly, 2005; Micael et al., 2009. Echinoderms own an innate immune mechanism that allows them to defend themselves from high concentrations of bacteria, viruses and fungus they are often exposed, on marine sediment (Janeway and Medzhitov, 1998, Cooper, 2003. The most frequent genera of gut bacteria in echinoderms are Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, and Aeromonas; nevertheless Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli are also present (Harris, 1993; Marinho et al., 2013. Moreover, fecal resistant bacteria found in the aquatic environment might represent an index of marine pollution (Foti et al., 2009, Kummerer, 2009. Several studies had been lead in order to identify environmental reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in populations of fish, echinoderms and marine mammals, and they all support the thesis that these animals may serve as reservoirs since they had acquired resistant microbial species (Johnson et al., 1998, Marinho et al., 2013, Miranda and Zemelman, 2001. However, to our knowledge, there are only available in bibliography one study of antimicrobial resistant bacteria isolated from marine echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013, which stats that their provenience in this environment is still unclear. Antimicrobial resistance outcomes from the intensive use of antimicrobial drugs in human activities associated with various mechanisms for bacteria genetic transfer (Barbosa and Levy, 2000, Coque et al., 2008. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into water environments where they are

  4. Squalamine as an example of a new potent antimicrobial agents class: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanout, K; Rolain, J M; Brunel, J M

    2010-01-01

    An important strategy to circumvent the problem of antimicrobial resistance is to search for new compounds with antimicrobial activity. In this context, aminosterols, which include squalamine-like compounds and ceragenins, have gained interest due to their wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal properties. In light of recently reported data, we decided to analyze the mechanism of action of these compounds as well as their antimicrobial properties. Aminosterols are active against both bacterial reference strains and multidrug-resistant antibiotics as they disrupt the integrity of the bacterial membrane. Thus, these compounds could be useful in the development of new topical decontaminants or disinfecting agents.

  5. Changes in the population of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, Birgitta; Verstappen, Koen M.; Broens, E.M.; Laarhoven, Laura M.; Duijkeren, Van Engeline; Hordijk, Joost; Heus, De Phebe; Spaninks, Mirlin; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is often multidrug resistant (MDR), has recently emerged as a threat to canine health worldwide. Knowledge of the temporal distribution of specific MRSP lineages, their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and their association w

  6. Resistance of Antimicrobial Peptide Gene Transgenic Rice to Bacterial Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WU Chao; LIU Mei; LIU Xu-ri; Hu Guo-cheng; SI Hua-min; SUN Zong-xiu; LIU Wen-zhen; Fu Ya-ping

    2011-01-01

    Antimierobial peptide is a polypeptide with antimicrobial activity.Antimicrobial peptide genes Np3 and Np5 from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus Chinensis) were integrated into Oryza sativa L.subsp.japonica cv.Aichi ashahi by Agrobacterium mediated transformation system.PCR analysis showed that the positive ratios of Np3 and Np5 were 36% and 45% in T0 generation,respectively.RT-PCR analysis showed that the antimicrobial peptide genes were expressed in T1 generation,and there was no obvious difference in agronomic traits between transgenic plants and non-transgenic plants.Four Np3 and Np5 transgenic lines in T1 generation were inoculated with ×anthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae strain CR4,and all the four transgenic lines had significantly enhanced resistance to bacterial blight caused by the strain CR4.The Np5 transgenic lines also showed higher resistance to bacterial blight caused by strains JS97-2,Zhe 173 and OS-225.It is suggested that transgenic lines with Np5 gene might possess broad spectrum resistance to rice bacterial blight.

  7. Application of whonet for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available World over antimicrobial resistance is a major public health problem. The WHONET software program puts each laboratory data into a common code and file format, which can be merged for national or global collaboration of antimicrobial resistance surveillance. In this study, antimicrobial sensitivity of 4,289 bacterial isolates was studied by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. -lactamase production was assessed by iodometric test method. Extended spectrum -lactamase (ESBLs were screened by ceftazidime disk sensitivity. Drug resistance was high in most of the isolates. It was maximum (80-94% for ampicillin, nalidixic acid and cotrimoxazole. It varied between 40-60% for gentamicin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and coamoxyclav. It ranged from 21 to 38% for amikacin and third generation cephalosporins. Constitutive -lactamase production was highest in S.aureus (28.9% and ESBL production was maximum in Klebsiella spp. (53.6%. WHONET software has in-built analysis program which helps in forming hospital drug policy, identification of hospital outbreaks and recognition of quality control problems in the laboratory.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance in community and nosocomial Escherichia coli urinary tract isolates, London 2005 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham David W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is the commonest cause of community and nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical relying on susceptibility data from local surveillance studies. We therefore set out to determine levels of resistance to 8 commonly used antimicrobial agents amongst all urinary isolates obtained over a 12 month period. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim and cefpodoxime was determined for 11,865 E. coli urinary isolates obtained from community and hospitalised patients in East London. Results Nitrofurantoin was the most active agent (94% susceptible, followed by gentamicin and cefpodoxime. High rates of resistance to ampicillin (55% and trimethoprim (40%, often in combination were observed in both sets of isolates. Although isolates exhibiting resistance to multiple drug classes were rare, resistance to cefpodoxime, indicative of Extended spectrum β-lactamase production, was observed in 5.7% of community and 21.6% of nosocomial isolates. Conclusion With the exception of nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empirical oral treatments for UTI was extremely high. Levels of resistance to trimethoprim and ampicillin render them unsuitable for empirical use. Continued surveillance and investigation of other oral agents for treatment of UTI in the community is required.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of a Halocidin-Derived Peptide Resistant to Attacks by Proteases ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Pyo; Park, Ho Jin; Shin, Seo Hwa; Lee, Young Shin; Park, Seungmi; Jo, Sungho; Lee, Yong Ho; Lee, In Hee

    2010-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted a great deal of interest as a promising candidate for a novel class of antibiotics that might effectively treat recalcitrant infections caused by a variety of microbes that are resistant to currently available drugs. However, the AMPs are inherently limited in that they are inevitably susceptible to attacks by proteases generated by human and pathogenic microbes; this vulnerability severely hinders their pharmaceutical use in human therapeutic protocols. In this study, we report that a halocidin-derived AMP, designated HG1, was found to be resistant to proteolytic degradation. As a result of its unique structural features, HG1 proved capable of preserving its antimicrobial activity after incubation with trypsin, chymotrypsin, and human matrix metalloprotease 7 (MMP-7). Additionally, HG1 was observed to exhibit profound antimicrobial activity in the presence of fluid from human skin wounds or proteins extracted from the culture supernatants of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Greater understanding of the structural motifs of HG1 required for its protease resistance might provide feasible ways to solve the problems intrinsic to the development of an AMP-based antibiotic. PMID:20385874

  10. Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus: a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Su

    Full Text Available The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Proteobacteria (17% and Bacteroidetes (0.02%. Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

  11. Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

  12. Cultivable Bacterial Microbiota of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): A New Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J.; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations. PMID:24937705

  13. Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and saprophyticus resistant to antimicrobials isolated from the Lebanese aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Yassine, Hadi; Hajjar, Shady; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2006-08-01

    The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials especially in developing countries has evoked serious bacterial resistance and led to the emergence of new and highly resistant strains of bacteria to commonly used antimicrobials. In Lebanon, pollution levels and bacterial infections are increasing at a high rate as a result of inadequate control measures to limit untreated effluent discharges into the sea or freshwater resources. The aim of this study was to isolate and molecularly characterize various Staphylococcus strains isolated from sea water, fresh water, sediments, and crab samples collected from representative communities along the coast of Lebanon. The results on the antimicrobial resistance indicated that the level of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus varied with various antimicrobials tested. The resistance patterns ranged between 45% in freshwater isolates and 54.8% in seawater ones. Fifty one percent of the tested isolates have shown resistance to at least one of the five tested antimicrobials; with seawater isolates exhibiting the highest rates of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. How Can Vaccines Contribute to Solving the Antimicrobial Resistance Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lipsitch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the role of vaccines in confronting the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Vaccines can reduce the prevalence of resistance by reducing the need for antimicrobial use and can reduce its impact by reducing the total number of cases. By reducing the number of pathogens that may be responsible for a particular clinical syndrome, vaccines can permit the use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics for empirical therapy. These effects may be amplified by herd immunity, extending protection to unvaccinated persons in the population. Because much selection for resistance is due to selection on bystander members of the normal flora, vaccination can reduce pressure for resistance even in pathogens not included in the vaccine. Some vaccines have had disproportionate effects on drug-resistant lineages within the target species, a benefit that could be more deliberately exploited in vaccine design. We describe the effects of current vaccines in controlling AMR, survey some vaccines in development with the potential to do so further, and discuss strategies to amplify these benefits. We conclude with a discussion of research and policy priorities to more fully enlist vaccines in the battle against AMR.

  15. Burkholderia cenocepacia zinc metalloproteases influence resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Cora; Sokol, Pamela A

    2009-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia secretes two zinc-dependent metalloproteases, designated ZmpA and ZmpB. Previously, ZmpA and ZmpB have been shown to cleave several proteins important in host defence. In this study, the ability of ZmpA and ZmpB to digest and inactivate antimicrobial peptides involved in innate immunity was examined. ZmpB but not ZmpA cleaved beta-defensin-1. ZmpA but not ZmpB cleaved the cathelicidin LL-37. Both enzymes cleaved elafin and secretory leukocyte inhibitor, which are antimicrobial peptides as well as neutrophil elastase inhibitors. Both ZmpA and ZmpB cleaved protamine, a fish antimicrobial peptide, and a zmpA zmpB mutant was more sensitive to protamine killing than the parental strain. ZmpA or ZmpB cleavage of elafin inactivated its anti-protease activity. The effect of ZmpA and ZmpB on the neutrophil proteases elastase and cathepsin G was also examined but neither enzyme was active against these host proteases. These studies suggest that ZmpA and ZmpB may influence the resistance of B. cenocepacia to host antimicrobial peptides as well as alter the host protease/anti-protease balance in chronic respiratory infections.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance and Antimicrobial Use Associated with Laboratory-Confirmed Cases of Campylobacter Infection in Two Health Units in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E Deckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: A population-based study was conducted over a two-year period in the Perth District (PD and Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph (WDG health units in Ontario to document antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use associated with clinical cases of laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis.

  17. Perceptions of antimicrobial usage, antimicrobial resistance and policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage in convenient samples of Belgian, French, German, Swedish and Swiss pig farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Iten, D; Loesken, S; Postma, M; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Siegrist, M; Sjölund, M; Stärk, K D C

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a survey among convenient samples of pig farmers (N=281) in Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. We identified some significant differences among the five investigated countries (independent variable) regarding farmers' antimicrobial usage compared to their own country and worries related to pig farming (dependent variables), but most of the differences were rather small. In general, farmers perceived their own antimicrobial usage to be lower than that of their peers in the same country and lower than or similar to that of farmers from other countries. This may be a consequence of our convenience sample, resulting in self-selection of highly motivated farmers. Farmers were significantly more worried about financial/legal issues than about antimicrobial resistance. They believed that a reduction in revenues for slaughter pigs treated with a large amount of antimicrobials would have the most impact on reduced antimicrobial usage in their country. Further, farmers who were more worried about antimicrobial resistance and who estimated their own antimicrobial usage as lower than their fellow countrymen, perceived more impact from policy measures on the reduction of antimicrobials. Our results indicated that the same policy measures can be applied to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig farming in all five countries. Moreover, it seems worthwhile to increase pig farmers' awareness of the threat of antimicrobial resistance and its relation to antimicrobial usage; not only because pig farmers appeared little worried about antimicrobial usage but also because it affected farmers' perception of policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage. Our samples were not representative for the national pig farmer populations. Further research is therefore needed to examine to what extent our findings can be generalised to these populations and to farmers in other countries.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  19. Comparative metagenomics reveals a diverse range of antimicrobial resistance genes in effluents entering a river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Baker-Austin, Craig; Ryan, Jim J; Maskell, Duncan J; Pearce, Gareth P

    2016-01-01

    The aquatic environment has been implicated as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In order to identify sources that are contributing to these gene reservoirs, it is crucial to assess effluents that are entering the aquatic environment. Here we describe a metagenomic assessment for two types of effluent entering a river catchment. We investigated the diversity and abundance of resistance genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and pathogenic bacteria. Findings were normalised to a background sample of river source water. Our results show that effluent contributed an array of genes to the river catchment, the most abundant being tetracycline resistance genes tetC and tetW from farm effluents and the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2 from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. In nine separate samples taken across 3 years, we found 53 different genes conferring resistance to seven classes of antimicrobial. Compared to the background sample taken up river from effluent entry, the average abundance of genes was three times greater in the farm effluent and two times greater in the WWTP effluent. We conclude that effluents disperse ARGs, MGEs and pathogenic bacteria within a river catchment, thereby contributing to environmental reservoirs of ARGs.

  20. The human gut microbiota as a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bülow, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the emergence and spread of resistant opportunistic pathogens is compromising the effectiveness of antimicrobial therapies. Understanding the emergence and global spread of drug-resistant microorganisms is thus crucial to combat antimicrobial resistance. The human gut harbors a

  1. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A ....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance among Intensive Care Units of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kailash; Deepashree, R; Sistla, Sujatha; Harish, BN; Mandal, Jharna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs) are the rising threat in the health care facilities across the globe. As most Intesive Care Unit (ICU) patients are frequently on broad spectrum antimicrobials, this induces selective antibiotic pressure which leads to development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) among the microorganisms of ICUs. Aim To study the occurrence of different types of HAIs in patients admitted to various ICUs of JIPMER and the AMR pattern of the bacterial pathogens isolated from them. Materials and Methods The record based retrospective data of culture reports of the patients admitted to all the ICUs of JIPMER during the period from April 2015 to March 2016 were collected. A total of 3,090 isolates were obtained from the clinical specimens of 1,244 patients. Data on various factors like demographic characters, type of ICU, infecting organism, site of infection, type of HAI’s and AMR including co-resistance were collected and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results Most common culture positive clinical specimen received was tracheal aspirate (29.9%) followed by exudate (22.7%). Acinetobacter spp from tracheal aspirate and Pseudomonas spp from blood specimens were the most common organisms isolated; whereas Escherichia coli was the predominant organism found in urine, exudate and sterile fluid specimens. About 22.2% infections were HAIs, out of which pneumonia (6.24%) was the most common. Analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern revealed that most of Gram-Negative Bacilli (GNB) was Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) i.e., resistant to three or more class of antibiotics such as cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. The prevalence of Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin- resistant Enterococci (VRE) were found to be 40.6% and 11.9% respectively. Conclusion The increasing trend AMR among the hospital acquired pathogens such as MDR-GNBs, MRSA and VRE pose a great threat

  3. The impact of different antibiotic regimens on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M C D'Agata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence and ongoing spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a major public health threat. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are associated with substantially higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to infections caused by antimicrobial-susceptible bacteria. The emergence and spread of these bacteria is complex and requires incorporating numerous interrelated factors which clinical studies cannot adequately address. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A model is created which incorporates several key factors contributing to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria including the effects of the immune system, acquisition of resistance genes and antimicrobial exposure. The model identifies key strategies which would limit the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains. Specifically, the simulations show that early initiation of antimicrobial therapy and combination therapy with two antibiotics prevents the emergence of resistant bacteria, whereas shorter courses of therapy and sequential administration of antibiotics promote the emergence of resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The principal findings suggest that (i shorter lengths of antibiotic therapy and early interruption of antibiotic therapy provide an advantage for the resistant strains, (ii combination therapy with two antibiotics prevents the emergence of resistance strains in contrast to sequential antibiotic therapy, and (iii early initiation of antibiotics is among the most important factors preventing the emergence of resistant strains. These findings provide new insights into strategies aimed at optimizing the administration of antimicrobials for the treatment of infections and the prevention of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Resistance integrons: class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Bao, Xuerui; Ji, Lili; Chen, Lei; Liu, Junyan; Miao, Jian; Chen, Dingqiang; Bian, Huawei; Li, Yanmei; Yu, Guangchao

    2015-10-20

    As recently indiscriminate abuse of existing antibiotics in both clinical and veterinary treatment leads to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in microbes and poses a dilemma for the future treatment of such bacterial infection, antimicrobial resistance has been considered to be one of the currently leading concerns in global public health, and reported to widely spread and extended to a large variety of microorganisms. In China, as one of the currently worst areas for antibiotics abuse, the annual prescription of antibiotics, including both clinical and veterinary treatment, has approaching 140 gram per person and been roughly estimated to be 10 times higher than that in the United Kingdom, which is considered to be a potential area for the emergence of "Super Bugs". Based on the integrons surveillance in Guangzhou, China in the past decade, this review thus aimed at summarizing the role of integrons in the perspective of both clinical setting and environment, with the focus on the occurrence and prevalence of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons.

  5. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C; Garde, J; Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L

    2000-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance can make the efficient treatment of bacterial infections in humans and animals more difficult. Antimicrobial use in food animals may be one of the factors contributing to resistance. The Spanish surveillance network VAV has established a baseline of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains from healthy pigs. Minimum inhibitory concentration and patterns of resistance to antimicrobials used in animals and humans were determined for 205 faecal strains isolated in a sampling frame of four slaughterhouses in Spain from 220 pigs in 1998. Higher levels of resistance were seen against antimicrobial agents authorised for use in food animals especially tetracycline, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and amoxycillin. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials employed mainly in humans such as ceftazidime, cefotaxime, imipenem, aztreonam and amikacin.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  7. The bigger picture: the history of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance displayed by scientometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Fischer, Thomas; Stein, Claudia; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Werner, Guido; Pletz, Mathias W

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the rapid global spread of antimicrobial resistance requires an over-regional and fast surveillance tool. Data from major surveillance studies based on aggregated results of selected sentinel laboratories or retrospective strain collections are not available for the whole scientific community and are limited by time and region. Thus, we tested an alternative approach to monitor resistance trends by automated semantic and scientometric analysis of all (>100000) related PubMed entries. A semantic search was done using 'Gene Ontology' and MeSH vocabulary and additional search terms for further data refinement. Data extraction was performed using the semantic search engine 'GoPubMed'. The timely relationship between introduction of novel β-lactam antibiotic classes into the market and emergence of respective resistance was investigated using nearly 22300 publications over the last 70 years. Further analysis was done with around 54000 publications related to 'infectious diseases' and an additional 50000 publications related to 'antimicrobial resistance' to estimate current trends in publication interest regarding resistance development since 1940. Scientometric results were compared with data from the major surveillance network EARS-Net. Furthermore, the relationship between micro-organism, year and antibiotic market introduction was investigated for eight key antibiotics using nearly 37500 publications. Owing to influencing factors such as availability of alternative antibiotics, scientometric analysis correlated only partly with resistance development. However, it provides a fast, reliable and global overview of the clinical and public health importance of a specific resistance including the period of the 1940s-1980s, when resistance surveillance studies were not yet established.

  8. Oral biofilms: a reservoir of transferable, bacterial, antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam P; Mullany, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Oral microbes are responsible for dental caries and periodontal diseases and have also been implicated in a range of other diseases beyond the oral cavity. These bacteria live primarily as complex, polymicrobial biofilms commonly called dental plaque. Cells growing within a biofilm often exhibit altered phenotypes, such as increased antibiotic resistance. The stable structural properties and close proximity of the bacterial cells within the biofilm appears to be an excellent environment for horizontal gene transfer, which can lead to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes amongst the biofilm inhabitants. This article will present an overview of the different types and amount of resistance to antibiotics that have been found in the human oral microbiota and will discuss the oral inhabitants' role as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. In addition, data on the genetic support for these resistance genes will be detailed and the evidence for horizontal gene transfer reviewed, demonstrating that the bacteria inhabiting the oral cavity are a reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance.

  9. Multiple antimicrobial resistance among Avian Escherichia coli strains in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Camarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 101 Escherichia (E. coli isolates from broilers, laying hens and turkeys which had died from colibacillosis, collected from 37 intensive and rural farms in Albania, were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility toward 12 different molecules. The highest levels of resistance were observed for Erythromycin (E (100% Amoxicillin (AMX (99.1%, Tetracycline (TE 30 (96.07%, Streptomycin (STR (93.07% and Neomycin (N30 (85.15%. Considerable resistance was also detected for fluoroquinolones. Moreover, 73.33% of E. coli resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone were also resistant to the two other fluoroquinolones checked. No evident differences were found between the E. coli from intensive and from rural farms. Multiple antibiotic resistance was expressed by all the E. coli tested. 23.63% and 17.39% of E. coli isolated from intensive and rural farms, respectively, were resistant towards all the drugs tested. These data would seem to indicate incorrect use of antibiotics on poultry farms in Albania.

  10. Laboratory-based nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Ghana

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    Opintan JA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Japheth A Opintan,1 Mercy J Newman,1 Reuben E Arhin,1 Eric S Donkor,1 Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt,2 William Mills-Pappoe3 1Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, 2Pharmaceutical Services, Ministry of Health, Ghana Health Services, 3Clinical Laboratory Unit, Institutional Care Division, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana Abstract: Global efforts are underway to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR. A key target in this intervention is surveillance for local and national action. Data on AMR in Ghana are limited, and monitoring of AMR is nonexistent. We sought to generate baseline data on AMR, and to assess the readiness of Ghana in laboratory-based surveillance. Biomedical scientists in laboratories across Ghana with capacity to perform bacteriological culture were selected and trained. In-house standard operating protocols were used to perform microbiological investigations on clinical specimens. Additional microbiological tests and data analyses were performed at a centralized laboratory. Surveillance data were stored and analyzed using WHONET program files. A total of 24 laboratories participated in the training, and 1,598 data sets were included in the final analysis. A majority of the bacterial species were isolated from outpatients (963 isolates; 60.3%. Urine (617 isolates; 38.6% was the most common clinical specimen cultured, compared to blood (100 isolates; 6.3%. Ten of 18 laboratories performed blood culture. Bacteria isolated included Escherichia coli (27.5%, Pseudomonas spp. (14.0%, Staphylococcus aureus (11.5%, Streptococcus spp. (2.3%, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (0.6%. Most of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, and over 80% of them were extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing. Minimum inhibitory concentration levels at 50% and at 90% for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and amikacin on selected multidrug-resistant bacteria species ranged between 2 µg/mL and

  11. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  12. Mechanisms and consequences of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D I; Hughes, D; Kubicek-Sutherland, J Z

    2016-05-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an intrinsic part of the human innate immune system. Over 100 different human AMPs are known to exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Because of the increased frequency of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is an interest in developing AMPs as an alternative antibacterial therapy. Several cationic peptides that are derivatives of AMPs from the human innate immune system are currently in clinical development. There are also ongoing clinical studies aimed at modulating the expression of AMPs to boost the human innate immune response. In this review we discuss the potential problems associated with these therapeutic approaches. There is considerable experimental data describing mechanisms by which bacteria can develop resistance to AMPs. As for any type of drug resistance, the rate by which AMP resistance would emerge and spread in a population of bacteria in a natural setting will be determined by a complex interplay of several different factors, including the mutation supply rate, the fitness of the resistant mutant at different AMP concentrations, and the strength of the selective pressure. Several studies have already shown that AMP-resistant bacterial mutants display broad cross-resistance to a variety of AMPs with different structures and modes of action. Therefore, routine clinical administration of AMPs to treat bacterial infections may select for resistant bacterial pathogens capable of better evading the innate immune system. The ramifications of therapeutic levels of exposure on the development of AMP resistance and bacterial pathogenesis are not yet understood. This is something that needs to be carefully studied and monitored if AMPs are used in clinical settings.

  13. High prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Verner-Jeffreys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the potential effects of this sustained selection pressure, 127 Aeromonas spp. isolated from warm and cold water ornamental fish species were screened for tolerance to 34 antimicrobials. Representative isolates were also examined for the presence of 54 resistance genes by a combination of miniaturized microarray and conventional PCR. Forty-seven of 94 Aeromonas spp. isolates recovered from tropical ornamental fish and their carriage water were tolerant to > or =15 antibiotics, representing seven or more different classes of antimicrobial. The quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, was detected at high frequency (37% tested recent isolates were positive by PCR. Class 1 integrons, IncA/C broad host range plasmids and a range of other antibiotic resistance genes, including floR, bla(TEM-1, tet(A, tet(D, tet(E, qacE2, sul1, and a number of different dihydrofolate reductase and aminoglycoside transferase coding genes were also detected in carriage water samples and bacterial isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that ornamental fish and their carriage water act as a reservoir for both multi-resistant bacteria and resistance genes.

  14. Distribution and changes in antimicrobial resistance of pathogens from blood culture in a tertiary first-class hospital in 2012-2015%2012-2015年某三甲医院血培养常见病原菌及其耐药性变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乐平; 刘文恩; 晏群; 刘清霞; 邹明祥; 李艳明; 李虹玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution and change in antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing blood-stream infection,so as to provide reference for rational antimicrobial use.Methods The isolation and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens from blood culture specimens from a tertiary first-class hospital in 2012-2015 were analyzed statistically.Results A total of 4 780 isolates were detected,the top five species were Escherichia coli (n = 1 008, 21.09%),Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 624,13.05%),Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 452,9.46%),Staphylococcus aureus (n=437,9.14%),and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=247,5.17%).The percentage of gram-negative bacilli, gram-positive cocci,fungi,and others were 62.05%,29.31%,7.76%,and 0.88% respectively.The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to ertapenem and imipenem increased from 4.50% in 2012 to 46.79% and 33.94% in 2015(both P<0.01).The resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to cefepime,ceftazidime,tobramycin,gentamicin,and imipenem were 86.50%,80.56%,78.10%,79.87%,and 84.29% respectively;resistance rates to amikacin in 2012-2015 were 0, 10.22%,39.85%,and 21.30% respectively(P<0.01);resistance rates to minocycline in four years were 0-7.52% (P<0.01 ).Conclusion The main pathogens causing bloodstream infection are gram-negative bacilli,Acinetobacter baumannii is highly resistant to cephalosporins and carbapenems,resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to carbapenems increased rapidly.Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents must be used cautiously to reduce the selective pressure of antimicrobial agents.%目的:了解血流感染病原菌种类分布及其耐药性变迁,为临床合理使用抗菌药物提供参考。方法对2012—2015年某三甲医院送检血培养标本分离的主要病原菌及其耐药性进行统计分析。结果共检出病原菌4780株,居前5位的依次为大肠埃希菌1008株(21.09%),肺炎克雷伯菌624株(13.05%),鲍曼不动杆菌452株(9.46

  15. Antimicrobial-resistant Listeria species from retail meat in metro Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Liziane S; Gunathilaka, Gayathri U; Zhang, Yifan

    2012-12-01

    A total of 138 Listeria isolates from retail meat, including 58 Listeria welshimeri, 44 Listeria monocytogenes, and 36 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility tests against nine antimicrobials. In addition, the 44 L. monocytogenes isolates were analyzed by serotype identification using PCR and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 32 Listeria isolates (23.2%). No multidrug resistance was identified. Tetracycline resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 22 Listeria isolates. A low prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and vancomycin was also detected. L. innocua isolates demonstrated the highest overall prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, 36.1%, followed by 34.1% in L. monocytogenes isolates and 6.9% in L. welshimeri isolates. Serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b were identified in 19, 23, and 1 L. monocytogenes isolate, respectively. One isolate was untypeable. Fifteen L. monocytogenes isolates were antimicrobial resistant (12 were serotype 1/2b, 2 were 1/2a, and 1 was untypeable). A diverse population of L. monocytogenes isolates was identified, as evidenced by multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns in the 44 isolates. The data indicate that Listeria contamination is common in retail meat. Although antimicrobial resistance still occurs at a low prevalence, multiple Listeria species can serve as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Various antimicrobial susceptibilities may exist in L. monocytogenes isolates of different serotypes.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance: addressing the global threat through greater awareness and transformative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Oliver P; Warburton, Will; Davies, Sally C; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    Antimicrobial therapies have played an unquestionably important role in advancing modern medical and surgical care, treating animals, reducing the global burden of communicable disease, and prolonging human life expectancy. These transformational benefits are threatened because of the rapidly advancing phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance. As a result of complex factors across many sectors and international actors, the global impact of antimicrobial resistance is an escalating economic and health crisis. This article draws on the collective expertise and summit report of the Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group from the 2013 World Innovation Summit for Health, in Doha, Qatar. It defines a framework of principles and tasks for key policy makers to raise international awareness of antimicrobial resistance and lead transformative action through policy-driven improvements in sanitation, antimicrobial conservation, agricultural practices, and research and development.

  17. Multidrug-resistance and presence of class 1 integrons in clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, circulating in Armenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedrakyan, Anahit M.; Arakelova, K. A.; Zakaryan, Magdalina K.;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was detection of class 1 integrons and their contribution to the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in strains of subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis. S. Enteritidis strains (n = 29) were isolated from patients with salmonellosis at “Nork” Clinical Hospital of Infectious...

  18. Human Health Hazards from Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli of Animal Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A. M.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2009-01-01

    Because of the intensive use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production, meat is frequently contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Humans can be colonized with E. coli of animal origin, and because of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents, these bacteria may...... cause infections for which limited therapeutic options are available. This may lead to treatment failure and can have serious consequences for the patient. Furthermore, E. coli of animal origin may act as a donor of antimicrobial resistance genes for other pathogenic E. coli. Thus, the intensive use...

  19. Fate of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in simulated swine manure storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The behavior of three antibiotics (bacitracin, chlortetracycline, and tylosin) and two classes of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), tet and erm, were monitored in swine manure slurry under anaerobic conditions. First-order decay rates were determined for each antibiotic with half-lives ranging fr...

  20. Antimicrobial silver: uses, toxicity and potential for resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie; Mahillon, Jacques; Silver, Simon; Van Houdt, Rob

    2013-08-01

    This review gives a comprehensive overview of the widespread use and toxicity of silver compounds in many biological applications. Moreover, the bacterial silver resistance mechanisms and their spread in the environment are discussed. This study shows that it is important to understand in detail how silver and silver nanoparticles exert their toxicity and to understand how bacteria acquire silver resistance. Silver ions have shown to possess strong antimicrobial properties but cause no immediate and serious risk for human health, which led to an extensive use of silver-based products in many applications. However, the risk of silver nanoparticles is not yet clarified and their widespread use could increase silver release in the environment, which can have negative impacts on ecosystems. Moreover, it is shown that silver resistance determinants are widely spread among environmental and clinically relevant bacteria. These resistance determinants are often located on mobile genetic elements, facilitating their spread. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the silver toxicity and resistance mechanisms can improve its applications and lead to a better understanding of the impact on human health and ecosystems.

  1. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Talebiyan; Mehdi Kheradmand; Faham Khamesipour; Mohammad Rabiee-Faradonbeh

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88....

  2. Whole-Genome Analysis of Antimicrobial-Resistant and Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli in River Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Michio; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Yoneda, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    Contamination of surface waters by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and pathogenic bacteria is a great concern. In this study, 531 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River in Japan were evaluated phenotypically for resistance to 25 antimicrobials. Seventy-six isolates (14.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR), 66 (12.4%) were nonsusceptible to one or two classes of agents, and 389 (73.3%) were susceptible. We performed whole-genome sequencing of selected strains by using Illumina technology. In total, the genome sequences of 155 strains were analyzed for antibiotic resistance determinants and phylogenetic characteristics. More than 50 different resistance determinants, including acquired resistance genes and chromosomal resistance mutations, were detected. Among the sequenced MDR strains (n = 66), sequence type 155 (ST155) complex (n = 9), ST10 complex (n = 9), and ST69 complex (n = 7) were prevalent. Among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains (n = 58), clinically important clonal groups, namely, ST95 complex (n = 18), ST127 complex (n = 8), ST12 complex (n = 6), ST14 complex (n = 6), and ST131 complex (n = 6), were prevalent, demonstrating the clonal distribution of environmental ExPEC strains. Typing of the fimH (type 1 fimbrial adhesin) gene revealed that ST131 complex strains carried fimH22 or fimH41, and no strains belonging to the fimH30 subgroup were detected. Fine-scale phylogenetic analysis and virulence gene content analysis of strains belonging to the ST95 complex (one of the major clonal ExPEC groups causing community-onset infections) revealed no significant differences between environmental and clinical strains. The results indicate contamination of surface waters by E. coli strains belonging to clinically important clonal groups.IMPORTANCE The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant and pathogenic E. coli strains in surface waters is a concern because surface waters are used as sources for drinking water, irrigation, and

  3. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Eze, N.; Ngongang Djintchui, A.; Ngameni, B; Tsabang, N.; Pegnyemb, D. E.; Biyiti, L.; Ngassam, P.; Koulla-Shiro, S.; Galleni, Moreno

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In effort to identify novel bacterial agents, this study was initiated to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of 17 crude extracts from 12 medicinal plants against beta-lactam-resistant bacteria. METHODOLOGY: The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts were evaluated against clinically proved beta-lactam-resistant bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus sp.)...

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: testing, typing and treatment in an era of increased antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections while under threat of emerging antimicrobial resistance. It focuses on improved diagnostics, and antimicrobial resistance to current and future therapies. We describe a new method of targeted deferred culture, using nucleic aci

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae: the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones and macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, J E; Bentley, S D

    2012-07-01

    Multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae constitute a major public health concern worldwide. In this review we discuss how the transformable nature of the pneumococcus, in parallel with antimicrobial induced stress, contributes to the evolution of antimicrobial resistance; and how the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has affected the situation.

  6. Impact of feed supplementation with antimicrobial agents on growth performance of broiler chickens, Clostridium perfringens and enterococcus counts, and antibiotic resistance phenotypes and distribution of antimicrobial resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Silversides, Fred G; Diarrassouba, Fatoumata; Pritchard, Jane; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Bonnet, Claudie; Delaquis, Pascal; Bach, Susan; Skura, Brent J; Topp, Edward

    2007-10-01

    The effects of feed supplementation with the approved antimicrobial agents bambermycin, penicillin, salinomycin, and bacitracin or a combination of salinomycin plus bacitracin were evaluated for the incidence and distribution of antibiotic resistance in 197 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens over 35 days. All isolates showed some degree of multiple antibiotic resistance. Resistance to tetracycline (68.5%), amoxicillin (61.4%), ceftiofur (51.3%), spectinomycin (47.2%), and sulfonamides (42%) was most frequent. The levels of resistance to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin were 33.5, 35.5, and 25.3%, respectively. The overall resistance levels decreased from day 7 to day 35 (P chickens receiving feed supplemented with salinomycin than from the other feeds (P chickens fed different growth promoters. Results showed a decrease in the incidence of isolates harboring tet(B), bla(TEM), sulI, and aadA and class 1 integron from days 7 to 35 (P chickens than in the control or other treatment groups (P chickens regardless of the antimicrobial growth promoters used. However, the phenotype and the distribution of resistance determinants in E. coli can be modulated by feed supplementation with some of the antimicrobial agents used in broiler chicken production.

  7. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J M; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P; Humphrey, Tom; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health.

  8. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J. M.; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.; Humphrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  9. Human health hazard from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.

    2006-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans....... The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial...... to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association....

  10. Resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are present in virtually all organisms and are an ancient and critical component of innate immunity. In mammals, AMPs are present in phagocytic cells, on body surfaces such as skin and mucosa, and in secretions and body fluids such as sweat, saliva, urine, and breast milk, consistent with their role as part of the first line of defense against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. AMPs are microbicidal and have also been shown to act as immunomodulators with chemoattractant and signaling activities. During the co-evolution of hosts and bacterial pathogens, bacteria have developed the ability to sense and initiate an adaptive response to AMPs to resist their bactericidal activity. Here, we review the various mechanisms used by Gram-negative bacteria to sense and resist AMP-mediated killing. These mechanisms play an important role in bacterial resistance to host-derived AMPs that are encountered during the course of infection. Bacterial resistance to AMPs should also be taken into consideration in the development and use of AMPs as anti-infective agents, for which there is currently a great deal of academic and commercial interest.

  11. A 5-year Surveillance Study on Antimicrobial Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates from a Tertiary Greek Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010–2014) in A. baumannii strains isolated from hospitalized patients in a tertiary Greek hospital. Materials and Methods Identification of A. baumannii was performed by standard biochemical methods and the Vitek 2 automated system, which was also used for susceptibility testing against 18 antibiotics: ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and colistin. Interpretation of susceptibility results was based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria, except for tigecycline, for which the Food and Drug Administration breakpoints were applied. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents. Results Overall 914 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from the intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 493), and medical (n = 252) and surgical (n = 169) wards. Only 4.9% of these isolates were fully susceptible to the antimicrobials tested, while 92.89% of them were multidrug resistant (MDR), i.e., resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics. ICU isolates were the most resistant followed by isolates from surgical and medical wards. The most effective antimicrobial agents were, in descending order: colistin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and tobramycin

  12. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Soo Hahm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment.

  13. Eight-year Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance among Enterococcus Spp. Isolated in the First Bethune Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1446 strains of Enterococcus spp. were collected from urine 640 (44.3%), sputum 315 (21.8%), secretions and pus 265 (18.3%) during the past 8 years. The rates of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 57.4%∼75.9% and 69.0%∼93.8% during the past 8 years, respectively. No Enterococcus spp. was resistant to vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. had increased in recent 8 years. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  14. Factors associated with antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Hosokawa, Yuko; Makita, Kohei; Noda, Jun; Ueno, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Ueno, Hiroshi; Mukai, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Ito, Masaki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2012-10-01

    Factors associated with the carriage of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were analysed among zoo animals. An association was observed between selection of amoxicillin as the first-line therapy and a significantly higher percentage of resistance to ampicillin (54.5%) from 11 animals treated with antimicrobials, compared with isolates from 32 untreated animals (9.4%). In addition, the percentage resistance to kanamycin (36.4%), gentamicin (27.3%), trimethoprim (27.3%) and tetracycline (63.6%) from 11 treated animals was significantly higher than those from 32 untreated animals (3.1%, 3.1%, 3.1% and 25%, respectively), although these antimicrobials were rarely used. All kanamycin-, gentamicin- and trimethoprim-resistant isolates and more than half of the tetracycline-resistant isolates from treated animals were also resistant to ampicillin. Co-resistance to other antimicrobials with ampicillin was suggested to contribute to an increasing of resistance towards antimicrobials that were rarely administered. The present investigation revealed an association of antimicrobial treatment with the spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among zoo animals.

  15. New Class of Antimicrobial Agents: SBA-15 Silica Containing Anchored Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Laskowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about a new class of antimicrobial functional nanomaterials. Proposed compounds are based on SBA-15 porous silica matrices and contain anchored copper ions. Thanks to the immobilization of functional groups the compounds are safer for environment than commonly used disinfectant agents. We prepared and examined silica based materials containing two concentrations of copper-containing groups: 10 and 5%. For the reference we prepared samples containing free-standing CuO molecules in the structure and checked their antimicrobial properties. Antibacterial effect of considered SBA-15-Cu material was tested on Escherichia coli bacteria. Antimicrobial tests were applied for the pure form of the material and as modifying agents for plastics. The obtained results showed that the sample with lower concentration of active copper-containing groups has stronger antimicrobial properties than the one with higher concentration of copper. Interestingly, silica containing free-standing CuO molecules has no antimicrobial properties. Considering the obtained results, we can conclude that the most probable antimicrobial mechanism in this case is an oxidation stress. When a plastic modifier is applied the material is enriched with bacterial inhibitory properties. It seems that SBA-15 silica containing low concentration of anchored copper ions is promising in terms of its antibacterial property and biomaterial potential for commercial use.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance and biological governance: explanations for policy failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, D; Rayner, G; Lang, T

    2015-10-01

    The paper reviews the state of policy on antimicrobial use and the growth of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR was anticipated at the time of the first use of antibiotics by their originators. For decades, reports and scientific papers have expressed concern about AMR at global and national policy levels, yet the problem, first exposed a half-century ago, worsened. The paper considers the explanations for this policy failure and the state of arguments about ways forward. These include: a deficit of economic incentivisation; complex interventions in behavioural dynamics; joint and separate shifts in medical and animal health regimes; consumerism; belief in technology; and a narrative that in a 'war on bugs' nature can be beaten by human ingenuity. The paper suggests that these narratives underplay the biological realities of the human-animal-biosphere being in constant flux, an understanding which requires an ecological public health analysis of AMR policy development and failure. The paper suggests that effective policy change requires simultaneous actions across policy levels. No single solution is possible, since AMR is the result of long-term human intervention which has accelerated certain trends in the evolution of a microbial ecosystem shared by humans, animals and other biological organisms inhabiting that ecosystem. Viewing the AMR crisis today through an ecological public health lens has the advantage of reuniting the social-ecological and bio-ecological perspectives which have been separated within public health.

  17. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Dai, Tianhong; Gu, Ying

    2016-10-01

    Background: With the increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains, there is a pressing need for the development of alternative treatment for infections. Antimicrobial blue light (aBL) has provided a simple and effective approach. Methods: We first investigated the effectiveness of aBL (415 nm) inactivation of USA300 LAClux (a communityacquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain) both in the planktonic and biofilm forms. The survival of the bacteria in suspensions was determined by serial dilution and that of the biofilm-embedded bacteria was determined by bioluminescence quantification. Using a mouse model of thermal burn infected with USA300 LAClux, we further assessed the effectiveness of aBL for treating localized infections. Bioluminescence imaging was performed to monitor in real time bacterial viability in vivo. Results: In vitro study showed that, for the planktonic counterpart of the bacteria or the 24-h-old biofilms, an irradiance of 55 mW/cm2 for 60 min resulted in a 4.61 log10 or 2.56 log10 inactivation, respectively. In vivo study using infected mouse burns demonstrated that a 2.56-log10 inactivation was achieved after 100-mW/cm2 irradiation for 62 min. Conclusions: aBL is a potential alternative approach for treating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  18. A decade-long commitment to antimicrobial resistance surveillance in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Moreira Marinho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR is a worldwide problem with serious health and economic repercussions. Since the 1940s, underuse, overuse, and misuse of antibiotics have had a significant environmental downside. Large amounts of antibiotics not fully metabolized after use in human and veterinary medicine, and other applications, are annually released into the environment. The result has been the development and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to many years of selective pressure. Surveillance of AMR provides important information that helps in monitoring and understanding how resistance mechanisms develop and disseminate within different environments. Surveillance data is needed to inform clinical therapy decisions, to guide policy proposals, and to assess the impact of action plans to fight AMR. The Functional Genomics and Proteomics Unit, based at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD in Vila Real, Portugal, has recently completed 10 years of research surveying AMR in bacteria, mainly commensal indicator bacteria such as enterococci and Escherichia coli from the microbiota of different animals. Samples from more than 75 different sources have been accessed, from humans to food-producing animals, pets, and wild animals. The typical microbiological workflow involved phenotypic studies followed by molecular approaches. Throughout the decade, 4,017 samples were collected and over 5,000 bacterial isolates obtained. High levels of AMR to several antimicrobial classes have been reported, including to β-lactams, glycopeptides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulphonamides and quinolones. Multi-resistant strains, some relevant to human and veterinary medicine like extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, have been repeatedly isolated even in non-synanthropic animal species. Of particular relevance are reports of AMR bacteria in wildlife from natural reserves and endangered

  19. Prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from retail chicken meat in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; León, Maribel; Castellanos, Ricardo; Vanegas, Consuelo; Coral, Adriana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Clavijo, Viviana; Vargas, Mercedes; Romero Zuñiga, Juan J; Tafur, McAllister; Pérez-Gutierrez, Enrique; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS), this study aimed to establish the baseline antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella serovars, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. isolates in retail poultry meat from independent stores and from a main chain distributor center. MICs of the isolates were determined for antimicrobials used both in humans and animals, using an automated system. Salmonella serovars were isolated from 26% of the meat samples and E. coli from 83%, whereas Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were detected in 81 and 13% of the meat samples, respectively. A principal finding of concern in this study was that almost 98% of isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline were the antimicrobials that showed the highest frequency of resistance among Salmonella and E. coli isolates. For enterococci, 61.5% of E. faecium isolates were found to be resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin; this is significant because it is used to treat nosocomial infections when vancomycin resistance is present. Vancomycin resistance was detected in 4% of the E. faecalis isolates. The results of our study highlight the need for rapid implementation of an integrated program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by the Colombian authorities in order to monitor trends, raise awareness, and help promote practices to safeguard later generation antimicrobial agents.

  20. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli in Public Beach Waters in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Turgeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities.

  1. Changing trends in antimicrobial-resistant pneumococci: it's not all bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Donald E

    2005-08-15

    In the early 1990s, we witnessed a dramatic and relentless increase in multidrug-resistant pneumococci worldwide. However, there is now evidence of decreasing resistance to some antimicrobials in some regions of the world. This may well be a result of several initiatives to promote the judicious use of antimicrobials, as well as the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, suggesting that the fight against resistance is maybe not futile.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of 100 Salmonella strains isolated from Gallus gallus in 4 wilayas of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounar-Kechih, S; Hamdi, T M; Mezali, L; Assaous, F; Rahal, K

    2012-05-01

    This study aims at identifying serotypes and surveying the antimicrobial resistance and plasmid support of resistance of 100 Salmonella strains, which were isolated from 96 out of 506 (18.97%) samples taken from different production farms in the wilayas (i.e., Algerian states) of Tizi-Ouzou, Bouira, Bejaïa, and Boumerdes in 2007. The highest percentage of Salmonella (48%) was recorded in Bouira. Thirteen serotypes were identified among the 100 Salmonella strains used in this study. The most prevalent ones were Salmonella Heidelberg (24%), Salmonella Enteritidis (20%), Salmonella Albany (16%), and Salmonella Typhimurium (9%). The strains showed resistance to 8 of the 34 antibiotics tested. Fifty-three percent of strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, among which 15.09% were multiresistant. The most frequently observed resistance was to quinolones (58.49%), with a contribution of 94.74% of Salmonella Heidelberg resistant strains. The plasmid transfer performed on 53 strains showed that only 11 exhibited one or more markers of resistance, the most frequent being ampicillin, followed by tetracycline, then cotrimoxazole, sulphonamides, and kanamycin, in that order. The tetracycline characteristics were present in 72.72% of transconjugants, those of the β-lactams and sulphonamides in 27.27% each and those of the aminosides in 9.09%. The incompatibility groups of plasmids belong to the F1me and Com1 classes, and the molecular weight of the plasmid DNA was greater than 100 kb. The phenotypic and genotypic results indicate a clonal dissemination in the Gallus gallus species in this particular study; this phenomenon could generate resistant bacteria and transferable genes of resistance to humans.

  3. Genome-wide identification of antimicrobial intrinsic resistance determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vestergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products that confer intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents may be explored for alternative antimicrobial therapies, by potentiating the efficacy of existing antimicrobials. In this study, we identified the intrinsic resistome to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials in the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus. We screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library of 1920 single-gene inactivations in S. aureus strain JE2, for increased susceptibility to the anti-staphylococcal antimicrobials (ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, linezolid, fosfomycin, daptomycin, mupirocin, vancomycin and gentamicin. 68 mutants were confirmed by E-test to display at least two-fold increased susceptibility to one or more antimicrobial agents. The majority of the identified genes have not previously been associated with antimicrobial susceptibility in S. aureus. For example, inactivation of genes encoding for subunits of the ATP synthase, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected with the atpA mutant compared to wild type cells with gentamicin at a clinically relevant concentration. Our results demonstrate that many gene products contribute to the intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus. Knowledge of these intrinsic resistance determinants provides alternative targets for compounds that may potentiate the efficacy of existing antimicrobial agents against this important pathogen.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the 21st century: past, evolution, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M

    2014-07-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally. Given the global nature of gonorrhea, the high rate of usage of antimicrobials, suboptimal control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and treatment failures, slow update of treatment guidelines in most geographical settings, and the extraordinary capacity of the gonococci to develop and retain AMR, it is likely that the global problem of gonococcal AMR will worsen in the foreseeable future and that the severe complications of gonorrhea will emerge as a silent epidemic. By understanding the evolution, emergence, and spread of AMR in N. gonorrhoeae, including its molecular and phenotypic mechanisms, resistance to antimicrobials used clinically can be anticipated, future methods for genetic testing for AMR might permit region-specific and tailor-made antimicrobial therapy, and the design of novel antimicrobials to circumvent the resistance problems can be undertaken more rationally. This review focuses on the history and evolution of gonorrhea treatment regimens and emerging resistance to them, on genetic and phenotypic determinants of gonococcal resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials, including biological costs or benefits; and on crucial actions and future advances necessary to detect and treat resistant gonococcal strains and, ultimately, retain gonorrhea as a treatable infection.

  5. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and pathogen of clinical isolates in third-grade class A hospitals of Hebei Antibacterial Resistance Investigation Net in 2013%2013年河北省细菌耐药监测网三级甲等医院细菌耐药性监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    目的:对2013年河北省细菌耐药性监测网(Hebarin)三级甲等成员单位临床分离细菌的菌种分布及对常用抗菌药物的耐药性谱型进行分析。方法回顾性分析2013年 Hebarin 收集细菌药敏试验监测数据,采用 K-B 纸片法或微量肉汤稀释法药敏试验,判断标准按临床实验室标准委员会(clinical an laboratory standard institute,CLSI )2012年版,数据分析采用 WHONET 5.5软件。结果共收集细菌34865株,其中革兰阴性菌26659株,占76.5%;革兰阳性菌8206株,占23.5%。革兰阴性杆菌中前5位的细菌分别为大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、阴沟肠杆菌;革兰阳性球菌中前5位的细菌分别为金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎链球菌、屎肠球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、粪肠球菌。大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌中超广谱内酰胺酶(extended-spectrum beta-lactamase,ESBL)的检出率分别为62.4%和37.8%;肠杆菌属、沙雷菌属、枸橼酸菌属对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率小于5%,变形菌属对亚胺培南和美罗培南的耐药率为9.9%、2.7%。金葡菌中甲氧西林耐药株所占比率为50.5%。未发现对利奈唑胺、万古霉素耐药的葡萄球菌属细菌。成人肺炎链球菌对青霉素的耐药率为11.1%,流感嗜血杆菌β内酰胺酶的阳性率为29.6%。结论细菌耐药性是不断变化的,细菌耐药性监测对准确掌握细菌对抗菌药物的耐药动向和耐药性变迁,指导临床合理用药具有重要的意义。%Objective To investigate antimicrobial resistance and pathogen in Hebei Antibacterial Resistance Investigation Net in 2013.Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility test was detected by Kirby-Bauer method or broth dilution test.The results were analyzed according to CLSI 2010 breakpoints.WHONET 5.5 software was used to analyze the data.Results A total of 34 865 clinical isolates were collected in 2013,gram negative bacilli and gram positive

  6. An assessment of antimicrobial resistant disease threats in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Garner

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR of infectious agents is a growing concern for public health organizations. Given the complexity of this issue and how widespread the problem has become, resources are often insufficient to address all concerns, thus prioritization of AMR pathogens is essential for the optimal allocation of risk management attention. Since the epidemiology of AMR pathogens differs between countries, country-specific assessments are important for the determination of national priorities.To develop a systematic and transparent approach to AMR risk prioritization in Canada.Relevant AMR pathogens in Canada were selected through a transparent multi-step consensus process (n=32. Each pathogen was assessed using ten criteria: incidence, mortality, case-fatality, communicability, treatability, clinical impact, public/political attention, ten-year projection of incidence, economic impact, and preventability. For each pathogen, each criterion was assigned a numerical score of 0, 1, or 2, and multiplied by criteria-specific weighting determined through researcher consensus of importance. The scores for each AMR pathogen were summed and ranked by total score, where a higher score indicated greater importance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effects of changing the criteria-specific weights.The AMR pathogen with the highest total weighted score was extended spectrum B-lactamase-producing (ESBL Enterobacteriaceae (score=77. When grouped by percentile, ESBL Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were in the 80-100th percentile.This assessment provides useful information for prioritising public health strategies regarding AMR resistance at the national level in Canada. As the AMR environment and challenges change over time and space, this systematic and transparent approach can be adapted for use by other stakeholders domestically and

  7. Studies on Antimicrobial Resistance Transfer In vitro and Existent Selectivity of Avian Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterobacteriaccae In vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; NING Yi-bao; ZHANG Qi-jing; YANG Cheng-huai; GAO Guang; HAN Jian-feng

    2008-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AR) has become a severe problem of public health in the world, whereas control of the AR of bacteria will be based on investigation of the AR mechanism. Furthermore, understanding the existent selectivity of AR organisms from animals can prevent the emergence and diffusion of AR effectively. PCR amplifications of gyrA and parC genes have been performed for detecting fluoroquinolones-resistance (FR) genes. A conjugational transfer test has been carried out using a donor which is resistant to tetracycline (TE), ampicillin (AMP), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT), and a recipient which is sensitive to TE, AMP, and SXT. The AR strains have been passed 20 passages. Two groups of chicken inoculated multi-AR Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and multi-AR Salmonella, respectively, are mix-fed. The result shows that amino acid codons of Ser-83 and Asp-87 are mutations from gyrA and there are no mutations from parCgenes in all the FR strains. Resistance to TE, AM, and SXT can transfer among E. Coli and the conjugal transfer frequency of TE is 3 × 10-7. AR can inherit in 20 passages at least. The multi-AR E. Coli and Salmonella can be isolated from all chickens three days after inoculation but CIP-resistant strains decrease during the time run out and disappear at 23 days after inoculation. The results indicate that the mutations of gene gyrA are correlative with the FR phenotype. AR genes that are not connected to the chromosome can transfer horizontally and vertically. AR bacteria can diffuse quickly and eliminate naturally from the host if the chicken is not under the pressure of this antibiotic.

  8. Survey of antimicrobial resistance in clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates over two decades in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Saiprom, Natnaree; Chantratita, Narisara; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Koh, Gavin C K W; Chaowagul, Wipada; Day, Nicholas P J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2011-11-01

    A 21-year survey conducted in northeast Thailand of antimicrobial resistance to parenteral antimicrobial drugs used to treat melioidosis identified 24/4,021 (0.6%) patients with one or more isolates resistant to ceftazidime (n = 8), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 4), or both drugs (n = 12). Two cases were identified at admission, and the remainder were detected a median of 15 days after starting antimicrobial therapy. Resistance to carbapenem drugs was not detected. These findings support the current prescribing recommendations for melioidosis.

  9. Extreme antimicrobial peptide and polymyxin B resistance in the genus Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slade A. Loutet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides and polymyxins are a group of naturally occurring antibiotics that can also possess immunomodulatory activities. They are considered a new source of antibiotics for treating infections by bacteria that are resistant to conventional antibiotics. Members of the genus Burkholderia, which includes various human pathogens, are inherently resistant to antimicrobial peptides. The resistance is several orders of magnitude higher than that of other Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review summarizes our current understanding of antimicrobial peptide and polymyxin B resistance in the genus Burkholderia. These bacteria possess major and minor resistance mechanisms that will be described in detail. Recent studies have revealed that many other emerging Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens may also be inherently resistant to antimicrobial peptides and polymyxins and we propose that Burkholderia species are a model system to investigate the molecular basis of the resistance in extremely resistant bacteria. Understanding resistance in these types of bacteria will be important if antimicrobial peptides come to be used regularly for the treatment of infections by susceptible bacteria because this may lead to increased resistance in the species that are currently susceptible and may also open up new niches for opportunistic pathogens with high inherent resistance.

  10. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Campylobacter from broilers slaughtered in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Denis, Edyta; Osek, Jacek

    2015-10-01

    In the current study, the relationship of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains isolated at slaughter was investigated using comparative analysis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), virulence gene (VG) and PFGE profiling. A total of 254 Campylobacter isolates from poultry caeca and corresponding carcasses, including 139 C. jejuni and 115 C. coli strains were tested. The most prevalent resistance profiles observed in C. jejuni were ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline (46 out of 139, 33.1% isolates) as well as ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and streptomycin among C. coli strains (34 out of 115, 29.6%). Multi-resistance was found more frequently among C. coli than C. jejuni (PCampylobacter isolates tested. All Campylobacter strains were classified into 154 different PFGE types. Among them, 56 profiles (28 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli) were common for at least two isolates including 9 clusters covering from 4 to 9 strains. Campylobacter composite types generated by a combination of 154 PFGE types, 10 AMR profiles and 19 VG patterns divided 178 distinct types with 95% similarity. The majority of the composite profiles (76 for C. jejuni and 58 for C. coli; 75.3% in total) included only one bacterial isolate. Furthermore, 11 pairs of C. jejuni and 12 pairs of C. coli from caeca and the corresponding carcasses isolated from the same places possessed the identical PFGE, AMR and VG patterns. This study demonstrated that C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry in Poland showed to have a high genetic diversity and a weak clonal population structure. However, the composite analysis revealed a strong evidence for cross-contamination of chicken carcasses during the slaughter process. Additionally, our results confirm that Campylobacter may easily contaminate poultry carcasses at slaughter process and spread around country. More than half of Campylobacter strains tested (50.4%) were resistant to at least two classes of antimicrobials, i

  11. Metagenomic Evidence of the Prevalence and Distribution Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Dairy Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta, Dipti W; Dou, Zhengxia; Kumar, Sanjay; Indugu, Nagaraju; Toth, John Daniel; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Bhukya, Bhima

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a global problem with serious implications for public health. AR genes are frequently detected on animal farms, but little is known about their origin and distribution patterns. We hypothesized that AR genes can transfer from animal feces to the environment through manure, and to this end, we characterized and compared the resistomes (collections of AR genes) of animal feces, manure, and soil samples collected from five dairy farms using a metagenomics approach. Resistomes constituted only up to 1% of the total gene content, but were variable by sector and also farm. Broadly, the identified AR genes were associated with 18 antibiotic resistances classes across all samples; however, the most abundant genes were classified under multidrug transporters (44.75%), followed by resistance to vancomycin (12.48%), tetracycline (10.52%), bacitracin (10.43%), beta-lactam resistance (7.12%), and MLS efflux pump (6.86%) antimicrobials. The AR gene profiles were variable between farms. Farm 09 was categorized as a high risk farm, as a greater proportion of AR genes were common to at least three sectors, suggesting possible horizontal transfer of AR genes. Taxonomic characterization of AR genes revealed that a majority of AR genes were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria. Nonetheless, there were several members of Bacteroidetes, particularly Bacteroides genus and several lineages from Firmicutes that carried similar AR genes in different sectors, suggesting a strong potential for horizontal transfer of AR genes between unrelated bacterial hosts in different sectors of the farms. Further studies are required to affirm the horizontal gene transfer mechanisms between microbiomes of different sectors in animal agroecosystems.

  12. EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands .Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goettsch WG; Neeling AJ de; CIE; LIO

    2001-01-01

    In a porspective prevalence and incidence survey in The Netherlands in 1999 antimicrobial susceptibility data on invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus infections were collected sithin the framework of European Antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). The EARSS proj

  13. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  14. Association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli obtained from blood and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Sandvang, Dorthe; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faeces (n = 85) and blood (n = 123) were susceptibility tested against 17 antimicrobial agents and the presence of 9 virulence genes was determined by PCR. Positive associations between several antimicrobial resistances and 2 VF genes (iutA and traT) were...

  15. European multicenter study on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from companion animal urinary tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís Telo; Belas, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    of antimicrobial resistant bacteria causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in companion animals in Europe. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 22 256 bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with UTI was determined. Samples were collected between 2008 and 2013 from 16 laboratories of 14 European countries...

  16. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli selected by tylosin treatment at a pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, P; Heiska, H; Olkkola, S; Myllyniemi, A-L; Hänninen, M-L

    2010-11-20

    Limited knowledge is available regarding the dynamics of macrolide resistance under farm conditions with natural Campylobacter populations. We examined the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli at a large pig farm. Faeces were sampled from untreated sows and piglets (n=57), weaned pigs treated with tylosin (n=68) and pigs of the same group 3-5 weeks after withdrawal of tylosin (n=15). Additionally, 48 weaned pigs were sampled after tylosin had not been administered for 7 months at the farm. MICs for seven antimicrobials were determined, isolates were genotyped by PFGE and mutations conferring macrolide resistance were identified. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was higher (Ptylosin had not been administered for 7 months. Resistance to erythromycin and streptomycin also decreased (Ptylosin treatment. In conclusion, tylosin treatment of pigs selected for a high-level of resistance to erythromycin and resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and streptomycin also increased in C. coli isolates within a few days.

  17. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genotypic Characterization of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Meat Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ramos, Emilia; Molina-González, Diana; Blanco-Morán, Sonia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2016-05-01

    A total of 160 samples of poultry (80), pork (40), and beef (40) preparations (red sausages, white sausages, hamburgers, meatballs, nuggets, minced meat, escalope, and crepes) were tested in northwestern Spain to determine the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). VRE were detected in 38 (23.8%) samples (37.5% of poultry, 15.0% of pork, and 5.0% of beef samples). One strain per food sample was further characterized. Isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium (14 strains), E. durans (10), E. hirae (7), E. gallinarum (5), and E. casseliflavus-E. flavescens (2). All strains showed resistance or intermediate susceptibility to three or more antimicrobials of clinical significance, in addition to vancomycin. High rates of resistance or intermediate susceptibility were observed for teicoplanin (81.6% of isolates), chloramphenicol (81.6%), erythromycin (100%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (89.5%), and ciprofloxacin (81.6%). A moderate rate of resistance or intermediate susceptibility emerged for ampicillin (34.2%) and tetracycline (36.8%). Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance and virulence were studied by PCR. The vanA, vanB, vanC-1, and vanC-2/3 genes were identified in 27, 1, 5, and 2 isolates, respectively. Other resistance genes or transposon sequences found were tet(L), tet(M), Tn5397 (tetracycline), erm(A), erm(B) (erythromycin), vat(D), and vat(E) (quinupristin-dalfopristin). Most isolates were free of virulence determinants (agg, hyl, and efaAfm genes were detected in one, one, and five strains, respectively). Strains were classified as not biofilm producers (crystal violet assay; 4 isolates) or weak biofilm producers (34 isolates). Cluster analysis (EcoRI ribotyping) suggested a strong genetic relationship among isolates from different types of meat preparations, animal species, and retail outlets. Meat preparations might play a role in the spread through the food chain of VRE with several resistance and virulence genes.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius of canine origin: literature review from 1980 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Damborg, Peter; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2014-07-16

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and a common opportunistic pathogen causing mainly infections of the integumentary system in dogs. The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pseudintermedius isolates, in particular methicillin-resistant strains (MRSP) is a threat to small animal health and highlights the need for antimicrobial resistance surveillance to detect trends and potentially perform timeous interventions. We systematically reviewed 202 published articles to investigate temporal changes in antimicrobial resistance in clinical and commensal S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs in 27 countries between 1980 and 2013. Resistance to the most common antimicrobials tested for in published studies and important for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in dogs were assessed separately for methicillin resistant (MRSP) and methicillin susceptible (MSSP) isolates. Stratified by MSSP and MRSP, no significant increases in antimicrobial resistance were observed over time, except for the penicillinase-labile penicillins (penicillin and ampicillin) among MSSP. However, in recent years, a few studies have reported higher-level of resistance to amikacin, gentamicin and enrofloxacin amongst MSSP. The review highlights inconsistencies between studies as a result of several factors, for example the use of different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and interpretation criteria. We recommend that data on susceptibility in important companion animal pathogens are collected and presented in a more harmonized way to allow more precise comparison of susceptibility patterns between studies. One way to accomplish this would be through systematic surveillance either at the country-level or at a larger scale across countries e.g. EU level.

  19. Antimicrobial resistances do not affect colonization parameters of intestinal E. coli in a small piglet group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schierack Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antimicrobial resistance and persistence of resistant bacteria in humans and animals are major health concerns worldwide, the impact of antimicrobial resistance on bacterial intestinal colonization in healthy domestic animals has only been rarely studied. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial susceptibility status and the presence of resistance genes in intestinal commensal E. coli clones from clinically healthy pigs from one production unit with particular focus on effects of pheno- and/or genotypic resistance on different nominal and numerical intestinal colonization parameters. In addition, we compared the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes with the occurrence of virulence associated genes typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Results In general, up to 72.1% of all E. coli clones were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole or tetracycline with a variety of different resistance genes involved. There was no significant correlation between one of the nominal or numerical colonization parameters and the absence or presence of antimicrobial resistance properties or resistance genes. However, there were several statistically significant associations between the occurrence of single resistance genes and single virulence associated genes. Conclusion The demonstrated resistance to the tested antibiotics might not play a dominant role for an intestinal colonization success in pigs in the absence of antimicrobial drugs, or cross-selection of other colonization factors e.g. virulence associated genes might compensate "the cost of antibiotic resistance". Nevertheless, resistant strains are not outcompeted by susceptible bacteria in the porcine intestine. Trial Registration The study was approved by the local animal welfare committee of the "Landesamt für Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit" Berlin

  20. Distribution of putative virulence genes and antimicrobial drug resistance in Vibrio harveyi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Mendez, D.; Anto, C.

    environments for understanding the distribution of putative virulence genes and antimicrobial drug resistance. The putative genes targeted for PCR detection included four reversible toxin (Rtx)/hemolysin genes, a gene encoding homologue of Vibrio cholerae...

  1. The changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in Europe : trends from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, M. E. A.; Jarlier, V.; Monen, J. C. M.; Heuer, O. E.; van de Sande, N.; Grundmann, H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated bacteraemia trends for five major bacterial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, and determined how expanding antimicrobial resistance influenced the total burden of bacteraemias in Europe. Aetio

  2. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2015-01-01

    to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma......High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although enterococci are considered opportunistic nosocomial pathogens, their contribution to food-borne illnesses via dissemination through retail food remains undefined. In this study, prevalence and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 80 Enterococcus faecalis isolate...

  4. Association between the consumption of antimicrobial agents in animal husbandry and the occurrence of resistant bacteria among food animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption...... or humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic nontyphoidal Salmonella: an alarming trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G B; Schwarz, S

    2016-12-01

    Zoonotic bacteria of the genus Salmonella have acquired various antimicrobial resistance properties over the years. The corresponding resistance genes are commonly located on plasmids, transposons, gene cassettes, or variants of the Salmonella Genomic Islands SGI1 and SGI2. Human infections by nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates mainly result from ingestion of contaminated food. The two predominantly found Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars in the USA and in Europe are S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium. Many other nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars have been implicated in foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. Summary reports of the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates over time suggest a moderate to low level of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug-resistance. However, serovar-specific analyses showed in part a steady state, a continuous decline, or a recent increase in resistance to certain antimicrobial agents. Resistance to critically important antimicrobial agents, e.g. third-generation cephalosporins and (fluoro)quinolones is part of many monitoring programmes and the corresponding results confirm that extended-spectrum β-lactamases are still rarely found in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, whereas resistance to (fluoro)quinolones is prevalent at variable frequencies among different serovars from humans and animals in different countries. Although it is likely that nontyphoidal Salmonella isolates from animals represent a reservoir for resistance determinants, it is mostly unknown where and when Salmonella isolates acquired resistance properties and which exchange processes have happened since then.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua from meat products and meat-processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego; Azón, Ester; Marco, Noelia; Carramiñana, Juan J; Rota, Carmina; Ariño, Agustín; Yangüela, Javier

    2014-09-01

    A total of 336 Listeria isolates from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products and meat-processing environments, consisting of 206 Listeria monocytogenes, and 130 Listeria innocua isolates, were characterized by disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for antimicrobial susceptibility against twenty antimicrobials. Resistance to one or two antimicrobials was observed in 71 L. monocytogenes isolates (34.5%), and 56 L. innocua isolates (43.1%). Multidrug resistance was identified in 24 Listeria isolates, 18 belonging to L. innocua (13.9%) and 6 to L. monocytogenes (2.9%). Oxacillin resistance was the most common resistance phenotype and was identified in 100% Listeria isolates. A medium prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (39.3% isolates) and low incidence of resistance to tetracycline (3.9% isolates) were also detected. Listeria isolates from RTE meat products displayed higher overall antimicrobial resistance (31.3%) than those from the environment (13.4%). All the strains assayed were sensitive to the preferred antibiotics used to treat listeriosis. Results showed that although antimicrobial resistance in L. monocytogenes still occurs at a low prevalence, L. innocua can form a reservoir of resistance genes which may transfer between bacterial species, including transference to organisms capable of causing disease in humans.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella from Humans, Retail Meats and Food Animals: 2002-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitor System (NARMS) tracks antimicrobial susceptibility in enteric bacteria from humans, retail meats and food animals. We analyzed changes in ceftiofur resistance (TioR), nalidixic acid resistance (NalR) and multidrug resistance (MDR-AmpC, define...

  8. Antibiotic resistance and carriage class 1 and 2 integrons in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Tehran, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Sepideh Mostofi; Faramaz Masjedian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibiotic resistance and carriage class 1 and 2 integrons in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) from Tehran, Iran. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The presence of integrons was investigated by PCR using specific primers. Results:Among isolated A. baumannii strains, 82%were multidrug resistant, 27 samples (54%) were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and 16 samples (32%) showed resistance to two antibiotics. Integrons were detected from 44 of 50 isolates (88%), with classes 1 and 2 being observed in 42% (21/50) and 82%(41/50) of isolates, respectively. Integron-positive A. baumannii isolates showed higher antibiotic resistance than integron-negative isolates and all showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Conclusions:Our findings show that classes 1 and 2 integrons, and especially classes 2 integrons are widely disseminated among A. baumannii strains isolated from Tehran and these structures are playing a major role in the acquisition of multidrug resistance in these strains. So monitoring of drug resistance with investigating carriage class 1 and 2 integrons is very important to plan specific infection control measures due to multidrug resistance A. baumannii in Iran hospitals.

  9. Bovine salmonellosis in Northeast of Iran: Frequency, genetic fingerprinting and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hessam A. Halimi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella Typhimurium should be of great concern to the public. No correlation between ERIC fingerprinting and resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates was found, which indicates resistance to antimicrobial agents was not related to specific genetic background.

  10. Antimicrobial use in aquaculture re-examined: its relevance to antimicrobial resistance and to animal and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C; Godfrey, Henry P; Tomova, Alexandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Dölz, Humberto; Millanao, Ana; Buschmann, Alejandro H

    2013-07-01

    The worldwide growth of aquaculture has been accompanied by a rapid increase in therapeutic and prophylactic usage of antimicrobials including those important in human therapeutics. Approximately 80% of antimicrobials used in aquaculture enter the environment with their activity intact where they select for bacteria whose resistance arises from mutations or more importantly, from mobile genetic elements containing multiple resistance determinants transmissible to other bacteria. Such selection alters biodiversity in aquatic environments and the normal flora of fish and shellfish. The commonality of the mobilome (the total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome) between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria together with the presence of residual antimicrobials, biofilms, and high concentrations of bacteriophages where the aquatic environment may also be contaminated with pathogens of human and animal origin can stimulate exchange of genetic information between aquatic and terrestrial bacteria. Several recently found genetic elements and resistance determinants for quinolones, tetracyclines, and β-lactamases are shared between aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens, and human pathogens, and appear to have originated in aquatic bacteria. Excessive use of antimicrobials in aquaculture can thus potentially negatively impact animal and human health as well as the aquatic environment and should be better assessed and regulated.

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of five essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Sakkas, Hercules; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Vassilios; Petsios, Stefanos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens has drawn attention on medicinal plants for potential antimicrobial properties. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the antimicrobial activity of five plant essential oils on multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Basil, chamomile blue, origanum, thyme, and tea tree oil were tested against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 6), Escherichia coli (n = 4), Klebsiella pneum...

  12. Distribution of antimicrobial-resistant lactic acid bacteria in natural cheese in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Nakajima, Kumiko; Kishimoto, Satoko; Atarashi, Fumiaki; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Hotta, Akitoyo; Ishii, Satomi; Takeda, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Masanori; Tamura, Yutaka

    2013-10-01

    To determine and compare the extent of contamination caused by antimicrobial-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in imported and domestic natural cheeses on the Japanese market, LAB were isolated using deMan, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar and MRS agar supplemented with six antimicrobials. From 38 imported and 24 Japanese cheeses, 409 LAB isolates were obtained and their antimicrobial resistance was tested. The percentage of LAB resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, and/or oxytetracycline isolated from imported cheeses (42.1%) was significantly higher than that of LAB resistant to dihydrostreptomycin or oxytetracycline from cheeses produced in Japan (16.7%; P=0.04). Antimicrobial resistance genes were detected in Enterococcus faecalis (tetL, tetM, and ermB; tetL and ermB; tetM) E. faecium (tetM), Lactococcus lactis (tetS), Lactobacillus (Lb.), casei/paracasei (tetM or tetW), and Lb. rhamnosus (ermB) isolated from seven imported cheeses. Moreover, these E. faecalis isolates were able to transfer antimicrobial resistance gene(s). Although antimicrobial resistance genes were not detected in any LAB isolates from Japanese cheeses, Lb. casei/paracasei and Lb. coryniformis isolates from a Japanese farm-made cheese were resistant to oxytetracycline (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC], 32 µg/mL). Leuconostoc isolates from three Japanese farm-made cheeses were also resistant to dihydrostreptomycin (MIC, 32 to >512 µg/mL). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated contamination with antimicrobial-resistant LAB in imported and Japanese farm-made cheeses on the Japanese market, but not in Japanese commercial cheeses.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANT PATTERN OF FECAL ESCHERICHIA COLI IN SELECTED BROILER FARMS OF EASTERN HARARGE ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Cloacal swab of broiler chickens in selected farms of Eastern Harrarge zone of Ethiopia. Isolation and identification of Escherichia coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. 65 selected isolates were subjected to 9 antimicrobial agents to determine their resistance by the disk diffusion method. Accordingly, the resistance of E.coli was tetracycline (90%, streptomycin (78%, ampicillin (60%, amoxicillin (56%, erythromycin (45%, ciprofloxacin (38%, and chloramphenicol (15%. None of the isolates showed resistance to gentamicin. Sensitivity was observed in case of 80%, 77%, 44%, 32%, 26%, 20%, 20%, 15%, and 10% of the isolates for chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, and tetracycline, respectively. Intermediate resistance/susceptibility was recorded for 5-35% of the isolates. 92.3% of the isolates tested showed multidrug resistance for 2 or more antimicrobials and the highest levels (18.5% of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for 3 antimicrobials accounting 7.7% for tetracycline-ampicillin-streptomycin and 10.8% for tetracycline-ampicillin-amoxicillin. This study showed resistance against the antibiotics that are commonly used in poultry. Furthermore, it was concluded that gentamicin, chloramphenicole and ciproflaxin will be the first drugs of choice to resist infections caused by E. coli in chicken in Ethiopia. These findings confirm significant increase in the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in the E. coli isolates which is most probably due to increased use of antibiotics as feed additives for growth promotion and prevention of diseases and use of inappropriate antibiotics for treatment of diseases. Hence, excess or abusive use of antimicrobials should be guarded through judicious application of antimicrobials

  14. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Papadakis, Ioannis S

    2014-01-01

    We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%), followed by Typhimurium (28.7%) and Newport (8.7%). No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.

  15. Serotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Nontyphoidal Isolates of Salmonella enterica from Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Maraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 20 different antimicrobials of 150 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from stools of diarrhoeal patients on the island of Crete over the period January 2011-December 2012. Among the S. enterica serotypes recovered, Enteritidis was the most prevalent (37.3%, followed by Typhimurium (28.7% and Newport (8.7%. No resistance was detected to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole were 9.3%, 4%, 2%, 15.3%, and 8.7%, respectively. Resistance to ≥4 antibiotics was primarily observed for serotypes Typhimurium and Hadar. Enteritidis remains the predominant serotype in Crete. Although low resistance to most antimicrobials was detected, continued surveillance of susceptibility is needed due to the risk of resistance.

  16. Biotic stress resistance in agriculture through antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika; Iquebal, M A; Rai, Anil

    2012-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the hosts' defense molecules against microbial pathogens and gaining extensive research attention worldwide. These have been reported to play vital role of host innate immunity in response to microbial challenges. AMPs can be used as a natural antibiotic as an alternative of their chemical counterpart for protection of plants/animals against diseases. There are a number of sources of AMPs including prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and are present, both in vertebrates and invertebrates. AMPs can be classified as cationic or anionic, based on net charges. Large number of databases and tools are available in the public domain which can be used for development of new genetically modified disease resistant varieties/breeds for agricultural production. The results of the biotechnological research as well as genetic engineering related to AMPs have shown high potential for reduction of economic losses of agricultural produce due to pathogens. In this article, an attempt has been made to introduce the role of AMPs in relation to plants and animals. Their functional and structural characteristics have been described in terms of its role in agriculture. Different sources of AMPs and importance of these sources has been reviewed in terms of its availability. This article also reviews the bioinformatics resources including different database tools and algorithms available in public domain. References of promising biotechnology research in relation to AMPs, prospects of AMPs for further development of genetically modified varieties/breeds are highlighted. AMPs are valuable resource for students, researchers, educators and medical and industrial personnel.

  17. Superbugs: should antimicrobial resistance be included as a cost in economic evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, J; Smith, R D; Millar, M R

    1996-01-01

    This paper argues that increasing resistance to antimicrobials is an important social externality that has not been captured at the level of economic appraisal. The paper explicitly considers reasons why the externality of antimicrobial resistance has not generally been included as a cost in economic evaluations comparing management strategies for infectious diseases. Four reasons are considered: first, that the absolute cost of antimicrobial resistance is too small to be worth including; second, that there is an implicit discounting of the costs of antimicrobial resistance on the basis of time preference which makes the cost too small to be worth including; third, that there is an implicit discounting of the costs of antimicrobial resistance on the basis of uncertainty which makes the cost too small to be worth including; and fourth, that the costs are too difficult to measure. Although there does not appear to be methodological justification for excluding the costs of antimicrobial resistance, it seems likely that, because of the practical difficulties associated with measuring these costs, they will continue to be ignored. The paper concludes with a discussion of the applicability of standard policy responses used to deal with externalities in other areas of welfare economics.

  18. Molecular Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Abd-Elghany, Samir Mohammed; Elhadidy, Mohamed; Tamura, Tomohiro

    2015-10-01

    The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in food-producing animals is of increasing interest, raising questions about the presence of MRSA in food of animal origin and potential sources of transmission to humans via the food chain. In this study, the prevalence, molecular characterization, virulence factors, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MRSA isolates from 200 retail raw chicken samples in Egypt were determined. MRSA was detected by positive amplification of the mecA gene in 38% (76 of 200) of chicken samples analyzed. This represents a potential public health threat in Egypt, as this contamination rate seems to be the highest among other studies reported worldwide. Furthermore, genes encoding α-hemolysin (hla) and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea, seb, and sec) were detected in all of the 288 MRSA isolates. Nonetheless, none of the strains tested carried tst, the gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1. Antimicrobial resistance of MRSA isolates was most frequently detected against penicillin (93.4%), ampicillin (88.9%), and cloxacillin (83.3%). These results suggest that retail chicken might be a significant potential source for transmission of multidrug-resistant and toxigenic S. aureus in Egypt. This underlines the need for stricter hygienic measures in chicken production in Egypt to minimize the risk of transmission of these strains to consumers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reports the isolation and molecular characterization of MRSA in retail chicken samples in Egypt.

  19. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates in Taiwan, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Chen

    Full Text Available The information of molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is essential for control and treatment of diseases caused by this medically important pathogen. A total of 577 clinical MRSA bloodstream isolates from six major hospitals in Taiwan were determined for molecular types, carriage of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL and sasX genes and susceptibilities to 9 non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A total of 17 genotypes were identified in 577 strains by pulsotyping. Five major pulsotypes, which included type A (26.2%, belonging to sequence type (ST 239, carrying type III staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec, type F (18.9%, ST5-SCCmecII, type C (18.5%, ST59-SCCmecIV, type B (12.0%, ST239-SCCmecIII and type D (10.9%, ST59-SCCmecVT/IV, prevailed in each of the six sampled hospitals. PVL and sasX genes were respectively carried by ST59-type D strains and ST239 strains with high frequencies (93.7% and 99.1%, respectively but rarely detected in strains of other genotypes. Isolates of different genotypes and from different hospitals exhibited distinct antibiograms. Multi-resistance to ≥3 non-beta-lactams was more common in ST239 isolates (100% than in ST5 isolates (97.2%, P = 0.0347 and ST59 isolates (8.2%, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis further indicated that the genotype, but not the hospital, was an independent factor associated with muti-resistance of the MRSA strains. In conclusion, five common MRSA clones with distinct antibiograms prevailed in the major hospitals in Taiwan in 2010. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of invasive MRSA was mainly determined by the clonal distribution.

  20. 'No action today means no cure tomorrow': the threat of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, Alison

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major concern for UK healthcare professionals, following growing evidence of multi-resistant pathogens. Poor prescribing practices, partly driven by patient demand, and poor patient adherence to prescribed regimens are two of the causes of growing antimicrobial resisitance. Improved infection prevention and control practices will not only reduce healthcare-acquired infections, but also reduce the necessity for antimicrobials. Community nurses can also support their clients to promote their own health and wellbeing, increasing resilience to infections through a healthy lifestyle which includes a well-balanced diet, good personal hygiene and the take up of offered vaccinations.

  1. In vitro effectiveness of the antimicrobial peptide eCATH1 against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlusselhuber, Margot; Guldbech, Kristen; Sevin, Corinne; Leippe, Matthias; Petry, Sandrine; Grötzinger, Joachim; Giguère, Steeve; Cauchard, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The equine antimicrobial peptide eCATH1 previously has been shown to have in vitro activity against antibiotic-susceptible reference strains of Rhodococcus equi and common respiratory bacterial pathogens of foals. Interestingly, eCATH1 was also found to be effective in the treatment of R. equi infection induced in mice. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activity of eCATH1 against equine isolates of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas spp.) and Gram-positive (R. equi, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria resistant to multiple classes of conventional antibiotics. A modified microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antimicrobial peptide. The study revealed that eCATH1 was active against all equine isolates of E. coli, S. enterica, K. pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and R. equi tested, with MICs of 0.5-16 μg mL(-1), but was not active against most isolates of S. aureus. In conclusion, the activity of the equine antimicrobial peptide eCATH1 appears to not be hampered by the antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates. Thus, the data suggest that eCATH1 could be useful, not only in the treatment of R. equi infections, but also of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

  2. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Meinersmann, Richard J; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Englen, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli in relation to plasmid replicon types, animal sources, and genotypes. E. coli isolates (n = 35) from seven different animal sources were selected and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relationships among the E. coli isolates. Plasmid types based on their incompatibility (Inc) replicon types were determined, and linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for antimicrobial resistance profiles, replicon types, and animal source. A high degree of genotypic diversity was observed: 34 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types among the 35 isolates examined. Twelve different plasmid Inc types were detected, and all isolates carried at least one replicon type. IncF (n = 25; 71.4%) and IncFIB (n = 19; 54.3%) were the most common replicon types identified. Chloramphenicol resistance was significantly linked with four Inc types (A/C, FIIA, F, and Y), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was linked with three Inc types (B/O, P and Y). Resistance to any other antimicrobial was linked to two or fewer replicon types. The isolate source was linked with resistance to seven antimicrobials and IncI1. We conclude that commensal E. coli from animal sources are highly variable genotypically and are reservoirs of a diverse array of plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Densities and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from marine waters and beach sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa da Costa; Zampieri, Bruna Del Busso; Ballesteros, Eliete Rodrigues; Pinto, Aline Bartelochi; de Oliveira, Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is a rising problem all over the world. Many studies have showed that beach sands can contain higher concentration of microorganisms and represent a risk to public health. This paper aims to evaluate the densities and resistance to antimicrobials of Escherichia coli strains, isolated from seawater and samples. The hypothesis is that microorganisms show higher densities in contaminated beach sands and more antimicrobial resistance than the water column. Density, distribution, and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria E. coli were evaluate in seawater and sands from two recreational beaches with different levels of pollution. At the beach with higher degree of pollution (Gonzaguinha), water samples presented the highest densities of E. coli; however, higher frequency of resistant strains was observe in wet sand (71.9 %). Resistance to a larger number of antimicrobial groups was observe in water (betalactamics, aminoglycosides, macrolides, rifampicins, and tetracyclines) and sand (betagalactamics and aminoglycosids). In water samples, highest frequencies of resistance were obtain against ampicilin (22.5 %), streptomycin (15.0 %), and rifampicin (15.0 %), while in sand, the highest frequencies were observe in relation to ampicilin (36.25 %) and streptomycin (23.52 %). At the less polluted beach, Ilha Porchat, highest densities of E. coli and higher frequency of resistance were obtain in wet and dry sand (53.7 and 53.8 %, respectively) compared to water (50 %). Antimicrobial resistance in strains isolated from water and sand only occurred against betalactamics (ampicilin and amoxicilin plus clavulanic acid). The frequency and variability of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials in marine recreational waters and sands were related to the degree of fecal contamination in this environment. These results show that water and sands from beaches with a high index of fecal contamination of human origin may be potential sources of contamination by pathogens

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia

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    Godwin P. Kaaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n = 650 were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n = 71 were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%, followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n = 14 were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxa-zole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline, whereas 80.3% (n = 57 were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprim-suflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  5. Insights into novel antimicrobial compounds and antibiotic resistance genes from soil metagenomes

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    Alinne P Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a major worldwide problem has arisen with regard to infectious diseases caused by resistant bacteria. Resistant pathogens are related to high mortality and also to enormous healthcare costs. In this field, cultured microorganisms have been commonly focused in attempts to isolate antibiotic resistance genes or to identify antimicrobial compounds. Although this strategy has been successful in many cases, most of the microbial diversity and related antimicrobial molecules have been completely lost. As an alternative, metagenomics has been used as a reliable approach to reveal the prospective reservoir of antimicrobial compounds and antibiotic resistance genes in the uncultured microbial community that inhabits a number of environments. In this context, this review will focus on resistance genes as well as on novel antibiotics revealed by a metagenomics approach from the soil environment. Biotechnology prospects are also discussed, opening new frontiers for antibiotic development.

  6. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

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    Alan P. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the development and spread of resistance and to this end it has three strategic aims, namely to improve knowledge and understanding of resistance, to conserve and steward the effectiveness of existing treatments and to stimulate the development of new antibiotics, diagnostics and novel therapies. This article reviews the antimicrobial stewardship activities included in the strategy and describes their implementation and evaluation.

  7. Antimicrobial-Resistant Enterococci in Animals and Meat: A Human Health Hazard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, A.M.; Lester, C.H.; Heuer, Ole Eske

    2010-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis belong to the gastrointestinal flora of humans and animals. Although normally regarded harmless commensals, enterococci may cause a range of different infections in humans, including urinary tract infections, sepsis, and endocarditis. The use...... clones predominate in certain animal species. This may suggest that antimicrobial-resistant E. faecium from animals could be regarded less hazardous to humans; however, due to their excellent ability to acquire and transfer resistance genes, E. faecium of animal origin may act as donors of antimicrobial...... resistance genes for other more virulent enterococci. For E. faecalis, the situation appears different, as similar clones of, for example, vancomycin-and gentamicin-resistant E. faecalis have been obtained from animals and from human patients. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance...

  8. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzel, Christina S., E-mail: Christina.Hoelzel@wzw.tum.de [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mueller, Christa [Institute for Agroecology, Organic Farming and Soil Protection, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 12, 85354 Freising (Germany); Harms, Katrin S. [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany); Mikolajewski, Sabine [Department for Quality Assurance and Analytics, Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture (LfL), Lange Point 4, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann [Chair of Animal Hygiene, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephaner Berg 3, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  9. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  10. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Farooqui

    Full Text Available Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  11. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey

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    Balci Iclal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have reported higher rates of antimicrobial resistance among isolates from intensive care units than among isolates from general patient-care areas. The aims of this study were to review the pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey and to summarize rates of antimicrobial resistance in the most common pathogens. The survey was conducted over a period of twelve months in a tertiary-care teaching hospital located in the south-eastern part of Turkey, Gaziantep. A total of 871 clinical specimens from 615 adult patients were collected. From 871 clinical specimens 771 bacterial and fungal isolates were identified. Results Most commonly isolated microorganisms were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.3%, Candida species (15% and Staphylococcus aureus (12.9%. Among the Gram-negative microorganisms P. aeruginosa were mostly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (71.3–98.1%, while Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant in all cases to piperacillin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Isolates of S. aureus were mostly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and methicillin (82–95%, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci were 98.6% resistant to methicillin and in all cases resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion In order to reduce the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in ICUs, monitoring and optimization of antimicrobial use in hospitals are strictly recommended. Therefore local resistance surveillance programs are of most value in developing appropriate therapeutic guidelines for specific infections and patient types.

  12. 77 FR 58143 - Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance (ITFAR): An Update of A Public Health Action...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Resistance (ITFAR): An Update of A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance AGENCY... within the Department of Health and Human Services, announce a public meeting and opening of a docket... outlined in ``A Public Health Action Plan to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance (Action Plan)''. Secondly,...

  13. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from Gulf Corporation Council countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of antimicrobial resistance worldwide is substantial and is likely to grow. Many factors play a role in the emergence of resistance. These resistance mechanisms may be encoded on transferable genes, which facilitate the spread of resistance between bacterial strains of the same and/or different species. Other resistance mechanisms may be due to alterations in the chromosomal DNA which enables the bacteria to withstand the environment and multiply. Many, if not most, of the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC countries do not have clear guidelines for antimicrobial use, and lack policies for restricting and auditing antimicrobial prescriptions. Objective The aim of this study is to review the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in GCC countries and explore the reasons for antibiotic resistance in the region. Methodology The PubMed database was searched using the following key words: antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic stewardship, prevalence, epidemiology, mechanism of resistance, and GCC country (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Results From January1990 through April 2011, there were 45 articles published reviewing antibiotic resistance in the GCC countries. Among all the GCC countries, 37,295 bacterial isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent microorganism was Escherichia coli (10,073/44%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (4,709/20%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4,287/18.7%, MRSA (1,216/5.4%, Acinetobacter (1,061/5%, with C. difficile and Enterococcus representing less than 1%. Conclusion In the last 2 decades, E. coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most prevalent reported microorganisms by GCC countries with resistance data.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in eight US hospitals along the US-Mexico border, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, S R; Ellingson, K D; Waterman, S H; Pearson, M L

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a growing problem worldwide and international travel, cross-border migration, and antimicrobial use may contribute to the introduction or emergence of AR. We examined AR rates and trends along the US-Mexico border by analysing microbiology data from eight US hospitals in three states bordering Mexico. Microbiology data were ascertained for the years 2000-2006 and for select healthcare and community pathogens including, three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) pathogens and 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Resistance was highest in S. aureus (oxacillin resistance 45·7%), P. aeruginosa (quinolone resistance 22·3%), and E. coli (quinolone resistance 15·6%); six (60%) of the 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations studied had a significantly increasing trend in resistance over the study period. Potential contributing factors in the hospital and community such as infection control practices and antimicrobial use (prescription and non-prescription) should be explored further in the US-Mexico border region.

  15. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran

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    Reza Talebiyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%, Erythromycin (71.70%, Oxytetracycline (43.40%, Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%, Enrofloxacin (37.74%, Florfenicol (35.85%, Chlortetracycline (33.96%, Doxycycline (16.98%, Difloxacin (32.08%, Danofloxacin (28.30%, Chloramphenicol (20.75%, Ciprofloxacin (7.55%, and Gentamicin (5.66%. This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances.

  16. The impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on the use of antimicrobials and the evolution of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, A; Tortajada, B; de la Torre, J; Olalla, J; Prada, J L; Fernández, F; Rivas, F; García-Alegría, J; Faus, V; Montiel, N

    2015-02-01

    Misuse of antibiotics can provoke increased bacterial resistance. There are no immediate prospects of any new broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially any with activity against enterobacteria, coming onto the market. Therefore, programmes should be implemented to optimise antimicrobial therapy. In a quasi-experimental study, the results for the pre-intervention year were compared with those for the 3 years following the application of an antimicrobial stewardship programme. We describe 862 interventions carried out as part of the stewardship programme at the Hospital Costa del Sol from 2009 to 2011. We examined the compliance of the empirical antimicrobial treatment with the programme recommendations and the treatment optimisation achieved by reducing the antibiotic spectrum and adjusting the dose, dosing interval and duration of treatment. In addition, we analysed the evolution of the sensitivity profile of the principal microorganisms and the financial savings achieved. 93 % of the treatment recommendations were accepted. The treatment actions taken were to corroborate the empirical treatment (46 % in 2009 and 31 % in 2011) and to reduce the antimicrobial spectrum taking into account the antibiogram results (37 % in 2009 and 58 % in 2011). The main drugs assessed were imipenem/meropenem, used in 38.6 % of the cases, and cefepime (20.1 %). The sensitivity profile of imipenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased by 10 % in 2011. Savings in annual drug spending (direct costs) of 30,000 Euros were obtained. Stewardship programmes are useful tools for optimising antimicrobial therapy. They may contribute to preventing increased bacterial resistance and to reducing the long-term financial cost of antibiotic treatment.

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Chirles A. de França; Peixoto,Rodolfo de M.; Cavalcante,Marielly B.; Melo, Natoniel F. de; Oliveira,Celso José B.; Josir Laine A. Veschi; Mota,Rinaldo A.; Mateus M. Costa

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and to identify molecular resistance markers in Staphylococcus spp. (n=210) isolated from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were evaluated by the disk diffusion test and by detection of the presence of mecA, blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR. The efflux pump test was performed using ethidium bromide and biofilm production was determined by Congo red agar test along with PCR for...

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of Antimicrobial Intrinsic Resistance Determinants in Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin; Leng, Bingfeng; Haaber, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance severely threatens our ability to treat bacterial infections. While acquired resistance has received considerable attention, relatively little is known of intrinsic resistance that allows bacteria to naturally withstand antimicrobials. Gene products......, atpA, atpB, atpG and atpH, reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gentamicin 16-fold. To elucidate the potential of the screen, we examined treatment efficacy in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Gentamicin efficacy was significantly improved, when treating larvae infected...

  19. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...... generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes....

  20. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria were investigated in two large-scale municipal treatment plants during a period of six months. Total and relative numbers of resistant bacteria were determined in raw sewage, treated sewage...... by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter isolates. Based on logistic regression analysis, isolates from treated sewage and digested sludge were generally not significantly more resistant compared with isolates from raw sewage. Based on these evidences, it was concluded that tertiary wastewater...... with a genus-specific DNA probe. Independent of the different antibiotics and media used, the total numbers of resistant bacteria in treated sewage were 10-1000 times lower than in raw sewage. Based on linear regression analysis of data on bacteriological counts, the prevalences of antimicrobial...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium from humans and production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; FrimodtMoller, N.

    1997-01-01

    to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human......: Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, white pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance......We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp, enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent...

  2. Induced bacterial cross-resistance toward host antimicrobial peptides: a worrying phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel eFleitas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, threatening to return to the pre-antibiotic era. Therefore, the search for new antimicrobial compounds that overcome the resistance phenomenon has become a priority. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs appear as one of the most promising antibiotic medicines. However, in recent years several AMP-resistance mechanisms have been described. Moreover, the AMP-resistance phenomenon has become more complex due to its association with cross-resistance toward AMP effectors of the host innate immune system. In this context, the use of AMPs as a therapeutic option could be potentially hazardous, since bacteria could develop resistance toward our innate immune system. Here we review the findings of major studies that deal with the AMP cross-resistance phenomenon.

  3. Proteomics as the final step in the functional metagenomics study of antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona eFouhy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of clinically applied antimicrobial agents are derived from natural products generated by soil microorganisms and therefore resistance is likely to be ubiquitous in such environments. This is supported by the fact that numerous clinically important resistance mechanisms are encoded within the chromosomes of such bacteria. Advances in genomic sequencing have enabled the in silico identification of putative resistance genes present in these microorganisms. However, it is not sufficient to rely on the identification of putative resistance genes, we must also determine if the resultant proteins confer a resistant phenotype. This will require an analysis pipeline that extends from the extraction of environmental DNA, to the identification and analysis of potential resistance genes and their resultant proteins and phenotypes. This review focuses on the application of functional metagenomics and proteomics to study antimicrobial resistance in diverse environments.

  4. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joint Committee on the Prevention of Antimicrobial Resistance: guidelines for the prevention of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaes, D M; Gerding, D N; John, J F; Craig, W A; Bornstein, D L; Duncan, R A; Eckman, M R; Farrer, W E; Greene, W H; Lorian, V; Levy, S; McGowan, J E; Paul, S M; Ruskin, J; Tenover, F C; Watanakunakorn, C

    1997-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance results in increased morbidity, mortality, and costs of health care. Prevention of the emergence of resistance and the dissemination of resistant microorganisms will reduce these adverse effects and their attendant costs. Appropriate antimicrobial stewardship that includes optimal selection, dose, and duration of treatment, as well as control of antibiotic use, will prevent or slow the emergence of resistance among microorganisms. A comprehensively applied infection control program will interdict the dissemination of resistant strains.

  5. Target recognition, resistance, immunity and genome mining of class II bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Borrero, Juan; Opsata, Mona; Birri, Dagim J; Holo, Helge; Cintas, Luis M; Snipen, Lars; Hernández, Pablo E; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-12-01

    Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which these peptides recognize and kill target cells, how producer cells protect themselves from their own bacteriocin (self-immunity) and how target cells may develop resistance. In this review we discuss some important recent progress in these areas for the non-lantibiotic (class II) bacteriocins. We also discuss some examples of how the current wealth of genome sequences provides an invaluable source in the search for novel class II bacteriocins.

  6. Delivering on Antimicrobial Resistance Agenda Not Possible without Improving Fungal Diagnostic Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, David S.; Muldoon, Eavan G.; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance, a major public health concern, largely arises from excess use of antibiotic and antifungal drugs. Lack of routine diagnostic testing for fungal diseases exacerbates the problem of antimicrobial drug empiricism, both antibiotic and antifungal. In support of this contention, we cite 4 common clinical situations that illustrate this problem: 1) inaccurate diagnosis of fungal sepsis in hospitals and intensive care units, resulting in inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis; 2) failure to diagnose chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis; 3) misdiagnosis of fungal asthma, resulting in unnecessary treatment with antibacterial drugs instead of antifungal drugs and missed diagnoses of life-threatening invasive aspergillosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and 4) overtreatment and undertreatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients. All communities should have access to nonculture fungal diagnostics, which can substantially benefit clinical outcome, antimicrobial stewardship, and control of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27997332

  7. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Burkholderia gladioli OR1 against clinical drug resistant isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Pratibha; Anand, Vivek; Chander, Jagdish; Singh, Inder Pal; Singh, Tej Vir; Tewari, Rupinder

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Drug resistant microbes are a serious challenge to human health. During the search for novel antibiotics/inhibitors from the agricultural soil, a bacterial colony was found to inhibit the growth of clinical isolates including Staphylococcus (resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, clinafloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin and methicillin) and Candida (resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole). The culture was identified as Burkholderia gladioli and produced at least five different antimicrobial compounds which were highly stable at high temperature (121°C) and in the broad pH range (3.0-11.0). We report here the antimicrobial activity of B. gladioli against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Methods: The bacterial culture was identified using morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. The antimicrobial activity of the identified organism against a range of microbial pathogens was checked by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial compounds in the cell free supernatant were chloroform-extracted and separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results: B. gladioli OR1 exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against drug resistant clinical isolates belonging to various genera of bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter and Citrobacter) and a fungus (Candida). Based on TLC profile and bioautography studies, the chloroform extract of B. gladioli OR1 consisted of at least three anti-staphylococcal and two anti-Candida metabolites. The antimicrobial activity was heat stable (121°C/20 min) as well as pH stable (3.0-11.0). Interpretation & conclusions: The bacterial soil isolate, B. gladioli OR1 possessed the ability to kill various drug resistant bacteria and a fungus. This organism produced many antimicrobial metabolites which might have the potential to be used as antibiotics in future. PMID:22771597

  8. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination across Plasmid Communities Classified by Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akifumi Yamashita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The global clustering of gene families through network analysis has been demonstrated in whole genome, plasmid, and microbiome analyses. In this study, we carried out a plasmidome network analysis of all available complete bacterial plasmids to determine plasmid associations. A blastp clustering search at 100% aa identity cut-off and sharing at least one gene between plasmids, followed by a multilevel community network analysis revealed that a surprisingly large number of the plasmids were connected by one largest connected component (LCC, with dozens of community sub-groupings. The LCC consisted mainly of Bacilli and Gammaproteobacteria plasmids. Intriguingly, horizontal gene transfer (HGT was noted between different phyla (i.e., Staphylococcus and Pasteurellaceae, suggesting that Pasteurellaceae can acquire antimicrobial resistance (AMR genes from closely contacting Staphylococcus spp., which produce the external supplement of V-factor (NAD. Such community network analysis facilitate displaying possible recent HGTs like a class 1 integron, str and tet resistance markers between communities. Furthermore, the distribution of the Inc replicon type and AMR genes, such as the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL CTX-M or the carbapenemases KPC NDM-1, implies that such genes generally circulate within limited communities belonging to typical bacterial genera. Thus, plasmidome network analysis provides a remarkable discriminatory power for plasmid-related HGT and evolution.

  9. Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug–Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Mahon, Barbara E.; Judd, Michael; Folster, Jason; Griffin, Patricia M.; Hoekstra, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella infections are a major cause of illness in the United States. The antimicrobial agents used to treat severe infections include ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin. Antimicrobial drug resistance has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. To estimate the incidence of resistant culture-confirmed nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, we used Bayesian hierarchical models of 2004–2012 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System and Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance. We based 3 mutually exclusive resistance categories on susceptibility testing: ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistant, ciprofloxacin nonsusceptible but ceftriaxone susceptible, and ampicillin resistant but ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin susceptible. We estimated the overall incidence of resistant infections as 1.07/100,000 person-years for ampicillin-only resistance, 0.51/100,000 person-years for ceftriaxone and ampicillin resistance, and 0.35/100,000 person-years for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility, or ≈6,200 resistant culture-confirmed infections annually. These national estimates help define the magnitude of the resistance problem so that control measures can be appropriately targeted. PMID:27983506

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated from Dressed Beef Carcasses and Raw Milk in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P; Kassem, Issmat I; John, Julius; Kessy, Beda M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are commonly transmitted to humans through consumption of contaminated foods such as milk and meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic determinants of resistance of Campylobacter isolated from raw milk and beef carcasses in Tanzania. The antimicrobial resistance genes tested included blaOXA-61 (ampicillin), aph-3-1 (aminoglycoside), tet(O) (tetracycline), and cmeB (multi-drug efflux pump). The prevalence of Campylobacter was 9.5% in beef carcasses and 13.4% in raw milk, respectively. Using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we identified 58.1% of the isolates as Campylobacter jejuni, 30.7% as Campylobacter coli, and 9.7% as other Campylobacter spp. One isolate (1.6%) was positive for both C. jejuni and C. coli specific PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method showed resistance to: ampicillin (63% and 94.1%), ciprofloxacin (9.3% and 11.8%), erythromycin (53.7% and 70.6%), gentamicin (0% and 15.7%), streptomycin (35.2% and 84.3%), and tetracycline (18.5% and 17.7%), respectively. Resistance to azithromycin (42.6%), nalidixic acid (64.8%), and chloramphenicol (13%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (90.2%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. The blaOXA-61 (52.6% and 28.1%), cmeB (26.3% and 31.3%), tet(O) (26.3% and 31.3%), and aph-3-1 (5.3% and 3.0%) were detected in C. coli and C. jejuni. These findings highlight the extent of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter occurring in important foods in Tanzania. The potential risks to consumers emphasize the need for adequate control approaches, including the prudent use of antimicrobials to minimize the spread of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter.

  11. Bacterial flora and antimicrobial resistance in raw frozen cultured seafood imported to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi M; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Guardabassi, Luca; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Intensified aquaculture includes the use of antimicrobials for disease control. In contrast to the situation in livestock, Escherichia coli and enterococci are not part of the normal gastrointestinal flora of fish and shrimp and therefore not suitable indicators of antimicrobial resistance in seafood. In this study, the diversity and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial flora in raw frozen cultured and wild-caught shrimp and fish were evaluated to identify potential indicators of antimicrobial resistance. The bacterial flora cultured on various agar media at different temperatures yielded total viable counts of 4.0 × 10(4) to 3.0 × 10(5) CFU g(-1). Bacterial diversity was indicated by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 84 isolates representing different colony types; 24 genera and 51 species were identified. Pseudomonas spp. (23% of isolates), Psychrobacter spp. (17%), Serratia spp. (13%), Exiguobacterium spp. (7%), Staphylococcus spp. (6%), and Micrococcus spp. (6%) dominated. Disk susceptibility testing of 39 bacterial isolates to 11 antimicrobials revealed resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, and third generation cephalosporins. Resistance to third generation cephalosporins was found in Pseudomonas, a genus naturally resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, and in Staphylococcus hominis. Half of the isolates were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. Results indicate that identification of a single bacterial resistance indicator naturally present in seafood at point of harvest is unlikely. The bacterial flora found likely represents a processing rather than a raw fish flora because of repeated exposure of raw material to water during processing. Methods and appropriate indicators, such as quantitative PCR of resistance genes, are needed to determine how antimicrobials used in aquaculture affect resistance of bacteria in retailed products.

  12. New antimicrobial contact catalyst killing antibiotic resistant clinical and waterborne pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guridi, A. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Diederich, A.-K. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Aguila-Arcos, S.; Garcia-Moreno, M. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Blasi, R.; Broszat, M. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schmieder, W.; Clauss-Lendzian, E. [Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Sakinc-Gueler, T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Andrade, R. [Advanced Research Facilities (SGIker), University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Alkorta, I. [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Meyer, C.; Landau, U. [Largentec GmbH, Am Waldhaus 32, 14129 Berlin (Germany); Grohmann, E., E-mail: elisabeth.grohmann@googlemail.com [Biophysics Unit (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country, 48940 Leioa (Spain); University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Infectious Diseases, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Biology II, Microbiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Schänzlestrasse 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Microbial growth on medical and technical devices is a big health issue, particularly when microorganisms aggregate to form biofilms. Moreover, the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the clinical environment is dramatically growing, making treatment of bacterial infections very challenging. In search of an alternative, we studied a novel antimicrobial surface coating based on micro galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium with surface catalytic properties. The antimicrobial coating efficiently inhibited the growth of the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium as demonstrated by the growth inhibition on agar surface and in biofilms of antibiotic resistant clinical E. faecalis, E. faecium, and S. aureus isolates. It also strongly reduced the growth of Legionella in a drinking water pipeline and of Escherichia coli in urine. We postulate a mode of action of the antimicrobial material, which is independent of the release of silver ions. Thus, the novel antimicrobial coating could represent an alternative to combat microbial growth avoiding the toxic side effects of high levels of silver ions on eukaryotic cells. - Highlights: • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of clinical staphylococci and enterococci. • The novel antimicrobial inhibits growth of Legionella in drinking water. • A putative mode of action of the antimicrobial coating is presented.

  13. The epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera cases in Iran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Masoumi Asl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cholera is an endemic diarrheal disease in Iran, caused by Vibrio Cholerae. The epidemiology, transmission route, environmental determinants and antimicrobial resistant pattern of cholera have been changed during recent years. In this study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of cholera in Iran during 2013 outbreak was investigated.Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out using cholera national surveillance system collected data in 2013. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done on 60 Vibrio cholerae isolates, serotype Inaba.Results: During July to November 2013, 256 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed by stool culture. Two hundred and eleven out of 256 (83% cases were imported from Afghanistan and Pakistan. The prevalent age group was 16-30 years old, 90% were male, 98.8% affected by Inaba serotype and case fatality rate was 2.7%. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 60 V. cholerae, serotype Inaba showed that all isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, tetracyclin and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole and intermediate resistance to erythromycin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and ampicillin.Conclusion: Migrants from neighboring countries played a key role in cholera outbreak in Iran during 2013. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing on 60 V. cholerae, serotype Inaba showed an increasing resistance rate in comparison with previous years. 

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; González-Barrio, D; Tenorio, Carmen; Ruiz-Fons, F; Torres, C

    2016-04-01

    Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST224, which seems to be well adapted to both clinical and environmental settings. The phylogenetic distribution of the 89 strains varied depending on the animal host. This work reveals low antimicrobial resistance levels among faecal E. coli from wild mammals, which reflects a lower selective pressure affecting these bacteria, compared to livestock. However, it is remarkable the detection of a multi-resistant ESBL-E. coli with an integron carrying clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, which can contribute to the dissemination of resistance determinants among different ecosystems.

  15. Identification of pyruvate kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a novel antimicrobial drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoraghi, Roya; See, Raymond H; Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Kumar, Nag S; Gong, Huansheng; Moreau, Anne; Hsing, Michael; Kaur, Sukhbir; Swayze, Richard D; Worrall, Liam; Amandoron, Emily; Lian, Tian; Jackson, Linda; Jiang, Jihong; Thorson, Lisa; Labriere, Christophe; Foster, Leonard; Brunham, Robert C; McMaster, William R; Finlay, B Brett; Strynadka, Natalie C; Cherkasov, Artem; Young, Robert N; Reiner, Neil E

    2011-05-01

    Novel classes of antimicrobials are needed to address the challenge of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using the architecture of the MRSA interactome, we identified pyruvate kinase (PK) as a potential novel drug target based upon it being a highly connected, essential hub in the MRSA interactome. Structural modeling, including X-ray crystallography, revealed discrete features of PK in MRSA, which appeared suitable for the selective targeting of the bacterial enzyme. In silico library screening combined with functional enzymatic assays identified an acyl hydrazone-based compound (IS-130) as a potent MRSA PK inhibitor (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 0.1 μM) with >1,000-fold selectivity over human PK isoforms. Medicinal chemistry around the IS-130 scaffold identified analogs that more potently and selectively inhibited MRSA PK enzymatic activity and S. aureus growth in vitro (MIC of 1 to 5 μg/ml). These novel anti-PK compounds were found to possess antistaphylococcal activity, including both MRSA and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) strains. These compounds also exhibited exceptional antibacterial activities against other Gram-positive genera, including enterococci and streptococci. PK lead compounds were found to be noncompetitive inhibitors and were bactericidal. In addition, mutants with significant increases in MICs were not isolated after 25 bacterial passages in culture, indicating that resistance may be slow to emerge. These findings validate the principles of network science as a powerful approach to identify novel antibacterial drug targets. They also provide a proof of principle, based upon PK in MRSA, for a research platform aimed at discovering and optimizing selective inhibitors of novel bacterial targets where human orthologs exist, as leads for anti-infective drug development.

  16. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolaia, V; Espinosa-Gongora, C; Guardabassi, L

    2016-02-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis lineages such as sequence type ST16. Enterococcus faecium lineages occurring in poultry meat products are distantly related to those causing hospital-acquired infections but may act as donors of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance and other resistance determinants of clinical interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin-producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities.

  17. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from national horse racetracks and private horse-riding courses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Song, Jae Won; Kim, Dae Ho; Shin, Sook; Park, Young Kyung; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Suk Kyung; Park, Kun Taek; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-06-30

    Limited information is available regarding horse-associated antimicrobial resistant (AR) Escherichia (E.) coli. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and characterize the pattern of AR E. coli from healthy horse-associated samples. A total of 143 E. coli (4.6%) were isolated from 3,078 samples collected from three national racetracks and 14 private horse-riding courses in Korea. Thirty of the E. coli isolates (21%) showed antimicrobial resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, and four of the AR E. coli (13.3%) were defined as multi-drug resistance. Most of the AR E. coli harbored AR genes corresponding to their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Four of the AR E. coli carried class 1 integrase gene (intI1), a gene associated with multi-drug resistance. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic analysis showed no genetic relatedness among AR E. coli isolated from different facilities; however, cross-transmissions between horses or horses and environments were detected in two facilities. Although cross-transmission of AR E. coli in horses and their environments was generally low, our study suggests a risk of transmission of AR bacteria between horses and humans. Further studies are needed to evaluate the risk of possible transmission of horse-associated AR bacteria to human communities through horse riders and horse-care workers.

  18. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Ng, J C; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2014-12-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Manure Application in Commercial Swine Farms on the Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Salmonella in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Land application of swine manure in commercial hog farms is an integral part of their waste management system which recycles the nutrients back to the soil. However, manure application can lead to the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in the environment and pose a serious public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in the environment due to manure application in commercial swine farms in North Carolina (n = 6) and Iowa (n = 7), two leading pork producing states in the US. We collected manure and soil samples twice on day 0 (before and after manure application) from four distinct plots of lands (5 soil samples/plot) located at 20 feet away from each other in the field. Subsequent soil samples were collected again on days 7, 14, 21 from the same plots. A total of 1,300 soil samples (NC = 600; IA = 700) and 130 manure samples (NC = 60; IA = 70) were collected and analyzed in this study. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 13.22% (189/1,430), represented by 10.69% and 38.46% prevalence in soil and manure, respectively. The prevalence in NC (25.45%) was significantly higher than in IA (2.73%) (PSalmonella prevalence was detected from Day 0-Day 21 in all the farms that tested positive. Salmonella serotypes detected in NC were not detected in IA, thereby highlighting serotype association based on manure storage and soil application method used in the two regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the broth microdilution method to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. A high frequency of isolates (58.73%) were multidrug resistant (resistance to three or more class of antimicrobials) and the most frequent resistance was detected against streptomycin (88.36%), sulfisoxazole (67.2%), and tetracycline (57.67%). Genotypic characterization by pulse field gel electrophoresis revealed clonally related Salmonella in both manure and soil at multiple time points in the positive farms. Our study

  1. Molecular characterisation of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii during 2014 and 2015 collected across India

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    A K Pragasam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is of great importance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are important pathogens and emergence of resistance in these have increased the morbidity and mortality rates. This surveillance study was initiated by the Government of India - Indian Council of Medical Research. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and to characterise the enzyme mediated antimicrobial resistance such as extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs and carbapenemases among multidrug-resistant (MDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Materials and Methods: A multi-centric study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015 with a total number of 240 MDR P. aeruginosa and 312 MDR A. baumannii isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, respiratory, pus, urine and intra-abdominal infections. Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion was done to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Further, MDR isolates were characterised by multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine the resistance genes for ESBLs and carbapenemases. Results: Among the ESBLs, blaVEB (23%, blaTEM (5% and blaSHV (0.4% in P. aeruginosa and blaPER (54%, blaTEM (16% and blaSHV (1% in A. baumannii were the most prevalent. Likewise, blaVIM (37%, blaNDM (14%, blaGES (8% and blaIMP (2% in P. aeruginosa and blaOXA-23like (98%, blaOXA-58like (2%, blaNDM (22% and blaVIM (3% in A. baumannii were found to be the most prevalent carbapenemases. blaOXA-51like gene, intrinsic to A. baumannii was present in all the isolates tested. Conclusion: The data shown highlight the wide difference in the molecular mechanisms of AMR profile between P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. In P. aeruginosa, plasmid-mediated mechanisms are much lesser than the chromosomal mediated mechanisms. In A. baumannii, class D oxacillinases are more common than other mechanisms. Continuous surveillance to monitor the trends in AMR among MDR

  2. A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eCassir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of hospital- and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens is limiting the options for effective antibiotic therapy. Moreover, this alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of novel antimicrobials. Resistance to the scarce new antibiotics is also emerging. In this context, the rational use of older antibiotics could represent an alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. This strategy would help to optimize the armamentarium of antibiotics so as to preserve the effectiveness of new antibiotics and avoid the prescription of drugs known to favor the spread of resistance (i.e., quinolones. Furthermore, from a global economic perspective, this strategy could be useful in public health, given that several of these cheapest forgotten antibiotics are not available in many countries. We will review here the successful treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections with old antibiotics and discuss their place in current practice.

  3. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates from meat and humans, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Aabo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from hum...... humans showed resistance rates lower than those found in imported meat but higher than in domestic meat. These findings indicate that programs for controlling resistant Salmonella spp. are a global issue.......We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from...

  4. Antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates from meat and humans, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Aabo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from hum...... humans showed resistance rates lower than those found in imported meat but higher than in domestic meat. These findings indicate that programs for controlling resistant Salmonella spp. are a global issue......We compared 8,144 Salmonella isolates collected from meat imported to or produced in Denmark, as well as from Danish patients. Isolates from imported meat showed a higher rate of antimicrobial drug resistance, including multidrug resistance, than did isolates from domestic meat. Isolates from...

  5. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting...... ribotypes were almost exclusively isolated from pigs with meningitis, while strains of the other dominant ribotype were never associated with meningitis. This second ribotype was isolated only from pigs with pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, or septicemia. Cluster analysis revealed that strains...... of resistance to antibiotics because strains isolated from pigs with meningitis were resistant to sulfamethazoxazole and strains isolated from pigs with pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, or septicemia were resist-ant to tetracycline....

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Sequence Typing for Antimicrobial Resistance (NG-STAR): a novel antimicrobial resistance multilocus typing scheme for tracking the global dissemination of N. gonorrhoeae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demczuk, W; Sidhu, S; Unemo, M; Whiley, D M; Allen, V G; Dillon, J R; Cole, M; Seah, C; Trembizki, E; Trees, D L; Kersh, E N; Abrams, A J; de Vries, H J C; van Dam, A P; Medina, I; Bharat, A; Mulvey, M R; Van Domselaar, G; Martin, I

    2017-02-22

    A curated web-based user-friendly sequence typing tool based on antimicrobial resistance determinants in Neisseria gonorrhoeae was developed and is publicly accessible at https://ngstar.canada.ca The N. gonorrhoeae Sequence Typing for Antimicrobial Resistance (NG-STAR) molecular typing scheme uses the DNA sequences of 7 genes (penA, mtrR, porB, ponA, gyrA, parC, 23S rRNA) associated with resistance to β-lactam antimicrobials, macrolides, or fluoroquinolones. NG-STAR uses the entire penA sequence combining the historical nomenclature for penA types I-XXXVIII with novel nucleotide sequence designations; the full mtrR sequence and a portion of its promoter region; portions of ponA, porB, gyrA and parC; and 23S rRNA sequences. NG-STAR grouped 768 isolates into 139 sequence types (STs) (n=660) consisting of 29 CCs having a maximum of a single locus variation; and 76 NG-STAR STs (n=109) were identified as unrelated singletons. NG-STAR had a high Simpson's diversity index of 96.5% (CI 95%=0.959-0.969). The most common STs were NG-STAR: ST-90 (n=100, 13.0%), ST-42 and ST-91 (n=45, 5.9%), ST-64 (n=44, 5.72%), and ST-139 (n=42, 5.5%). Decreased susceptibility to azithromycin was associated with NG-STAR ST-58, ST-61, ST-64, ST-79, ST-91 and ST-139(n=156, 92.3%); decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins with NG-STAR ST-90, ST-91 and ST-97 (n=162, 94.2%); and ciprofloxacin resistance with NG-STAR ST-26, ST-90, ST-91, ST-97, ST-150 and ST-158 (n=196, 98.0%). All isolates of NG-STAR ST-42, ST-43, ST-63, ST-81, and ST-160 (n=106) were susceptible to all four antimicrobials. The standardization of nomenclature associated with antimicrobial resistance determinants through an internationally available database will facilitate the monitoring of the global dissemination of antimicrobial resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains.

  7. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M; Phu, Tran Minh; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be strengthened

  8. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Md Noor Uddin

    Full Text Available Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and associated transferable resistance genes. The bacterial species was established by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 125 representative bacterial isolates. MIC testing was done for a range of antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing of six multiple antimicrobial resistant Bacillus spp. used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have missed a few bacterial species present in the tested products this would represent minor bias, but future studies may apply culture independent identification methods like pyro sequencing. Only 6/60 isolates were resistant to more than four antimicrobials and whole genome sequencing showed that they contained macrolide (ermD, tetracycline (tetL, phenicol (fexA and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers of resistance genes compared to the naturally occurring bacterial species in aquaculture environments. Approval procedures of probiotic products must be

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in equine faecal Escherichia coli isolates from North West England

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    Williams Nicola J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli isolates of equine faecal origin were investigated for antibiotic resistance, resistance genes and their ability to perform horizontal transfer. Methods In total, 264 faecal samples were collected from 138 horses in hospital and community livery premises in northwest England, yielding 296 resistant E. coli isolates. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods in order to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC. PCR amplification was used to detect genes conferring resistance to: ampicillin (TEM and SHV beta-lactamase, chloramphenicol (catI, catII, catIII and cml, tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tet E and tetG, and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA9, dfrA12, dfrA13, dfr7, and dfr17. Results The proportion of antibiotic resistant isolates, and multidrug resistant isolates (MDR was significantly higher in hospital samples compared to livery samples (MDR: 48% of hospital isolates; 12% of livery isolates, p dfr, TEM beta-lactamase, tet and cat, conferring resistance to trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, respectively. Within each antimicrobial resistance group, these genes occurred at frequencies of 93% (260/279, 91%, 86.8% and 73.5%, respectively; with 115/296 (38.8% found to be MDR isolates. Conjugation experiments were performed on selected isolates and MDR phenotypes were readily transferred. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that E. coli of equine faecal origin are commonly resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Furthermore, our results suggest that most antibiotic resistance observed in equine E. coli is encoded by well-known and well-characterized resistant genes common to E. coli from man and domestic animals. These data support the ongoing concern about antimicrobial resistance, MDR, antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine and the zoonotic risk that horses could potentially pose to

  10. Impact of integrated fish farming on antimicrobial resistance in a pond environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Kaewmak, T.;

    2002-01-01

    investigated the impact of integrated fish farming on the levels of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a pond environment. One integrated broiler chicken-fish farm was studied for 2 months immediately after the start of a new fish production cycle. A significant increase over time in the resistance to six......-resistant bacteria from animal manure. Potential risks to human health were not addressed in this study and remain to be elucidated....

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus species isolated from Lebanese dairy-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhairi, O; Saleh, I; Alwan, N; Toufeili, I; Barbour, E; Harakeh, S

    2012-12-04

    The study evaluated the antimicrobial resistance of molecularly characterized strains of Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus isolated from 3 Lebanese dairy-based food products that are sometimes consumed raw: kishk, shanklish and baladi cheese. Suspected Staphylococcus isolates were identified initially using standard biochemical tests, then strains that were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (29 S. aureus and 17 S. saprophyticus) were evaluated for their susceptibility to different antimicrobials. The highest levels of contamination with staphylococci were in baladi cheese. Resistance rates ranged from 67% to gentamicin to 94% to oxacillin and clindamycin. The results suggest that these locally made dairy-based foods may act as vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus spp.

  12. Enumeration and characterization of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in effluent from municipal, hospital, and secondary treatment facility sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Sandra; Boyle, Fiona; Hickey, Paul; Vellinga, Akke; Morris, Dearbháile; Cormican, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We describe a modification of the most probable number (MPN) method for rapid enumeration of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in aqueous environmental samples. E. coli (total and antimicrobial-resistant) bacteria were enumerated in effluent samples from a hospital (n = 17) and municipal sewers upstream (n = 5) and downstream (n = 5) from the hospital, effluent samples from throughout the treatment process (n = 4), and treated effluent samples (n = 13). Effluent downstream from the hospital contained a higher proportion of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli than that upstream from the hospital. Wastewater treatment reduced the numbers of E. coli bacteria (total and antimicrobial resistant); however, antimicrobial-resistant E. coli was not eliminated, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime (including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase [ESBL] producers), ciprofloxacin, and cefoxitin was present in treated effluent samples.

  13. The Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance in Respiratory Pathogens in Canada: What are the Clinical Consequences?

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    Donald E Low

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents has led to reductions in illnesses and deaths from a variety of infectious diseases. Antimicrobial resistance has followed the introduction of almost every new antimicrobial agent and is now emerging as an important public health problem, especially in respiratory tract pathogens in the community. During the past decade in Canada, a rapid and relentless increase in antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus inflluenzae has been witnessed. Adverse implications as a result of the treatment of an infection with an antibiotic to which the offending pathogen is resistant have been recognized in only a few infectious disease syndromes (eg. bacterial meningitis. More often, resistance in vitro does not result in resistance in vivo (eg, respiratory tract infections. Therefore, before recommendations regarding empirical or directed therapy are changed, it is essential that evidence to support those decisions is obtained. More important, the prevention and control of such resistance must be addressed by reducing the burden of antibiotic selective pressure by curtailing inappropriate antibiotic use.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence determinants and genetic profiles of clinical and nonclinical Enterococcus cecorum from poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C R; Kariyawasam, S; Borst, L B; Frye, J G; Barrett, J B; Hiott, L M; Woodley, T A

    2015-02-01

    Enterococcus cecorum has been implicated as a possible cause of disease in poultry. However, the characteristics that contribute to pathogenesis of Ent. cecorum in poultry have not been defined. In this study, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (n = 75) and diseased broilers and broiler breeders (n = 30) were compared based upon antimicrobial resistance phenotype, the presence of virulence determinants and genetic relatedness using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of the 16 antimicrobials tested, Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates and clinical cases were resistant to ten and six of the antimicrobials, respectively. The majority of Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates was resistant to lincomycin (54/75; 72%) and tetracycline (46/75; 61.3%) while the highest level of resistance among clinical Ent. cecorum was to tetracycline (22/30; 73.3%) and erythromycin (11/30; 36.7%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥2 antimicrobials) was identified in Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates (53/75; 70.7%) and diseased poultry (18/30; 60%). Of the virulence determinants tested, efaAfm was present in almost all of the isolates (104/105; 99%). Using PFGE, the majority of clinical isolates clustered together; however, a few clinical isolates grouped with Ent. cecorum from carcass rinsates. These data suggest that distinguishing the two groups of isolates is difficult based upon the characterization criteria used.

  15. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  16. Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Madoroba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23 and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400, carcass sponges (n = 100, intestinal contents (n = 62, hides (n = 67, and water from the abattoirs (n = 75 were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81. Eleven faecal samples (2.75% tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%, which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving

  17. Antimicrobial resistance predicts death in Tanzanian children with bloodstream infections: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Viola

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloodstream infection is a common cause of hospitalization, morbidity and death in children. The impact of antimicrobial resistance and HIV infection on outcome is not firmly established. Methods We assessed the incidence of bloodstream infection and risk factors for fatal outcome in a prospective cohort study of 1828 consecutive admissions of children aged zero to seven years with signs of systemic infection. Blood was obtained for culture, malaria microscopy, HIV antibody test and, when necessary, HIV PCR. We recorded data on clinical features, underlying diseases, antimicrobial drug use and patients' outcome. Results The incidence of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection was 13.9% (255/1828 of admissions, despite two thirds of the study population having received antimicrobial therapy prior to blood culture. The most frequent isolates were klebsiella, salmonellae, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 21.6% had malaria and 16.8% HIV infection. One third (34.9% of the children with laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection died. The mortality rate from Gram-negative bloodstream infection (43.5% was more than double that of malaria (20.2% and Gram-positive bloodstream infection (16.7%. Significant risk factors for death by logistic regression modeling were inappropriate treatment due to antimicrobial resistance, HIV infection, other underlying infectious diseases, malnutrition and bloodstream infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae, other Gram-negatives and candida. Conclusion Bloodstream infection was less common than malaria, but caused more deaths. The frequent use of antimicrobials prior to blood culture may have hampered the detection of organisms susceptible to commonly used antimicrobials, including pneumococci, and thus the study probably underestimates the incidence of bloodstream infection. The finding that antimicrobial resistance, HIV-infection and malnutrition predict fatal

  18. Update on Acinetobacter species: mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and contemporary in vitro activity of minocycline and other treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-12-01

    Among Acinetobacter species, A. baumannii and other closely related species are commonly implicated in nosocomial infections. These organisms are usually multidrug resistant (MDR), and therapeutic options to treat A. baumannii infections are very limited. Clinicians have been resorting to older antimicrobial agents to treat infections caused by MDR A. baumannii, and some of these agents have documented toxicity and/or are not optimized for the infection type to be treated. Recent clinical experience supported by antimicrobial susceptibility data suggests that minocycline has greater activity than other tetracyclines and glycylcyclines against various MDR pathogens that have limited therapeutic options available, including Acinetobacter species. An intravenous formulation of minocycline has recently become available for clinical use, and in contrast to most older tetracyclines, minocycline has high activity against Acinetobacter species. In this report, we summarized some of the characteristics of the tetracycline class, and quantified the minocycline activity against contemporary (2007-2011) isolates and its potential therapeutic role against a collection of 5477 A. baumannii and other relevant gram-negative organisms when compared directly with tetracycline, doxycycline, and other broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. Acinetobacter baumannii strains were highly resistant to all agents tested, with the exception of minocycline (79.1% susceptible) and colistin (98.8% susceptible). Minocycline (minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits 50% and 90% of the isolates [MIC(50/90)]: 1/8 µg/mL) displayed greater activity than doxycycline (MIC(50/90): 2/>8 µg/mL) and tetracycline hydrochloride (HCL) (only 30.2% susceptible) against A. baumannii isolates, and was significantly more active than other tetracyclines against Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates. In vitro susceptibility testing using

  19. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG. Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs. Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR as 1 of the 3 greatest threats to global health. Until now, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have been observed in hospital-acquired infections. In India, within a span of three years, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase prevalence has risen from three percent in hospitals to twenty- fifty percent and is found to be colistin resistant as well. Routine use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobial production to promote growth and prophylaxis. This has consequences to human health and environmental contamination with a profound impact on the environmental microbiome, resulting in resistance. Antibiotic development is now considered a global health crisis. The average time required to receive regulatory approval is 7.2 years. Moreover, the clinical approval success is only 16%. To overcome resistance in antimicrobials, intersectoral partnerships among medical, veterinary, and environmental disciplines, with specific epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches are needed. Joint efforts under “One Health”, beyond individual professional boundaries are required to stop antimicrobial resistance against zoonoses (EID and reach the MDG.

  20. Resistance of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms to antimicrobial agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Fiehn, N E

    1996-01-01

    of Streptococcus sanguis 804 and ATCC 10556 to amoxicillin, doxycycline and chlorhexidine was determined by a broth dilution method. Subsequently, S. sanguis biofilms established in an in vitro flow model were perfused with the antimicrobial agents for 48 h at concentrations equal to and up to 500 times the MIC...

  1. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESIDUES AND RESISTANCE IN SWINE IN ABA ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. NWIYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are used by livestock farmers to prevent and control infection. Antimicrobials are also included at sub-therapeutic doses in animal feed as growth promoters and to improve feed efficiency in intensive farming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial residues and resistance that could arise due to antimicrobial use in swine. The study was carried out between September 10th and December 10th 2013 in some selected swine farms in Ogbor Hill water side in Aba, Abia state. The study involved visiting the various farms, evaluating the records of previous treatment. Also the state zonal veterinary clinics visited and record of farms was collected for analysis. From the result obtained, in raining season in a given year, the frequency of tetracycline usage recorded 83.3%, penicillin recorded 75.0%, while sulfonamide recorded 25.0%. Tylosin and ivermox were the least and recorded 8.4% usage each. The swine treatment was done by the farmers hence there was consistent over-dosage of antimicrobials to the pigs as the manufacture’s guide was not complied with. The report from the records showed that some of the pigs were slaughtered and sold in the market at any time without recourse to drug with-draw. This result could be one of the responsible reasons for antimicrobial residues and resistance in swine and indeed livestock.

  2. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2015-01-01

    High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent...... protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma...... concentration profiles of tetracycline. All dosing regimens result in a clear growth advantage for resistant strains. Short treatment duration was found to be preferable, since it allowed less time for resistant strains to outcompete the susceptible ones. Dosing frequency appeared to be ineffective at reducing...

  3. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from diagnostic samples from dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene;

    2007-01-01

    Stat, a national database for reporting antimicrobial prescriptions. Results: The majority of the antimicrobials prescribed for dogs were broad-spectrum compounds, and extended-spectrum penicillins, cephalosporins and sulphonamides 1 trimethoprim together accounted for 81% of the total amount used for companion...... animals. Resistance to cephalosporins and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid was very low for all bacterial species examined, except for P. aeruginosa, and resistance to sulphonamides and trimethoprim was low for most species. Among the S. intermedius isolates, 60.2% were resistant to penicillin, 30.......2% to fusidic acid and 27.9% to macrolides. Among E. coli isolates, the highest level of resistance was recorded for ampicillin, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines and streptomycin. Certain differences in resistance patterns between isolates from different sites or organs were noticed for E. coli, S...

  4. [Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains isolated from dog clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo, Germán B; Giacoboni, Gabriela I; Gagetti, Paula S; Pasterán, Fernando G; Corso, Alejandra C

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight strains isolated from dog clinical samples identified as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) were studied to assess antimicrobial susceptibility by the diffusion method and clonal relationship by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Methicillin resistance (3/28 isolates; 10,7%) was evaluated by mecA PCR. Fifteen strains (53.6%) were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested, and eleven of them (39.3%) showed multiple resistance (3 or more antimicrobial families). Eleven isolates (39.3%) were resistant to erythromycin due to the presence of ribosomal methylase ermB, whereas clindamycin inducible resistance was not detected. Twenty-seven (27) clonal types were differentiated by PFGE, suggesting high clonal diversity. We emphasize that the finding of multiresistant S. psedintermedius strains is an emerging problem to be considered in veterinary diagnostic laboratory treatment of canine infections and in public health settings.

  5. Understanding the contribution of environmental factors in the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie

    2015-07-01

    The overuse and abuse of antibiotics have contributed to the global epidemic of antibiotic resistance. Current evidence suggests that widespread dependency on antibiotics and complex interactions between human health, animal husbandry and veterinary medicine, have contributed to the propagation and spread of resistant organisms. The lack of information on pathogens of major public health importance, limited surveillance, and paucity of standards for a harmonised and coordinated approach, further complicates the issue. Despite the widespread nature of antimicrobial resistance, limited focus has been placed on the role of environmental factors in propagating resistance. There are limited studies that examine the role of the environment, specifically water, sanitation and hygiene factors that contribute to the development of resistant pathogens. Understanding these elements is necessary to identify any modifiable interactions to reduce or interrupt the spread of resistance from the environment into clinical settings. This paper discusses some environmental issues that contribute to antimicrobial resistance, including soil related factors, animal husbandry and waste management, potable and wastewater, and food safety, with examples drawn mainly from the Asian region. The discussion concludes that some of the common issues are often overlooked and whilst there are numerous opportunities for environmental factors to contribute to the growing burden of antimicrobial resistance, a renewed focus on innovative and traditional environmental approaches is needed to tackle the problem.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori in times of increasing antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sinéad M; O'Morain, Colm; McNamara, Deirdre

    2014-08-07

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Treatment is recommended in all symptomatic patients. The current treatment options for H. pylori infection are outlined in this review in light of the recent challenges in eradication success, largely due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance is a constantly evolving process and numerous studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori antibiotic resistance varies significantly from country to country, and even between regions within the same country. In addition, recent data has shown that previous antibiotic use is associated with harbouring antibiotic resistant H. pylori. Local surveillance of antibiotic resistance is warranted to guide clinicians in their choice of therapy. Antimicrobial resistance is assessed by H. pylori culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Recently developed molecular tests offer an attractive alternative to culture and allow for the rapid molecular genetic identification of H. pylori and resistance-associated mutations directly from biopsy samples or bacterial culture material. Accumulating evidence indicates that surveillance of antimicrobial resistance by susceptibility testing is feasible and necessary to inform clinicians in their choice of therapy for management of H. pylori infection.

  7. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik Torkil; Zinn, Christina Scheel; Rosdahl, Vibeke Thamdrup

    2004-01-01

    of therapeutical subgroups of antimicrobials varied significantly between hospitals. A positive correlation was found between S. aureus resistance to methicillin (MRSA) and consumption of beta-lactam combinations, between resistance to quinolones and consumption of beta-lactam combinations and carbapenems...... and resistance to aminoglycosides and consumption of beta-lactam combinations. The consumption of beta-lactamase-sensitive antibiotics was negatively correlated to resistance to methicillin, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. Usage of the different antimicrobial therapeutical subgroups was also correlated...

  8. Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance in European Hospitals : Excess Mortality and Length of Hospital Stay Related to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kraker, Marlieke E. A.; Wolkewitz, Martin; Davey, Peter G.; Grundmann, Hajo

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortal

  9. Nisin and class IIa bacteriocin resistance among Listeria and other foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Malik, Ravinder Kumar; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Tejinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arun; Singroha, Garima; Vij, Shilpa; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    Food safety has been an important issue globally due to increasing foodborne diseases and change in food habits. To inactivate foodborne pathogens, various novel technologies such as biopreservation systems have been studied. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity produced by different groups of bacteria, but the bacteriocins produced by many lactic acid bacteria offer potential applications in food preservation. The use of bacteriocins in the food industry can help reduce the addition of chemical preservatives as well as the intensity of heat treatments, resulting in foods that are more naturally preserved. However, the development of highly tolerant and/or resistant strains may decrease the efficiency of bacteriocins as biopreservatives. Several mechanisms of bacteriocin resistance development have been proposed among various foodborne pathogens. The acquiring of resistance to bacteriocins can significantly affect physiological activity profile of bacteria, alter cell-envelope lipid composition, and also modify the antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile of bacteria. This article presents a brief review on the scientific research about the various possible mechanisms involved in the development of resistance to nisin and Class IIa bacteriocins among the foodborne pathogens.

  10. Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoroba, Evelyn; Kapeta, Daniel; Gelaw, Awoke K

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23) and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400), carcass sponges (n = 100), intestinal contents (n = 62), hides (n = 67), and water from the abattoirs (n = 75) were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81). Eleven faecal samples (2.75%) tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%), which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving implementation

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. from humans in Shanghai, China, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Jin, Huiming; Hu, Jiayu; Yuan, Zhengan; Shi, Weimin; Yang, Xiaowei; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2014-03-01

    A retrospective study conducted on patients with diarrhea in Shanghai, China from 2004-2011, indicated that of 77,600 samples collected, 1,635 (2.1%) tested positive for Shigella. Species isolated included S. sonnei (1,066, 65.1%), S. flexneri (569, 34.7%), and S. boydii (3, 0.2%). Most of the Shigella isolates were found to be resistant to streptomycin (98.7%), trimethoprim (98.0%), ampicillin (92.1%), and nalidixic acid (91.7%). Additionally, many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (86.9%), trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (80.1%), sulfisoxazole (76.8%) and gentamicin (55.5%). Approximately 80% of the isolates were resistant to at least eight antimicrobial agents, 14% to at least ten antimicrobials tested and 10 isolates to fourteen antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and β-lactamases. Importantly, co-resistance to fluoroquinolones and the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins was also identified. The high levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical medicine presents a great challenge to treating patients with shigellosis.

  12. Bordetella pertussis lipid A glucosamine modification confers resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides and increases resistance to outer membrane perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita R; Hancock, Robert E W; Fernandez, Rachel C

    2014-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, has many strategies for evading the human immune system. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important Gram-negative bacterial surface structure that activates the immune system via Toll-like receptor 4 and enables susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). We show modification of the lipid A region of LPS with glucosamine increased resistance to numerous CAMPs, including LL-37. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this glucosamine modification increased resistance to outer membrane perturbation.

  13. MOLECULAR-PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM GOATS WITH DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida Guimarães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea determines significant changes in feed conversion, causing productivity loss in caprine herds. The antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is characterized as an important public health issue; therefore, Escherichia coli may be characterized as an important pathogen due to expressing virulence mechanisms responsible for significant clinical conditions in humans and animals. The present study evaluated the presence of E. coli among 117 caprine fecal samples and analyzed the isolates for antimicrobial resistance. Suggestive colonies were submitted to biochemical screening followed by genotypic group determination and phylogenetic analysis; further, the samples were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test. E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter aerogenes were identified. E. coli isolates were phylogenetically classified as B2 (9/39, D (19/39, B1 (7/39 e A (4/29 groups. The analysis of the isolates also revealed the presence of K99 (04/39 and Stx (02/39 virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed sensitive isolates to Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin, being all resistant to Lincomycin, Vancomycin and Penicillin. The results support the need of establishing restricted protocols for antimicrobial use, a fundamental procedure for health improvement in Brazilian caprine herds.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in invasive and colonising Streptococcus pneumoniae in North India

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    Goyal R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done to detect the antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae . One hundred twenty S. pneumoniae isolates from clinical specimens and 50 from nasopharyngeal sites were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination for penicillin and cefotaxime non-susceptible isolates. A total of 22 isolates (18.3% from clinical sites and eight (16% from nasopharyngeal sites showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin by oxacillin disk diffusion test. MICs of 26 of these resistant strains ranged from 0.12-1 µg/mL (intermediate resistance by broth dilution and E test. Only four isolates, two from sputum and two from nasopharyngeal swabs, showed MIC of 2 µg/mL (complete resistance. However, MIC of two cefotaxime resistant isolates (by disk diffusion was in the susceptible range (0.5 µg/mL. Highest antimicrobial resistance was seen to cotrimoxazole (55.2% and tetracycline (61.2%. Antimicrobial resistance to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was much more in clinical isolates than colonizing isolates. Multi-drug resistant phenotype was detected in 76.9% (20 of 26 of isolates that were intermediately sensitive to penicillin and 50% (2 of 4 of penicillin resistant isolates (co-resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Routine screening for antibiotic susceptibility is recommended for clinical isolates of pneumococci. Strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin should be subjected to MIC determination to detect relative resistance or true resistance as such strains are associated with increased virulence.The choice of antibiotics should be guided by the prevalence of local resistance patterns of pneumococci.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  16. Long-term exposure to benzalkonium chloride disinfectants results in change of microbial community structure and increased antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Oh, Seungdae; Tezel, Ulas; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-09-03

    The effect of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a widely used class of quaternary ammonium disinfectants, on microbial community structure and antimicrobial resistance was investigated using three aerobic microbial communities: BACs-unexposed (DP, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone), BACs-exposed (DPB, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone and BACs), and BACs-enriched (B, fed only BACs). Long-term exposure to BACs reduced community diversity and resulted in the enrichment of BAC-resistant species, predominantly Pseudomonas species. Exposure of the two microbial communities to BACs significantly decreased their susceptibility to BACs as well as three clinically relevant antibiotics (penicillin G, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin). Increased resistance to BACs and penicillin G of the two BACs-exposed communities is predominantly attributed to degradation or transformation of these compounds, whereas resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin is largely due to the activity of efflux pumps. Quantification of several key multidrug resistance genes showed a much higher number of copies of these genes in the DPB and B microbial communities compared to the DP community. Collectively, our findings indicate that exposure of a microbial community to BACs results in increased antibiotic resistance, which has important implications for both human and environmental health.

  17. Marine Pseudomonas putida: a potential source of antimicrobial substances against antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palloma Rodrigues Marinho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria isolated from marine sponges found off the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were screened for the production of antimicrobial substances. We report a new Pseudomonas putida strain (designated P. putida Mm3 isolated from the sponge Mycale microsigmatosa that produces a powerful antimicrobial substance active against multidrug-resistant bacteria. P. putida Mm3 was identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic tests. Molecular typing for Mm3 was performed by RAPD-PCR and comparison of the results to other Pseudomonas strains. Our results contribute to the search for new antimicrobial agents, an important strategy for developing alternative therapies to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  18. Nanostructured mesoporous silica: new perspectives for fighting antimicrobial resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Dogaru, Ionuţ; Meliţă, Daniela; Meştercă, Raluca; Spirescu, Vera; Stan, Eliza; Tote, Eliza [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Mogoantă, Laurenţiu [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Research Center for Microscopic Morphology and Immunology (Romania); Mogoşanu, George Dan [University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytotherapy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Romania); Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai, E-mail: grumezescu@yahoo.com [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Truşcă, Roxana [Metav SA-CD S.A. (Romania); Vasile, Eugeniu [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania); Iordache, Florin [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology of Romanian Academy, “Nicolae Simionescu”, Department of Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Therapy (Romania); Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen [University of Bucharest, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Biology (Romania); Holban, Alina Maria [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science (Romania)

    2015-05-15

    This paper investigates the antimicrobial potential of nanostructured mesoporous silica (NMS) functionalized with essential oils (EOs) and antibiotics (ATBs). The NMS networks were obtained by the basic procedure from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the form of granules with diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm with an average pore diameter of 2.2 nm, as confirmed by the BET–TEM analyses. The Salvia officinalis (SO) and Coriandrum sativum (CS) EOs and the streptomycin and neomycin ATBs were loaded in the NMS pores. TG analysis was performed in order to estimate the amount of the entrapped volatile EOs. The results of the biological analyses revealed that NMS/SO and NMS/CS exhibited a very good antimicrobial activity to an extent comparable or even superior to the one triggered by ATB, and a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. Due to their regular pores, high biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, and capacity to stabilize the volatile EOs, the obtained NMS can be used as an efficient drug delivery system for further biomedical applications.

  19. Nanostructured mesoporous silica: new perspectives for fighting antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Georgeta; Dogaru, Ionuţ; Meliţă, Daniela; Meştercă, Raluca; Spirescu, Vera; Stan, Eliza; Tote, Eliza; Mogoantă, Laurenţiu; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Truşcă, Roxana; Vasile, Eugeniu; Iordache, Florin; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Holban, Alina Maria

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the antimicrobial potential of nanostructured mesoporous silica (NMS) functionalized with essential oils (EOs) and antibiotics (ATBs). The NMS networks were obtained by the basic procedure from cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and tetraethyl orthosilicate in the form of granules with diameters ranging from 100 to 300 nm with an average pore diameter of 2.2 nm, as confirmed by the BET-TEM analyses. The Salvia officinalis (SO) and Coriandrum sativum (CS) EOs and the streptomycin and neomycin ATBs were loaded in the NMS pores. TG analysis was performed in order to estimate the amount of the entrapped volatile EOs. The results of the biological analyses revealed that NMS/SO and NMS/CS exhibited a very good antimicrobial activity to an extent comparable or even superior to the one triggered by ATB, and a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. Due to their regular pores, high biocompatibility, antimicrobial activity, and capacity to stabilize the volatile EOs, the obtained NMS can be used as an efficient drug delivery system for further biomedical applications.

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococcus Species: A Hospital-Based Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species isolated from a university hospital, and explore the mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance, so as to provide clinical evidence for the inappropriate clinical use of antimicrobial agents and the control and prevention of enterococcal infections. Methods: a total of 1,157 enterococcal strains isolated from various clinical specimens from January 2010 to December 2012 in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University were identified to species level with a VITEK-2 COMPACT fully automated microbiological system, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus species was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The multiple-drug resistant enterococcal isolates were screened from the clinical isolates of Enterococcus species from the burns department. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and levofloxacin was determined with the agar dilution method, and the changes in the MIC of Enterococcus species to the three fluoroquinolones following reserpine treatment were evaluated. The β-lactam, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, macrolide, glycopeptide resistance genes and the efflux pump emeA genes were detected in the enterococcal isolates using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results: the 1,157 clinical isolates of Enterococcus species included 679 E. faecium isolates (58.7%, 382 E. faecalis isolates (33%, 26 E. casseliflavus isolates (2.2%, 24 E. avium isolates (2.1%, and 46 isolates of other Enterococcus species (4%. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between E. faecium and E. faecalis, and ≤1.1% of these two Enterococcus species were found to be resistant to vancomycin, teicoplanin or linezolid. In addition, the Enterococcus species isolated from different departments of the hospital

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia. PMID:28074185

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance Trends among Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Pathogens in Greece, 2009–2012

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    Sofia Maraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance trends of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs in Crete, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009–2012. A total of 588 community-acquired respiratory pathogens were isolated during the study period. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism responsible for 44.4% of CARTIs, followed by Haemophilus influenzae (44.2% and Moraxella catarrhalis (11.4%. Among S. pneumoniae, the prevalence of isolates with intermediate- and high-level resistance to penicillin was 27.2% and 12.3%, respectively. Macrolide resistance slightly decreased from 29.4% over the period 2009-2010 to 28.8% over the period 2011-2012. Multiresistance was observed among 56 (54.4% penicillin nonsusceptible isolates. A nonsignificant increase in resistance of H. influenzae isolates was noted for β-lactams, cotrimoxazole, and tetracycline. Among the 67 M. catarrhalis tested, 32 produced beta-lactamase and were resistant to ampicillin. Macrolide resistance decreased over the study period. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, and the fluoroquinolones. Although a decreasing trend in the prevalence of resistance of the three most common pathogens involved in CARTIs was noted, continuous surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility at the local and national level remains important, in order to guide appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy.

  3. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejo, Mebrat; Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%-19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors in Escherichia coli from swedish dairy calves

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    de Verdier Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, knowledge about the role of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in neonatal calf diarrhea and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from young calves is largely unknown. This has therapeutic concern and such knowledge is also required for prudent use of antimicrobials. Methods In a case control study Esherichia coli isolated from faecal samples from dairy calves were phenotyped by biochemical fingerprinting and analyzed for virulence genes by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Farm management data were collected and Fisher's exact test and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Of 95 E. coli tested for antimicrobial susceptibility 61% were resistant to one or more substances and 28% were multi-resistant. The virulence gene F5 (K99 was not found in any isolate. In total, 21 out of 40 of the investigated virulence genes were not detected or rarely detected. The virulence genes espP, irp, and fyuA were more common in resistant E. coli than in fully susceptible isolates (P terZ was associated with calf diarrhea (P ≤ 0.01. The participating 85 herds had a median herd size of 80 lactating cows. Herds with calf diarrhea problems were larger (> 55 cows; P P There was no association between calf diarrhea and diversity of enteric E. coli. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance was common in E. coli from pre-weaned dairy calves, occurring particularly in calves from herds experiencing calf diarrhea problems. The results indicate that more factors than use of antimicrobials influence the epidemiology of resistant E. coli. Enteropathogenic E. coli seems to be an uncommon cause of neonatal calf diarrhea in Swedish dairy herds. In practice, calf diarrhea should be regarded holistically in a context of infectious agents, calf immunity, management practices etc. We therefore advice against routine

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of antimicrobial-resistance genes among Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates recovered from poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simjee, Shabbir; McDermott, Patrick F; White, David G; Hofacre, Charles; Berghaus, Roy D; Carter, Peggy J; Stewart, Leigh; Liu, Tongrui; Maier, Marie; Maurer, John J

    2007-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant enterococci and staphylococci from the poultry production environment are sparse in the United States. This information is needed for science-based risk assessments of antimicrobial use in animal husbandry and potential public-health consequences. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of staphylococci and enterococci isolated from poultry litter, recovered from 24 farms across Georgia, to several antimicrobials of veterinary and human health importance. Among the 90 Enterococcus isolates recovered, E. hirae (46%) was the most frequently encountered species, followed by E. faecium (27%), E. gallinarum (12%), and E. faecalis (10%). Antimicrobial resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (96%), followed by clindamycin (90%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (62%), penicillin (53%), erythromycin (50%), nitrofurantoin (49%), and clarithromycin (48%). Among the 110 staphylococci isolates recovered, only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified with the predominant Staphylococcus species being S. sciuri (38%), S. lentus (21%), S. xylosus (14%) and S. simulans (12%). Resistance was less-frequently observed among the Staphylococcus isolates for the majority of antimicrobials tested, as compared with Enterococcus isolates, and was primarily limited to clarithromycin (71%), erythromycin (71%), clindamycin (48%), and tetracycline (38%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes were prevalent in both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus; however, Enterococcus exhibited a statistically significant difference in the median number of antimicrobials to which resistance was observed (median = 5.0) compared with Staphylococcus species (median = 3.0). Because resistance to several of these antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria may be attributed to the shuttling of common drug-resistance genes, we also determined which common antimicrobial-resistance genes were present in both enterococci and staphylococci. The

  6. A collaborative initiative for the containment of antimicrobial resistance in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Dreser, Anahi; Figueroa, Inda Marcela

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance exacts worldwide an increasingly significant clinical and economic toll. Despite the international calls for urgent action, antimicrobial use and resistance have been low on the Mexican government's policy agenda. In early 2010, a multidisciplinary group of experts launched a national initiative for containment of antimicrobial resistance that was endorsed by major medical, veterinary and public health institutions. The initiative called for seven priority actions including the creation of an ad hoc intersectoral advisory group, a requirement that human and veterinary antibiotics be dispensed only with prescription, and the establishment of effective surveillance systems. A consensus document was disseminated among key decision-makers at the ministries of Health and Agriculture and the legislature. The Ministry of Health (MoH) enacted a decree effective as of August 2010, which enforced the regulations that required medical prescriptions for the sale of human antibiotics. While the information disseminated by the MoH did focus on the dangers of self-medication, it failed to highlight the inherent perils of antibiotic resistance or the consequences of antibiotic use in food-animals. Following the decree, there was a surge of medical offices controlled by retail pharmacies. In the veterinary sector, voluntary guidelines were developed for good husbandry practices, including antibiotic use in food animals; five antimicrobials for use in food-animals were banned. No intersectoral advisory group or surveillance systems were established. This study describes a bottom-top approach in Mexico for the development of a national strategy to improve antibiotic use and contain antimicrobial resistance. Its experiences suggest that, in countries such as Mexico that lack strong regulatory systems and surveillance capacities, a more systemic approach is warranted. Future efforts should begin with early involvement of key stakeholders and informing policy

  7. A literature review of antimicrobial resistance in Pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a critical review of the literature as it pertains to the current status of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle and to provide a concise yet informative narrative on the most relevant publications available. As such, the scientific literature contained in PubMed, AGRICOLA, and CAB were searched in February of 2014 for articles related to susceptibility testing of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni from cases of BRD. Titles and abstracts were read and 105 articles that were relevant to the subject of BRD antibiotic resistance were attained for further review. After the application of exclusion criterion (publications must have originated from North America, be in English, adhere to standards set forth by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and be concerning antimicrobial resistance in BRD in beef cattle), 16 articles remained and are the focus of this publication. Due to the disparate data from the few studies that investigate susceptibility testing of BRD pathogens, a quantitative assessment or meta-analysis was not performed on the studies presented in this review. However, considering diagnostic lab data, there appears to be a clear trend of a decrease in susceptibility of the three major BRD pathogens to the antimicrobials used commonly for treatment and control of BRD. Studies performing sensitivity testing on healthy cattle report much lower resistance, but it remains unclear if this is because of a true lack of resistance mechanisms, or if the isolates do contain quiescent genes for resistance that are only phenotypically expressed following the administration of an antimicrobial for either treatment or control of BRD. Future research to address this question of genotype and phenotypic expression before and after antimicrobial administration will further advance our knowledge in this area.

  8. Investigation of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from Tibetan pigs.

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    Peng Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and enterococci isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and analyzed the influence of free-ranging husbandry on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: A total of 232 fecal samples were collected from Tibetan pigs, and the disk diffusion method was used to examine their antimicrobial resistance. Broth microdilution and agar dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations for antimicrobial agents for which disks were not commercially available. RESULTS: A total of 129 E. coli isolates and 84 Enterococcus isolates were recovered from the fecal samples. All E. coli isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and 40.4% were resistant to tetracycline. A small number of isolates were resistant to florfenicol (27.9%, ampicillin (27.9%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (19.4%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, streptomycin (16.2% and ceftiofur (10.9%, and very low resistance rates to ciprofloxacin (7.8%, gentamicin (6.9%, and spectinomycin (2.3% were observed in E. coli. All Enterococcus isolates, including E. faecium, E. faecalis, E. hirae, and E. mundtii, were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and vancomycin, but showed high frequencies of resistance to oxacillin (92.8%, clindamycin (82.1%, tetracycline (64.3%, and erythromycin (48.8%. Resistance rates to florfenicol (17.9%, penicillin (6.0%, ciprofloxacin (3.6%, levofloxacin (1.2%, and ampicillin (1.2% were low. Only one high-level streptomycin resistant E. faecium isolate and one high-level gentamicin resistant E. faecium isolate were observed. Approximately 20% and 70% of E. coli and Enterococcus isolates, respectively, were defined as multidrug-resistant. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, E. coli and Enterococcus isolated from free-ranging Tibetan pigs showed relatively lower resistance rates than those in other areas of China, where more intensive farming practices are

  9. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli). The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7–AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7–AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains. PMID:28356719

  10. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Staphylococcus aureus Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Thin Lee, Yung; Pearson, Julie C; Robinson, J Owen; Nimmo, Graeme R; Collignon, Peter; Howden, Benjamin P; Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D

    2016-06-30

    From 1 January to 31 December 2014, 27 institutions around Australia participated in the Australian Staphylococcal Sepsis Outcome Programme (ASSOP). The aim of ASSOP 2014 was to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) isolates in Australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to methicillin and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the isolates. Overall, 18.8% of the 2,206 SAB episodes were methicillin resistant, which was significantly higher than that reported in most European countries. The 30-day all-cause mortality associated with methicillin-resistant SAB was 23.4%, which was significantly higher than the 14.4% mortality associated with methicillin-sensitive SAB (P important that antimicrobial resistance patterns in community and healthcare-associated SAB is monitored as this information will guide therapeutic practices in treating S. aureus sepsis.

  11. Treatment of multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa using extended-infusion antimicrobial regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Emily L; Lowery, Ashleigh V; Thom, Kerri A; Nicolau, David P

    2015-01-01

    In the management of multidrug-resistant infections in critically ill patients with multiorgan dysfunction, consideration must be given to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an antimicrobial agent to optimize dosing. We describe a 25-year-old woman who was undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis and developed multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia secondary to infected left and right ventricular assist devices. After multiple courses of antibiotics, her blood cultures revealed that the infecting organism was becoming progressively more resistant to antibiotic options. Cefepime 2 g administered over 3 hours/day (in combination with colistimethate) provided adequate drug levels for multidrug-resistant, cefepime-intermediate P. aeruginosa bacteremia in this patient. We present the clinical case of this patient, followed by a discussion of possible therapeutic approaches to be considered, including illustration of the principles of using extended-infusion antimicrobial regimens, and present the patient's resulting clinical course.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of ESBLand AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from meat

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    Wasiński Bernard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (18 strains or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin

  13. Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, P.H.S.; Boer, den L.; Ruyter-Spira, C.; Creemers-Molenaar, T.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Zaat, S.A.J.; Velde, te A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Honey has potent activity against both antibioticsensitive and -resistant bacteria, and is an interesting agent for topical antimicrobial application to wounds. As honey is diluted by wound exudate, rapid bactericidal activity up to high dilution is a prerequisite for its successful application. We

  14. Extracellular DNA-induced antimicrobial peptide resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Shawn eLewenza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular DNA (eDNA is in the environment, bodily fluids, in the matrix of biofilms, and accumulates at infection sites. Extracellular DNA can function as a nutrient source, a universal biofilm matrix component and an innate immune effector in extracellular DNA traps. In biofilms, eDNA is required for attachment, aggregation and stabilization of microcolonies. We have recently shown that eDNA can sequester divalent metal cations, which has interesting implications on antibiotic resistance. Extracellular DNA binds metal cations and thus activates the Mg2+-responsive PhoPQ and PmrAB two-component systems. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and many other Gram-negative bacteria, the PhoPQ/PmrAB systems control various genes required for virulence and resisting killing by antimicrobial peptides, including the pmr genes (PA3552-PA3559 that are responsible for the addition of aminoarabinose to lipid A. The PA4773-PA4775 genes are a second DNA-induced cluster and are required for the production of spermidine on the outer surface, which protects the outer membrane from antimicrobial peptide treatment. Both modifications mask the negative surface charges and limit membrane damage by antimicrobial peptides. DNA-enriched biofilms or planktonic cultures have increased antibiotic resistance phenotypes to antimicrobial peptides and aminoglycosides. These dual antibiotic resistance and immune evasion strategies may be expressed in DNA-rich environments and contribute to long-term survival.

  15. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Yoko Miyasaki

    Full Text Available The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

  16. spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from healthy humans, pigs and dogs in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, Abdul S.; Muhairwa, Amandus P.; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in humans and animals. Here we report for the first time the prevalence of nasal carriage, spa typing and antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus in a Tanzanian livestock community. Methodology: Nasal swabs were tak...

  17. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE ASSESSMENT OF SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN MILK SAMPLES FROM SELECTED DAIRY FARMS

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    Murugaiyah Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and bacteriological assessment of subclinical mastitis and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from dairy cows in different farms around Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 120 milk samples from 3 different farms were randomly collected and tested for subclinical mastitis using California Mastitis Test (CMT, as well as for bacterial culture for isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance. The most prevalent bacteria was Staphylococcus sp. (55%, followed by Bacillus sp., (21% and Corynebacterium sp., (7%, Yersinia sp. and Neisseria sp. both showed 5% prevalence, other species with prevalence below 5% are Acinetobacter sp., Actinobacillus sp., Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp., E.coli, Klebsiella sp. and Chromobacter sp. Selected Staphylococcus sp. showed a mean antimicrobial resistance of 73.3% to Ampicillin, 26.7% to Penicillin, Methicillin and Compound Sulphonamide each, 20% to Oxacillin, Amoxycillin and Cefuroxime, 13.3% to Polymyxin B, Erythromycin, Ceftriaxone and Azithromycin and 6.7% to Streptomycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin and Tetracycline each. This study indicates the need for urgent and effective control measures to tackle the increase in prevalence of subclinical mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the study area.

  18. Triple-acting antimicrobial treatment for drug-resistant and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a persistent problem in modern health care, food safety and animal health. There is a need for new antimicrobials to replace over-used conventional antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a notorious pathogen for both animal and human health with multi-d...

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  20. Medical-grade honey enriched with antimicrobial peptides has enhanced activity against antibiotic-resistant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; L. de Boer; C.P. Ruyter-Spira; T. Creemers-Molenaar; J.P.F.G. Helsper; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat; A.A. te Velde

    2011-01-01

    Honey has potent activity against both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria, and is an interesting agent for topical antimicrobial application to wounds. As honey is diluted by wound exudate, rapid bactericidal activity up to high dilution is a prerequisite for its successful application. We

  1. Antimicrobial resistance gene detection in beneficial and pathogenic food related bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoek, A.H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Although, the discovery of antibiotics has revolutionised the treatment of infections, the growing phenomenon of bacterial resistance, among others due to the use and abuse of antimicrobial agents, is now threatening to take us back to a pre-antibiotic era. Continuously, microorganisms subtly change

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Lertworapreecha, M.; Evans, M.C.;

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella Weltevreden isolates from different sources in South-East Asia (Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam), Australia, Denmark, New Zealand and the USA. Methods: A total of 503...

  3. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of members from the Enterobacteriaceae family isolated from canaries (Serinus canaria

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    Ruben V. Horn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Enterobacteriaceae family contains potentially zoonotic bacteria, and their presence in canaries is often reported, though the current status of these in bird flocks is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the most common genera of enterobacteria from canaries (Serinus canaria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. From February to June of 2013, a total of 387 cloacal swab samples from eight domiciliary breeding locations of Fortaleza city, Brazil, were collected and 58 necropsies were performed in canaries, which belonged to the Laboratory of Ornithological Studies. The samples were submitted to microbiological procedure using buffered peptone water and MacConkey agar. Colonies were selected according to their morphological characteristics on selective agar and submitted for biochemical identification and antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 61 isolates were obtained, of which 42 were from cloacal swabs and 19 from necropsies. The most isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli with twenty five strains, followed by fourteen Klebsiellaspp., twelve Enterobacterspp., seven Pantoea agglomerans, two Serratiaspp. and one Proteus mirabilis. The antimicrobial to which the strains presented most resistance was sulfonamides with 55.7%, followed by ampicillin with 54.1% and tetracycline with 39.3%. The total of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR was 34 (55.7%. In conclusion, canaries harbor members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and common strains present a high antimicrobial resistance rate, with a high frequency of MDR bacteria.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in staphylococci from poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Agersø, Yvonne; Ahrens, Peter

    2000-01-01

    to ciprofloxacin. Only six (7%) S. aureus isolates and one Staphylococcus saprophyticus were penicillin resistant. Resistance to sulphamethoxazole was observed among 16 (19%) of S. aureus isolates and two coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS). Twenty (24%) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to erythromycin...... of conventional biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (83), Staphylococcus hyicus (11), Staphylococcus xylosus (9) and Staphylococcus cohnii (6). The isolates were susceptible to most antimicrobials tested. A high frequency of S. aureus (30%) was resistant...

  5. A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omulo, Sylvia; Thumbi, Samuel M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Call, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance is driven by varied factors including the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and variable drug efficacy and presents a major threat to the control of infectious diseases. Despite the high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential health and economic consequences, the level of research on antimicrobial resistance in the region remains unknown. Little data exists to quantify the contribution of different factors to the current levels of antimicrobial resistance. To identify the factors that contribute most to the emergence, amplification, persistence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in humans and animals, we used the PRISMA 2009 guidelines to conduct a systematic review of studies on antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria in Eastern Africa. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases and identified 2,155 probable articles, of which 89 studies on humans and 28 on animals remained after full-text review. These were articles from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Burundi, published between 1974 and 2013, that reported resistance in Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Vibrio sp. The majority (98%) of human studies were based on hospital- (rather than community-wide) sampling and although they report high levels of antimicrobial resistance in the region, study design and methodological differences preclude conclusions about the magnitude and trends of antimicrobial resistance. To remedy this, we discuss and propose minimum reporting guidelines for the level of detail that should be explicitly provided for antimicrobial resistance study designs, testing of samples and reporting of results that would permit comparative inferences and enable meta-analyses. Further, we advocate for increased focus on community- rather than hospital-based sampling to provide a better indication of population-wide trends in antimicrobial resistance. This approach, together with the

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to Imipenem in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Hashemi, Farhad B.; POURAKBARI, Babak; Aziemzadeh, Masoud; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Imipenem-resistant multi-drug resistant (IR-MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has been emerged as a morbidity successful nosocomial pathogen throughout the world.To address imipenem being yet the most effective antimicrobial agent against A. baumannii to control outbreaks and treat patients, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prevalence of IR-MDR A. baumannii. We systematically searched Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Libra...

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Adem Bahar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics.

  8. Investigation of integrons/cassettes in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from food animals in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this study,326 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals collected during the last four decades in China were characterized using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for integrons/cassettes.Minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) testing indicated that the antimicrobial resistance of E.coli has increased since the 1970s.The findings of this study present a warning to veterinary practitioners about the excessive use of antimicrobials,and suggest the necessity for surveillance and control of antimicrobial resistance in veterinary clinical medicine in China.

  9. Occurrence of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes among Salmonella enterica from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peirano, G.; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    . The genetic location of class 1 integrons was determined in 25 isolates by hybridization and plasmid transfer experiments. Results: Fifty-five of the isolates were positive for class I integrons. Integron-positive isolates represented 17 different serovars and were mainly from human (n = 28) and animal (n...... resistance was primarily mediated by sul2 and sul3, tetracycline resistance by tet(B) and tet(A), chloramphenicol resistance by catA1, streptomycin resistance by strA and ampicillin resistance by bla(TEM). bla(CTX) and bla(CMY-2) were found in cephalosporin-resistant isolates. Mating and hybridization...

  10. Analytical Design Equations for Class-E Power Amplifiers with Finite DC-Feed Inductance and Switch On-Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    Many critical design trade-offs of the class-E power amplifier (e.g power efficiency) are influenced by the switch on-resistance and the value of dc-feed drain inductance. In literature, the time-domain mathematical analyses of the class-E power amplifier with finite dc-feed inductance assume zero s

  11. Longitudinal characterization of antimicrobial resistance genes in feces shed from cattle fed different subtherapeutic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Ronald R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance gene determinants originating from livestock is affected by their persistence in agricultural-related matrices. This study investigated the effects of administering subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials to beef cattle on the abundance and persistence of resistance genes within the microbial community of fecal deposits. Cattle (three pens per treatment, 10 steers per pen were administered chlortetracycline, chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine, tylosin, or no antimicrobials (control. Model fecal deposits (n = 3 were prepared by mixing fresh feces from each pen into a single composite sample. Real-time PCR was used to measure concentrations of tet, sul and erm resistance genes in DNA extracted from composites over 175 days of environmental exposure in the field. The microbial communities were analyzed by quantification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of PCR-amplified 16S-rRNA. Results The concentrations of 16S-rRNA in feces were similar across treatments and increased by day 56, declining thereafter. DGGE profiles of 16S-rRNA differed amongst treatments and with time, illustrating temporal shifts in microbial communities. All measured resistance gene determinants were quantifiable in feces after 175 days. Antimicrobial treatment differentially affected the abundance of certain resistance genes but generally not their persistence. In the first 56 days, concentrations of tet(B, tet(C, sul1, sul2, erm(A tended to increase, and decline thereafter, whereas tet(M and tet(W gradually declined over 175 days. At day 7, the concentration of erm(X was greatest in feces from cattle fed tylosin, compared to all other treatments. Conclusion The abundance of genes coding for antimicrobial resistance in bovine feces can be affected by inclusion of antibiotics in the feed. Resistance genes can persist in feces from cattle beyond 175 days

  12. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessa, Ss; Paes, Rcs; Santoro, Pn; Mauro, Ra; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  13. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in the respiratory microbiota of people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Laura J; Tunney, Michael M; Elborn, J Stuart

    2014-08-23

    Cystic fibrosis is characterised by chronic polymicrobial infection and inflammation in the airways of patients. Antibiotic treatment regimens, targeting recognised pathogens, have substantially contributed to increased life expectancy of patients with this disease. Although the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and selection of highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is of major concern, the clinical relevance in cystic fibrosis is yet to be defined. Resistance has been identified in recognised cystic fibrosis pathogens and in other bacteria (eg, Prevotella and Streptococcus spp) detected in the airway microbiota, but their role in the pathophysiology of infection and inflammation in chronic lung disease is unclear. Increased antibiotic resistance in cystic fibrosis might be attributed to a range of complex factors including horizontal gene transfer, hypoxia, and biofilm formation. Strategies to manage antimicrobial resistance consist of new antibiotics or localised delivery of antimicrobial agents, iron sequestration, inhibition of quorum-sensing, and resistome analysis. Determination of the contributions of every bacterial species to lung health or disease in cystic fibrosis might also have an important role in the management of antibiotic resistance.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Altier, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform public policy regarding appropriate antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Salmonella isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to various antimicrobial agents over time. Data were collected retrospectively for all bovine Salmonella isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella were investigated for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 2745 bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0% (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) to 72.0% (sulfadimethoxine). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to most agents: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AUG), ampicillin (AMP), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftiofur (TIO), ceftriaxone (AXO), chloramphenicol (CHL), chlortetracycline (CTET), florfenicol (FFN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), oxytetracycline (OXY), spectinomycin (SPE), streptomycin (STR), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfisoxazole (FIS), and tetracycline (TET). Among the 265 isolates that were tested using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel, the most common resistance patterns were pansusceptible (54.0%), AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-KAN-STR-FIS-TET (18.1%), and AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-STR-FIS-TET (12.1%). Increasing prevalence of S. enterica serovar Cerro over the course of the study period presumably had an impact on the observed resistance trends. Nevertheless, these results do not support the notion that the current level of antimicrobial

  16. Risk factors associated with the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Beuron

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate herd management practices and mastitis treatment procedures as risk factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial resistance. For this study, 13 herds were selected to participate in the study to evaluate the association between their management practices and mastitis treatment procedures and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 1069 composite milk samples were collected aseptically from the selected cows in four different periods over two years. The samples were used for microbiological culturing of S. aureus isolates and evaluation of their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 756 samples (70.7% were culture-positive, and S. aureus comprised 27.77% (n=210 of the isolates. The S. aureus isolates were tested using the disk-diffusion susceptibility assay with the following antimicrobials: ampicillin 10mg; clindamycin 2μg; penicillin 1mg; ceftiofur 30μg; gentamicin 10mg; sulfa-trimethoprim 25μg; enrofloxacin 5μg; sulfonamide 300μg; tetracycline 30μg; oxacillin 1mg; cephalothin 30μg and erythromycin 5μg. The variables that were significantly associated with S. aureus resistance were as follows: the treatment of clinical mastitis for ampicillin (OR=2.18, dry cow treatment for enrofloxacin (OR=2.11 and not sending milk samples for microbiological culture and susceptibility tests, for ampicillin (OR=2.57 and penicillin (OR=4.69. In conclusion, the identification of risk factors for S. aureus resistance against various mastitis antimicrobials is an important information that may help in practical recommendations for prudent use of antimicrobial in milk production.

  17. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate medium to discriminate antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lars

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. Method A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. Results SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ± 1 log2 dilution. Significant variances were observed for oxytetracycline and sulphamethoxazole. Further tests showed that the observed discrepancy in classification of susceptibility to oxytetracycline by the two media could be overcome when a plate-dependent breakpoint of 64 mg/L was used for SEC plates. For sulphamethoxazole, SEC plates provided unacceptably high MICs. Conclusion SEC plates showed good agreement with Mueller-Hinton II agar in MIC studies and can be used to screen and discriminate resistant E. coli for ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime and gentamicin using CLSI standardized breakpoints, but not for sulphamethoxazole. SEC plates can also be used to discriminate oxytetracycline-resistant E. coli if a plate-dependent breakpoint value of 64 mg/L is used.

  18. Serovars of Salmonella isolated from Danish turkeys between 1995 and 2000 and their antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K; Hansen, H C; Jørgensen, J C; Borck, B

    2002-04-13

    The prevalence of Salmonella serovars and their antimicrobial resistance patterns were investigated among Danish turkeys between 1995 and 2000, by sampling the flocks approximately 14 days before they were slaughtered. Within the flocks, the prevalence of salmonella varied from 7.1 per cent to 25 per cent, and 24 different serovars were detected. The five most prevalent, which accounted for 58.5 per cent of the isolates were Salmonella Heidelberg (16.2 per cent of the isolates), Salmonella Agona (15.8 per cent), Salmonella Derby (12.4 per cent), Salmonella Muenster (7.3 per cent) and Salmonella Anatum (6.8 per cent). In addition, a few rough isolates and isolates belonging to the antigenically incomplete formulae 6,7:-:- and 4,12:b:- were found. The level of antimicrobial resistance was low; the highest resistance was recorded to ampicillin (13.7 per cent) and streptomycin (9.0 per cent) followed by tetracycline (8.5 per cent), sulphonamides (7.7 per cent) and spectinomycin (4.7 per cent). Resistance to quinolones was very low: four isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, and only one was resistant to enrofloxacin. No resistance was recorded to colistin, apramycin, ceftiofur, florfenicol, or amoxycillin with clavulanic acid. Only 24 isolates were resistant to two or more compounds in various combinations of up to six compounds; one Salmonella Havana isolate was resistant to six compounds. Six isolates were serovar Typhimurium, but none of them belonged to phage type DT104.

  19. Salmonella enterica resistant to antimicrobials in wastewater effluents and black-headed gulls in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarikova, Martina; Manga, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Oravcova, Veronika; Myskova, Petra; Karpiskova, Renata; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the presence and epidemiological relatedness of Salmonella isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brno, Czech Republic and from nestlings of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Nove Mlyny waterworks, situated 35 km downstream from the WWTP. During 2012, we collected 37 wastewater samples and 284 gull cloacal swabs. From wastewater samples, we obtained 89 Salmonella isolates belonging to 19 serotypes. At least one resistant strain was contained in 89% of those samples. Ten different serotypes of Salmonella were detected in 38 young gulls, among which 14 (37%) were resistant to antimicrobials. Wastewater isolates were mostly resistant to sulphonamides and tetracycline, gull isolates to tetracycline and ampicillin. We detected the occurrence of blaTEM-1,tet(A), tet(B), tet(G), sul1, sul2, sul3, floR and strA resistance genes. For the first time, we identified a class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette in S. Infantis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed the presence of identical clusters of S. Agona, S. Enteritidis PT8, S. Infantis and S. Senftenberg in wastewater and black-headed gulls, thus indicating the possibility of resistant Salmonella isolates spreading over long distances in the environment.

  20. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik Torkil; Zinn, Christina Scheel; Rosdahl, Vibeke Thamdrup

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic consumption during 1996 was measured in 15 large hospitals from 14 countries and 3000 consecutive Staphylococcus aureus samples were collected, allowing calculation of local resistance rates and typing of isolates. Antibiotic consumption data were converted to defined daily doses (DDD...... to consumption of aminoglycosides, quinolones, and glycopeptides. In this study of hospitals with MRSA prevalence of between 0% and 63%, significant correlations were found between resistance and consumption of antimicrobials. These findings support the importance of antimicrobial consumption on resistance...

  1. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roca, I.; Akova, M.; Baquero, F.; Carlet, J.; Cavaleri, M.; Coenen, S.; Cohen, J.; Findlay, D.; Gyssens, I.C.; Heure, O.E.; Kahlmeter, G.; Kruse, H.; Laxminarayan, R.; Liebana, E.; Lopez-Cerero, L.; MacGowan, A.; Martins, M.; Rodriguez-Bano, J.; Rolain, J.M.; Segovia, C.; Sigauque, B.; Taconelli, E.; Wellington, E.; Vila, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meetin

  2. Engineering MRSA antimicrobials that are refractory to resistance development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most costly multi-drug resistant pathogens to both human animal health, with billions of dollars are spent annually to treat human infections. MRSA is also appearing in livestock (bovine, porcine, poultry) as well as companion animal...

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and tetracycline resistance determinant genotyping of Gallibacterium anatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders M.; Vazquez, Maria E.; Bager, Ragnhild J.;

    2011-01-01

    these figures were 67% and 42%, respectively, for the reference strains.Genotyping of tetracycline resistance determinants was performed with primers specific for tet(A–E, H, K–M, O). Strains positive for tet(B), tet(H) and tet(L) were identified, however, in 20 out of 49 tetracycline resistant strains...

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance of Enteric Salmonella in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The number of Salmonella isolated from clinical samples that are resistant to multiple antibiotics has increased worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of resistant Salmonella enterica isolated in Bangui. Methods. All enteric Salmonella strains isolated from patients in 2008 were identified and serotyped, and the phenotypes of resistance were determined by using the disk diffusion method. Nine resistance-associated genes, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaSHV, tetA, aadA1, catA1, dhfrA1, sul I, and sul II, were sought by genic amplification in seven S.e. Typhimurium strains. Results. The 94 strains isolated consisted of 47 S.e. Typhimurium (50%, 21 S.e. Stanleyville (22%, 18 S.e. Enteritidis (19%, 4 S.e. Dublin (4%, 4 S.e. Hadar (4%, and 1 S.e. Papuana (1%. Twenty-five (28% were multiresistant, including 20 of the Typhimurium serovar (80%. Two main phenotypes of resistance were found: four antibiotics (56% and to five antibiotics (40%. One S.e. Typhimurium isolate produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL. Only seven strains of S.e. Typhimurium could be amplified genically. Only phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and aminosides was found. Conclusion. S. Typhimurium is the predominant serovar of enteric S. enterica and is the most widely resistant. The search for resistance genes showed heterogeneity of the circulating strains.

  5. Occurrence of integrons and resistance genes among sulphonamide-resistant Shigella spp. from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peirano, G.; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the occurrence of class 1 and 2 integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes among sulphonamide-resistant Shigella strains isolated in Brazil during 1999-2003. Methods: Sixty-two Shigella (Shigella flexneri, n = 47 and Shigella sonnei, n = 15) were tested against 21....... Conclusions: The detection of class 1 and 2 integrons and additional antimicrobial resistance genes allowed us to identify the most frequent antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella spp. isolated in Brazil....

  6. An overview of antimicrobial resistance and its public health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Carminato Balsalobre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple papers have been published regarding the bacterial resistance theme over the last years. A variety of information has reached general and scientific public, daily bringing up data on new resistant microorganisms, new drugs, outbreaks, epidemiological news, resistance gene dissemination, and the lack of information in a particular field has caught our attention: the public health department. Most of researchers, physicians and government employees interpret the public health field as a separate department, not linked to this antibiotic resistance era that we are living nowadays. In this paper we carefully tried to fill in the blanks between public health and the bacteria resistance issue, also considering historical, social, economical and biological problematic that come with this possible pre-antibiotic era.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  8. Isolation and partial characterization of actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Smriti Singh; Pramod Kumar; N Gopalan; Bhuvnesh Shrivastava; RC Kuhad; Hotam Singh Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To isolate strains of Actinomycetes from different locations of Gwalior to evaluate its antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic strains. Method: Soil samples collected from different niche habitats of Gwalior were serially diluted and plated on selective media. Potential colonies were further purified and stored in agar slants and glycerol stocks. Isolates were biochemically characterized and purified isolates were test against pathogenic microorganisms for screening. Isolates with antagonistic properties were inoculated in production media and secondary metabolites or antimicrobial products were extracted. Result: The seven actinomycetes strains showing maximum antibacterial activity were isolated further characterized based on their colony characteristics and biochemical analyses. The isolates were screened for their secondary metabolites activity on three human pathogenic bacteria are Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE). Discussion: The strain MITS 1005 was found to be more active against the test bacteria.

  9. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone.

  10. Fitness benefits in fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhi in the absence of antimicrobial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen; Duy, Pham Thanh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Chau, Tran Thuy; Turner, A Keith; Farrar, Jeremy; Boni, Maciej F

    2013-12-10

    Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are the recommended antimicrobial treatment for typhoid, a severe systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. FQ-resistance mutations in S. Typhi have become common, hindering treatment and control efforts. Using in vitro competition experiments, we assayed the fitness of eleven isogenic S. Typhi strains with resistance mutations in the FQ target genes, gyrA and parC. In the absence of antimicrobial pressure, 6 out of 11 mutants carried a selective advantage over the antimicrobial-sensitive parent strain, indicating that FQ resistance in S. Typhi is not typically associated with fitness costs. Double-mutants exhibited higher than expected fitness as a result of synergistic epistasis, signifying that epistasis may be a critical factor in the evolution and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi. Our findings have important implications for the management of drug-resistant S. Typhi, suggesting that FQ-resistant strains would be naturally maintained even if fluoroquinolone use were reduced. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01229.001.

  11. Ecological aspects of the antimicrobial resistence in bacteria of importance to humn infections

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    Meirelles-Pereira Frederico de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the intimate relationship of humans with coastal lagoons (used for recreation, tourism, water supply, etc., the discharge of domestic effluents may lead to the establishment of routes of dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms, including microorganisms carrying genes for resistance to antimicrobials, through the surrounding human communities. The objective of the present investigation was to relate the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria to the environmental characteristics of three coastal lagoons, comparing the results with those from hospital sewage. Of the lagoons evaluated, two (Geribá and Imboassica receive domestic sewage discharge, and the other (Cabiúnas is still in a natural state. We isolated in a culture medium containing 32 ¼ µg/ml of Cephalothin, fecal coliforms (E. coli, non-fecal coliforms (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, and Citrobacter, non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, and Aeromonas sp. In cultures from the hospital drain we found strains showing numerous markers for resistance to most of the 11 antimicrobials tested. On the other hand, in cultures from Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons, we found strains showing resistance only to antibiotics frequently observed in non-selective situations (considered as "common" markers. The capacity for dilution in the ecosystem, and salinity appeared related with the occurrence of multi-resistant bacterial strains. The intensity of recent fecal contamination was not shown to be associated with the numbers and types of markers found.

  12. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Australian Cattle Populations at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Robert S; McMillan, Kate E; Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle; Jordan, David; Mellor, Glen E

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacteria associated with diseases. Australia is the world's third largest exporter of beef; however, this country does not have an ongoing surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle or in foods derived from these animals. In this study, 910 beef cattle, 290 dairy cattle, and 300 veal calf fecal samples collected at slaughter were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the phenotypic AMR of 800 E. coli and 217 Salmonella isolates was determined. E. coli was readily isolated from all types of samples (92.3% of total samples), whereas Salmonella was recovered from only 14.4% of samples and was more likely to be isolated from dairy cattle samples than from beef cattle or veal calf samples. The results of AMR testing corroborate previous Australian animal and retail food surveys, which have indicated a low level of AMR. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella isolates from beef cattle was detected infrequently; however, the resistance was to antimicrobials of low importance in human medicine. Although some differences in AMR between isolates from the different types of animals were observed, there is minimal evidence that specific production practices are responsible for disproportionate contributions to AMR development. In general, resistance to antimicrobials of critical and high importance in human medicine was low regardless of the isolate source. The low level of AMR in bacteria from Australian cattle is likely a result of strict regulation of antimicrobials in food animals in Australia and animal management systems that do not favor bacterial disease.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in pathogens causing urinary tract infections in a rural community of Odisha, India

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    Muktikesh Dash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract pathogens has increased worldwide. Empiric treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is determined by antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in a population of specific geographical location. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of CA-UTI in rural Odisha, India, and the effect of gender and age on its prevalence as well as etiologic agents and the resistance profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 1670 adult patients. The urine samples were processed and microbial isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates by Kirby Bauer′s disc diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of UTI was significantly higher in females compared with males (females 45.2%, males 18.4%, OR = 2.041, 95% CI = 1.64-2.52, P ≤ 0.0001. Young females within the age group of 18-37 years and elderly males (≥68 years showed high prevalence of UTI. Escherichia coli (68.8% was the most prevalent isolate followed by Enterococcus spp. (9.7%. Amikacin and nitrofurantoin were the most active antimicrobial agents which showed low resistance rate of 5.8% and 9.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study revealed E. coli as the pre-dominant bacterial pathogen. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for uncomplicated CA-UTIs. In the Indian setting, routine urine cultures may be advisable, since treatment failure is likely to occur with commonly used antimicrobials. Therefore, development of regional surveillance programs is necessary for implementation of national CA-UTI guidelines.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from Turkey flocks fed virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, L A; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J; Chow, J W; Zervos, M J

    1998-03-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E. faecium that were in more than one group of flock cultures.

  15. Role of shellfish hatchery as a reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Rojas, Rodrigo; Garrido, Marcela; Geisse, Julieta; González, Gerardo

    2013-09-15

    The main aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of resistant bacteria in florfenicol-treated and untreated scallop larval cultures from a commercial hatchery and to characterize some selected florfenicol-resistant strains. Larval cultures from untreated and treated rearing tanks exhibited percentages of copiotrophic bacteria resistant to florfenicol ranging from 0.03% to 10.67% and 0.49-18.34%, respectively, whereas florfenicol resistance among oligotrophic bacteria varied from 1.44% to 35.50% and 3.62-95.71%, from untreated and treated larvae, respectively. Florfenicol resistant microbiota from reared scallop larvae mainly belonged to the Pseudomonas and Pseudoalteromonas genus and were mainly resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and co-trimoxazole. This is the first study reporting antimicrobial resistant bacteria associated to a shellfish hatchery and the results suggest that a continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance even in absence of antibacterial therapy is urgently required to evaluate potential undesirable consequences on the surrounding environments.

  16. Reactive Oxygen: a new solution to antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    In April of this year tissue viability nurses, professors, surgeons, and microbiologists met at the University of Birmingham to discuss a real solution to the developing antibiotic resistance catastrophe.

  17. Practical use of registered veterinary medicinal products in Macedonia in identifying the risk of developing of antimicrobial resistance

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    Velev Romel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Current perspectivesin pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Haishen; Hong, Xiaoping; Li, Xuefen

    2015-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an emerging pathogen that causes acute and persistent diarrhea in children and adults. While the pathogenic mechanisms of EAEC intestinal colonization have been uncovered (including bacterial adhesion, enterotoxin and cytotoxin secretion, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation), those of severe extraintestinal infections remain largely unknown. The recent emergence of multidrug resistant EAEC represents an alarming public health threat and clinical challenge, and research on the molecular mechanisms of resistance is urgently needed.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in the AFHSC-GEIS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Marine officer candidates. Additionally, they performed resistance and virulence factor gene analysis for Klebsiella pneumonia and developed and...isolates of Streptococcus pyo- genes from U.S. military basic trainees [24]. Group A S. pyogenes (GAS) infections are common in young adults and may present...ease and glomerulonephritis. Acute GAS infections remain susceptible to penicillin but resistance to macro- lide antibiotics has been noted in recent

  1. Recent advances in the potential interconnection between antimicrobial resistance to biocides and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Marco R; Furi, Leonardo; Coelho, Joana R; Maillard, Jean-Yves; Martínez, José L

    2013-04-01

    Interconnection between microbial resistance to biocides and antibiotics is a topic of increasing interest given the recent changes in European legislation and claims of a risk of biocide use on bacterial resistance. In the second International Conference on Antimicrobial Research held in Lisbon in November 2012, a workshop specifically addressed this topic, presentations included approaches to risk assessment and investigations into the molecular mechanisms of biocide resistance and co- and cross-resistance to antibiotics. The overall conclusion was that, even if each biocide represents a specific case, there is scientific evidence that biocides select for biocide resistance, but that there is, so far, no conclusive evidence that this also determined or will determine an increase in antibiotic resistance.

  2. Changes in the Population of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistant Phenotypes in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duim, Birgitta; Verstappen, Koen M; Broens, Els M; Laarhoven, Laura M; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Hordijk, Joost; de Heus, Phebe; Spaninks, Mirlin; Timmerman, Arjen J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2016-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), which is often multidrug resistant (MDR), has recently emerged as a threat to canine health worldwide. Knowledge of the temporal distribution of specific MRSP lineages, their antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, and their association with clinical conditions may help us to understand the emergence and spread of MRSP in dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the yearly proportions of MRSP lineages and their antimicrobial-resistant phenotypes in the Netherlands and to examine possible associations with clinical conditions. MRSP was first isolated from a canine specimen submitted for diagnostics to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University in 2004. The annual cumulative incidence of MRSP among S. pseudintermedius increased from 0.9% in 2004 to 7% in 2013. MRSP was significantly associated with pyoderma and, to a lesser extent, with wound infections and otitis externa. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 478 MRSP isolates yielded 39 sequence types (ST) belonging to 4 clonal complexes (CC) and 15 singletons. CC71 was the dominant lineage that emerged since 2004, and CC258, CC45, and several unlinked isolates became more frequent during the following years. All but two strains conferred an MDR phenotype, but strains belonging to CC258 or singletons were less resistant. In conclusion, our study showed that MDR CC71 emerged as the dominant lineage from 2004 and onward and that less-resistant lineages were partly replacing CC71.

  3. Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes in multidrug-resistant clinical Bacteroides fragilis isolates by whole genome shotgun sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Sóki, József; Hasman, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis constitutes the most frequent anaerobic bacterium causing bacteremia in humans. The genetic background for antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis is diverse with some genes requiring insertion sequence (IS) elements inserted upstream for increased expression. To evaluate whole...... genetic data will most likely require complete or nearly complete genomes. Current approaches to this are laborious and/or costly. Emerging technologies such as nanopore based single DNA strand sensing could perhaps provide a solution in the future....

  4. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in retail aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Shi, Xianming; Xiao, Wenjia; Zhang, Jing; Gu, Zhen; Xu, Xuebin; Meng, Jianghong

    2015-10-01

    Aquaculture products can become sources of Salmonella by exposure to contaminated water or through processing practices, thus representing a public health hazard. A study was conducted on Salmonella contamination in aquaculture products sampled from marketplaces and retailers in Shanghai, China. A total of 730 samples (including fish, shellfish, bullfrog, clam, shrimp and others) were obtained from 2006 to 2011. Among them, 217 (29.7%) were positive for Salmonella. Thirty-eight serovars were identified in the 217 Salmonella isolates. The most prevalent were Salmonella Aberdeen (18.4%), S. Wandsworth (12.0%), S. Thompson (9.2%), S. Singapore (5.5%), S. Stanley (4.6%), S. Schwarzengrund (4.6%), S. Hvittingfoss (4.1%) and S. Typhimurium (4.1%). Many resistant isolates were detected, with 69.6% resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. We observed high resistance to sulfonamides (56.5%), tetracycline (34.1%), streptomycin (28.6%), ampicillin (23.5%) and nalidixic acid (21.2%). Lower levels of resistance were found for gentamicin (3.2%), ciprofloxacin (2.3%), ceftiofur (1.3%), cefotaxime (0.9%), ceftazidime (0.5%) and cefepime (0.5%). A total of 43.3% of the Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant and 44 different resistance patterns were found. This study provided data on the prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from retail aquaculture products in Shanghai, and indicated the need for monitoring programs for microbiologic safety in such projects and for more prudent drug use in aquaculture production in order to reduce the risk of development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Vibrio spp. in retail shrimps in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tra, Vu Thi Thu; Meng, Lu; Pichpol, Duangporn; Pham, Ngan Hong; Baumann, Maximilian; Alter, Thomas; Huehn, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Vibrio (V.) spp. isolated from retail shrimp in Hanoi, Vietnam A total of 202 shrimp samples were collected from retail markets located in ten urban districts of Hanoi. Among those, 201 (99.5%) samples were positive for Vibrio spp. The most common species detected was V parahaemolyticus (96.5%), followed by V. alginolyticus (56.4%), V. cholerae (2%) and V. vulnificus (1.5%). Multiple Vibrio spp. were found in 114 (56.4%) samples. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh (thermostable direct haemolysin) and trh (tdh-related haemolysin) genes. In total, 195 V. parahaemolyticus isolates, four V. cholerae isolates and three V. vulnificus isolates were tested for resistance to eight antimicrobial agents. V. parahaemolyticus isolates showed high rates of resistance against ampicillin (87.2%), while a moderate rate was observed for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (18.5%) and intermediate resistance towards tetracycline (24.6%). Low resistance rates (0.5%) were recorded against both ciprofloxacin and cefalothin. Only one V. cholerae isolate with resistance to ampicillin and two V. cholerae isolates with resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim were found. All V. vulnificus isolates were susceptible to the eight antimicrobial agents tested. However, the number of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae was small. Multi-resistant isolates were found in V. parahaemolyticus with a low frequency (16.9%). The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous nature of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail. To reduce the potential risk of Vibrio infections due to handling or consumption of undercooked seafood, good manufacturing practice as well as safe handling and processing should be encouraged.

  6. A brief multi-disciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global environmental microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantas, L.; Shah, Syed Q A; Cavaco, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial agents to clinical medicine was one of the greatest medical triumphs of the 20th century that revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the gradual emergence of populations of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria resulting...

  7. Effect of Antimicrobial Consumption and Production Type on Antibacterial Resistance in the Bovine Respiratory and Digestive Tract.

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    Boudewijn Catry

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the digestive and respiratory tract in three different production systems of food producing animals. A longitudinal study was set up in 25 Belgian bovine herds (10 dairy, 10 beef, and 5 veal herds for a 2 year monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibilities in E. coli and Pasteurellaceae retrieved from the rectum and the nasal cavity, respectively. During the first year of observation, the antimicrobial use was prospectively recorded on 15 of these farms (5 of each production type and transformed into the treatment incidences according to the (animal defined daily dose (TIADD and (actually used daily dose (TIUDD. Antimicrobial resistance rates of 4,174 E. coli (all herds and 474 Pasteurellaceae (beef and veal herds only isolates for 12 antimicrobial agents demonstrated large differences between intensively reared veal calves (abundant and inconstant and more extensively reared dairy and beef cattle (sparse and relatively stable. Using linear mixed effect models, a strong relation was found between antimicrobial treatment incidences and resistance profiles of 1,639 E. coli strains (p<0.0001 and 309 Pasteurellaceae (p≤0.012. These results indicate that a high antimicrobial selection pressure, here found to be represented by low dosages of oral prophylactic and therapeutic group medication, converts not only the commensal microbiota from the digestive tract but also the opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract into reservoirs of multi-resistance.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance profiling and molecular subtyping of Campylobacter spp. from processed turkey

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    Sherwood Julie S

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is a major cause of human disease worldwide and poultry are identified as a significant source of this pathogen. Most disease in humans is associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry or cross-contamination with other foods. The primary drugs of choice for treatment of human campylobacteriosis include erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin in Campylobacter isolates recovered from turkey carcasses at two processing plants in the Upper Midwest US. Further analysis of a subset of isolates was carried out to assess resistance and genotype profiles. Results Campylobacter isolates from plant A (n = 439; including 196 C. coli and 217 C. jejuni and plant B (n = 362, including 281 C. coli and 62 C. jejuni were tested for susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin using agar dilution. C. coli were more frequently resistant than C. jejuni in both plants, including resistance to ciprofloxacin (28% of C. jejuni and 63% of C. coli, plant B; and 11% of C. coli, plant A. Erythromycin resistance was low among C. jejuni (0% plant A and 0.3% plant B compared to C. coli (41%, plant A and 17%, plant B. One hundred resistant and susceptible isolates were selected for additional antimicrobial susceptibility testing, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the flaA gene (fla typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Fla-PFGE types obtained (n = 37 were associated with a specific plant with the exception of one type that was isolated from both plants. C. coli isolates (n = 65 were grouped into 20 types, while C. jejuni isolates (n = 35 were grouped into 17 types. Most isolates with identical fla-PFGE patterns shared identical or very similar antimicrobial resistance profiles. PFGE alone and composite analysis using fla-PFGE with resistance profiles separated C. jejuni and C. coli into distinct groups. Conclusion

  9. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacter spp. isolates from companion animals in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Kimura, Yui; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Ohki, Asami; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacter spp., including resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), is of great concern in both human and veterinary medicine. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 60 isolates of Enterobacter spp., including E. cloacae (n = 44), E. aerogenes (n = 10), and E. asburiae (n = 6), from clinical specimens of dogs and cats from 15 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we characterized the resistance mechanisms harbored by these isolates, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR); and assessed the genetic relatedness of ESC-resistant Enterobacter spp. strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated the resistance rates to ampicillin (93.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (93.3%), cefmetazole (93.3%), chloramphenicol (46.7%), ciprofloxacin (43.3%), tetracycline (40.0%), ceftazidime (33.3%), cefotaxime (33.3%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (28.3%), gentamicin (23.3%), and meropenem (0%). Phenotypic testing detected ESBLs in 16 of 18 ESC-resistant E. cloacae isolates but not in the other species. The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (n = 8), followed by SHV-12 (n = 7), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1). As for AmpC β-lactamases, CMY-2 (n = 2) and DHA-1 (n = 2) were identified in ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains with or without ESBLs. All of the ESC-resistant E. cloacae strains also harbored one or two PMQRs, including qnrB (n = 15), aac(6’)-Ib-cr (n = 8), and qnrS (n = 2). Based on MLST and PFGE analysis, E. cloacae clones of ST591-SHV-12, ST171-CTX-M-15, and ST121-CTX-M-15 were detected in one or several hospitals. These results suggested intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of E. cloacae clones co-harboring ESBLs and PMQRs among companion animals. This is the first report on the large-scale monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant isolates

  10. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Enterobacteriaceae Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Gottlieb, Thomas; Robson, Jenny; George, Narelle

    2016-06-30

    The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2014 survey was the second year to focus on blood stream infections. During 2014, 5,798 Enterobacteriaceae species isolates were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix, BD) and results were analysed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2015). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 9.0%/9.0% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 7.8%/7.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.0%/8.0% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.4%/11.6% for E. coli, 5.0%/7.7% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, and 3.5%/6.5% in Enterobacter cloacae. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.2%/6.8%, 4.8%/7.2%, 11.1%/11.5%, and 19.0%/24.7% for the same 4 species respectively. Fourteen isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 7 blaIMP-4, 3 blaKPC-2, 3 blaVIM-1, 1 blaNDM-4, and 1 blaOXA-181-lke.

  11. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people.

  12. Prevalence, characteristics, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella in retail pork in Jiangsu province, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Pan, Zhi-Ming; Kang, Xi-Long; Geng, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Cai, Yin-Qiang; Jiao, Xin-An

    2014-02-01

    Salmonella is commonly isolated from raw pork and is a leading cause of foodborne illness. Because China has the highest rate of pork consumption and the largest number of pig breeding facilities in the world, an epidemiological analysis of Salmonella species from pork in China is warranted. In this study, pork samples (n = 1,096) were collected from 20 major free markets in four cities of Jiangsu province from August 2010 to December 2012. A total of 163 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 154 Salmonella-positive samples. Among 14 Salmonella serovars identified, Derby (47.9%) was most prevalent, followed by Typhimurium (10.4%), Meleagridis (9.2%), Anatum (8.6%), and London (6.7%). Antimicrobial sensitivity testing revealed that 134 (82.2%) of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, and 41 (25.2%) were resistant to more than three antimicrobials. The highest resistance was to tetracycline (66.3% of isolates) followed by ampicillin (39.9%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (31.3%), and nalidixic acid (30.1%). Multilocus sequence typing analysis revealed 14 sequence type (ST) patterns; ST40 was the most common (77 isolates) followed by ST64 (19 isolates). Our research revealed a high prevalence of Salmonella in retail pork. Diversity among the Salmonella isolates was high in terms of serovar and genotype, and multidrug resistance was prevalent. Multilocus sequence type was generally associated with serovar and provided a reliable prediction of the most common Salmonella serovars.

  13. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from human and animal sources uncovers multiple resistances from human sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli are widely used as indicators of fecal contamination, and in some cases to identify host sources of fecal contamination in surface water. Prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined for 600 generic E. coli isolates obtained from surface water and sediment from creeks and channels along the middle Santa Ana River (MSAR) watershed of southern California, USA, after a 12 month study. Evaluation of E. coli populations along the creeks and channels showed that E. coli were more prevalent in sediment compared to surface water. E. coli populations were not significantly different (P = 0.05) between urban runoff sources and agricultural sources, however, E. coli genotypes determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were less diverse in the agricultural sources than in urban runoff sources. PFGE also showed that E. coli populations in surface water were more diverse than in the sediment, suggesting isolates in sediment may be dominated by clonal populations.Twenty four percent (144 isolates) of the 600 isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. Most multiple resistances were associated with inputs from urban runoff and involved the antimicrobials rifampicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. The occurrence of a greater number of E. coli with multiple antibiotic resistances from urban runoff sources than agricultural sources in this watershed provides useful evidence in planning strategies for water quality management and public health protection.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and presence of the SXT mobile element in Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aljaro, Cristina; Riera-Heredia, Jordi; Blanch, Anicet R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the susceptibility of Vibrio spp. strains isolated from fish cultures against some usually applied antibiotics and the occurrence of the SXT mobile genetic element among them. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by the standard disk diffusion technique while the presence of the SXT mobile genetic element was determined by conventional PCR. High levels of resistance to ampicillin (70%), cefoxitin (44%), streptomycin (31%), aztreonam (25%) and sulfamethoxazole (21%) were detected, and a high inter-and-intraspecies diversity in the resistance profile was observed for the majority of the analysed isolates. The SXT mobile genetic element was detected in only 4 isolates belonging to the species V. diazotrophicus (1), V. mediterranei (2) and V. vulnificus (1), which showed a variable antibiotic resistance profile. Horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer from the V. diazotrophicus SXT-positive strain to a laboratory E. coli strain was demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Our results suggest that the Vibrio spp. isolated from aquaculture facilities analysed in this study, although not being pathogenic, they constitute a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be mobilized to other bacterial populations through mobile genetic elements. However, the low occurrence of the SXT element in these isolates supports the hypothesis that this element is not involved in the development of resistance in the majority of Vibrio spp. in the examined aquaculture facilities.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Phung, Dac Cam; Watanabe, Haruo; Kuo, Jung-Che; Wang, Pei-Jen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Chen, Pei-Chen

    2014-11-01

    We characterized Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Vietnam to investigate their genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance. The isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were genetically closely related but were distant from those from Indonesia and Taiwan. All but a few isolates from Indonesia and Taiwan were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The majority of isolates from Bangladesh and Vietnam were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to the widespread haplotype H58 clone. IncHI1 plasmids were detected in all MDR S. Typhi isolates from Vietnam but in only 15% of MDR isolates from Bangladesh. Resistance genes in the majority of MDR S. Typhi isolates from Bangladesh should reside in the chromosome. Among the isolates from Bangladesh, 82% and 40% were resistant to various concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Several resistance mechanisms, including alterations in gyrase A, the presence of QnrS, and enhanced efflux pumps, were involved in the reduced susceptibility and resistance to fluoroquinolones. Intensive surveillance is necessary to monitor the spread of chromosome-mediated MDR and fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Typhi emerging in Bangladesh.

  16. Microarray Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence of Escherichia coli Isolates from Portuguese Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of 174 Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy Portuguese Gallus gallus was evaluated. Resistance profiles were determined against 33 antimicrobials by microbroth dilution. Resistance was prevalent for tetracycline (70% and ampicillin (63%. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL phenotype was observed in 18% of the isolates. Multidrug resistance was found in 56% of isolates. A subset of 74 isolates were screened by DNA microarrays for the carriage of 88 antibiotic resistance genes and 62 virulence genes. Overall, 37 different resistance genes were detected. The most common were tet(A (72%, blaTEM (68%, and sul1 (47%, while 21% isolates harbored an ESBL gene (blaCTX-M group 1, group 2, or group 9. Of these, 96% carried the increased serum survival (iss virulence gene, while 89% presented the enterobactin siderophore receptor protein (iroN, 70% the temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and 68% the long polar fimbriae (lpfA virulence genes associated with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. In conclusion, prevalence of antibiotic resistant E. coli from the microbiota of Portuguese chickens was high, including to extended spectrum cephalosporins. The majority of isolates seems to have the potential to trigger extraintestinal human infection due to the presence of some virulence genes. However, the absence of genes specific for enteropathogenic E. coli reduces the risk for human intestinal infection.

  17. The role of drinking water in the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B L; Salvadori, M I; McGeer, A J; Sibley, K A; Neumann, N F; Bondy, S J; Gutmanis, I A; McEwen, S A; Lavoie, M; Strong, D; Johnson, I; Jamieson, F B; Louie, M

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether drinking water contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant E. coli is associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli, selected households sending water samples to Ontario and Alberta laboratories in 2005-2006 were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study. Household members aged ≥12 years were asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit a rectal swab. In 878 individuals, 41% carried a resistant strain of E. coli and 28% carried a multidrug-resistant strain. The risk of carriage of resistant E. coli was 1·26 times higher for users of water contaminated with resistant E. coli. Other risk factors included international travel [prevalence ratio (PR) 1·33], having a child in nappies (PR 1·33), being male (PR 1·33), and frequent handling of raw red meats (PR 1·10). Protecting private water sources (e.g. by improving systems to test and treat them) may help slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  19. [Bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin and other new quinolones against antimicrobial resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Intetsu; Kanayama, Akiko; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Kaneko, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a study assess the bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from respiratory infections including penicillin-resistant (PRSP) isolates, macrolide resistant isolates possessing mefA and ermB resistance genes and quinolone resistance isolates with mutations in gyrA or gyrA and parC. Each isolate tested was grown in hemosupplemented Mueller-Hinton broth and adjusted to approximately 10(5) CFU/ mL. Isolates were than exposed to a Cmax antimicrobial blood level that would be attained with routine antimicrobial administration and an antimicrobial level that would be expected 4 hours post-Cmax (Cmax 4hr). Bactericidal activity was measured for up to 8 hours. Excluding a subset of S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), all quinolones showed bactericidal activity at Cmax and Cmax 4 hr antimicrobial concentrations for up to 8 hours. Against S. pneumoniae isolates with either gyrA or gyrA and parC mutations, bactericidal activity of STFX was shown for up to 4 to 8 hours following Cmax based on a limit of detection of quinolones tested where adjusted to concentrations corresponding to their MICs, STFX showed the most rapid bactericidal activity against PRSP. This rapid bactericidal activity in PRSP is a key to the effectiveness of STFX. Our findings show that beyond inhibition of bacterial replication by blocking their DNA replication pathway and synthesis of proteins, STFX demonstrated characteristics contributing to greater bactericidal activity compared to GRNX. In conclusion, of the newer quinolones, STFX showed the strongest bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the QRDR which indicates that it may show the most effective clinical utility among the quinolones in respiratory infections.

  20. Use of natural antimicrobials to increase antibiotic susceptibility of drug resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Holley, Richard A

    2010-06-15

    Plant-derived antibacterial compounds may be of value as a novel means for controlling antibiotic resistant zoonotic pathogens which contaminate food animals and their products. Individual activity of natural antimicrobials (eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, allyl isothiocyanate (AIT)) and activity when paired with an antibiotic was studied using broth microdilution and checkerboard methods. In the latter assays, fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values were calculated to characterize interactions between the inhibitors. Bacteria tested were chosen because of their resistance to at least one antibiotic which had a known genetic basis. Substantial susceptibility of these bacteria toward the natural antimicrobials and a considerable reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) of the antibiotics were noted when paired combinations of antimicrobial and antibiotic were used. In the interaction study, thymol and carvacrol were found to be highly effective in reducing the resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium SGI 1 (tet A) to ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, bacitracin, erythromycin and novobiocin (FIC<0.4) and resistance of Streptococcus pyogenes ermB to erythromycin (FIC<0.5). With Escherichia coli N00 666, thymol and cinnamaldehyde were found to have a similar effect (FIC<0.4) in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, tetracycline, penicillin, erythromycin and novobiocin. Carvacrol, thymol (FIC<0.3) and cinnamaldehyde (FIC<0.4) were effective against Staphylococcus aureus blaZ and in reducing the MIC's of ampicillin, penicillin and bacitracin. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) was effective in reducing the MIC of erythromycin (FIC<0.3) when tested against S. pyogenes. Fewer combinations were found to be synergistic when the decrease in viable population (log DP) was calculated. Together, fractional inhibitory concentrations < or = 0.5 and log DP<-1 indicated synergistic action between four natural antimicrobials and as many as three antibiotics

  1. Nonlinear Stochastic Modelling of Antimicrobial resistance in Bacterial Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Kirsten Riber

    in humans and animals. To prevent the evolution and spread of resistance, there is a need for further understanding of its dynamics. A grey-box modelling approach based on stochastic differential equations is the main and innovative method applied to study bacterial systems in this thesis. Through...... for bacterial growth in an environment with multiple substrates. Models based on stochastic differential equations are also used in studies of mutation and conjugation. Mutation and conjugation are important mechanisms for the development of resistance. Earlier models for conjugation have described systems...

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Genes in Aerobic Bacteria Isolated from Pork at Slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Olsen, Rikke Heidemann; Ye, Lei

    2016-01-01

    oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Myroides phaeus; tet(L) in M. caseolyticus; sul1 in Vibrio cincinnatiensis; sul2 in Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and V. cincinnatiensis; and the class 1 integron and gene cassette aadA2 in V. cincinnatiensis. Approximately 6...... resistance genes were found in new carriers: bla TEM in Lactococcus garvieae, Myroides odoratimimus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Staphylococcus sciuri, Raoultella terrigena, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Acinetobacter ursingii, Sphingobacterium sp., and Oceanobacillus sp.; bla CMY-2 in Lactococcus lactis, Klebsiella...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirles A. França

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and to identify molecular resistance markers in Staphylococcus spp. (n=210 isolated from small ruminant mastitis in Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance patterns were evaluated by the disk diffusion test and by detection of the presence of mecA, blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes by PCR. The efflux pump test was performed using ethidium bromide and biofilm production was determined by Congo red agar test along with PCR for detection of the icaD gene. The isolates were most resistant to amoxicillin (50.0%, streptomycin (42.8%, tetracycline (40.4%, lincomycin (39.0% and erythromycin (33.8%. Pan-susceptibility to all tested drugs was observed in 71 (33.8% isolates and 41 Staphylococcus isolates were positive for the efflux pump. Although phenotypic resistance to oxacillin was observed in 12.8% of the isolates, none harbored the mecA gene. However, 45.7% of the isolates harbored blaZ indicating that beta-lactamase production was the main mechanism associated with staphylococci resistance to beta-lactams in the present study. The other determinants of resistance to antimicrobial agents ermA, ermB, ermC, and msrA were observed in 1.4%, 10.4%, 16.2%, and 0.9% of the isolates, respectively. In addition, the icaD gen was detected in 32.9% of the isolates. Seventy three isolates (54 from goats and 19 from sheep were negative for all resistance genes tested and 69 isolates presented two or more resistance genes. Association among blaZ, ermA, ermB, ermC and efflux pump were observed in 17 isolates, 14 of which originated from goats and three from sheep. The data obtained in this study show the resistance of the isolates to beta-lactamics, which may be associated with the use of antimicrobial drugs without veterinary control.

  4. A brief multi-disciplinary review on antimicrobial resistance in medicine and its linkage to the global environmental microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon eCantas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial agents to clinical medicine was one of the greatest medical triumphs of the 20th century that revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the gradual emergence of populations of antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic bacteria resulting from use, misuse and abuse of antimicrobials has today become a major global health concern. Antimicrobial resistance genes have been suggested to originate from environmental bacteria, as clinically relevant resistance genes have been detected on the chromosome of environmental bacteria. As only a few new antimicrobials have been developed in the last decade, the further evolution of resistance poses a serious threat to public health. Urgent measures are required not only to minimize the use of antimicrobials for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes but also to look for alternative strategies for the control of bacterial infections. This review examines the global picture of antibacterial resistance, factors that favor its spread, strategies and limitations for its control and the need for continuous training of all stake-holders i.e. medical, veterinary, public health and other relevant professionals as well as human consumers of antibiotic drugs, in the appropriate use of antimicrobials.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of peptidomimetics against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Rasmus D; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Franzyk, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli was assessed by testing an array comprising different types of cationic peptidomimetics obtained by a general monomer-based solid-phase synthesis protocol. Most of the peptidomimetics possessed high to moderate activity toward multidrug-resistant E. coli as opposed to the corresponding...

  6. [Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli--epidemiology, pathogenicity and antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) are one of the most common foodborne pathogen in human worldwide. High pathogenic potential of these organisms makes it often the cause of international outbreaks with numerous fatalities. This study presents the current knowledge on verocytotoxigenic E. coli: pathogenicity, drug resistance as well as the epidemiology of infections.

  7. The use of antibiotics and implications for antimicrobial resistance development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Harald-Jan van

    2004-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has reached pandemic proportions and the increasing incidences have alarmed medical healthcare associations world wide. Some thirty years ago it was almost all infectious diseases were conquered, but over the last decades we have witnessed the re-emergence of known contagious d

  8. Superbugs II: how should economic evaluation be conducted for interventions which aim to contain antimicrobial resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard; Karcher, Anne-Marie; Wilton, Paula; Millar, Michael

    2002-10-01

    To date, there has been little examination of the problems associated with conducting economic evaluation for interventions designed to contain antimicrobial resistance. There are two quite different types of intervention aimed at containing antimicrobial resistance: interventions which are designed to avoid the emergence of resistant organisms; and interventions that are designed to avoid the transmission of resistance organisms. Four aspects of economic evaluation where the ease of assessment might be expected to differ across evaluations for these different types of intervention are examined: problems associated with the identification of diffuse impacts, problems associated with comparing current and future impacts, problems associated with uncertainty, and problems associated with difficulties in measurement and valuation. The paper suggests that it may be much easier to conduct rigorous economic evaluations for interventions designed to avoid transmission of resistance, than for those intended to avoid emergence. Unfortunately, the transmission policies, which are likely to be the easiest to evaluate, are not likely to produce an optimal long-term outcome given the apparent irreversibility of much resistance and the potentially severe harms which could be imposed as a result. Given the desirability of avoiding a scenario where, in the evidence-based medicine culture, the most rigorously evaluated policies are followed even though they may be less important, there is the need to consider carefully what, and how, economic evaluation should be conducted in the area of antimicrobial resistance. It is suggested that research should focus on the use of modelling as a means of evaluating optimal policy responses and on trying to resolve some of the difficulties associated with measurement and valuation.

  9. Tackling the threat of antimicrobial resistance: from policy to sustainable action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Laura J; Howard, Simon J; Fowler, Tom; Davies, Sally C

    2015-06-05

    Antibiotics underpin all of modern medicine, from routine major surgery through to caesarean sections and modern cancer therapies. These drugs have revolutionized how we practice medicine, but we are in a constant evolutionary battle to evade microbial resistance and this has become a major global public health problem. We have overused and misused these essential medicines both in the human and animal health sectors and this threatens the effectiveness of antimicrobials for future generations. We can only address the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through international collaboration across human and animal health sectors integrating social, economic and behavioural factors. Our global organizations are rising to the challenge with the recent World Health Assembly resolution on AMR and development of the Global Action plan but we must act now to avoid a return to a pre-antibiotic era.

  10. Foodborne urinary tract infections (FUTIs: a new paradigm for antimicrobial-resistant foodborne illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora eNordstrom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Disproportionately affecting women, UTIs exact a substantial public burden each year in terms of direct medical expenses, decreased quality of life, and lost productivity. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli challenges successful treatment of UTIs. Community-acquired UTIs were long considered sporadic infections, typically caused by the patients’ native gastrointestinal microbiota; however, the recent recognition of UTI outbreaks with probable foodborne origins has shifted our understanding of UTI epidemiology. Along with this paradigm shift come new opportunities to disrupt the infection process and possibly quell increasing resistance, including the elimination of nontherapeutic antimicrobial use in food-animal production.

  11. Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    EFSA's Community Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Antimicrobial resistance in the European Union in 2004 was published in December 2005. The zoonoses, meaning infectious diseases transmissible from animals to humans, affected over 380,000 EU citizens in 2004....... Often the human form of the disease is acquired through contaminated food. According to the report, the two most frequently reported zoonotic diseases in humans were Salmonella and Campylobacter infections. These bacteria were also commonly found in food and animals. The report includes information...... of 11 zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic agents as well as foodborne outbreaks. The national zoonoses country reports which have been used as a basis for this Summary report are below. The utmost effort was made to keep the information in the Summary Report and the national reports identical...

  12. Evaluation of an antimicrobial resistance monitoring program for campylobacter in poultry by simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regula, G.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Ledergerber, U.;

    2005-01-01

    An ideal national resistance monitoring program should deliver a precise estimate of the resistance situation for a given combination of bacteria and antimicrobial at a low cost. To achieve this, decisions need to be made on the number of samples to be collected at each of different possible...... of isolation of these bacteria. Our aim was to develop a stochastic simulation model that optimized a national resistance monitoring program, taking multi-stage sampling, imperfect sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, and cost-effectiveness considerations into account. The process of resistance...... testing were evaluated regarding the precision of the resulting prevalence estimate. Precision of the prevalence estimate was defined as the absolute difference between apparent and true prevalence of resistance. A partial budget approach was utilized to find the most cost-effective combination of samples...

  13. Effects of in-feed chlortetracycline prophylaxis of beef cattle on animal health and antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TETr) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GCr) E. coli. We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal h...

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Typing of Salmonella Stanley Isolated from Humans, Foods, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaowei; Kuang, Dai; Meng, Jianghong; Pan, Haijian; Shen, Junqing; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Weimin; Chen, Qi; Shi, Xianming; Xu, Xuebin; Zhang, Jianmin

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley is an important serovar that has been increasingly identified in human salmonellosis. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing of 88 Salmonella Stanley strains isolated from humans (diarrhea patients, n = 64; and healthy carrier, n = 1), foods (aquatic products, n = 16; vegetable, n = 1; and pork, n = 1), and environment (waste water, n = 2; and river water, n = 3) in Shanghai, China from 2006 to 2012. Nearly half of the strains were resistant to sulfafurazole (43/88, 48.9%), and many were resistant to streptomycin (35/88, 39.8%), tetracycline (22/88, 25%), and nalidixic acid (19/88, 21.6%). Approximately a quarter of the strains (24/88, 27.3%) were resistant to more than three antimicrobials, and five had ACSSuT resistance type. Six clusters (A-F) were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with 80% similarity. Interestingly, strains in the same cluster identified by PFGE possessed similar antibiotic resistance patterns. PFGE typing also indicated that aquatic products might serve as a transmission reservoir for Salmonella Stanley infections in humans.

  15. Coping with antibiotic resistance: combining nanoparticles with antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kon, Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Malahat; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2011-11-01

    The worldwide escalation of bacterial resistance to conventional medical antibiotics is a serious concern for modern medicine. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among bacteria-based infections decreases effectiveness of current treatments and causes thousands of deaths. New improvements in present methods and novel strategies are urgently needed to cope with this problem. Owing to their antibacterial activities, metallic nanoparticles represent an effective solution for overcoming bacterial resistance. However, metallic nanoparticles are toxic, which causes restrictions in their use. Recent studies have shown that combining nanoparticles with antibiotics not only reduces the toxicity of both agents towards human cells by decreasing the requirement for high dosages but also enhances their bactericidal properties. Combining antibiotics with nanoparticles also restores their ability to destroy bacteria that have acquired resistance to them. Furthermore, nanoparticles tagged with antibiotics have been shown to increase the concentration of antibiotics at the site of bacterium-antibiotic interaction, and to facilitate binding of antibiotics to bacteria. Likewise, combining nanoparticles with antimicrobial peptides and essential oils generates genuine synergy against bacterial resistance. In this article, we aim to summarize recent studies on interactions between nanoparticles and antibiotics, as well as other antibacterial agents to formulate new prospects for future studies. Based on the promising data that demonstrated the synergistic effects of antimicrobial agents with nanoparticles, we believe that this combination is a potential candidate for more research into treatments for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

  16. Macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs: use and development of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, Satu; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

    2014-05-01

    Macrolides and lincosamides are important antibacterials for the treatment of many common infections in cattle and pigs. Products for in-feed medication with these compounds in combination with other antimicrobials are commonly used in Europe. Most recently approved injectable macrolides have very long elimination half-lives in both pigs and cattle, which allows once-only dosing regimens. Both in-feed medication and use of long-acting injections result in low concentrations of the active substance for prolonged periods, which causes concerns related to development of antimicrobial resistance. Acquired resistance to macrolides and lincosamides among food animal pathogens, including some zoonotic bacteria, has now emerged. A comparison of studies on the prevalence of resistance is difficult, since for many micro-organisms no agreed standards for susceptibility testing are available. With animal pathogens, the most dramatic increase in resistance has been seen in the genus Brachyspira. Resistance towards macrolides and lincosamides has also been detected in staphylococci isolated from pigs and streptococci from cattle. This article reviews the use of macrolides and lincosamides in cattle and pigs, as well as the development of resistance in target and some zoonotic pathogens. The focus of the review is on European conditions.

  17. Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2014-11-01

    Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability.

  18. The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, Manjusha; Ammini, Parvathi; Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F.

    2017-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal–associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water. PMID:28335438

  19. Defensive remodeling: How bacterial surface properties and biofilm formation promote resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuri, Reut; Shprung, Tal; Shai, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Multidrug resistance bacteria are a major concern worldwide. These pathogens cannot be treated with conventional antibiotics and thus alternative therapeutic agents are needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be good candidates for this purpose. Most AMPs are short and positively charged amphipathic peptides, which are found in all known forms of life. AMPs are known to kill bacteria by binding to the negatively charged bacterial surface, and in most cases cause membrane disruption. Resistance toward AMPs can be developed, by modification of bacterial surface molecules, secretion of protective material and up-regulation or elimination of specific proteins. Because of the general mechanisms of attachment and action of AMPs, bacterial resistance to AMPs often involves biophysical and biochemical changes such as surface rigidity, cell wall thickness, surface charge, as well as membrane and cell wall modification. Here we focus on the biophysical, surface and surrounding changes that bacteria undergo in acquiring resistance to AMPs. In addition we discuss the question of whether bacterial resistance to administered AMPs might compromise our innate immunity to endogenous AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.

  20. Whole Genome Sequencing for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Janine T.; Li, Yanwen; Rogers, Jon; Fernandez Crespo, Roberto; Li, Yinghui; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Wren, Brendan W.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Langford, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 96 clinical isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important porcine respiratory pathogen, and the identification of AMR genes in whole genome sequence (wgs) data. Susceptibility of the isolates to nine antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, tilmicosin, trimethoprim, and tylosin) was determined by agar dilution susceptibility test. Except for the macrolides tested, elevated MICs were highly correlated to the presence of AMR genes identified in wgs data using ResFinder or BLASTn. Of the isolates tested, 57% were resistant to tetracycline [MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 94.8% with either tet(B) or tet(H)]; 48% to sulfisoxazole (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L or DD = 6; 100% with sul2), 20% to ampicillin (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L; 100% with blaROB-1), 17% to trimethoprim (MIC ≥ 32 mg/L; 100% with dfrA14), and 6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 mg/L; 100% with GyrAS83F). Only 33% of the isolates did not have detectable AMR genes, and were sensitive by MICs for the antimicrobial agents tested. Although 23 isolates had MIC ≥ 32 mg/L for tylosin, all isolates had MIC ≤ 16 mg/L for both erythromycin and tilmicosin, and no macrolide resistance genes or known point mutations were detected. Other than the GyrAS83F mutation, the AMR genes detected were mapped to potential plasmids. In addition to presence on plasmid(s), the tet(B) gene was also found chromosomally either as part of a 56 kb integrative conjugative element (ICEApl1) in 21, or as part of a Tn7 insertion in 15 isolates. Our results indicate that, with the exception of macrolides, wgs data can be used to accurately predict resistance of A. pleuropneumoniae to the tested antimicrobial agents and provides added value for routine surveillance.

  1. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

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    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  2. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-02-24

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  3. A review of 40 years of enteric antimicrobial resistance research in Eastern Africa: what can be done better?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistance is driven by varied factors including the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and variable drug efficacy and presents a major threat to the control of infectious diseases. Despite the high burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential health and economic consequences, the level of research on antimicrobial resistance in the region remains unknown. Little data exists to quantify the contribution of different factors to the cur...

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  5. Virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Pasteurella multocida isolated from poultry and swine

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    Thales Quedi Furian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pasteurella multocida causes atrophic rhinitis in swine and fowl cholera in birds, and is a secondary agent in respiratory syndromes. Pathogenesis and virulence factors involved are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to detect 22 virulence-associated genes by PCR, including capsular serogroups A, B and D genes and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of P. multocida strains from poultry and swine. ompH, oma87, plpB, psl, exbD-tonB, fur, hgbA, nanB, sodA, sodC, ptfA were detected in more than 90% of the strains of both hosts. 91% and 92% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were classified in serogroup A. toxA and hsf-1 showed a significant association to serogroup D; pmHAS and pfhA to serogroup A. Gentamicin and amoxicillin were the most effective drugs with susceptibility higher than 97%; however, 76.79% of poultry strains and 85% of swine strains were resistant to sulphonamides. Furthermore, 19.64% and 36.58% of avian and swine strains, respectively, were multi-resistant. Virulence genes studied were not specific to a host and may be the result of horizontal transmission throughout evolution. High multidrug resistance demonstrates the need for responsible use of antimicrobials in animals intended for human consumption, in addition to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to P. multocida.

  6. Antimicrobial-resistant and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in different ecological niches in Bangladesh

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    Mahmudur Rashid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid and wide-scale environmental spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria in different ecosystems has become a serious issue in recent years. Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL in Bangladeshi wild birds and aquatic environments, samples were taken from Open Bill Stork (Anastomus oscitans (OBS and the nearby water sources. Methods: Water and fresh fecal samples were collected from several locations. All samples were processed and cultured for Escherichia coli and tested for antibiotic susceptibility against commonly used antibiotics. ESBL producers were characterized at genotypic level using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, multilocus sequence typing, and rep-PCR. Results and discussion: A total of 76 E. coli isolates from the 170 OBS and 8 E. coli isolates from three river sources were isolated. In total, 29% of E. coli isolated from OBS and all of the E. coli isolated from water sources were resistant to at least one of the tested antimicrobials. Resistant phenotypes were observed with all antimicrobials except tigecycline, gentamicin, imipenem, and chloramphenicol. Multidrug resistance was observed in 2.6% of OBS and 37.5% of the water isolates. Also, 1.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from OBS, whereas 50% of the E. coli isolated from water sources were ESBL producers possessing the CTX-M-15 gene. The most concerning aspect of our findings was the presence of human-associated E. coli sequence types in the water samples, for example, ST156-complex156, ST10-complex10 and ST46. Conclusion: This study reports the presence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli in OBSs and nearby aquatic sources in Bangladesh.

  7. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  8. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus species in chicken and beef raw meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Amer, Aziza M; Badr, Jihan M; Saad, Aalaa S A

    2015-05-01

    Coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) staphylococci cause staphylococcal food poisoning. Recently, CPS and CNS have received increasing attention due to their potential role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance markers. The present study aimed to evaluate CPS and CNS species distribution and their antibiotic resistance profile isolated from chicken and beef meat. Fifty fresh, uncooked chicken parts and 50 beef meat cuts (local n=27; imported n=23) were used. One hundred staphylococcal isolates belonging to 11 species were isolated and identified from chicken (n=50) and beef (n=50) raw meat samples. Staphylococcus hyicus (26/100), lugdunensis (18/100), aureus (15/100) and epidermidis (14/100) were dominant. S. aureus was 100% resistant to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Vancomycin-resistant S. aureus showed intermediate resistance (51%), which might indicate the dissemination of vancomycin resistance in the community and imply food safety hazards. The percentage of resistance to β-lactams was variable, with the highest resistance being to penicillin (94%) and lowest to ampicillin-sulbactam (22%). Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against penicillin (94%), clindamycin (90%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (82%). The results indicate that chicken and beef raw meat are an important source of antibiotic-resistant CPS and CNS.

  9. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant activity against pathogenic bacteria including multidrug-resistant clinical strains

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    AJAY GHOSH CHALASANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cell free modified trypticase soya broth (pH 7.4+0.2 of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reverse-phased high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined for 11 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 1 µg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100µg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule.

  10. Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M A; Helke, Kristi L; Galloway, Ashley M; Poole, Ann Z; Salgado, Cassandra D; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-10-02

    Controversy continues concerning antimicrobial use in food animals and its relationship to drug-resistant infections in humans. We systematically reviewed published literature for evidence of a relationship between antimicrobial use in agricultural animals and drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans. Based on publications from the United States (U.S.), Canada and Denmark from 2010 to July 2014, 195 articles were retained for abstract review, 50 met study criteria for full article review with 36 retained for which data are presented. Two publications reported increase in macrolide resistance of Campylobacter coli isolated from feces of swine receiving macrolides in feed, and one of these described similar findings for tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. A study in growing turkeys demonstrated increased macrolide resistance associated with therapeutic dosing with Tylan® in drinking water. One publication linked tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone SA in raw cow's milk to a foodborne outbreak in humans. No studies that identified farm antimicrobial use also traced antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter from farm to fork. Recent literature confirms that on farm antibiotic selection pressure can increase colonization of animals with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp. but is inadequately detailed to establish a causal relationship between use of antimicrobials in agricultural animals and prevalence of drug-resistant foodborne campylobacteriosis in humans.

  11. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol). Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin) by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM) used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed. PMID:19735560

  12. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

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    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  13. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  14. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsdottir, T R; Haraldsson, G; Fridriksdottir, V; Kristinsson, K G; Gunnarsson, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of resistant bacteria in food products in Iceland is unknown, and little is known of the prevalence in production animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from healthy pigs and broiler chicken, pork, broiler meat, slaughterhouse personnel and outpatients in Iceland. A total of 419 E. coli isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using a microbroth dilution method (VetMIC), and resistant strains were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). All samples were screened for enrofloxacin-resistant strains with selective agar plates. The resistance rates among E. coli isolates were moderate to high from caecal and meat samples of pigs (54.1% and 28%), broilers (33.6% and 52%) and slaughterhouse personnel (39.1%), whereas isolates from outpatients showed moderate resistance rates (23.1%). Of notice was resistance to quinolones (minimum inhibitory concentrations: nalidixic acid > or = 32, ciprofloxacin > or = 0.12 and enrofloxacin > or = 0.5), particularly among broiler and broiler meat isolates (18.2% and 36%), as there is no known antimicrobial selection pressure in the broiler production in Iceland. The majority (78.6%) of the resistant E. coli isolates was genotypically different, based on PFGE fingerprint analyses and clustering was limited. However, the same resistance pattern and pulsotype were found among isolates from broiler meat and a slaughterhouse worker, indicating spread of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. Diverse resistance patterns and pulsotypes suggest the presence of a large population of resistant E. coli in production animals in Iceland. This study gives baseline information on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli from production animals, and their food products in Iceland and the moderate to high resistance rates emphasize the need for continuing surveillance. Further studies on the

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from beef at retail markets in the north Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Ha; Hirai, Takuya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Shimada, Akinori; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 39.9% (63/158) of beef samples collected from retail markets in Hanoi from January to June 2009 were Salmonella-positive. Nine Salmonella serovars, Anatum (28.6%), Rissen (25.4%), Weltevreden (12.7%), Typhimurium (7.9%), Derby (7.9%), Lexington (7.9%), Dublin (4.6%), Newport (3.2%) and London (1.8%), were identified. Thirty-seven (58.7%) of the 63 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested, of which 29 (46%) isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR). The isolates were commonly resistant to tetracycline (46.0%), sulphonamide (39.7%), ampicilline (31.7%), streptomycin (30.2%), trimethoprim (28.6%), kanamycin (28.6%) and chloramphenicol (22.2%). Fourteen (bla(TEMV), bla(OXA-1), aadA1, aadA2, sul1, tetA, tetB, tetG, cmlA1, floR, dfrA1, dfrA12, aac (3)-IV and aphA1-1AB) out of 22 antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by PCR from the resistant isolates. The catA1, Kn, blaPSE-1 genes and plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance (PMQR) genes such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and acc (6')-ib-cr were not detected. Mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and/or Asp87Asn were found in 6 out of the 11 quinolone-resistant isolates. The data revealed that multidrug resistant Salmonella strains were widely distributed in north Vietnam via the food chain and might contain multiple genes specifying identical resistant phenotypes. Thus, continuous studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of MDR in Salmonella and its spread in the livestock market.

  16. An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Alison E; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Brown, Derek J; Coia, John E; Browning, Lynda M; Haydon, Daniel T; Reid, Stuart W J

    2012-04-22

    We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteria-host ecosystems.

  17. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Ejaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S. aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration. Results: Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus

  18. Antimicrobial potential of Pakistani medicinal plants against multi-drug resistance Staphylococcus aureus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rahat Ejaz; Usman A Ashfaq; Sobia Idrees

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S.aureus strains. Methods: A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk) were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus. Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S.aureus. Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration.Results:Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Cucurbita pepo) exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava, Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi, Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria from industrially produced dairy products

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    Nevijo Zdolec

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the susceptibility to clindamycin, tetracycline, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and trimethoprim was tested in coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=78 and lactic acid bacteria (n=30 by means of disk diffusion test and E-test. The isolates were collected from soft and hard cheeses, butter and brine. All isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were susceptible to clindamycin, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin according to CLSI breakpoints. A total of 30 staphylococci isolates (38.46 % were resistant to erythromycin, 18 to penicillin (23.07 %, 4 to tetracycline (5.12 %, and one isolate to trimethoprim, tobramicin and trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (1.28 %. Among 78 tested staphylococci, 35 of them were resistant to at least one antimicrobial substance (44.87 %. The rate of resistant isolates of different soft cheese types ranged from 22 to 70 %, while resistant staphylococci were absent in hard cheese and brine. The growth of lactic acid bacteria was not influenced by trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (n=29, vancomycin (n=29, trimethoprim (n=28, amikacin (n=10 and tobramycin (n=10. The results show that significant part of apathogenic microbiota in different dairy products is phenotypically resistant to antimicrobial agents.

  20. Nontyphoidal salmonella infection in children with acute gastroenteritis: prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei

    2014-03-01

    Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.

  1. Prevalence and Antimicrobial-Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Swimming Pools and Hot Tubs

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    Jonathan K. Lutz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen in recreational waters and the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis and otitis externa. The aim of this surveillance study was to determine the background prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of P. aeruginosa in swimming pools and hot tubs. A convenience sample of 108 samples was obtained from three hot tubs and eight indoor swimming pools. Water and swab samples were processed using membrane filtration, followed by confirmation with polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-three samples (21% were positive for P. aeruginosa, and 23 isolates underwent susceptibility testing using the microdilution method. Resistance was noted to several antibiotic agents, including amikacin (intermediate, aztreonam, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem (intermediate, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, tobramycin (intermediate, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of this surveillance study indicate that 96% of P. aeruginosa isolates tested from swimming pools and hot tubs were multidrug resistant. These results may have important implications for cystic fibrosis patients and other immune-suppressed individuals, for whom infection with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa would have greater impact. Our results underlie the importance of rigorous facility maintenance, and provide prevalence data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant strains of this important recreational water-associated and nosocomial pathogen.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants used by aborigines of Kalahandi, Orissa, India against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debasmita Dubey; Mahesh C Sahu; Shakti Rath; Bimoch Projna Paty; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potency of 20 non-edible and/or poisonous plants used by an aborigine tribe (Kandha) of Kalahandi district for infectious diseases. Methods: Over a period of 5 months from two hospitals, 10 pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Acinetobacter sp., Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Chromobacterium violeceum (C. violeceum),Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) and Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) were isolated to pure axenic cultures from clinical samples. Water and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks were concentrated before monitoring antimicrobial activity by agar-well diffusion method. Results: All bacterial strains isolated were multidrug resistant. Ethanolic extract of most plants had effective antimicrobial activity against all the isolated multidrug resistant bacteria. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) and Pterocarpus santalinus (P. santalinus) had antibacterial effect on all used bacteria. Water extract of several plants too had effective antimicrobial activity for all bacteria used. Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp., C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa, the most potential urinary tract infection causing organisms by plant extracts of all major plant used herein is recorded. MDR C. violaceum isolated from skin lesions was found to be resistant to imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and amoxyclav and was found sensitive to 13 plant extracts. Conclusion: Effective in vitro control of MDR strains of Acinetobacter sp.,C. freundii, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa; enteropathogenic bacteria, E. coli, S. typhi, Klebsiella sp. and V. cholerae were found to be well controlled by all plant extracts used.

  3. Differential Persistence of Transmitted HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vivek; Sucupira, Maria C.; Bacchetti, Peter; Hartogensis, Wendy; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Kallas, Esper G.; Janini, Luiz M.; Liegler, Teri; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Grant, Robert M.; Cortes, Rodrigo; Deeks, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance (TDR) mutations can become replaced over time by emerging wild-type viral variants with improved fitness. The impact of class-specific mutations on this rate of mutation replacement is uncertain. Methods. We studied participants with acute and/or early HIV infection and TDR in 2 cohorts (San Francisco, California, and São Paulo, Brazil). We followed baseline mutations longitudinally and compared replacement rates between mutation classes with use of a parametric proportional hazards model. Results. Among 75 individuals with 195 TDR mutations, M184V/I became undetectable markedly faster than did nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations (hazard ratio, 77.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7–408.2; P < .0001), while protease inhibitor and NNRTI replacement rates were similar. Higher plasma HIV-1 RNA level predicted faster mutation replacement, but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 1.71 log10 copies/mL; 95% CI, .90–3.25 log10 copies/mL; P = .11). We found substantial person-to-person variability in mutation replacement rates not accounted for by viral load or mutation class (P < .0001). Conclusions. The rapid replacement of M184V/I mutations is consistent with known fitness costs. The long-term persistence of NNRTI and protease inhibitor mutations suggests a risk for person-to-person propagation. Host and/or viral factors not accounted for by viral load or mutation class are likely influencing mutation replacement and warrant further study. PMID:21451005

  4. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afema, Josephine A; Byarugaba, Denis K; Shah, Devendra H; Atukwase, Esther; Nambi, Maria; Sischo, William M

    2016-01-01

    In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95%) while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be used to control

  5. Potential Sources and Transmission of Salmonella and Antimicrobial Resistance in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Afema

    Full Text Available In sub‒Saharan Africa, non‒typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS cause invasive disease particularly in children and HIV infected adults, but the disease epidemiology is poorly understood. Between 2012 and 2013, we investigated NTS sources and transmission in Kampala. We detected Salmonella in 60% of the influent and 60% of the effluent samples from a wastewater treatment plant and 53.3% of the influent and 10% of the effluent samples from waste stabilization ponds that serve the human population; 40.9% of flush‒water samples from ruminant slaughterhouses, 6.6% of the poultry fecal samples from live bird markets and 4% of the fecal samples from swine at slaughter; and in 54.2% of the water samples from a channel that drains storm-water and effluents from the city. We obtained 775 Salmonella isolates, identified 32 serovars, and determined resistance to 15 antimicrobials. We genotyped common serovars using multiple‒locus variable number tandem repeats analysis or pulsed‒field gel electrophoresis. In addition, we analyzed 49 archived NTS isolates from asymptomatic livestock and human clinical cases. Salmonella from ruminant and swine sources were mostly pan‒susceptible (95% while poultry isolates were generally more resistant. Salmonella Kentucky isolated from poultry exhibited extensive drug resistance characterized by resistance to 10 antimicrobials. Interestingly, similar genotypes of S. Kentucky but with less antimicrobial resistance (AMR were found in poultry, human and environmental sources. The observed AMR patterns could be attributed to host or management factors associated with production. Alternatively, S. Kentucky may be prone to acquiring AMR. The factors driving AMR remain poorly understood and should be elucidated. Overall, shared genotypes and AMR phenotypes were found in NTS from human, livestock and environmental sources, suggesting zoonotic and environmental transmissions most likely occur. Information from this study could be

  6. The frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial pathogens recovered from cancer patients and hospital environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aymen Mudawe Nurain; Naser Eldin Bilal; Mutasim Elhadi Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance rates of nosocomial pathogens isolated from cancer patients and hospital environments. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2010 to May 2013 at Radiation and Isotopes Centre of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 1 503 samples (505 clinical and 998 environmental) were examined. Isolates were identified, and their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using standard laboratory procedures. Results: Out of 505 clinical samples, nosocomial pathogens were found as 48.1%. Among hospital environment samples, bacterial contaminants were detected in 29.7%of samples. The main microorganisms recovered from cancer patients were Proteus spp. (23.5%), Escherichia coli (22.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (21.0%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.2%). The most frequent isolates from hospital environ-ments were