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Sample records for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

  1. Strategies for targeted antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sarika; Sallum, Ulysses; Zheng, Xiang; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2009-06-01

    The photophysics and mechanisms of cell killing by photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been extensively studied in recent years, and PDT has received regulatory approval for the treatment of a number of diseases worldwide. As the application of this treatment modality expands with regard to both anatomical sites and diseases, it is important to develop strategies for enhancing PDT outcomes. Our group has focused on developing targeting strategies to enhance PDT for both cancerous as well as anti-microbial applications. In this article, we will discuss photosensitizer modification and conjugation strategies for targeted antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

  2. Physical and mathematical modeling of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy

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    Bürgermeister, Lisa; López, Fernando Romero; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising method to treat local bacterial infections. The therapy is painless and does not cause bacterial resistances. However, there are gaps in understanding the dynamics of the processes, especially in periodontal treatment. This work describes the advances in fundamental physical and mathematical modeling of aPDT used for interpretation of experimental evidence. The result is a two-dimensional model of aPDT in a dental pocket phantom model. In this model, the propagation of laser light and the kinetics of the chemical reactions are described as coupled processes. The laser light induces the chemical processes depending on its intensity. As a consequence of the chemical processes, the local optical properties and distribution of laser light change as well as the reaction rates. The mathematical description of these coupled processes will help to develop treatment protocols and is the first step toward an inline feedback system for aPDT users.

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of denture stomatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2012-01-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS), also called chronic atrophic candidiasis, is the most common oral fungal infection in denture wearers. It has a multifactorial etiology, but the presence of Candida spp. biofilm on the denture is considered the most important factor for the establishment of the DS. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of DS through the use of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAT), mediated by methylene blue. For this purpose, preclinical studies and clinical trials were performed. Simulators prototypes dentures were made of methyl methacrylate polymer to serve as a basis for biofilm growth of the following species of Candida: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Methylene blue solution at a concentration of 450 μg/mL was used as a photosensitizer. The prototypes and biofilms were irradiated with a laser of wavelength of 660 nm, potency of 100 mW, for 80 seconds. For the clinical study, subjects were divided into two groups. The first group received conventional treatment based on the use of antifungal Miconazole. The second group received the treatment by PAT. The preclinical results showed that all species of the genus Candida were susceptible to PAT, with a reduction in colonies that ranged from 2.48 to 3.93 log 10 . Clinical outcomes were evaluated for the reduction of colonies of Candida spp. located in the mucosa and in the prosthesis and relative to the improvement of the clinical aspect of the affected mucosa. Both the conventional therapy and PAT were effective in treating DS. There was no significant statistical difference between PAT and conventional treatment for any of the factors evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that PAT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. (author)

  4. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Treatment of Chronic Recurrent Sinusitis Biofilms

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    Biel, Merrill A.; Sievert, Chet; Usacheva, Marina; Teichert, Matthew; Balcom, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic recurrent sinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disease of the facial sinuses and nasal passages that is defined as lasting longer than 12 weeks or occurring more than 4 times per year with symptoms usually lasting more than 20 days. The National Institute for Health Statistics estimates that CRS is one of the most common chronic conditions in the United States affecting an estimated 37 million Americans. The potential etiologies of CRS include bacteria, viruses, allergies, fungi, superantigens and microbial biofilms. In clinical practice there is a significant subpopulation of patients with CRS who remain resistant to cure despite rigorous treatment regimens including surgery, allergy therapy and prolonged antibiotic therapy. The reason for treatment failure is thought to be related to the destruction of the sinus mucociliary defense by the chronic sinus infection resulting in the development of secondary antibiotic resistant microbial colonization of the sinuses and biofilm formation. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a non-antibiotic broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment that has been demonstrated to eradicate antibiotic resistant bacteria and biofilms. Objective The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-invasive aPDT treatment method of eradicating antibiotic resistant biofilms/microorganisms known to cause CRS in an in vitro model. Methods Antibiotic resistant planktonic bacteria and fungi and polymicrobial biofilms of Pseudomonas aerugenosa and MRSA were grown on silastic sheets and treated with a methylene blue photosensitizer and 670nm non-thermal activating light. Cultures of the planktonic micoroorganisms and biofilms were obtained before and after light treatment to determine efficacy of planktonic baciteria and biofilm reduction. Results The in vitro CRS planktonic microorganism and biofilm study demonstrated that aPDT reduced the CRS polymicrobial biofilm by >99.9% after a single treatment

  5. Clinical and Histological Evaluation of the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy used in addition to Antibiotic Therapy in Pericoronitis Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Cennet Neslihan; Tunc, Serap Keskin; Erten, Remzi; Usumez, Aslıhan

    2018-02-24

    Although antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy has been studied several times, there is no study investigating its efficacy on pericoronitis. This study aimed to determine whether antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with antibiotic therapy is clinically and histologically superior to antibiotic therapy alone in pericoronitis treatment. Patients (n = 40) with pericoronitis were divided into two groups (20 patients for each) to receive either antibiotic + indocyanine green + 810 nm wavelength diode laser (antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group) or antibiotic alone. Initial biopsy samples were obtained from the affected tissue of the patients at their first presentation to the clinic before any intervention. The second biopsy samples were obtained on the 3rd day of treatment in both groups from the tissue part not biopsied before; tooth extraction was then performed. All tissue samples were histologically examined to assess inflammatory cell response. Patients' pain (using Visual Analogue Scale) and lymphadenopathy (presence or absence) were clinically evaluated in the first 3 days and on the 7th day of treatment. In the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group, 100% improvement was achieved regarding pain and lymphadenopathy at the end of the 7th day. Comparison of the inflammatory cell scores of the 2nd biopsy samples between the antibiotic alone and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy groups revealed a significant difference in favor of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy group. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with antibiotic therapy for pericoronitis treatment was found to be more successful as compared with the antibiotic therapy alone regarding clinical and histological outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Peri-Implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of addition of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to the conventional approach in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods. Forty patients were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Patients were assessed at baseline and at six (T1, twelve (T2, and twenty-four (T3 weeks recording plaque index (PlI, probing pocket depth (PPD, and bleeding on probing (BOP; control group received conventional periodontal therapy, while test group received photodynamic therapy in addition to it. Result. Test group showed a 70% reduction in the plaque index values and a 60% reduction in PD values compared to the baseline. BOP and suppuration were not detectable. Control group showed a significative reduction in plaque index and PD. Discussion. Laser therapy has some advantages in comparison to traditional therapy, with faster and greater healing of the wound. Conclusion. Test group showed after 24 weeks a better value in terms of PPD, BOP, and PlI, with an average pocket depth value of 2 mm, if compared with control group (3 mm. Our results suggest that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with diode laser and phenothiazine chloride represents a reliable adjunctive treatment to conventional therapy. Photodynamic therapy should, however, be considered a coadjuvant in the treatment of peri-implantitis associated with mechanical (scaling and surgical (grafts treatments.

  7. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aparna, A; Arshad, E.; Jasmin, C.; Pai, S.S.; BrightSingh, I.S.; Mohandas, A; Anas, A

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems is proposed. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled...

  8. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promise candidate for caries lesions treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Ivana Márcia Alves; Horta, Ivay Diniz; Azevedo, Cynthia Soares; Elmadjian, Thaís Regina; Matos, Adriana Bona; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti; Marques, Márcia Martins

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising adjunctive therapy to the treatment of caries lesions, mainly in the minimally invasive approach to preserve dental tissue and favor its repair. Here we analyzed both the efficacy of aPDT in reducing the bacterial load in cariogenic biofilms and the indirect effect of noxious components produced by aPDT on the viability of dental pulp cells. The aPDT protocol was established using 0.025g/mL methylene blue (MB) and 5min pre-irradiation time. A continuous-wave diode laser (660nm, 0.04cm(2) spot size, 40mW, 60s, 60J/cm(2) and 2.4J) was used in punctual and distance modes to excite the MB. The protocol was first tested against Streptococcus mutans (U159) biofilms produced in 96-well microplates, and then evaluated on caries-like affected human dentin discs of three thicknesses. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was compared between groups. Discs were then assembled in metallic inserts to produce an artificial pulp chamber and allow investigation of the indirect effects of aPDT on dental pulp cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Data were analyzed using Student's t test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. Bacterial load reduction was observed in biofilms produced both in the microplates (pcaries-like affected dentin discs (81.01% or mean reduction of log21.010±0.1548; p=0.0029). The cell viability of aPDT and control group was similar (p>0.05). aPDT may be considered a promise adjunctive therapy for deep carious lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10 6 colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm 2 after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm 2 . Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy against Streptococcus mutans Biofilm in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhóca, V H; Florez, Fle; Batista de Faria, N; Rastelli, Alessandra Nara de Souza; Tanomaru, Jmg; Kurachi, C; Bagnato, V S

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of antimicrobial photo-dynamic therapy (aPDT) over Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Eighteen (n = 18) patients were selected and one palatine device with dental blocks was used. The biofilm was treated by curcumin and Photogem® with a LED and the effect was analyzed by CFU/ml. Although, statistical analysis showed significant reductions for aPDT mainly with Photogem® (p = 0.02), these were low. The results suggest a low antimicrobial effect of aPDT over S. mutans biofilm. Some parameters used need to be improved. This technique can be a promising in Dentistry.

  11. Can Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) Enhance the Endodontic Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforush, Nasim; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Shahabi, Sima; Kosarieh, Emad; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a long-lasting effect, one of the main goals in root canal treatment is to eliminate the endodontic bacteria. Conventional chemomechanical debridement is considered as the basic treatment in root canal therapy, but adjunctive techniques such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can also be helpful. The aim of this study was to evaluate reports in the scientific literature that used different photosensitizers (PSs) for bacterial reduction. The literature search was conducted using databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with the keywords "photodynamic therapy," "antimicrobial photodynamic therapy," or "photoactivated disinfection" and "endodontic," "Enterococcus faecalis," or "root canal treatment," from 2000 to 2015. By evaluating different studies, it was concluded that aPDT should be applied in combination with conventional mechanical debridement and irrigants. However, it is also important to note that the success rate is critically dependent on the type of the PS, output power of the laser used, irradiation time, pre-irradiation time, and type of tips used.

  12. The application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, E. T.; Dias, H. B.; Corbi, S. C. T.; Marcantonio, R. A. C.; Bernardi, A. C. A.; Bagnato, V. S.; Hamblin, M. R.; Rastelli, A. N. S.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years there have been an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies that show positive results regarding antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used in dentistry. These include applications in periodontics, endodontics, and mucosal infections caused by bacteria present as biofilms. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is a therapy based on the combination of a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS) and appropriate wavelength visible light, which in the presence of oxygen is activated to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS induce a series of photochemical and biological events that cause irreversible damage leading to the death of microorganisms. Many light-absorbing dyes have been mentioned as potential PS for aPDT and different wavelengths have been tested. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol yet. Thus, the goal of this review was to summarize the results of research on aPDT in dentistry using the PubMed database focusing on recent studies of the effectiveness aPDT in decreasing microorganisms and microbial biofilms, and also to describe aPDT effects, mechanisms of action and applications.

  13. The impact of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans in an artificial biofilm model

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    Schneider, Martin; Kirfel, Gregor; Krause, Felix; Berthold, Michael; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of laser induced antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the viability of Streptococcus mutans cells employing an aritificial biofilm model. Employing sterile chambered coverglasses, a salivary pellicle layer formation was induced in 19 chambers. Streptococcus mutans cells were inoculated in a sterile culture medium. Using a live/dead bacterial viability kit, bacteria with intact cell membranes stain fluorescent green. Test chambers containing each the pellicle layer and 0.5 ml of the bacterial culture were analyzed using a confocal laser scan microscope within a layer of 10 μm at intervals of 1 μm from the pellicle layer. A photosensitizer was added to the test chambers and irradiated with a diode laser (wavelength: 660 nm, output power: 100 mW, Helbo) for 2 min each. Comparing the baseline fluorescence (median: 13.8 [U], min: 3.7, max: 26.2) with the values after adding the photosensitizer (median: 3.7, min: 1.1, max: 9), a dilution caused decrease of fluorescence could be observed (p0.05). The present study indicates that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can reduce living bacteria within a layer of 10 μm in an artificial biofilm model. Further studies have to evaluate the maximum biofilm thickness that still allows a toxic effect on microorganisms.

  14. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as a Co-adjuvant in Endodontic Treatment of Deciduous Teeth: Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Camila Basilio; Motta, Lara Jasinski; Prates, Renato Araujo; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Mesquita Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2018-02-08

    To assure the success of endodontic treatment, the root canal must be completely decontaminated. Thus, some methods have been researched in an attempt to effectively eliminate microorganisms from the interior of the root canal system. Among them, is conventional endodontic therapy in conjunction with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Five anterior deciduous teeth were treated endodontically with the conventional technique and PDT. For PDT, 0.005% methylene blue was used as a photosensitizer and a 660nm laser. After the conventional endodontic therapy, the photosensitizer was applied inside the root canal, 3 minutes of pre-irradiation time and then the laser was applied for 40s with an energy of 4J. Afterwards, the canal was irrigated with saline solution and the sealing material of the root canal was placed. The microbiological analysis of the samples were collected before and after the treatments were performed. Observing the results obtained in this case series,which showed a bacterial reduction from 37.57% to 100%, and the clear difficulty in the success of endodontic treatment of deciduous teeth, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can be considered an alternative of easy application, and that does not generate microbial resistance, to act as a support in the decontamination of the root canals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Combined With Conventional Endodontic Treatment to Eliminate Root Canal Biofilm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Tegos, George P.; Núñez, Silvia C.; Jorge, Antonio O.C.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective To compare the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT), standard endodontic treatment and the combined treatment to eliminate bacterial biofilms present in infected root canals. Study Design/Materials and Methods Ten single-rooted freshly extracted human teeth were inoculated with stable bioluminescent Gram-negative bacteria, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form 3-day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify bacterial burdens. PDT employed a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) as the photosensitizer (PS) and 660-nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 200-µ fiber, and this was compared and combined with standard endodontic treatment using mechanical debridement and antiseptic irrigation. Results Endodontic therapy alone reduced bacterial bioluminescence by 90% while PDT alone reduced bioluminescence by 95%. The combination reduced bioluminescence by >98%, and importantly the bacterial regrowth observed 24 hours after treatment was much less for the combination (Pendodontic therapy. Antimicrobial PDT may have a role to play in optimized endodontic therapy. PMID:17066481

  16. Role of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Fahim; Akram, Zohaib; Safii, Syarida Hasnur; Vaithilingam, Rathna Devi; Ghanem, Alexis; Sergis, Konstantinos; Javed, Fawad

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (AgP). The addressed focused question was "Is aPDT effective in the treatment of AgP?" MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1977 till May 2015 using combinations of the following keywords: antimicrobial; photochemotherapy; photodynamic therapy; photosensitizing agents; AgP; scaling and root-planing (SRP). Reviews, case reports, commentaries, and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Seven studies were included. In 5 studies, aPDT was performed as an adjunct to SRP. Laserwavelengths and duration of irradiation ranged between 660-690 nm and 60-120 s, respectively. Laser power output as reported in 2 studies was 75 mW. One study showed significant improvement in periodontal parameters for subjects receiving aPDT as an adjunct to SRP as compared to treatment with SRP alone at follow up. However, comparable periodontal parameters were reported when aPDT as an adjunct to SRP was compared to SRP alone in the treatment of AgP in one study. One study showed comparable outcomes when aPDT was compared to SRP in the treatment of AgP. In two studies, adjunctive antibiotic administration to SRP showed significantly better outcomes when compared to application of adjunctive use of aPDT to SRP. aPDT is effective as an adjunct to SRP for the management of AgP, however, further randomized clinical trials with well defined control groups are needed in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy: Study of Bacterial Recovery Viability and Potential Development of Resistance after Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has emerged in the clinical field as a potential alternative to antibiotics to treat microbial infections. No cases of microbial viability recovery or any resistance mechanisms against it are yet known. 5,10,15-tris(1-Methylpyridinium-4-yl-20-(pentafluorophenyl-porphyrin triiodide (Tri-Py+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer. Vibrio fischeri and recombinant Escherichia coli were the studied bacteria. To determine the bacterial recovery after treatment, Tri-Py+-Me-PF (5.0 µM was added to bacterial suspensions and the samples were irradiated with white light (40 W m-2 for 270 minutes. Then, the samples were protected from light, aliquots collected at different intervals and the bioluminescence measured. To assess the development of resistance after treatment, bacterial suspensions were exposed to white light (25 minutes, in presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py+-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation and plated. After the first irradiation period, surviving colonies were collected from the plate and resuspended in PBS. Then, an identical protocol was used and repeated ten times for each bacterium. The results suggest that aPDT using Tri-Py+-Me-PF represents a promising approach to efficiently destroy bacteria since after a single treatment these microorganisms do not recover their viability and after ten generations of partially photosensitized cells neither of the bacteria develop resistance to the photodynamic process.

  18. Antimicrobial strategies centered around reactive oxygen species - bactericidal antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; de Melo, Wanessa C.M.A.; Avci, Pinar; Vecchio, Daniela; Sadasivam, Magesh; Gupta, Asheesh; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Karimi, Mahdi; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Yin, Rui; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can attack a diverse range of targets to exert antimicrobial activity, which accounts for their versatility in mediating host defense against a broad range of pathogens. Most ROS are formed by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen. Four major ROS are recognized comprising: superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and singlet oxygen (1O2), but they display very different kinetics and levels of activity. The effects of O2•− and H2O2 are less acute than those of •OH and 1O2, since the former are much less reactive and can be detoxified by endogenous antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) that are induced by oxidative stress. In contrast, no enzyme can detoxify •OH or 1O2, making them extremely toxic and acutely lethal. The present review will highlight the various methods of ROS formation and their mechanism of action. Antioxidant defenses against ROS in microbial cells and the use of ROS by antimicrobial host defense systems are covered. Antimicrobial approaches primarily utilizing ROS comprise both bactericidal antibiotics, and non-pharmacological methods such as photodynamic therapy, titanium dioxide photocatalysis, cold plasma and medicinal honey. A brief final section covers, reactive nitrogen species, and related therapeutics, such as acidified nitrite and nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles. PMID:23802986

  19. Antimicrobial Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Patients with Necrotic Pulps and Periapical Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Nuñez, Silvia Cristina; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in association with endodontic treatment. Twenty patients were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy, and PDT. At the end of the first session, the root canal was filled with Ca(OH)2, and after 1 week, a second session of the therapies was performed. Endodontic therapy gave a mean reduction of 1.08 log. The combination with PDT significantly enhanced the reduction (1.83 log, p = 0.00002). The second endodontic session gave a similar diminution to the first (1.14 log), and the second PDT was significantly more effective than the first (p = 0.002). The second total reduction was significantly higher than the second endodontic therapy (p = 0.0000005). The total first + second reduction (3.19 log) was significantly different from the first combination (p = 0.00006). Results suggest that the use of PDT added to endodontic treatment leads to an enhanced decrease of bacterial load and may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of oral infections. PMID:18215668

  20. Antimicrobial effects of photodynamic therapy on patients with necrotic pulps and periapical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo Silva; Nuñez, Silvia Cristina; Hamblin, Michael R; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2008-02-01

    This study analyzed the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in association with endodontic treatment. Twenty patients were selected. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the canal, endodontic therapy, and PDT. At the end of the first session, the root canal was filled with Ca(OH)(2), and after 1 week, a second session of the therapies was performed. Endodontic therapy gave a mean reduction of 1.08 log. The combination with PDT significantly enhanced the reduction (1.83 log, p = 0.00002). The second endodontic session gave a similar diminution to the first (1.14 log), and the second PDT was significantly more effective than the first (p = 0.002). The second total reduction was significantly higher than the second endodontic therapy (p = 0.0000005). The total first + second reduction (3.19 log) was significantly different from the first combination (p = 0.00006). Results suggest that the use of PDT added to endodontic treatment leads to an enhanced decrease of bacterial load and may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of oral infections.

  1. The effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with radachlorin® on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Zare, Hadi; Mohammadi Sepahvand, Sara; Morsali, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the evaluation of the effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. New windows are open in the antimicrobial field so-call Photodynamic therapy that incorporates a nonpoisonous photosensitizer (PS) with innocuous special wavelength photons to excite the PS. Two strains of bacteria used in this study were Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33591; PTCC 1764) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922; PTCC1399). Concentrations of 0.2 ml of Radachlorin® were applied on 0.2 ml of bacterial suspensions and placed in a 48-well microtiter plate. The following groups were used: (I) L- PS- (no laser, no photosensitizer), (II) L-PS+ (treated only with PS), (III) L+ PS- (treated only with laser) and (IV) L+ PS+ (treated with laser and PS: photodynamic therapy group). Aliquots of bacterial suspensions were sensitized with Radachlorin® for 15 minutes in the dark at room temperature and then bacterial suspensions in group III and IV were irradiated with 210 mW (power density) and 12 J/cm2 (energy density) on continuous mode. This study showed that photodynamic therapy reduces 0.14 log 10 in E.Coli (group IV) and there were significant differences for group IV (PPhotodynamic therapy in S.Aureus showed 6.28 log 10 colony count reduction (group IV) and there were highly significant differences in Photodynamic therapy group (P<0.0001). Radachlorin® have bactericidal effect on S.aureus (6.28 log 10) and bacteriostaticeffect on E.coli (0.14 log 10).

  2. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using Indocyanine green and near-infrared diode laser in reducing Entrerococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltes, Charis; Sakkas, Hercules; Economides, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2017-03-01

    The use of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) has been suggested as an adjuvant method to eliminate facultative bacteria during root canal disinfection. The purpose of this preliminary in vitro study was to determine whether the light-activated antimicrobial agent, Indocyanine green (ICG), could be used as photosensitizer and kill Enterococcus faecalis strain under planktonic conditions when irradiated with near-infared (NIR) diode laser emitting in 810nm wavelength. Planktonic suspension containing Enterococcus faecalis strain was divided into nine experimental groups: (1) aPDT with ICG and laser (medium energy fluence), (2) aPDT with ICG and laser (high energy fluence), (3) only ICG without laser activation, (4) only laser emission without ICG (5) 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as irrigant, (6) 2.5% NaOCl and aPDT with ICG and laser, (7) 2.0% Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) as irrigant (8) No treatment (positive control), (9) No bacterial biofilm growth (negative control). The samples were incubated for 7days and colony-forming units (CFUs) were determined to evaluate bacterial viability. The microbiological test revealed that aPDT groups, regardless the overall power, showed significant lower mean log 10 CFU levels, than groups 3, 4 and 7 (plaser may be a novel supplement in aPDT and provide better disinfection during endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of the antimicrobial effect of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) as solvents in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikene, Kristine Opsvik; Rukke, Håkon Valen; Bruzell, Ellen; Tønnesen, Hanne Hjorth

    2017-06-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are a third class of liquids, separate from water and lipids. Some NADES, especially those containing organic acids, have been suggested to possess antimicrobial properties. Such properties may be advantageous when NADES are used as solvents in e.g. antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. However, to control the toxicity of acid-containing NADES, they must retain their specific qualities upon dilution. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of dilution on the acid-containing NADES network, their antimicrobial activity on different planktonic microorganisms, and their influence on phototoxicity when used as solvents for a photosensitiser. Four bacteria and one fungus were exposed to the NADES, CS (citric acid:sucrose) and MFG (malic acid:fructose:glucose) (molar ratios 1:1 and 1:1:1, respectively), at ≤1:200 dilution. Additionally, the antimicrobial properties of the NADES were studied in Escherichia coli in terms of pH and chelating effects. In investigations of phototoxicity, the microorganisms were exposed to the photosensitiser meso-tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphine (THPP; 1nM) dissolved in diluted NADES combined with blue light (27J/cm 2 ). The eutectic network appeared to remain upon dilution ≤1:200. CS (1:200) was less toxic than an equal concentration of citric acid in the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli (p<0.05). A higher degree of phototoxicity was induced in E. coli (~1% survival) when THPP was dissolved in CS or MFG than in phosphate buffer (~61% survival; p<0.05). No conclusion could be drawn as to whether the observed toxicity in E. coli exposed to NADES was due to the pH of the solutions or chelation of outer membrane-bound cations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adjunctive Application of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment: A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kikuchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is caused by dental plaque biofilms, and the removal of these biofilms from the root surface of teeth plays a central part in its treatment. The conventional treatment for periodontal disease fails to remove periodontal infection in a subset of cases, such as those with complicated root morphology. Adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has been proposed as an additional treatment for this infectious disease. Many periodontal pathogenic bacteria are susceptible to low-power lasers in the presence of dyes, such as methylene blue, toluidine blue O, malachite green, and indocyanine green. aPDT uses these light-activated photosensitizer that is incorporated selectively by bacteria and absorbs a low-power laser/light with an appropriate wavelength to induce singlet oxygen and free radicals, which are toxic to bacteria. While this technique has been evaluated by many clinical studies, some systematic reviews and meta-analyses have reported controversial results about the benefits of aPDT for periodontal treatment. In the light of these previous reports, the aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information about aPDT and help extend knowledge of advanced laser therapy.

  5. Efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the disinfection of acrylic denture surfaces: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Kellesarian, Sergio; Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Malmstrom, Hans; Yunker, Michael; Varela Kellesarian, Tammy; Romanos, Georgios E; Javed, Fawad

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the disinfection of acrylic denture surfaces. IN order to address the focused question: "Is aPDT more effective in decontaminating denture surfaces compared with traditional denture-disinfection techniques?" an electronic search without time or language restrictions was conducted up to November 2016 in indexed databases using different key words. The exclusion criteria included qualitative and/or quantitative reviews, case reports, case series, commentaries, letters to the editor, interviews, and updates. A total of 14 studies were included and processed for data extraction, out of which 1 study was a randomized clinical trial and 13 studies were performed in vitro. Results from 12 experimental studies reported that aPDT was effective in reducing bacteria and/or yeast cultured in single or multispecies biofilm growth on acrylic resin specimens. One experimental study reported selective microorganism reduction on acrylic resin after aPDT. One clinical randomized control trial reported that aPDT presented similar microorganism reduction compared with oral antifungal medication for the disinfection of denture surfaces. The role of aPDT in the disinfection of acrylic resin surfaces is unclear. From a clinical perspective further randomized control trials are needed to assess the efficacy of aPDT in the disinfection of acrylic resin surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pain in photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Tampa; Maria Isabela Sârbu; Mădălina-Irina Mitran; Cristina-Iulia Mitran; Adrian Dumitru; Vasile Benea; Simona-Roxana Georgescu

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a modern treatment with applications in several medical specialties, which has been intensely studied in the last years. The main indications in dermatology are actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease- common skin disorders in which photodynamic therapy proved its efficacy. At present, the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of other skin disorders is profoundly researched. Pain is the most common and redoubtable adverse effect...

  7. Evaluation of the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in dentin caries: a pilot in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, F. M. C.; de-Melo, M. A. S.; Lima, J. M. P.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.

    2010-02-01

    In vitro and in situ studies have demonstrated that the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) is effective in reducing Streptococcus mutans population in artificially carious dentin. This pilot in vivo study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PACT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a light-emitting diode (LED) in carious dentin lesions. Five healthy adult volunteers (19-36 yr), with at least 4 active carious cavities each, participated in this study. Teeth of each volunteer were randomly divided into four groups: (1) without TBO and without light (Control); (2) with TBO alone (TBO); (3) with LED at 94/J cm2 alone (LED); and (4) with TBO plus LED at 94 J/cm2 (PACT). Each cavity was divided into two halves. The baseline carious dentin sample was collected from half of each cavity. Following, the treatments were performed using a random distribution of tooth into treatments. Then, the second collection of carious dentin samples was performed. Before and after treatments, dentin samples were analyzed with regard to the counts of total viable microorganisms, total streptococci, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (α=5%). Log reductions ranged from -0.12 to 2.68 and significant reductions were observed for PACT (group 4) when compared to the other groups (1, 2, and 3) for total streptococci and mutans streptococci. Concluding, PACT was effective in killing oral microorganisms present in in vivo carious dentin lesions and may be a promising technique for eliminating bacteria from dentin before restoration.

  8. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in a mouse model of Acinetobacter baumannii burn infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Lu, Zongshun; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Huang, Liyi; Franklin, Michael J.; Baer, David G.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii infections represent a growing problem, especially in traumatic wounds and burns suffered by military personnel injured in Middle Eastern conflicts. Effective treatment using traditional antibiotics can be extremely difficult and new antimicrobial approaches are being investigated. One of these antimicrobial alternatives could be the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and visible light known as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report on the establishment of a new mouse model of full thickness thermal burns infected with a bioluminescent derivative of a clinical Iraqi isolate of A. baumannii and its PDT treatment by topical application of a PS produced by covalent conjugation chlorin(e6) to polyethylenimine followed by illumination of the burn surface with red light. Application of 108 A. baumannii cells to the surface of 10-second burns made on the dorsal surface of shaved female BALB/c mice led to chronic infections that lasted on average 22 days characterized by a remarkably stable bacterial bioluminescence. PDT carried out on day 0 soon after applying bacteria gave over three logs of loss of bacterial luminescence in a light exposure dependent manner, while PDT carried out on day 1 and day 2 gave approximately a 1.7-log reduction. Application of PS dissolved in 10% or 20% DMSO without light gave only modest reduction in bacterial luminescence from mouse burns. Some bacterial regrowth in the treated burn was observed but was generally modest. It was also found that PDT did not lead to inhibition of wound healing. The data suggest that PDT may be an effective new treatment for multi-drug resistant localized A. baumannii infections.

  9. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy minimizes the deleterious effect of nicotine in female rats with induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualberto, Erivan Clementino; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Longo, Mariellén; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Ervolino, Edilson; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of experimentally induced periodontitis in female rats that were systemically treated with or without nicotine. Female rats (n = 180) were divided into two groups: vehicle administration (Veh) and nicotine administration (Nic). Mini-pumps containing either vehicle or nicotine were implanted in the rats 30 days before the induction of experimental periodontitis (EP). EP was induced by placing a cotton ligature around the left mandibular first molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed, and the rats were randomly divided into three treatment subgroups: SRP (only SRP), DL (SRP plus diode laser), and aPDT (SRP plus aPDT). The aPDT consisted of phenothiazine photosensitizer deposition followed by diode laser irradiation. Ten rats from each subgroup were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatment. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region was evaluated using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. The rats that were treated with nicotine showed more ABL compared to those treated with vehicle. In both the Veh and Nic groups, SRP plus aPDT treatment resulted in reduced ABL, smaller numbers of both TRAP- and RANKL-positive cells, and higher numbers of PCNA-positive cells compared to SRP treatment alone. aPDT was an effective adjunctive therapy for the treatment of periodontitis in female rats regardless of whether they received nicotine.

  10. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the treatment of teeth with apical periodontitis: a histopathological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Novaes, Arthur B; de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Santamaria, Milton; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo response of apical and periapical tissues of dogs' teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session endodontic treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Sixty root canals with experimentally induced apical periodontitis were instrumented and assigned to 4 groups receiving aPDT and root canal filling (RCF) or not: group aPDT+/RCF+ (n = 20): aPDT (photosensitizer phenothiazine chloride at 10 mg/mL for 3 minutes and diode laser [λ = 660 nm, 60 mW/cm(2)] for 1 minute) and RCF in the same session; group aPDT+/RCF- (n = 10); group aPDT-/RCF+ (n = 20), and group aPDT-/RCF- (n = 10). Teeth were restored, and the animals were killed after 90 days. Sections from the maxillas and mandibles were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Mallory trichrome and examined under light microscopy. Descriptive (ie, newly formed apical mineralized tissue, periapical inflammatory infiltrate, apical periodontal ligament thickness, and mineralized tissue resorption) and quantitative (ie, periapical lesion size and number of inflammatory cells) microscopic analysis was performed. Quantitative data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = .05). In the aPDT-treated groups, the periapical region was moderately/severely enlarged with no inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis and fibrogenesis, and the smallest periapical lesions. Although apical closure by mineralized tissue deposition was not achieved, the absence of inflammatory cells, moderate neoangiogenesis, and fibrogenesis in the periapical region in the groups treated with aPDT indicate that this can be a promising adjunct therapy to cleaning and shaping procedures in teeth with apical periodontitis undergoing one-session endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphene quantum dots with nitrogen-doped content dependence for highly efficient dual-modality photodynamic antimicrobial therapy and bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Hua-Han; Chen, Shih-Yao; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Pei-Chi; Hou, Yung-I; Shao, Yu-Ting; Kao, Hui-Fang; Lilian Hsu, Chih-Li; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Shean-Jen; Wu, Shang-Rung; Wang, Jiu-Yao

    2017-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species is the main contributor to photodynamic therapy. The results of this study show that a nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dot, serving as a photosensitizer, was capable of generating a higher amount of reactive oxygen species than a nitrogen-free graphene quantum dot in photodynamic therapy when photoexcited for only 3 min of 670 nm laser exposure (0.1 W cm -2 ), indicating highly improved antimicrobial effects. In addition, we found that higher nitrogen-bonding compositions of graphene quantum dots more efficiently performed photodynamic therapy actions than did the lower compositions that underwent identical treatments. Furthermore, the intrinsically emitted luminescence from nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots and high photostability simultaneously enabled it to act as a promising contrast probe for tracking and localizing bacteria in biomedical imaging. Thus, the dual modality of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots presents possibilities for future clinical applications, and in particular multidrug resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy of S. mutans biofilms attached to relevant dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccolillo, Michelle L; Rogers, Stephen C; Mang, Thomas S

    2016-12-01

    Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has demonstrated efficacy in situations where conventional antibiotic therapies can be challenged such as biofilms, gram-negative bacteria, and antimicrobial resistant organisms. Surface characteristics can affect biofilm adherence and integrity and so may modify the effectiveness of aPDT. This study investigates the killing efficacy of aPDT on S. mutans biofilms grown on relevant dental substrata, examining the killing efficacy and specifically the effects of aPDT on the biofilm matrix architecture. S. mutans (NCTC 10449) was grown in 48 hours biofilms on different substrata, specifically glass, titanium, and denture acrylic. During aPDT assays, the biofilms were treated with a purpurin based sensitizer ([25 ug/ml] in DMSO) for 30 minutes, then exposed to a 664 nm diode laser at light doses of 15, 30, and 45 J/cm 2 . Colony forming unit assays were performed to determine survival following treatment. Controls for comparison in survival assays consisted of (No light/No PS; No light/PS; and No light/DMSO). MAIR-IR spectroscopy analysis was performed to investigate aPDT effects on biofilm composition before and after jet impingement. Survival was greatly reduced in the biofilm cultures following the aPDT assays. All light doses achieved a greater then 3-log inactivation on 48 hours biofilms grown on polished denture acrylic. The higher light doses (45 and 30 J) achieved greater than 3-log inactivation in 48 hours biofilms grown on glass. The higher light doses (30 and 45 J/cm 2 ) produced a 2-log inactivation in 48 hours biofilms grown on titanium. Multiple attenuated internal reflection infrared (MAIR-IR) spectroscopy data demonstrates enhanced loss of exopolysaccharide (EPS) and Amide in the aPDT treated biofilms following jet impingement. Antimicrobial PDT experiments using a purpurin based sensitizer and laser light doses of 15, 30, and 45 J/cm 2 , against S. mutans biofilm grown on different

  13. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjunct for treatment of deep carious lesions-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplik, Fabian; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Maisch, Tim; Karygianni, Lamprini

    2017-06-01

    For deep carious lesions, a more conservative treatment modality ("selective caries removal") has been proposed, where only the heavily contaminated dentine is removed. In this regard, effective adjuncts for cavity disinfection such as the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be valuable clinically prior to definitive restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically assess clinical studies on the effectiveness of aPDT as a supplementary tool in the treatment of deep caries lesions. Searches were performed in four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov) from 1st January, 2011 until 21st June, 2016 for search terms relevant to the observed parameters, pathological condition, intervention and anatomic entity. The pooled information was evaluated according to PRISMA guidelines. At first, 1651 articles were recovered, of which 1249 full-text articles were evaluated, 270 articles thereof were reviewed for eligibility and finally 6 articles met all inclusion criteria. The aPDT protocols involved Methylene Blue, Toluidine Blue and aluminium-chloride-phthalocyanine as photosensitizers and diode lasers, light-emitting diodes and halogen light-sources. The data from five reports, utilizing both culture-dependent and -independent methods, disclosed significant reduction of cariogenic bacterial load after mechanical caries removal with adjunct aPDT. As these studies exhibit some methodological limitations, e.g. lack of positive controls, this systematic review can support the application of aPDT to a limited extent only in terms of reducing the microbial load in deep carious lesions before restorative treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Emmanuel; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia; Gurgel, Bruno César; Sarmento, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjuvant to scaling and root planning (SRP) yields better results than SRP alone or associated with systemic antibiotics in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (AgP). A meta-analysis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statements and Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. The search for relevant studies (earliest record to January 2015) was carried out in seven databases, followed by a manual search. Methodological quality assessment of the studies selected was based on an analysis of the risk of bias. At each time point of follow-up, the existence of significant differences (p < 0.05) in clinical attachment level (CAL) gain and probing depth (PD) reduction (primary outcomes) between groups was assessed with RevMan software 5.0. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Higgin test (I (2)). Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) satisfied the eligibility criteria of this review. Only one study was found to have a low risk of bias. There were no significant differences in PD reduction (mean difference 0.33, 95 % confidence interval -0.32 to 0.98, p = 0.32) and CAL gain (mean difference 0.20, 95 % confidence interval -0.41 to 0.81, p = 0.53) between the test and control interventions. At present, therefore, when compared to SRP alone or associated with systemic antibiotics, the evidence suggests that the association of aPDT + SRP is of no additional benefit in the nonsurgical treatment of AgP.

  15. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for infectious stomatitis in snakes: Clinical views and microbiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Carvalho, Marcelo Pires Nogueira de; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Knöbl, Terezinha; Pogliani, Fabio Celidonio; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Sant'Anna, Sávio Stefanini; Ribeiro, Martha Simões; Sellera, Fábio Parra

    2017-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has been broadly investigated as an alternative to treat localized infections, without leading to the selection of resistant microorganisms. Infectious stomatitis is a multifactorial disease frequently reported in captive snakes characterized by infection of the oral mucosa and surrounding tissues. In this study, we investigated methylene blue (MB)-mediated APDT to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes and verified the resistance phenotype and genotype before and after APDT. Three Boid snakes presented petechiae, edema and caseous material in their oral cavities. MB (0.01%) was applied on the lesions and after 5min they were irradiated using a red laser (λ=660nm), fluence of 280J/cm 2 , 8J and 80s per point, 100mW, spot size 0.028cm 2 and fluence rate of 3.5W/cm 2 . APDT was repeated once a week during 3 months. Samples of the lesions were collected to identify bacteria and antibiotic resistance profiles. To analyze the clonality of bacterial isolates before and after APDT, isolates were subjected to ERIC PCR analysis. Snakes presented clinical improvement such as reduction of inflammatory signs and caseous material. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli were present in all snakes; Klebsiella pneumoniae and Morganella morganii were also identified in some animals. We also observed that the oral microbiota was completely replaced following APDT. However, K. pneumoniae isolates before and after APDT were a single clone with 100% of genetic similarity that lost resistance phenotype for seven antibiotics of four classes. These results show that APDT can be used to treat infectious stomatitis in snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin-mediated anti-microbial photodynamic therapy against Candida dubliniensis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Dovigo, Lívia Nordi; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Andrade, Mariana Carvalho; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira

    2017-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-microbial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by curcumin (Cur) associated with LED light against biofilms of Candida dubliniensis, and further, investigate cellular uptake and drug penetration through the biofilms under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Four C. dubliniensis strains were tested: three clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients and one reference strain (CBS 7987). Biofilms were treated with three Cur concentrations (20.0, 30.0, and 40.0 μM). All samples were incubated in the dark for 20 min and exposed to a 5.28 J/cm 2 of LED light fluence. Additional samples of each strain were treated either with Cur or LED light only. Control samples had neither Cur nor light. After aPDT, results were read using the XTT salt reduction method. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Games-Howell post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to verify both the uptake of Cur by yeast cells and its penetration through the biofilm. The results showed that aPDT promoted significant reduction on the metabolism of the biofilm-organized cells of C. dubliniensis. Further, while Cur was rapidly taken up by C. dubliniensis cells, a longer time interval was required to allow Cur penetration into biofilm cells. Based on these results, aPDT associating LED and Cur presents promising potential on fungal control of biofilms of C. dubliniensis.

  17. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for the decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the anterior nares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Cale N.; Pedigo, Lisa; Gibbs, Aaron; Loebel, Nicolas G.

    2009-06-01

    The nosocomial infection rate has increased dramatically due to emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The primary anatomical site of MRSA colonization is the anterior nares, and this reservoir represents a primary vector of transmission from non-infected carriers to susceptible individuals. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used successfully for topical disinfection in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of aPDT for nasal MRSA decolonization at the preclinical and clinical level. The nasal aPDT system consists of a 670 nm diode laser fibre-optically coupled to a disposable light diffusing tip, used to activate a methylene blue based photosensitizer formulation. Preclinical testing was done both in a custom nasal reservoir model and on human skin cultures colonized on the epithelial surface with MRSA. Human clinical testing was performed by clinicians in regions in which the system is approved by the regulatory authority. In vitro testing demonstrated that aPDT eradicated planktonic MRSA in an energy and photosensitizer concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, aPDT eliminated sustained colonization of MRSA on cultured human epithelial surfaces, an effect that was sustained over multiple days post-treatment. In preliminary human testing, aPDT eradicated MRSA completely from the nose with total treatment times <10 minutes. aPDT is effective against MRSA when used topically in the nose. Energy dose and photosensitizer parameters have been optimized for the nasal environment. Controlled clinical studies are currently underway to further evaluate safety and efficacy.

  18. Autophagy in photodynamic therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in ... The work in this area is still limited. Keywords: Autophagy, Photodynamic therapy, Apoptosis, Cancer. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science .... photodynamic dosages did not result in.

  19. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy-A discovery originating from the pre-antibiotic era in a novel periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruba, Zuzanna; Łabuz, Przemysław; Macyk, Wojciech; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) involves pathogens' destruction caused by means of toxic Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) that are generated upon the interaction of a photoactivatable substance (photosensitizer), light of the appropriate wavelength and oxygen. Among many clinical applications, it is also used as a supplementary method of treatment of periodontal disease. Many in vitro studies confirmed, that a major periopathogenic bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis is susceptible to this method. Several animal model studies pointed, that even a single application of aPDT adjunctive to conventional scaling and root planning (SRP) promotes better tissue healing, reduces the inflammatory infiltrate and bone loss. The outcomes of clinical trials are, however, inconsistent. Although in several the superiority of combined treatment protocol (SRP+aPDT) over the conventional (SRP alone) was reported, it was not confirmed in other trials. Nonetheless, the reduction of bleeding indices favoring the combined therapy was observed in the majority of the studies. It indicates, that aPDT has an influence on the extent of inflammation and further studies are needed to establish an optimal protocol of treatment combining mechanical debridement with photochemotherapy in order to obtain good treatment outcomes in our patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics.

  1. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy suppresses dental plaque formation in healthy adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose-Tsuno, Akiko; Aoki, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Kirikae, Teruo; Shimbo, Takuro; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Maruoka, Yutaka; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Isao; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-12-15

    Oral care is important for oral and systemic health, especially for elderly institutionalized individuals and compromised patients. However, conventional mechanical plaque control is often difficult for these patients because of the pain or the risk of aspiration. Although antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), which is considered an alternative or adjunct to mechanical approaches, has potential application as a less stressful method of daily plaque control, no clinical application of this technique has been reported. We investigated the inhibitory effect of a combination of toluidine blue O (TBO), and a red light-emitting diode (LED) on dental plaque formation in healthy volunteers. The optimal concentration of TBO was determined in preliminary in vitro experiments to evaluate the bactericidal effect of aPDT on Streptococcus oralis and to clarify its safety in fibroblast cells. To survey the mechanism of TBO-mediated aPDT, the quality and quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during aPDT were also examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of aPDT on dental plaque formation was investigated in eleven subjects as a clinical pilot study. The right or left mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to the treatment (with aPDT) or control (without aPDT) groups. In total, aPDT was applied six times (twice per day) to the teeth in the test group over a period of four days. On the fourth day, the study concluded and the analyses were performed. A combination of 500 or 1000 μg/ml TBO and LED irradiation for 20 s significantly decreased the number of colony forming units of Streptococcus oralis. The cytotoxicity of aPDT was comparable to that of standard antiseptics used in the oral cavity. Hydroxyl radicals were detected by ESR analysis, but singlet oxygen was not. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that aPDT with 1000 μg/ml TBO and red LED irradiation significantly suppressed dental plaque

  2. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with two photosensitizers on two oral streptococci: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, S.; Fekrazad, R.; Ayremlou, S.; Taheri, S.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Kalhori, K. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Periodontal diseases are caused by infection of tissues supporting the teeth due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm and firstly colonized by streptococci. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of Radachlorin® and Toluidine Blue O (TBO)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the viability of two oral streptococci. Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis were subjected to either TBO or Radachlorin®, Then exposed to two different diode laser light at energy densities of 3, 6 J/cm2 at 633 nm and 6, 12 J/cm2 at 662 nm, respectively. The control groups were subjected to laser light alone, photosensitizer alone or received neither photosensitizer nor light exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar mediums and viable microorganisms were counted after overnight incubation aerobically at 37°C, 5% CO2 and then reported as colony forming unit. The results indicated that photosensitization by the energy density of 6 J/cm2 with Radachlorin® and both 3 and 6 J/cm2 with TBO caused significant reduction in bacterial colony formation ( p < 0.05). Radachlorin® and TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seem to show excellent potential in significantly killing of two oral streptococci in vitro.

  3. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy adjuvant to non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljabbar, Tariq; Vohra, Fahim; Javed, Fawad; Akram, Zohaib

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) improves periodontal clinical and glycemic outcomes in chronic periodontitis patients (CP) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; EMBASE; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register databases) were searched up to and including October 2016. The addressed PICO question was: "What are the effects of aPDT as an adjunct to SRP in terms of periodontal and glycemic outcomes as compared to SRP alone in individuals with DM?" Four randomized clinical trials were included in the present review. All studies reporting clinical periodontal and metabolic parameters, showed that aPDT was effective in the treatment of CP in DM subjects at follow up. Considering the effects of aPDT as an adjunct as compared to SRP alone on clinical signs of CP in DM subjects, no difference could be observed for all evaluated parameters (PD: Z=-0.61, P=0.54; CAL: Z=0.27, P=0.78; HbA1c: Z=0.138, P=0.89) CONCLUSION: It remains debatable whether aPDT is effective as an adjunct to SRP than SRP alone in patients having CP with DM, given that the scientific evidence is weak. In terms of periodontal parameters and glycemic levels, aPDT does not provide additional benefit in the treatment of CP in DM patients. However, further randomized clinical trials with standard laser parameters and long follow up periods are warranted to study periodontal and glycemic outcomes in this regard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ciples of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and also the relevant ... systemic toxicity, and. (f) be chemically pure and of known specific composition. Among these six major guidelines, the first two are the most important ones and the rationale behind such stringent optical .... tizers are either porphyrins or their structural analogues.

  5. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to evaluate the use of PDT for cancers of the brain, skin, prostate , cervix , and peritoneal cavity (the space in the abdomen ... of the activating light ( 5 ). Selected References Dolmans DE, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 2003; 3(5):380–387. [ ...

  6. Comparison of continuous versus pulsed photodynamic antimicrobial therapy for inhibition of fungal keratitis isolates in vitro (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Nicholas; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Arboleda, Alejandro; Relhan, Nidhi; Martinez, Anna; Rowaan, Cornelis; Gonzalez, Alex; Alawa, Karam A.; Amescua, Guillermo; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2017-02-01

    Fungal keratitis can lead to pain and impaired vision. Current treatment options include antifungal agents and therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. An emerging option for the management of keratitis is photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PDAT) which uses a photosensitizer rose bengal activated with green light. Utilizing a pulsed irradiation, rather than the standard continuous irradiation may have a similar antimicrobial effect with less total energy. This study is to compare pulsed and continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT for inhibition of six fungal isolates on agar plates: Fusarium solani, Fusarium keratoplasticum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotti, and Pseudoallescheria boydii. Isolates were mixed with 0.1% rose bengal and exposed to three irradiation conditions: (1) 30-minute continuous (10.8J/cm2), (2) 15-minute continuous (5.4J/cm2), (3) 30-minute pulsed (5.4J/cm2). Plates were photographed at 72 hours and analyzed with custom software. At 72 hours, 30-minute continuous rose bengal mediated PDAT inhibited all six fungal species. Fungal inhibition was analogous between 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed test groups, with the exception of A. fumigatus. The 15-minute continuous irradiation was less effective when compared to both 30-minute continuous and 30-minute pulsed groups. These in vitro results demonstrate the potential strength of pulsed rose bengal mediated PDAT as an adjunct treatment modality for fungal keratitis.

  7. Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of Jaws: A Low-Level Laser Therapy and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Case Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Comparotto Minamisako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ can be considered an inability of the alveolar bone to respond to an injury, which frequently leads to severe local and systemic complications. Once the problem is installed, dentist must use all therapeutic approaches recommended. This manuscript reports a successful management of MRONJ handled with antibiotics, conservative debridement, low-level laser therapy (LLLT, and photodynamic therapy (PDT up to 12 months. As healing of MRONJ may be very slow, combined therapeutic approaches are required. Besides the recommended conventional treatment protocol, LLLT and PDT are important tools to contribute to healing and improvement of patient’s quality of life.

  8. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy vs. local minocycline in addition to non-surgical therapy of deep periodontal pockets: a controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabenski, Laura; Moder, Daniel; Cieplik, Fabian; Schenke, Frederike; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Schmalz, Gottfried; Christgau, Michael

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the additional influence of either antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT; Helbo® Photodynamic Systems) or local application of minocycline microspheres (MC; Arestin, OraPharma) on clinical and microbiological healing results in deep periodontal pockets (PPD ≥6 mm) following non-surgical periodontal therapy (SRP). Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis were evaluated: test group aPDT + SRP (n = 15), positive control group MC + SRP (n = 15), and negative control group SRP-alone (n = 15). Clinical and microbiological healing parameters were recorded in every patient for four experimental teeth at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). Significant improvements in clinical and microbiological parameters were found for all groups after 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months. Differences between groups were not statistically significant. Changes after 12 months [median (25/75%)] are as follows: reduction in PPD [mm]: aPDT + SRP 2 (1/3), MC + SRP 3 (1/4), SRP-alone 2 (1/3); percentage of residual BOP positive teeth [%]: aPDT + SRP 75 (25/100), MC + SRP 33.3 (0/50), SRP-alone 66.7 (25/75). Within the limitations of this study, neither the applied aPDT system nor MC showed a significant additional influence on clinical and microbiological healing outcomes in deep periodontal pockets compared to SRP alone. In deep periodontal defects, the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal treatment seems not to be improved by adjunctive use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy or minocycline microspheres.

  9. The antimicrobial effectiveness of photodynamic therapy used as an addition to the conventional endodontic re-treatment: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurič, Ivona Bago; Plečko, Vanda; Pandurić, Dragana Gabrić; Anić, Ivica

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) used as an adjunct to the endodontic re-treatment in the eradication of microorganisms from previously filled root canals. The study sample consisted of 21 randomly selected patients with root filled and infected root canal system with chronic apical periodontitis on incisors or canines, who have had previously endodontic treatment. Microbiological samples from the root canals were collected after accessing the canal, following the endodontic re-treatment and after the aPDT procedure. During instrumentation, the root canals were irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and the final irrigation protocol included 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid followed by NaOCl. Root canals were filled with a phenothiazinium chloride and irradiated with a diode laser (λ=660 nm, 100 mW) for 1 min. Microbiological samples from the root canals were cultivated on selective plates, and the identification was done by micromorphology, macromorphology and different API strips as well as bacterial counts (colony forming units). Fourteen bacteria species were isolated from the root canals initially, with a mean value of 4.57 species per canal. Although endodontic re-treatment alone produced a significant reduction in the number of bacteria species (pendodontic treatment and aPDT was statistically more effective (pendodontic therapy achieved a significant further reduction of intracanal microbial load. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in chronic osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis Júnior, João Alves; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; Paraguassú, Gardênia Matos; de Vieira de Castro, Isabele Cardoso; Trindade, Renan Ferreira; Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2012-09-01

    Osteomyelitis it is an acute or chronic inflammation in the marrow spaces in the superficial or cortical bone, and associated to bacterial infection. Chronic osteomyelitis represents a major health problem due to its difficult treatment and increased morbidity. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APT) by laser is a treatment based on a cytotoxic photochemical reaction in which, a bright light produced by a laser system and an active photosensitizer absorbed by cells leads an activation that induces a series of metabolic reactions that culminates a bacterial killing. The aim of this study was to assess, both in vitro and in vivo, the effect of lethal laser photosensitization on osteomyelitis. On the in vitro study a diode laser (λ660nm; 40mW; o/ = 0.4 cm2; 5 or 10 J/cm2) and 5, 10 and 15μg/mL toluidine blue (TB) were tested and the best parameter chosen for the in vivo study. The concentration of 5μg/mL was selected to perform the decontamination of infected by Staphylococcus aureus tibial bone defects in rats. The results were performed by ANOVA test. On the in vitro studies all PDTs groups in the different concentrations reduced significantly (pblue was effective in reducing the staphiloccocus aureus in both in vitro and in vivo studies.

  11. Effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on the counts of salivary Streptococcus mutans in children with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Seraj, Bahman; Chiniforush, Nasim; Rokouei, Mehrak; Mousavi, Niloofar; Ghadimi, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a novel technique for reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aPDT on Streptococcus mutans reduction in children with severe early childhood caries. Twenty-two children with severe early childhood caries aged 3-6 years were treated with toluoidine blue O (TBO) for 1min and irradiated by a Light Emitting Diode (LED; FotoSan, CMS Dental, Denmark) with the exposure time of 150s. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, 1h and 7 days after treatment. S. mutans counts were determined using the Dentocult SM Strip mutans. The counts of S. mutans in saliva decreased significantly after 1h (Pmutans counts in saliva was not significant between the baseline and 7 days after treatment (P>0.05). aPDT seems to be efficient to reduce salivary S. mutans immediately after treatment in children with severe early childhood caries. However, further research is needed to evaluate different doses and frequency of irradiation in combination with restoring carious teeth to find more durable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on microorganism reduction in deep caries lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Pâmela Oliveira; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Fontes, Karla Bianca Fernandes da Costa; Póvoa, Helvécio Cardoso Corrêa; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Iorio, Natalia Lopes Pontes; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to perform a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions. An electronic search was conducted in Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library, followed by a manual search. The MeSH terms, MeSH synonyms, related terms, and free terms were used in the search. As eligibility criteria, only clinical studies were included. Initially, 227 articles were identified in the electronic search, and 152 studies remained after analysis and exclusion of the duplicated studies; 6 remained after application of the eligibility criteria; and 3 additional studies were found in the manual search. After access to the full articles, three were excluded, leaving six for evaluation by the criteria of the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. Of these, five had some risk of punctuated bias. All results from the selected studies showed a significant reduction of microorganisms in deep carious lesions for both primary and permanent teeth. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in microorganism counts in all analyses (p<0.00001). Based on these findings, there is scientific evidence emphasizing the effectiveness of aPDT in reducing microorganisms in deep carious lesions.

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in the treatment of denture stomatitis; Terapia fotodinamica antimicrobiana no tratamento da estomatite protetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Andre Machado de

    2012-07-01

    Denture stomatitis (DS), also called chronic atrophic candidiasis, is the most common oral fungal infection in denture wearers. It has a multifactorial etiology, but the presence of Candida spp. biofilm on the denture is considered the most important factor for the establishment of the DS. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of DS through the use of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PAT), mediated by methylene blue. For this purpose, preclinical studies and clinical trials were performed. Simulators prototypes dentures were made of methyl methacrylate polymer to serve as a basis for biofilm growth of the following species of Candida: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Methylene blue solution at a concentration of 450 {mu}g/mL was used as a photosensitizer. The prototypes and biofilms were irradiated with a laser of wavelength of 660 nm, potency of 100 mW, for 80 seconds. For the clinical study, subjects were divided into two groups. The first group received conventional treatment based on the use of antifungal Miconazole. The second group received the treatment by PAT. The preclinical results showed that all species of the genus Candida were susceptible to PAT, with a reduction in colonies that ranged from 2.48 to 3.93 log{sub 10}. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for the reduction of colonies of Candida spp. located in the mucosa and in the prosthesis and relative to the improvement of the clinical aspect of the affected mucosa. Both the conventional therapy and PAT were effective in treating DS. There was no significant statistical difference between PAT and conventional treatment for any of the factors evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that PAT is effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis. (author)

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of association of chlorhexidine to photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy in root canals infected by Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus Albino; Lima, Guilherme; Pazinatto, Bianca; Bischoff, Karolina Frick; Palhano, Huriel Scartazzini; Cecchin, Doglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of the addition of chlorhexidine to photosensitiser in the antimicrobial activity of photodynamic therapy in root canals infected by Enterococcus faecalis. The root canals of 50 single-rooted human extracted teeth were enlarged up to a file F3 of Pro-Taper system, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 14days. The samples were divided into five groups (n=10) according to the protocol of decontamination: G1 (control group) - no procedure was performed; G2-photosensitiser (0.01% methylene blue); G3-2% chlorhexidine gel; G4-photodynamic therapy; and G5-photodynamic therapy with photosensitiser modified by chlorhexidine. Microbiological test (CFU counting) was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed treatments. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). Group 3 (CHX) showed the lowest mean contamination (2.03 log 10 CFU/mL), being statistically different from all other all groups (pphotodynamic therapy alone over root canals infected by E. faecalis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Photosensitizer and light diffusion through dentin in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana C; Graciano, Ariane X; Nagata, Juliana Y; Fujimaki, Mitsue; Terada, Raquel S S; Bento, Antonio C; Astrath, Nelson G C; Baesso, Mauro L

    2013-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been considered a potential antimicrobial modality against oral infections, including dental caries. A model to estimate the penetration of both photosensitizers and light through human dentin, a factor of interest in photodynamic therapy, is proposed. The photoacoustic spectroscopy technique was used to evaluate in vitro dentin permeability of three different photosensitizers. Using the dentin optical absorption and scattering coefficients, it was possible to propose a semi-quantitative model predicting both photosensitizer and light doses within dentin. The graphic illustrations obtained provided guidelines that may be useful in photodynamic therapy protocols used as antimicrobial tools in caries lesions.

  16. Thiocyanate potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: In situ generation of the sulfur trioxide radical anion by singlet oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Tyler G.; Vecchio, Daniela; Zadlo, Andrzej; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sadasivam, Magesh; Avci, Pinar; Huang, Liyi; Kozinska, Anna; Chandran, Rakkiyappan; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for the eradication of pathogenic microbial cells and involves the light excitation of dyes in the presence of O2, yielding reactive oxygen species including the hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2). In order to chemically enhance PDT by the formation of longer-lived radical species, we asked whether thiocyanate (SCN−) could potentiate the methylene blue (MB) and light-mediated killing of the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the gram-negative Escherichia coli. SCN− enhanced PDT (10 μM MB, 5J/cm2 660 nm hv) killing in a concentration-dependent manner of S. aureus by 2.5 log10 to a maximum of 4.2 log10 at 10 mM (P < 0.001) and increased killing of E. coli by 3.6 log10 to a maximum of 5.0 log10 at 10 mM (P < 0.01). We determined that SCN− rapidly depleted O2 from an irradiated MB system, reacting exclusively with 1O2, without quenching the MB excited triplet state. SCN− reacted with 1O2, producing a sulfur trioxide radical anion (a sulfur-centered radical demonstrated by EPR spin trapping). We found that MB-PDT of SCN− in solution produced both sulfite and cyanide anions, and that addition of each of these salts separately enhanced MB-PDT killing of bacteria. We were unable to detect EPR signals of •OH, which, together with kinetic data, strongly suggests that MB, known to produce •OH and 1O2, may, under the conditions used, preferentially form 1O2. PMID:23969112

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and light-activated disinfection on contaminated zirconia implants: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Bleron; Budimir, Ana; Bago, Ivona; Mehmeti, Blerim; Jakovljević, Suzana; Kelmendi, Jeta; Stanko, Aleksandra Presecki; Gabrić, Dragana

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and light-activated disinfection (LAD) on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species and investigate if the PDT and LAD cause implant surface alterations. Seventy-two zirconia dental implants were contaminated with a bacterial suspension of Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The implants were subsequently randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 dental implants/each) according to the decontamination protocol: Group 1 (PDT1) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with toluidine blue; Group 2 (PDT2) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with phenothiazine chloride dye; Group 3 (LAD) - light emitting diode (LED) with toluidine blue; and Group 4 (TB) - toluidine blue without the application of light. Implants in the positive control (PC) group were treated with a 0.2% chlorhexidine-based solution, and implants assigned to the negative control (NC) group did not undergo any treatment. Each implant was then placed in tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and vortexed for 60 s to remove the remaining bacteria from the implant surface. After 10-fold serial dilutions, 30 μl of the suspension was plated on Brucella agar plates. After 72 h, the colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Distinctive colonies were confirmed with MALDI Biotyper. The implants were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the possible surface alterations due to PDT or LAD. All study groups had significant reductions in the number of CFUs compared with the NC (p implant surface after the treatment procedures. Both PDT protocols and LAD showed high and equal effectiveness in decontamination of zirconia dental implants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. One-session root canal treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT): an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsatto, M C; Correa-Afonso, A M; Lucisano, M P; Bezerra da Silva, R A; Paula-Silva, F W G; Nelson-Filho, P; Bezerra da Silva, L A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the response of the apical and periapical tissues of dog teeth with apical periodontitis after one-session root canal treatment with and without antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) compared with the use of an intracanal dressing. Sixty root canals with an induced periapical lesion were instrumented and assigned to three groups: I, two-session root canal treatment using antibacterial dressing with calcium hydroxide-based paste; II, one-session root canal treatment using aPDT; and III, one-session root canal treatment in which the root canals were filled immediately after biomechanical preparation. The animals were euthanized after a 90-day experimental period. The maxillas and mandibles with teeth were submitted to histotechnical processing and haematoxylin-eosin staining. Descriptive microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical region characteristics was performed, as well as morphometric assessment of the periapical lesion areas in fluorescence microscopy. Quantitative data were analysed statistically by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's post-test (α = 0.05). Group I was characterized by progressive repair, with the presence of fibres, cells and blood vessels. Group II had periodontal ligaments with the presence of collagen fibres and residual inflammatory cells. Group III had a dense inflammatory infiltrate with extensive oedematous areas and fibrillar dissociation, suggesting a persistent inflammatory and resorptive condition. Regarding periapical lesion size, group I had significantly smaller lesions (P session root canal treatment using a calcium hydroxide-based dressing was associated with significantly smaller periapical lesions at 90 days and characterized by progressive repair. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy using a phenothiazine compound and LED (red-orange) on the interface: macrophage vs S. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Fernando José P.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    Antimicrobial Photodynamic therapy is a technique in which microorganisms are exposed to a photosensitizing drug and then irradiated with low-intensity visible light of the appropriate wavelength. The resulting photochemical reaction generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and free radicals, which are able to exert bactericidal effect. Much is already known about the photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms: both antibiotic-sensitive and - resistant strains can be successfully photo inactivated, and there is the additional advantage that repeated photosensitization of bacterial cells does not induce a selection of resistant strains. Recently, a series of studies have shown that it is possible to kill bacteria with a light source after the microorganisms have been sensitized with low concentration of dye, such as phenothiazines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phagocytic function of macrophages J774 against S. aureus in the presence and absence of AmPDT with phenothiazine compound (12.5 μg/mL) and red-orange LED. Experimental groups: Control Group (L-F-), Phenothiazine group (L-F+) LED group (L+F-), Photodynamic therapy group (L+F+). The tests presented in this study were carried out in triplicate. This study demonstrated that AmPDT is able to increase about twice the phagocytic ability of macrophages; however, the bactericidal capacity of these cells did not show a substantial improvement, probably because the oxidative burst was less intense.

  20. Daylight photodynamic therapy in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordey, Helen; Valentine, Ronan; Lesar, Andrea; Moseley, Harry; Eadie, Ewan; Ibbotson, Sally

    2017-05-01

    Chronic sun-induced dysplastic skin changes (actinic keratoses) are extremely common in fair-skinned people in Scotland. These changes are a major cause of morbidity and may develop into skin cancer. Actinic keratoses are often extensive and pose a therapeutic challenge as field-directed treatment is required for chronic disease management. One such treatment approach is hospital-based photodynamic therapy, which is a well-established treatment in Scotland for actinic keratoses, using a photosensitiser pro-drug and red LED light irradiation. However, photodynamic therapy using daylight as the activating light source is increasingly and effectively used in continental Europe, but had not been explored in Scotland until we initiated this in 2013. We report our experience of daylight photodynamic therapy in 64 patient-treatment courses and demonstrate that this can be an effective, well-tolerated treatment, which is liked by patients. Our most recent data show that most patients (73%) achieved clearance or at least a good response to treatment and had high levels of satisfaction with daylight photodynamic therapy. Daylight exposure measurements indicated that treatment is feasible in Scotland between April to September. Daylight photodynamic therapy is an important advancement in treatment options for Scottish patients with extensive pre-cancerous field changes and provides opportunities for home-based treatment and increased efficiency of photodynamic therapy services.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.

  2. Photodynamic therapy - A strategic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Rajvir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical removal of the biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants or various antibiotics have been conventional methods of the periodontitis therapy. There has been an upsurge of bacterial strains becoming resistant due to the injudicious use of antibiotics, recently. As a result there is pronounced interest and keenness in the development of alternate antimicrobial concepts. As the scientific community seeks alternatives to antibiotic treatment, periodontal researchers have found that photodynamic therapy (PDT is advantageous to suppress anaerobic bacteria. Hence, PDT could be an alternative to conventional periodontal therapeutic methods. This review elucidates the evolution and use of photo dynamic therapy. The application of photosensitizing dyes and their excitation by visible light enables effective killing of periodontopathogens. Even though PDT is still in the experimental stages of development and testing, the method may be an adjunct to conventional antibacterial measures in periodontology. PDT application has an adjunctive benefit besides mechanical treatment at sites with difficult access. Necessity for flap operations may be reduced, patient comfort may increase and treatment time decrease. Clinical follow-up studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of the procedure.

  3. Response surface method optimization of a novel Hypericin formulation in P123 micelles for colorectal cancer and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanha, Maiara Camotti; Silva, Larissa Lachi; Pangoni, Fernanda Belincanta Borghi; Cesar, Gabriel Batista; Gonçalves, Renato Sonchini; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Diniz, Andréa; Kimura, Elza

    2017-05-01

    The photodynamic properties of Hypericin (Hyp) may be used as an alternative treatment for malignancies of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for the prevention of surgical-site infection; however, its use in photodynamic therapy has been limited because of its poor hydrosolubility. Therefore, in order to improve its water solubility and its photodynamic effect, Hyp was encapsulated in Pluronic P123 (P123) and the photodynamic effects against intestinal and epidermal bacteria and against two lineages of intestinal colon carcinoma cells were investigated. Two response surface methods (RSM) were used to achieve the best in vitro photodynamic activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: in the first (full 2 3 RSM), Hyp concentration (HC*), incubation time (IT*) and LED-light time (LT*) were considered as the independent variables and E. faecalis inhibition as the dependent variable. In the second (full 3 2 RSM), Hyp concentration (HC*) and P123 concentration (CC*) were considered as independent variables and E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus inhibition as dependent variables. The optimized experimental conditions achieved were: Hyp concentration=37.5μmol/L; P123 concentration=21.5 μmol/L and 6.3J/cm 2 , which resulted in 2.86±0.12 and 2.30±0.31CFU log-reductions of E. faecalis and S. aureus. No effect was seen against E. coli. The cytotoxic effects of Hyp/P123 were also investigated for Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal colon carcinoma cells at Hyp/P123 concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1μmol/L for Caco-2 cells and 4, 3, 2 and 1μmol/L for HT-29 cells. The cytotoxic concentrations for 50% (CC 50 ) and 90% (CC 90 ) of Hyp/P123 were 0.443 and 0.870μmol/L for Caco-2 cells and 1.4 and 2.84μmol/L for HT-29 cells. The P123 nanocarrier played a significant role in the permeation of Hyp through the cell membrane leading to significant cell death, and showed itself to be a promising photosensitizer for PDT that could be suitable

  4. Effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and surgical endodontic treatment on the bacterial load reduction and periapical lesion healing. Three years follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Arantes-Neto, Julio G; Sellera, Debora P; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Besides the advances in endodontics, there are situations in which surgery is necessary to retain a tooth that otherwise would be extracted. This study analyzes the microbial reduction after conventional periapical surgery followed by antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in 3 years follows up. Twenty-eight teeth needing periapical surgery were enrolled in this study. Microbiological samples were taken after: (1) accessing the lesion, (2) surgical procedure, and (3) aPDT. The teeth received a full mucoperiosteal flap, osteotomy with a high-speed bur, manual curettage of lesion and of the root, root-end resection and retrograde cavities prepared using ultrasonic retro-tips. After the conventional procedure the cavities received an aqueous solution of methylene blue (60 μM, 3 min) and were irradiated with a diode laser λ=660 nm (6 min, 15 J). After aPDT, a retrograde filling with mineral trioxide aggregate, flap re-positioning, and sutures conventionally ended the procedure. In all the cases, a periapical X-ray exam was taken before and after the surgical procedure. The microbiological samples showed an overall significant reduction, surgical procedure achieved a mean reduction of about 3.5 log while aPDT achieved a 5 log reduction. After 36 months of follow up the patients had, in average a reduction of 78% of the periapical lesion area. It appears that surgical endodontic treatment associated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy highly improves the microbial reduction compared to the traditional technique and this could directly affect the treatment prognosis and periapical lesion healing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  6. The Effect of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy with Radachlorin and Toluidine Blue on Streptococcus Mutans: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zangeneh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are caused by infection of teeth and supporting tissues due to complex aggregate of bacteria known as biofilm, firstly colonized by streptococci. The main purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobialeffects of toluidine blue O (TBO and Radachlorin® in combination with a diode laser on the viability of Streptococcus mutans.Materials and Methods: Bacterial suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were exposed to either 0.1% TBO associated with (20 mW, 633 nm diode laser, continuous mode, 150 s or 0.1% Radachlorin® and laser irradiation (100 mW, 662 nm diode laser, continuous mode,120 s. Those in control groups were subjected to laser irradiation alone or TBO/Radachlorin® alone or received neither TBO/Radachlorin® nor laser exposure. The suspensions were then spread over specific agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37°C. Finally, the bactericidal effects were evaluated based on colony formation.Results: Potential bacterial cell killing was only observed following photosensitization with TBO and 3 j/cm2 laser exposure (p<0.05, whereas Radachlorin® showed significant reduction in dark condition compared to laser exposure (p<0.05.Conclusion: TBO-mediated photodynamic therapy seems to be more efficient than Radachlorin ® in significantly reducing the viability of Streptococcus mutans in vitro.

  7. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  8. Does photodynamic therapy enhance standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Romanos, Georgios E

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy enhanced standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry. Photodynamic therapy when used as an adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy kills more bacteria than when conventional periodontal therapy is used alone. To address the focused question, "Does photodynamic therapy enhance killing of oral bacteria?" PubMed/MEDLINE(®) and Google Scholar databases were explored. Original human and experimental studies and studies using photodynamic therapy for killing oral bacteria were included. Letters to the Editor, historic reviews, and unpublished data were excluded. Photodynamic therapy significantly reduces periodontopathogenic bacteria including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Photodynamic therapy kills cariogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis), bacteria associated with infected root canals, and those associated with periimplantitis. Photodynamic therapy, when used as an adjunct to conventional oral disinfection protocols, enhances standard antibacterial therapy in dentistry.

  9. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy against EndodonticEnterococcus faecalisandCandida albicansMono and Mixed Biofilms in the Presence of Photosensitizers: A Comparative Study with Classical Endodontic Irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Patrícia; Fernandes, Chantal; Caramelo, Francisco; Mota, Marta; Miranda, Isabel M; Faustino, M A F; Neves, M G P M S; Uliana, Marciana P; de Oliveira, Kleber T; Santos, João M; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic biofilms eradication from the infected root canal system remains as the primary focus in endodontic field. In this study, it was assessed the efficacy of antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) with the Zn(II)chlorin e6 methyl ester (Zn(II)e 6 Me) activated by red light against monospecies and mixed biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans . The results were compared with the ones obtained with Rose Bengal (RB), Toluidine Blue-O (TBO), the synthetic tetracationic porphyrin (TMPyP) as well as classical endodontic irrigants (3% NaOCl, 17% EDTA and 2% CHX). The antimicrobial efficacy of aPDT toward monospecies and mixed biofilms was quantified resorting to safranin red method. The changes of biofilm organization and of cellular ultrastructure were evaluated through several microscopy techniques (light, laser confocal and transmission electron microscopy). Zn(II)e 6 Me once activated with light for 60 or 90 s was able to remove around 60% of the biofilm's biomass. It was more efficient than TBO and RB and showed similar efficiency to TMPyP and classical irrigants, CHX and EDTA. As desirable in a PS, Zn(II)e 6 Me in the dark showed smaller activity than TMPyP. Only NaOCl revealed higher efficiency, with 70-90% of the biofilm's biomass removal. The organization of biofilms and the normal microbial cell ultrastructure were extensively damaged by the presence of Zn(II)e 6 Me. aPDT with Zn(II)e 6 Me showed to be an efficient antimicrobial strategy deserving further studies leading to a future clinical usage in endodontic disinfection.

  10. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide and Photodynamic Therapy Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in Teeth With Periapical Lesions; An In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Zohre; Mojtahed Bidabadi, Maryam; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Rahmati, Afsaneh; Tabatabaei, Fahimeh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Elimination of pathological microflora of root canal systems is a major goal in endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medication and antibacterial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in teeth with periapical (PA) lesions. Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 20 patients with single-rooted mandibular premolar with previously failed endodontic treatment. This study was performed as a clinical trial (IRCTID: IRCT2016090429686N1). After conventional chemo-mechanical root canal preparation (hand and rotary instruments and 2.5% NaOCl), microbiological samples were obtained using sterile paper points, then stored in thioglycolate solution and transferred to a microbiology laboratory. Group 1 (n = 10) specimens underwent aPDT (diode laser 808 nm + 50 mg/mL methylene blue), while creamy calcium hydroxide paste was used in group 2 for a duration of 1 week. A control sample was taken with sterile paper points and F3 Protaper rotary file. The samples were dispersed in transport medium, serially diluted, and cultured on selective mediums to determine the number of colony forming units (CFUs). Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test at 5% significance level. The significance level for all analyses was set at P < 0.05. Results: Number of CFU significantly decreased in both groups after the interventions (P < 0.001); however, there was no significant difference in the colony count between the 2 groups. Conclusion: aPDT and calcium hydroxide therapy showed the same antimicrobial efficacy on E. faecalis and C. albicans. PMID:28652899

  11. Histopathological, Microbiological, and Radiographic Analysis of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy for the Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Study in Rats' Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; de Oliveira, Sílvia Dias; Barth Junior, Valdir Cristóvão; Gallo, Stephanie Wagner; Follmann, Carina; Wolle, Carlos Frederico Brilhante; Steier, Liviu; Morgental, Renata Dornelles; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo, by histological and radiographic analysis, the response of apical tissues of rats' teeth with experimentally induced apical periodontitis, after one- and two-session endodontic treatment with and without photodynamic therapy (PDT). A microbiological analysis was also performed to verify bacterial reduction after each treatment. Studies carried out in recent years highlighted the antibacterial potential of PDT when associated with conventional endodontic therapy in vitro. Although the antimicrobial effect of PDT is well-established, tissue response to PDT in teeth with apical periodontitis lacks studies. Thirty-two rats' root canals were assigned to four groups: one session/PDT-[chemomechanical preparation (CMP)+root canal filling (RCF)]; two sessions/PDT- [CMP+calcium hydroxide (CH) for 14 days+RCF]; one session/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+RCF], and two sessions/PDT+ [CMP+PDT+CH for 14 days+RCF]. For microbiological evaluation, samples were collected before and after proposed treatments. For radiographic and histological analysis, the animals were euthanized after 28 days and the mandibles surgically removed. PDT associated with conventional endodontic therapy was able to promote significant bacterial reduction in root canals with induced apical periodontitis, but this reduction was not significantly different to conventional endodontic therapy alone. Although radiographic evaluation showed no significant differences, histological analysis showed lower scores for neutrophils/eosinophils in PDT-treated groups and macrophages/giant cells in CH groups. The use of low-level laser as light source did not promote major improvement on radiographic and histological repair, but since the number of inflammatory cells slightly decreased, it may optimize repair by modulating inflammatory process. PDT may be indicated as an adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy for teeth with apical periodontitis, in association with an interappointment

  12. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with periodontal treatment for metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Erika Elisabeth; França, Cristiane Miranda; Veni, Priscila; de Oliveira Silva, Tamires; Gonçalves, Rafael Moredo; de Carvalho, Verônica Franco; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Camacho, Cleber P; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Alvarenga, Letícia Heineck; Prates, Renato Araujo

    2015-05-27

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease is bidirectional. DM is a predisposing and modifying factor of periodontitis, which, in turn, worsens glycemic control and increases proteins found in the acute phase of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein. The gold standard for the treatment of periodontal disease is oral hygiene orientation, scaling and planing. Moreover, systemic antibiotic therapy may be employed in some cases. In an effort to minimize the prescription of antibiotics, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been studied as an antimicrobial technique and has demonstrated promising results. The aim of the proposed study is to determine whether PDT as a complement to periodontal therapy (PT) is helpful in the metabolic control of individuals with type 2 diabetes and the reduction of acute-phase inflammatory markers. The patients will be randomized using a proper software program into two groups: 1) PT + placebo PDT or 2) PT + active PDT. All patients will first be examined by a specialist, followed by PT performed by two other healthcare professionals. At the end of each session, PDT (active or placebo) will be administered by a fourth healthcare professional. The following will be the PDT parameters: diode laser (660 nm); power output = 110 mW; exposure time = 90 s per point (9 J/point); and energy density = 22 J/cm(2). The photosensitizer will be methylene blue (50 μg/mL). The patients will be re-evaluated 15, 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment. Serological examinations with complete blood count, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin and salivary examinations to screen for tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1, interleukin 6, ostelocalcin, and osteoprotegerin/RANKL will be performed at each evaluation. The data will be statistically evaluated using the most appropriate tests. The results of this study will determine the efficacy of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment in diabetic patients. The

  13. Nanodrug applications in photodynamic therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Paszko, Edyta

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has developed over last century and is now becoming a more widely used medical tool having gained regulatory approval for the treatment of various diseases such as cancer and macular degeneration. It is a two-step technique in which the delivery of a photosensitizing drug is followed by the irradiation of light. Activated photosensitizers transfer energy to molecular oxygen which results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which in turn cause cells apoptosis or necrosis. Although this modality has significantly improved the quality of life and survival time for many cancer patients it still offers significant potential for further improvement. In addition to the development of new PDT drugs, the use of nanosized carriers for photosensitizers is a promising approach which might improve the efficiency of photodynamic activity and which can overcome many side effects associated with classic photodynamic therapy. This review aims at highlighting the different types of nanomedical approaches currently used in PDT and outlines future trends and limitations of nanodelivery of photosensitizers.

  14. More Adventures in Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kessel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a procedure that can provide a selective eradication of neoplastic disease if sufficient drug, light, and oxygen are available. As this description suggests, it involves the photosensitization of malignant tissues to irradiation with photons in the visible range. While not suitable for tumors at unknown loci, it can be of use for eradication of cancer at surgical margins and therapy at sites where substantial surgery might otherwise be involved. Drug development has been delayed by several factors including the reluctance of major pharmaceutical firms in the United States to invest in this technology along with some unwise approaches in the past.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursoy, Hare; Ozcakir-Tomruk, Ceyda; Tanalp, Jale; Yilmaz, Selçuk

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarize recent developments regarding photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the field of dentistry. A review of pertinent literature was carried out in PubMED to determine the current position of PDT applications in dentistry. One hundred thirteen relevant articles were retrieved from PubMED by inserting the keywords "photodynamic therapy", "dentistry", "periodontology", "oral surgery", and "endodontics". It is anticipated that this overview will create a specific picture in the practitioner's mind regarding the current status and use of PDT. In spite of different results and suggestions brought about by different researchers, PDT can be considered as a promising and less invasive technique in dentistry. PDT seems to be an effective tool in the treatment of localized and superficial infections. Within the limitations of the present review, it can be concluded that although PDT cannot replace antimicrobial therapy at its current stage, it may be used as an adjunctive tool for facilitating the treatment of oral infections. Oral infections (such as mucosal and endodontic infections, periodontal diseases, caries, and peri-implantitis) are among the specific targets where PDT can be applied. Further long-term clinical studies are necessary in establishing a more specific place of the technique in the field of dentistry.

  16. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: a split-mouth randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, André L; Novaes, Arthur B; Grisi, Márcio F; Taba, Mario; Souza, Sérgio L; Palioto, Daniela B; de Oliveira, Paula G; Casati, Marcio Z; Casarin, Renato C; Messora, Michel R

    2015-03-01

    The management of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) represents a challenge for clinicians because there are no standardized protocols for an efficient control of the disease. This randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the effects of repeated applications of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) in patients with AgP. Using a split-mouth design, 20 patients with generalized AgP were treated with aPDT + SRP (test group) or SRP only (control group). aPDT was applied at four periods. All patients were monitored for 90 days. Clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic parameters were statistically analyzed. In deep periodontal pocket analysis (probing depth [PD] ≥ 7 mm at baseline), the test group presented a decrease in PD and a clinical attachment gain significantly higher than the control group at 90 days (P periodontal pathogens of red and orange complexes and a lower interleukin-1β/interleukin-10 ratio than the control group (P periodontal pockets in single-rooted teeth in patients with AgP.

  17. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using a diode laser with a potential new photosensitizer, indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres, may be effective for the clearance of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, A; Mitani, A; Fukuda, M; Yamamoto, H; Tahara, K; Morita, I; Ting, C-C; Watanabe, T; Fujimura, T; Osawa, K; Sato, S; Takahashi, S; Iwamura, Y; Kuroyanagi, T; Kawashima, Y; Noguchi, T

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a new treatment method for the removal of infectious pathogens using a photosensitizer and light of a specific wavelength, e.g., toluidine blue with a wavelength of about 600 nm. We explored a new photosensitizer and focused on indocyanine green (ICG), which has high absorption at a wavelength of 800-805 nm. We investigated the bactericidal effect of PDT on Porphyromonas gingivalis using a new photosensitizer, ICG-loaded nanospheres with an 805 nm wavelength low-level diode laser irradiation. We designed ICG-loaded nanospheres coated with chitosan (ICG-Nano/c) as a photosensitizer. A solution containing Porphyromonas gingivalis (10(8)  CFU/mL) with or without ICG-Nano/c (or ICG) was prepared and irradiated with a diode laser or without laser irradiation as a negative control. The irradiation settings were 0.5 W with a duty ratio of 10%, for 3-100 ms in repeated pulse (RPT) or continuous wave mode. CFU were counted after 7 d of anaerobic culture. We observed that ICG-Nano/c could adhere to the surface of P. gingivalis. When ICG-Nano/c was used for aPDT, irradiation with RPT 100 ms mode gave the lowest increase in temperature. Laser irradiation with ICG-Nano/c significantly reduced the number of P. gingivalis (i.e., approximately 2-log10 bacterial killing). The greatest bactericidal effect was found in the RPT 100 ms group. However, laser irradiation (RPT 100 ms) with ICG, as well as without photosensitizer, had no effect on the number of bacteria. Within the limits of this study, ICG-Nano/c with low-level diode laser (0.5 W; 805 nm) irradiation showed an aPDT-like effect, which might be useful for a potential photodynamic periodontal therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Combined photodynamic and antibiotic therapy for skin disorder via lipase-sensitive liposomes with enhanced antimicrobial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Songhee; Lee, Jonghwan; Im, Byeong Nam; Park, Hyung; Na, Kun

    2017-10-01

    A lipase-sensitive singlet oxygen-producible and erythromycin-loaded liposome (LSSPL) was developed for combination antibacterial therapy for skin disorder. The LSSPL was synthesized by coating pullulan-pheophorbide a (PU-Pheo A) conjugates onto erythromycin-loaded liposomes composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol. Lipase activity was chosen as the environmental-stimulus for the controlled release of erythromycin and Pheo A from LSSPL because skin inflammation-inducing Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) secrete extracellular lipases. The presence of P. acnes lipases disrupted LSSPLs by selective cleavage of their ester linkages, liberating erythromycin and Pheo A. Along with the antibacterial effect of erythromycin, additional laser irradiation onto Pheo A further achieved the inhibition of P. acnes growth and treatment of P. acnes-infected inflammation in nude mice back skin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy, using a stimulus-responsiveness moiety, presents a feasible way to treat bacteria-induced skin disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photodynamic therapy of intraocular cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, N.; Duvournau, Y.; Querec, M.A.; Pechereau, A.; Patrice, T.

    1992-01-01

    The most common intraocular tumors are choroidal malignant melanomas (70%) and retinoblastomas (13%). Each time that visual acuity is preserved, various conservative treatments are considered relative to the potential risk of metastatic disease during enucleation. In addition to standard techniques, photodynamic therapy is a potentially attractive new approach limited in its effects to the area of the treated tumor. The purpose of this preclinical study is to determine a reference dose-effect for single laser doses and to study effects of fractionation of the laser dose. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  20. Photodynamic antimicrobial polymers for infection control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin P McCoy

    Full Text Available Hospital-acquired infections pose both a major risk to patient wellbeing and an economic burden on global healthcare systems, with the problem compounded by the emergence of multidrug resistant and biocide tolerant bacterial pathogens. Many inanimate surfaces can act as a reservoir for infection, and adequate disinfection is difficult to achieve and requires direct intervention. In this study we demonstrate the preparation and performance of materials with inherent photodynamic, surface-active, persistent antimicrobial properties through the incorporation of photosensitizers into high density poly(ethylene (HDPE using hot-melt extrusion, which require no external intervention except a source of visible light. Our aim is to prevent bacterial adherence to these surfaces and eliminate them as reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, thus presenting a valuable advance in infection control. A two-layer system with one layer comprising photosensitizer-incorporated HDPE, and one layer comprising HDPE alone is also described to demonstrate the versatility of our approach. The photosensitizer-incorporated materials are capable of reducing the adherence of viable bacteria by up to 3.62 Log colony forming units (CFU per square centimeter of material surface for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and by up to 1.51 Log CFU/cm(2 for Escherichia coli. Potential applications for the technology are in antimicrobial coatings for, or materials comprising objects, such as tubing, collection bags, handrails, finger-plates on hospital doors, or medical equipment found in the healthcare setting.

  1. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Sevšek

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana began to perform a photodynamic therapy (PDT in July 2002. Up to September 2003 there were 51 PDT interventions on 36 eyes. Almost half of the eyes had one or more reinterventions. PDT was used on 29 eyes with age related macular degeneration (AMD. Just before the treatment all of them had visual acuity (VA 6/60 or better and there were predominantly classical or classical choroidal neovascular (CNV membranes. Most VA did not changed significantly in follow-up visits but diameter of CNV membranes was obviously reduced. In macular degeneration due to pathologic myopia (MMD, photodynamic therapy was performed on 7 eyes with mainly occult CNV and VA was 12/60 or better. VA was mostly better in follow-up visits than before treatment with PDT.Conclusions. There were no serious complications during and after PDT interventions. Two patients had back pain during the infusion of Verteporfin but there was no need to stop the intervention.

  2. Photodynamic therapy for cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Grebenkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of treatment for precancer and early cervical cancer by photodynamic therapy in 12 patients with primary diagnosis H-SIL (CIN II–III and cancer in situ is described. Chlo-rine photosensitizer Photolon was given intravenously at a dose of 0.75–1.15 mg/kg body weight. 2.5 h later the treatment with polyposition laser exposure (light dose – 150 J/cm2, light power density – 400–500 mW/cm2 was made. Thirty days later conization of the cervix with endocervical curettage assessing therapeutic response of cervical tumor tissue was per-formed. According to histological data complete response was in 4 patients, minute foci of CIN I were determined in 7 patients, 1 patient had foci of CIN II. 8 of 10 HPV-positive patients had complete eradication of HPV after treatment. There were no serious adverse events after light exposure. Marked therapeutic response, high anti-viral activity and good feasibility allow to consider photodynamic therapy as alternative organ-sparing treatment of early cancer and pre-cancer of cervix. 

  3. Fluorescent standards for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belko, N.; Kavalenka, S.; Samtsov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an evolving technique for treatment of various oncological diseases. This method employs photosensitizers - species that lead to death of tumor cells after the photoactivation. For further development and novel applications of photodynamic therapy new photosensitizers are required. After synthesis of a new photosensitizer it is important to know its concentration in different biological tissues after its administration and distribution. The concentration is frequently measured by the extraction method, which has some disadvantages, e.g. it requires many biological test subjects that are euthanized during the measurement. We propose to measure the photosensitizer concentration in tissue by its fluorescence. For this purpose fluorescent standards were developed. The standards are robust and simple to produce; their fluorescence signal does not change with time. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent standards seems to depend linearly on the dye concentration. A set of standards thus allow the calibration of a spectrometer. Finally, the photosensitizer concentration can be determined by the fluorescence intensity after comparing the corresponding spectrum with spectra of the set of fluorescent standards. A biological test subject is not euthanized during this kind of experiment. We hope this more humane technique can be used in future instead of the extraction method.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of photodynamic therapy in combination with colistin against a pan-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluki, Ebrahim; Kazemian, Hossein; Peeridogaheh, Hadi; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Shahabi, Sima; Beytollahi, Leili; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh

    2017-06-01

    Nosocomially-acquired multi-, extensively-, and pandrug resistant (MDR, XDR, and PDR) strains of microorganisms such as Acinetobacter baumannii remain a serious cause of infection and septic mortality in burn patients. Treatment of patients with nosocomial burn wound infections is often complicated by drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii. Today, many researchers are focusing on the investigation of novel non-antibiotic strategies such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). We report a new PDT strategy that suppresses colistin resistance in PDR A. baumannii by interfering with the expression of a pmrA/pmrB two-component system. In the current study, A. baumannii with a PDR feature isolated from a burn patient was used as a test strain. PDT was carried out using toluidine blue O (TBO) and light-emitting diode (LED) as a photosensitizer and radiation source, respectively. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were assessed for cells surviving PDT. The effects of sub-lethal PDT (sPDT) on the expression of the pmrA/pmrB two-component signal transduction system were evaluated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results of drug susceptibly testing (DST) in LED and TBO groups separately showed that the bacteria were resistant to all tested antibiotics, while the DST result of the LED+TBO group showed highly declining bacterial growth when compared with the control group. Reduction in the expression of pmrA and pmrB was observed in the treated strains after sPDT. This represents the first conclusive example of a direct role for the PDT in breaking antibiotic resistance by directly modulating two-component system activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer: Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C Wilson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of photodynamic therapy (PDT, using drugs (photosensitizers that are activated by light to become cytotoxic, provide the basis for understanding the current and potential future clinical applications in gastroenterology, general oncology and other specialities. The properties of photosensitizers are key to their biological efficacy, while lasers and optical fibres allow convenient and flexible light delivery for endoscopic use. PDT has several distinct and unique advantages, both as a stand-alone treatment and in combination with other established modalities. The current limitations are also recognized, as is the need for rigorous randomized trials of this emerging technology. The fluorescence of many photosensitizers may be useful, either for (endoscopic diagnosis or for PDT treatment guidance and monitoring.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weersink, Robert A.

    2002-05-01

    Periodontal disease is a family of chronic inflammatory conditions caused by bacterial infections.' It is manifested in red, swollen gingiva (gums) and can lead to destruction of the connective tissue and bone that hold teeth in place. Conventional treatments typically require some form of invasive surgery, depending on the disease stage at time of detection. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is the use of light-activated drugs (photosensitizers) for treatment of a variety of conditions 2 such as solid tumors, pre-malignancies, macular degeneration and actinic keratitis. There have been a number of studies of PDT as an antibacterial agent. 3'4 Depending on the photosensitizer and strain of bacteria, significant killing (several LOGS) can be achieved.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy using a phenothiazine compound and Laser (λ=660ηm) on the interface: macrophage vs S. aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; Sampaio, Fernando José P.; Zanin, Fátima Antônia A.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays photodynamic inactivation has been proposed as an alternative treatment for localized bacterial infections as a response to the problem of antibiotic resistance. Much is already known about the photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms: both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant strains can be successfully photoinactivated and there is the additional advantage that repeated photosensitization of bacterial cells does not induce a selection of resistant strains. Staphylococcus spp. are opportunistic microorganisms known for their capacity to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. The emergence of resistant strains of bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a major challenge to healthcare. MRSA is a major cause of hospital-acquired infection throughout the world and is now also prevalent in the community as well as nursing and residential homes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phagocytic function of macrophages J774 against S. aureus in the presence and absence of AmPDT with phenothiazine compound (12.5 μg/mL) and low level laser (λ=660nm, 12 J/cm²). Experimental groups: Control group (L-P-), Phenothiazine group (L-P+) Laser group (L+P-), AmPDT group (L+P+).The tests presented in this study were performed in triplicate. This study showed that AmPDT induced bacterial death in about 80% as well as increasing phagocytic capacity of macrophages by approximately 20% and enhanced the antimicrobial activity by approximately 50% compared to the control group and enabling more intense oxidative burst.

  8. New photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Heidi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound. PMID:26862179

  9. Biophysical aspects of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Moan, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed to a useful clinical tool, a viable alternative in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Several disciplines have contributed to this development: chemistry in the development of new photosensitizing agents, biology in the elucidation of cellular processes involved in PDT, pharmacology and physiology in identifying the mechanisms of distribution of photosensitizers in an organism, and, last but not least, physics in the development of better light sources, dosimetric concepts and construction of imaging devices, optical sensors and spectroscopic methods for determining sensitizer concentrations in different tissues. Physics and biophysics have also helped to focus on the role of pH for sensitizer accumulation, dose rate effects, oxygen depletion, temperature, and optical penetration of light of different wavelengths into various types of tissue. These are all important parameters for optimally effective PDT. The present review will give a brief, physically based, overview of PDT and then discuss some of the main biophysical aspects of this therapeutic modality.

  10. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  11. Photodynamic therapy for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Julius, Clark E.; Hartman, Donald L.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy was used to treat 111 lesions in 27 cases with squamous and basal cell carcinoma. There were 82 squamous cell carcinomas and 29 basal cell carcinomas. Photofrin was administered intravenously at either 1.0 mg/kg or 0.75 mg/kg. An argon/dye laser was used to deliver 630 nm light to the lesion superficially at either 215 J/cm2 or 240 J/cm2. In some cases the laser light was delivered both superficially and interstitially. The laser light was delivered two to four days after the Photofrin injection. There were 105 complete responses and 5 partial responses. One patient was lost to follow-up. Among partial responses were basal cell carcinoma on the tip of the nose and morphea basal cell carcinoma of the left cheek. Another partial response occurred in a basal cell carcinoma patient where insufficient margins were treated due to the proximity to the eye. When 0.75 mg/kg drug dose was used, the selectivity of tumor necrosis was improved. Decreased period of skin photosensitivity was documented in some cases.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)-Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  13. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of refractory solid cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the activation of a photosensitizer by (laser) light to locally produce highly destructive reactive oxygen species. When employed for cancer treatment, PDT is able to induce tumor cell death, microvascular damage, and an anti-tumor immune response. All these

  14. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for nonorgan retroperitoneal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. А. Vashakmadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in 17 patients with morphologically confirmed resectable primary or recurrent retroperitoneal tumor using intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photogem (5 patients, radaсhlorin (7 patients and photodithazine (5 patients. The drugs were administered intravenously in following regimen: photogem 48 h before surgery in dose 2.5–3.0 mg/kg, radaсhlorin and photodithazine – 0.7 and 0.7–1.0 mg/kg, respectively, 2–3 h before resection. Irradiation was performed to tumor bed after complete radical removal from one or several positions depending on tumor localization. The light dose accounted for 30 J/cm2, duration of treatment session depended on area of irradiation. Two patients with recurrent tumor had two reoperations with session of photodynamic therapy. One patient had repeated recurrence requiring third surgery with photodynamic therapy. Thus, 17 patients underwent 25 sessions of intraoperative photodynamic therapy. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient had an early post-operative complication in the form of pancreonecrosis which could be associated with extended resection. The recurrence rate was 17.6%. The results showed safety of the method and affinity of utilized photosensitizers to retroperitoneal tumors of different histological types (sarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor and others. 

  15. Pain induced by photodynamic therapy of warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, I-M; Borgbjerg, F Molke; Villumsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), followed by irradiation with red light (ALA-PDT), is used for non-melanoma skin cancer and other dermatological diseases. Pain during and after light exposure is a well-known adverse advent that may be a limiting factor for treatment...

  16. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...

  17. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology | Shamad | Sudanese Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the use of photochemical reactions in the treatment of benign or malignant diseases using photosensitizing agent and light. PDT has received recent years, increased attention worldwide. Clinicians and researchers are developing new clinical applications in different fields of medicine.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for hair removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted hair is one of the most common medical problems affecting women of reproductive age inducing a lot of psychological stress and threatening their femininity and self-esteem. Old methods of removing unwanted hair include shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis, all of which have temporary results. However laser-assisted hair removal is the most efficient method of long-term hair removal currently available. It is desirable to develop a reduced cost photodynamic therapy (PDT system whose properties should include high efficiency and low side-effects. Method: Mice skin tissues were used in this study and divided into six groups such as controls, free methylene blue (MB incubation, liposome methylene blue (MB incubation, laser without methylene blue (MB, free methylene blue (MB for 3 and 4 hrs and laser, liposome methylene blue (MB for 3 hrs and laser. Methylene blue (MBwas applied to wax epilated areas. The areas were irradiated with CW He-Ne laser system that emits orange-red light with wavelength 632.8 nm and 10 mW at energy density of 5 J/ cm2 for 10 minutes. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was collected by Cary spectrophotometer. Results: Methylene blue (MB is selectively absorbed by actively growing hair follicles due to its cationic property. Methylene blue (MBuntreated sections showed that hair follicle and sebaceous gland are intact and there is no change due to the laser exposure. Free methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed that He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles, leaving an intact epidermis. Treated section with free methylene blue (MB for 4 hrs showed degeneration and necrosis in hair follicle, leaving an intact epidermis. Liposomal methylene blue (MB sections incubated for 3 hrs showed He:Ne laser induced destruction in hair follicles with intradermal leucocytic infiltration. Conclusions: Low power CW He:Ne laser and methylene blue (MB offered a successful PDT system

  19. Comparison microbial killing efficacy between sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drantantiyas, Nike Dwi Grevika; Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Biofilm is a way used by bacteria to survive from their environmental conditions by forming colony of bacteria. Specific characteristic in biofilm formation is the availability of matrix layer, known as extracellular polymer substance. Treatment using antibiotics may lead bacteria to be to resistant. Other treatments to reduce microbial, like biofilm, can be performed by using photodynamic therapy. Successful of this kind of therapy is induced by penetration of light and photosensitizer into target cells. The sonodynamic therapy offers greater penetrating capability into tissues. This research aimed to use sonodynamic therapy in reducing biofilm. Moreover, it compares also the killing efficacy of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, and the combination of both therapeutic schemes (known as sono-photodynamic) to achieve higher microbial killing efficacy. Samples used are Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Treatments were divided into 4 groups, i.e. group under ultrasound treatment with variation of 5 power levels, group of light treatment with exposure of 75s, group of combined ultrasound-light with variation of ultrasound power levels, and group of combined lightultrasound with variation of ultrasound power levels. Results obtained for each treatment, expressed in % efficacy of log CFU/mL, showed that the treatment of photo-sonodynamic provides greater killing efficacy in comparison to either sonodynamic and sono-photodynamic. The photo-sonodynamic shows also greater efficacy to photodynamic. So combination of light-ultrasound (photo-sonodynamic) can effectively kill microbial biofilm. The combined therapy will provide even better efficacy using exogenous photosensitizer.

  20. The impact of absorbed photons on antimicrobial photodynamic efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eCieplik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing resistance of pathogens towards standard antimicrobial procedures, alternative approaches that are capable of inactivating pathogens are necessary in support of regular modalities. In this instance, the photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB may be a promising alternative. For clinical application of PIB it is essential to ensure appropriate comparison of given photosensitizer (PS-light source systems, which is complicated by distinct absorption and emission characteristics of given PS and their corresponding light sources, respectively.Consequently, in the present study two strategies for adjustment of irradiation parameters are evaluated: (i matching energy doses applied by respective light sources (common practice and (ii by development and application of a formula for adjusting the numbers of photons absorbed by PS upon irradiation by their corresponding light sources. Since according to the photodynamic principle one PS molecule is excited by the absorption of one photon, this formula allows comparison of photodynamic efficacy of distinct PS per excited molecule.In light of this, the antimicrobial photodynamic efficacy of recently developed PS SAPYR was compared to that of clinical standard PS Methylene Blue (MB regarding inactivation of monospecies biofilms formed by Enterococcus faecalis and Actinomyces naeslundii whereby evaluating both adjustment strategies.PIB with SAPYR exhibited CFU-reductions of 5.1 log10 and 6.5 log10 against E. faecalis and A. naeslundii, respectively, which is declared as a disinfectant efficacy. In contrast, the effect of PIB with MB was smaller when the applied energy dose was adjusted compared to SAPYR (CFU-reductions of 3.4 log10 and 4.2 log10 against E. faecalis and A. naeslundii, or there was even no effect at all when the number of absorbed photons was adjusted compared to SAPYR. Since adjusting the numbers of absorbed photons is the more precise and adequate method from a

  1. Daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for non-melanoma skin cancers including actinic keratoses (AKs) because it allows treatment of large areas; it has a high response rate and results in an excellent cosmesis. However, conventional PDT for AKs is associated with inconveniently long...... clinic visits and discomfort during therapy. In this article, we critically review daylight-mediated PDT, which is a simpler and more tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. We review the effective light dose, efficacy and safety, the need for prior application of sunscreen, and potential clinical scope...

  2. Retinoblastoma: might photodynamic therapy be an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixo, Ricardo; Laranjo, Mafalda; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Brites, Gonçalo; Serra, Arménio; Proença, Rui; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-12-01

    Retinoblastoma is a tumor that mainly affects children under 5 years, all over the world. The origin of these tumors is related with mutations in the RB1 gene, which may result from genetic alterations in cells of the germ line or in retinal somatic cells. In developing countries, the number of retinoblastoma-related deaths is higher due to less access to treatment, unlike what happens in developed countries where survival rates are higher. However, treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although quite effective in treating this type of cancer, do not avoid high indices of mortality due to secondary malignances which are quite frequent in these patients. Additionally, treatments such as cryotherapy, thermotherapy, thermochemotherapy, or brachytherapy represent other options for retinoblastoma. When all these approaches fail, enucleation is the last option. Photodynamic therapy might be considered as an alternative, particularly because of its non-mutagenic character. Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality based on the administration of photosensitizing molecules that only upon irradiation of the tumor with a light source of appropriate wavelength are activated, triggering its antitumor action. This activity may be not only due to direct damage to tumor cells but also due to damage caused to the blood vessels responsible for the vascular supply of the tumor. Over the past decades, several in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of retinoblastoma, and very promising results were achieved.

  3. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Li, Linsen; Hu, Ping; Chen, Song; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys) 5 ) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys) 5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  4. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  5. Agr function is upregulated by photodynamic therapy for Staphylococcus aureus and is related to resistance to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Moon, Yeon-Hee; Yoon, Hyo-Eun; Park, Yoon Mee; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Bang, Iel Soo

    2013-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been considered a feasible alternative for antimicrobial therapy of multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, bacterial response mechanisms against PDT-generated photo-oxidative stress remain largely unknown. Herein, it is shown that the accessory gene regulator Agr is involved in Staphylococcus aureus response to photo-oxidative stress generated by laser-induced PDT with the photosensitizer chlorin e6 . Transcriptional profiling revealed that sublethal PDT induces a general stress response and also activates Agr-dependent gene regulation. Moreover, mutant S. aureus lacking Agr function showed hypersusceptibility to two independent PDT conditions with higher energy densities, demonstrating Agr-dependent S. aureus resistance against PDT. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for treatment subretinal neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, Sergey E.; Budzinskaja, Maria V.; Kiseleva, Tatyana N.; Balatskaya, Natalia V.; Gurova, Irina V.; Loschenov, Viktor B.; Shevchik, Sergey A.; Kuzmin, Sergey G.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

    2007-07-01

    This work are devoted our experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) with > for patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). 18 patients with subfoveal CNV in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 24 patients with subfoveal CNV in pathological myopia (PM) and 4 patients with subfoveal CNV associated with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were observed. CNV was 100% classic in all study patients. Standardized protocol refraction, visual acuity testing, ophthalmologic examinations, biomicroscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed before treatment and 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after treatment; were used to evaluate the results of photodynamic therapy with > (0.02% solution of mixture sulfonated aluminium phtalocyanine 0.05 mg/kg, intravenously). A diode laser (>, Inc, Moscow) was used operating in the range of 675 nm. Need for retreatment was based on fluorescein angiographic evidence of leakage at 3-month follow-up intervals. At 3, 6, 9 month 26 (56.5%) patients had significant improvement in the mean visual acuity. At the end of the 12-month minimal fluorescein leakage from choroidal neovascularization was seen in 12 (26.1%) patients and the mean visual acuity was slightly worse than 0.2 which was not statistically significant as compared with the baseline visual acuity. Patients with fluorescein leakage from CNV underwent repeated PDT with >. 3D-mode ultrasound shown the decreasing thickness of chorioretinal complex in CNV area. Photodynamic therapy with > can safely reduce the risk of severe vision loss in patients with predominantly classic subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to AMD, PM and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.

  7. [Photodynamic therapy for head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C.B.; Specht, Lena; Kirkegaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new treatment for head and neck cancer. The principle of the treatment is a photochemical reaction initiated by light activation of a photosensitizer, which causes the death of the exposed tissue. This article presents the modes of action of PDT and the techniques...... as well as the clinical procedure. A critical review of the literature is also presented, regarding treatment results of the different techniques and indications for treatments. The possibilities for PDT for head and neck cancer in Denmark are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2006/6/5...

  8. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  9. Photodynamic therapy using aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Miller, Kurt; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1994-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality for a variety of cancers. Since no ideal photosensitizer is available yet, new photosensitizers are being sought. A new concept of PDT is the use of endogenous photosensitizers. ALA is a metabolite in heme synthesis. It is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX, a potent photosensitizer. After administration of ALA it is transformed by the cells to protoporphyrin IX. The goal of our study was to examine dark toxicity of ALA and its phototoxic potential in two different human cell lines.

  10. Novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe, E.; Petersen, P.M.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a novel diode laser system for photodynamic therapy is demonstrated. The system is based on linear spatial filtering and optical phase conjugate feedback from a photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal. The spatial coherence properties of the diode laser are significantly improved. The system...... is extracted in a high-quality beam and 80 percent of the output power is extracted through the fiber. The power transmitted through tile fiber scales linearly with the power of the laser diode. which means that a laser diode emitting 1.7 W multi-mode radiation would provide 1 W of optical power through a 50...

  11. Immediate results of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of halitosis in adolescents: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rubia Garcia; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Soares, Carolina; Tarzia, Olinda; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Prates, Renato Araújo; França, Cristiane Miranda; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli Mesquita; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Light with or without chemical agents has been used to induce therapeutic and antimicrobial effects. With photodynamic therapy, the antimicrobial effect is confined to areas covered by a photosensitive dye and irradiated with light. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of halitosis in adolescents through the analysis of volatile sulfur compounds, especially sulfide. A controlled, clinical trial was conducted with 45 adolescents randomly allocated to three groups: group 1, photodynamic therapy administered to the dorsum of the tongue; group 2, treatment with a tongue scraper; and group 3, treatment with a tongue scraper combined with photodynamic therapy. The diagnosis of halitosis was performed using gas chromatography before and after treatment. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test, with the level of significance set at 5 % (p photodynamic therapy. The present study describes a novel option for the treatment of halitosis in adolescents with an immediate effect that does not involve the mechanical aggression of the lingual papillae that occurs with conventional treatment. Photodynamic Therapy in Adolescents Halitosis ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02007993?term=NCT02007993&rank=1 )Number: NCT02007993FUNDING:FAPESPNumber: 2013/13032-8.

  12. Photodynamic therapy for metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Horanskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treatment for cutaneous metastasis of breast cancer with photjdynamic therapy are represented. The study included 46 patients, the total number of treated cutaneous metastases was 535. For photodynamic therapy photosensitizer photolon given intravenously at a dose of 0.9–1.6 mg/kg body weight 3 h before treatment session (wave length 661±1 nm, плотность мощности 0,11–0,56 J/cm2, мощность на выходе волокна 0,3–2,0 Wt, light dose 50–600 J/cm2. Complete regression of metastasis was obtained in 33.6% of cases, partial – in 39.4%, stabilization – in 22.6%, progression of disease was in 4.3% of cases. The results show the perspectiveness of photodynamic therapy for metastasis as one of the step of treatment. 

  13. The use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of keratoacanthomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Galkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is on treatment of keratoacanthomas using photodynamic therapy. The defining characteristic of keratoacanthoma among epithelial tumors is a rapid spontaneous regression in the case of typical keratoacanthoma and long-term persistence, recurrence and common malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma in the case of atypical keratoacanthoma. In recent years, photodynamic therapy which is an effective method of treatment of different types of cancer and pre-cancer diseases of the skin including actinic keratosis, Bowen’s disease, basal cell carcinoma, is increasingly used in clinical practice. There are few data for photodynamic therapy in the treatment of keratoacanthoma. The analysis of the literature shows that using of photodynamic therapy in the set of treatment modalities in patients with keratoacanthoma improves the efficacy and reduces the terms of the therapy. In all investigations except one there was complete tumor regression in 100% patients with keratoacanthoma who underwent photodynamic therapy. In one study complete tumor regression was observed in 66.7% of patients with atypical keratoacanthoma after photodynamic therapy. The follow-up of patients in all analyzed studies accounted for at least 2-3 years. During this time none of the patients had evidence for recurrence. This approach has minimal restrictions for application. Thus, photodynamic therapy may become a therapeutic alternative to surgical treatment of keratoacanthoma with good clinical and cosmetic results.

  14. Photodynamic topical antimicrobial therapy for infected foot ulcers in patients with diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study--the D.A.N.T.E (Diabetic ulcer Antimicrobial New Topical treatment Evaluation) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Genovese, Stefano; Monami, Matteo; Navalesi, Giovanni; Dotta, Francesco; Anichini, Roberto; Romagnoli, Fabio; Gensini, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the antimicrobial effect and tolerability of a single dose of a photo-activated gel containing RLP068 in the treatment for infected foot ulcers in subjects with diabetes. A randomized, double-blind, parallel series, placebo-controlled phase IIa trial was performed with three concentrations of RLP068 (0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 %), measuring total and pathogen microbial load on Day 1 (before and 1 h after topical gel application and photoactivation with 689 nm red light), on Days 3, 8, and 15, as add-on to systemic treatment with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Blood samples were also drawn 1, 2, and 48 h after administration for the assessment of systemic drug absorption. The trial was performed on 62 patients aged ≥18 years, with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and infected foot ulcer, with an area of 2-15 cm(2) and a maximum diameter ≤4.6 cm. A dose-dependent reduction in total microbial load was observed (-1.92 ± 1.21, -2.94 ± 1.60, and -3.00 ± 1.82 LogCFU/ml for 0.10, 0.30, and 0.50 % RPL068 vs. -1.00 ± 1.02 LogCFU/ml with placebo) immediately after illumination, with a progressive fading of the effect during follow-up. No safety issues emerged from the analysis of adverse events. Systemic absorption of RLP068 was negligible. Photodynamic antimicrobial treatment with RLP068 of infected diabetic foot ulcers is well tolerated and produces a significant reduction in germ load. Further clinical trials are needed to verify the efficacy of this approach as add-on to systemic antibiotic treatment.

  15. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Ayane Debele

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS, and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0 to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn, followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1. The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*, which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer.

  16. Drug Carrier for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debele, Tilahun Ayane; Peng, Sydney; Tsai, Hsieh-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive combinatorial therapeutic modality using light, photosensitizer (PS), and oxygen used for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. When PSs in cells are exposed to specific wavelengths of light, they are transformed from the singlet ground state (S0) to an excited singlet state (S1–Sn), followed by intersystem crossing to an excited triplet state (T1). The energy transferred from T1 to biological substrates and molecular oxygen, via type I and II reactions, generates reactive oxygen species, (1O2, H2O2, O2*, HO*), which causes cellular damage that leads to tumor cell death through necrosis or apoptosis. The solubility, selectivity, and targeting of photosensitizers are important factors that must be considered in PDT. Nano-formulating PSs with organic and inorganic nanoparticles poses as potential strategy to satisfy the requirements of an ideal PDT system. In this review, we summarize several organic and inorganic PS carriers that have been studied to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic therapy against cancer. PMID:26389879

  17. Photodynamic Therapy in Melanoma - Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldea, Ioana; Giurgiu, Lorin; Teacoe, Ioana Diana; Olteanu, Diana Elena; Olteanu, Florin Catalin; Clichici, Simona; Filip, Gabriela Adriana

    2017-12-25

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with unpredictable evolution. Photodynamic therapy has been successfully used as the first line or palliative therapy for the treatment of lung, esophageal, bladder, non melanoma skin and head and neck cancers. However, classical photodynamic therapy has shown some drawbacks that limit its clinical application in melanoma. The most important challenge is to overcome melanoma resistance, due to melanosomal trapping, presence of melanin, enhanced oxidative stress defense, defects in the apoptotic pathways, immune evasion, neoangiogenesis stimulation. In this review we considered: (1) main signaling molecular pathways deregulated in melanoma as potential targets for personalized therapy, including photodynamic therapy, (2) results of the clinical studies regarding the photodynamic therapy of melanoma, especially advanced metastatic stage, (3) progresses made in the design of anti-melanoma photosensitizers (4) inhibition of tumor neoangiogenesis, as well as (5) advantages of the derived therapies like photothermal therapy, sonodynamic therapy. Moreover, the possibility of combined therapeutical regimens, such as photodynamic therapy and immune stimulation or theranostic approaches may increase the potential beneficial role of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant in melanoma treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Scope of photodynamic therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease results from inflammation of the supporting structure of the teeth and in response to chronic infection caused by various periodontopathic bacteria. The mechanical removal of this biofilm and adjunctive use of antibacterial disinfectants and antibiotics have been the conventional methods of periodontal therapy. However, the removal of plaque and the reduction in the number of infectious organisms can be impaired in sites with difficult access. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a powerful laser-initiated photochemical reaction, involving the use of a photoactive dye (photosensitizer activated by light of a specific wavelength in the presence of oxygen. Application of PDT in periodontics such as pocket debridement, gingivitis, and aggressive periodontitis continue to evolve into a mature clinical treatment modality and is considered as a promising novel approach for eradicating pathogenic bacteria in periodontitis.

  19. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biniam Kidane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  1. Photodynamic and Antibiotic Therapy Impair the Pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a Whole Animal Insect Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Chibebe Junior, Jose; Fuchs, Beth B.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Junqueira, Juliana C.; Jorge, Antonio O. C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Rice, Louis B.; Tegos, George P.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS). PS, upon irradiation with visible l...

  2. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)-New Approaches and Newer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - New Approaches and Newer Applications. Bhaskar G Maiya G Hariprasad L Giribabu. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 13-21 ...

  3. Comparison of anti bacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) is an anaerobic bacterium has been frequently associated with aggressive periodontitis. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical treatment to prevent infection progression that utilizes light to activate a photosensitizing agent. Doxycycline ...

  4. Effect of different diode laser powers in photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary photodynamic therapy study investigated the effect of different diode laser powers (mW) for the activation of two photosensitizers (AlTSPc, aluminum tetrasulfonatedphthalocyanine and ZnTSPc, zinc tetrasulfonatedphthalocyanine...

  5. Different light sources in photodynamic therapy for use in photorejuvenation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Kets, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently emerged as a treatment modality for photorejuvenation of the skin. This study is a preliminary investigation into the effect of different light sources to activate hypericin, a plant-derived photosensitizer...

  6. The role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Finlay, Jarod C

    2008-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality that employs the photochemical interaction of three components: light, photosensitizer, and oxygen. Tremendous progress has been made in the last 2 decades in new technical development of all components as well as understanding of the biophysical mechanism of PDT. The authors will review the current state of art in PDT research, with an emphasis in PDT physics. They foresee a merge of current separate areas of research in light production and delivery, PDT dosimetry, multimodality imaging, new photosensitizer development, and PDT biology into interdisciplinary combination of two to three areas. Ultimately, they strongly believe that all these categories of research will be linked to develop an integrated model for real-time dosimetry and treatment planning based on biological response.

  7. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CANCER: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis, Patrizia; Berg, Kristian; Cengel, Keith A.; Foster, Thomas H.; Girotti, Albert W.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Juzeniene, Asta; Kessel, David; Korbelik, Mladen; Moan, Johan; Mroz, Pawel; Nowis, Dominika; Piette, Jacques; Wilson, Brian C.; Golab, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward malignant cells. The procedure involves administration of a photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation at a wavelength corresponding to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of oxygen, a series of events lead to direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature and induction of a local inflammatory reaction. Clinical studies revealed that PDT can be curative particularly in early-stage tumors. It can prolong survival in inoperable cancers and significantly improve quality of life. Minimal normal tissue toxicity, negligible systemic effects, greatly reduced long-term morbidity, lack of intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms, and excellent cosmetic as well as organ function-sparing effects of this treatment make it a valuable therapeutic option for combination treatments. With a number of recent technological improvements, PDT has the potential to become integrated into the mainstream of cancer treatment. PMID:21617154

  8. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.

  9. INTRAOPERATIVE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY FOR PERITONEAL MESOTHELIOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Results of application of a new technology of intraoperative photodynamic therapy (IOFDT in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma developed at P. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute are presented. The study included 8 patients. 3 patients underwent surgery in various amount: 1 – limited peritonectomy in the volume of tumor foci resection and resection of a large omentum, 1 – limited peritonectomy in the volume of tumor foci resection and atypical resection of the right lobe of the liver, 1 – only resection of the large omentum due to the fact that the tumor was located only in a large omentum and no signs of lesions of the parietal peritoneum was revealed by intraoperative revision. Surgical intervention in these patients was concluded by IOPDT. The remaining 5 patients underwent only IOPDT. After the treatment, two patients underwent additional courses of laparoscopic IOPDT. Of the 8 patients enrolled in the study, 4 died from the underlying disease, 1 from cardiovascular disease with recurrence of the disease, 1 from cardiovascular disease without signs of recurrence, 2 were monitored for 6 months and 146 months (12 years. Thus, in the group of patients with peritoneal mesothelioma, the maximum observation period was 146.44 months, the median survival was 48.4 months, the total specific 1-year survival was 85.7±13.2%, the three-year survival was 68.5±18.6%, the 5-year survival was 45.7 ± 22.4 %. The average life expectancy after treatment of patients with repeated courses of laparoscopic IOPDT was 87 months, without repeated courses – 35.8 months. Thus, life expectancy was higher in patients with repeated courses of laparoscopic IOPDT. Small sample size caused to the rarity of this pathology does not allow for statistically significant conclusions. However, the results of the study indicate the prospects of multi-course intraoperative photodynamic therapy in patients with peritoneal mesothelioma.

  10. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A.; Brady, Aaron J.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for

  11. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT. In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96

  12. Photodynamic therapy monitoring with optical coherence angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkina, M. A.; Matveev, L. A.; Shirmanova, M. V.; Zaitsev, V. Y.; Buyanova, N. L.; Elagin, V. V.; Gelikonov, G. V.; Kuznetsov, S. S.; Kiseleva, E. B.; Moiseev, A. A.; Gamayunov, S. V.; Zagaynova, E. V.; Feldchtein, F. I.; Vitkin, A.; Gladkova, N. D.

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modern approach for cancer therapy with low normal tissue toxicity. This study was focused on a vascular-targeting Chlorine E6 mediated PDT. A new angiographic imaging approach known as M-mode-like optical coherence angiography (MML-OCA) was able to sensitively detect PDT-induced microvascular alterations in the mouse ear tumour model CT26. Histological analysis showed that the main mechanisms of vascular PDT was thrombosis of blood vessels and hemorrhage, which agrees with angiographic imaging by MML-OCA. Relationship between MML-OCA-detected early microvascular damage post PDT (within 24 hours) and tumour regression/regrowth was confirmed by histology. The advantages of MML-OCA such as direct image acquisition, fast processing, robust and affordable system opto-electronics, and label-free high contrast 3D visualization of the microvasculature suggest attractive possibilities of this method in practical clinical monitoring of cancer therapies with microvascular involvement.

  13. Photodynamic therapy of recurrent cerebral glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu-Gan; Wu, Si-En; Chen, Zong-Qian; Sun, Wei

    1993-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed on 11 cases of recurrent cerebral glioma, including 3 cases of recurrent glioblastoma, 7 of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma, and 1 recurrent ependymoma. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) was administered intravenously at a dose of 4 - 7 mg/kg 5 - 24 hours before the operation. All patients underwent a craniotomy with a nearly radical excision of the tumor following which the tumor bed was irradiated with 630 nm laser light emitting either an argon pumped dye laser or frequency double YAG pumped dye laser for 30 to 80 minutes with a total dose of 50 J/cm2 (n equals 1), 100 J/cm2 (n equals 2), 200 J/cm2 (n equals 7), and 300 J/cm2 (n equals 1). The temperature was kept below 37 degree(s)C by irrigation. Two patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy. There was no evidence of increased cerebral edema, and no other toxicity by the therapy. All patients were discharged from the hospital within 15 days after surgery. We conclude that PDT using 4 - 7 mg/kg of HPD and 630 nm light with a dose of up to 300 J/cm2 can be used as an adjuvant therapy with no additional complications. Adjuvant PDT in the treatment of recurrent glioma is better than simple surgery.

  14. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (pcandidiasis.

  15. Sono-photodynamic combination therapy: a review on sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanala, Krishna Chaitanya; Chaturvedi, Pankaj Kumar; Seo, You Mi; Kim, Jeung Mo; Jo, Yong Sam; Lee, Yang Koo; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is characterized by the dysregulation of cell signaling pathways at several steps. The majority of current anticancer therapies involve the modulation of a single target. A tumor-targeting drug-delivery system consists of a tumor detection moiety and a cytotoxic material joined directly or through a suitable linker to form a conjugate. Photodynamic therapy has been used for more than 100 years to treat tumors. One of the present goals of photodynamic therapy research is to enhance the selective targeting of tumor cells in order to reduce the risk and extension of unwanted side-effects, caused by normal cell damage. Sonodynamic therapy is a promising new treatment for patients with cancer. It treats cancer with ultrasound and sonosensitive agents. Porphyrin compounds often serve as photosensitive and sonosensitive agents. The combination of these two methods makes cancer treatment more effective. The present review provides an overview of photodynamic therapy, sonodynamic therapy, sono-photodynamic therapy and the four sensitizers which are suitable candidates for combined sono-photodynamic therapy. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene-based nanovehicles for photodynamic medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yan Li,1 Haiqing Dong,1 Yongyong Li,1 Donglu Shi1,2 1Shanghai East Hospital, The Institute for Biomedical Engineering and Nano Science (iNANO, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2The Materials Science and Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Graphene and its derivatives such as graphene oxide (GO have been widely explored as promising drug delivery vehicles for improved cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on their applications in photodynamic therapy. The large specific surface area of GO facilitates efficient loading of the photosensitizers and biological molecules via various surface functional groups. By incorporation of targeting ligands or activatable agents responsive to specific biological stimulations, smart nanovehicles are established, enabling tumor-triggering release or tumor-selective accumulation of photosensitizer for effective therapy with minimum side effects. Graphene-based nanosystems have been shown to improve the stability, bioavailability, and photodynamic efficiency of organic photosensitizer molecules. They have also been shown to behave as electron sinks for enhanced visible-light photodynamic activities. Owing to its intrinsic near infrared absorption properties, GO can be designed to combine both photodynamic and photothermal hyperthermia for optimum therapeutic efficiency. Critical issues and future aspects of photodynamic therapy research are addressed in this review. Keywords: graphene, nanovehicle, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer, hyperthermia

  17. X-Ray Induced Photodynamic Therapy: A Combination of Radiotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geoffrey D; Nguyen, Ha T; Chen, Hongmin; Cox, Phillip B; Wang, Lianchun; Nagata, Koichi; Hao, Zhonglin; Wang, Andrew; Li, Zibo; Xie, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT)'s clinical application is limited by depth of penetration by light. To address the issue, we have recently developed X-ray induced photodynamic therapy (X-PDT) which utilizes X-ray as an energy source to activate a PDT process. In addition to breaking the shallow tissue penetration dogma, our studies found more efficient tumor cell killing with X-PDT than with radiotherapy (RT) alone. The mechanisms behind the cytotoxicity, however, have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms of action of X-PDT on cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that X-PDT is more than just a PDT derivative but is essentially a PDT and RT combination. The two modalities target different cellular components (cell membrane and DNA, respectively), leading to enhanced therapy effects. As a result, X-PDT not only reduces short-term viability of cancer cells but also their clonogenecity in the long-run. From this perspective, X-PDT can also be viewed as a unique radiosensitizing method, and as such it affords clear advantages over RT in tumor therapy, especially for radioresistant cells. This is demonstrated not only in vitro but also in vivo with H1299 tumors that were either subcutaneously inoculated or implanted into the lung of mice. These findings and advances are of great importance to the developments of X-PDT as a novel treatment modality against cancer.

  18. Photodynamic therapy in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H Nelke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a special type of treatment involving the use of a photosensitizer or a photosensitizing agent along with a special type of light, which, combined together, induces production of a form of oxygen that is used to kill surrounding cells in different areas of the human body. Specification of the head and neck region requires different approaches due to the surrounding of vital structures. PDT can also be used to treat cells invaded with infections such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The light beam placed in tumor sites activates locally applied drugs and kills the cancer cells. Many studies are taking place in order to invent better photosensitizers, working on a larger scale and to treat deeply placed and larger tumors. It seems that PDT could be used as an alternative surgical treatment in some tumor types; however, all clinicians should be aware that the surgical approach is still the treatment of choice. PDT is a very accurate and effective therapy, especially in early stages of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC, and can greatly affect surgical outcomes in cancerous patients. We present a detailed review about photosensitizers, their use, and therapeutic advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Photodynamic therapy: a promising alternative in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.; Filleur, Stephanie

    2004-07-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that is based on the administration of a photosensitizer and the following application of light in a wavelength range matching the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer. Ideally the photosensitizer retains in the tumor tissue more than in normal tissue and thus allows targeted destruction of cancerous tissue. The use of PDT is slowly being accepted as a standard treatment for certain types of cancer. This includes mainly treatment strategies with only palliative intentions (obstructive esophageal cancer and advanced lung cancer) while for certain malignant conditions new applications exists that are already intended for cure (e.g. early stage of lung cancer). The main advantage of PDT is that the treatment can be repeated multiple times safely without major side effects. PDT can be safely combined with already established treatment options like surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A disadvantage of PDT is the only localized effect of the therapy, which usually cannot significantly alter the outcome of a systemic disease. In this paper we review the history of PDT as well as current clinical applications in oncology and future directions.

  20. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  1. Advances in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation at the nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashef Nasim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The alarming worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance amongst microbial pathogens necessitates a search for new antimicrobial techniques, which will not be affected by, or indeed cause resistance themselves. Light-mediated photoinactivation is one such technique that takes advantage of the whole spectrum of light to destroy a broad spectrum of pathogens. Many of these photoinactivation techniques rely on the participation of a diverse range of nanoparticles and nanostructures that have dimensions very similar to the wavelength of light. Photodynamic inactivation relies on the photochemical production of singlet oxygen from photosensitizing dyes (type II pathway that can benefit remarkably from formulation in nanoparticle-based drug delivery vehicles. Fullerenes are a closed-cage carbon allotrope nanoparticle with a high absorption coefficient and triplet yield. Their photochemistry is highly dependent on microenvironment, and can be type II in organic solvents and type I (hydroxyl radicals in a biological milieu. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles act as a large band-gap semiconductor that can carry out photo-induced electron transfer under ultraviolet A light and can also produce reactive oxygen species that kill microbial cells. We discuss some recent studies in which quite remarkable potentiation of microbial killing (up to six logs can be obtained by the addition of simple inorganic salts such as the non-toxic sodium/potassium iodide, bromide, nitrite, and even the toxic sodium azide. Interesting mechanistic insights were obtained to explain this increased killing.

  2. Advances in antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef, Nasim; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2017-08-01

    The alarming worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance amongst microbial pathogens necessitates a search for new antimicrobial techniques, which will not be affected by, or indeed cause resistance themselves. Light-mediated photoinactivation is one such technique that takes advantage of the whole spectrum of light to destroy a broad spectrum of pathogens. Many of these photoinactivation techniques rely on the participation of a diverse range of nanoparticles and nanostructures that have dimensions very similar to the wavelength of light. Photodynamic inactivation relies on the photochemical production of singlet oxygen from photosensitizing dyes (type II pathway) that can benefit remarkably from formulation in nanoparticle-based drug delivery vehicles. Fullerenes are a closed-cage carbon allotrope nanoparticle with a high absorption coefficient and triplet yield. Their photochemistry is highly dependent on microenvironment, and can be type II in organic solvents and type I (hydroxyl radicals) in a biological milieu. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles act as a large band-gap semiconductor that can carry out photo-induced electron transfer under ultraviolet A light and can also produce reactive oxygen species that kill microbial cells. We discuss some recent studies in which quite remarkable potentiation of microbial killing (up to six logs) can be obtained by the addition of simple inorganic salts such as the non-toxic sodium/potassium iodide, bromide, nitrite, and even the toxic sodium azide. Interesting mechanistic insights were obtained to explain this increased killing.

  3. A new therapeutic proposal for inoperable osteosarcoma: Photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Guilherme Chohfi; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Laranjo, Mafalda; Kitagawa Grizotto, Ana Yoshie; Camporeze, Bruno; Pereira, José Aires; Brites, Gonçalo; Serra, Arménio; Pineiro, Marta; Rocha-Gonsalves, António; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Priolli, Denise Gonçalves

    2017-11-21

    Osteosarcoma, a malignant tumor characterized by bone or osteoid formation, is the second most common primary bone neoplasm. Clinical symptoms include local and surrounding pain, unrelieved by rest or anesthesia. Osteosarcoma has a poor chemotherapeutic response with prognosis dependent on complete tumor excision. Therefore, for inoperable osteosarcoma new therapeutic strategies are needed. The present study aimed to develop murine models of cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma that facilitate simple clinical monitoring and real-time imaging to evaluate the outcome of photodynamic therapy based on a previously developed photosensitizer. Balb/c nude mice were divided into two groups: the cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma groups. Each group was further subdivided into the photodynamic therapy-treated and untreated groups. Images were obtained by scintigraphy with 99m Tc-MIBI and radiography. Tumor growth, necrotic area, osteoid matrix area, and inflammatory infiltration were analyzed. Cranial and vertebral tumors could be macroscopically observed and measured. Radiographic and scintigraphic images showed tumor cells present at the inoculation sites. After photodynamic therapy, scintigraphy showed lower tumoral radiopharmaceutical uptake, which correlated histologically with increased necrosis. Osteoid matrix volume increased, and tumor size decreased in all photodynamic therapy-treated animals. Cranial and vertebral osteosarcoma models in athymic mice are feasible and facilitate in vivo monitoring for the development of new therapies. Photodynamic therapy is a potential antitumoral treatment for surgically inoperable osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Combined endoscopic mucosal resection and photodynamic therapy for esophageal neoplasia within Barrett's esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttar, N. S.; Wang, K. K.; Lutzke, L. S.; Krishnadath, K. K.; Anderson, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and photodynamic therapy have been proposed as treatments for early stage cancers. EMR is limited by its focal nature whereas photodynamic therapy is dependent on precise staging. The combination of EMR and photodynamic therapy were studied in the

  5. Liposomal photosensitizers: potential platforms for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Muehlmann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a well-established and clinically approved treatment for several types of cancer. Antineoplastic photodynamic therapy is based on photosensitizers, i.e., drugs that absorb photons translating light energy into a chemical potential that damages tumor tissues. Despite the encouraging clinical results with the approved photosensitizers available today, the prolonged skin phototoxicity, poor selectivity for diseased tissues, hydrophobic nature, and extended retention in the host organism shown by these drugs have stimulated researchers to develop new formulations for photodynamic therapy. In this context, due to their amphiphilic characteristic (compatibility with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, liposomes have proven to be suitable carriers for photosensitizers, improving the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers. Moreover, as nanostructured drug delivery systems, liposomes improve the efficiency and safety of antineoplastic photodynamic therapy, mainly by the classical phenomenon of extended permeation and retention. Therefore, the association of photosensitizers with liposomes has been extensively studied. In this review, both current knowledge and future perspectives on liposomal carriers for antineoplastic photodynamic therapy are critically discussed.

  6. Photodynamic therapy for multi-resistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen F. Nikkels

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare group of proliferative disorders. Beside cutaneous involvement, other internal organs can be affected. The treatment of cutaneous lesions is difficult and relies on topical corticosteroids, carmustine, nitrogen mustard, and photochemotherapy. Systemic steroids and vinblastine are used for recalcitrant skin lesions. However, some cases fail to respond. An 18-month old boy presented a CD1a+, S100a+ Langerhans cell histocytosis with cutaneous and severe scalp involvement. Topical corticosteroids and nitrogen mustard failed to improve the skin lesions. Systemic corticosteroids and vinblastine improved the truncal involvement but had no effect on the scalp lesions. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL based photodynamic therapy (PDT resulted in a significant regression of the scalp lesions. Control histology revealed an almost complete clearance of the tumor infiltrate. Clinical follow-up after six months showed no recurrence. Although spontaneous regression of cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis is observed, the rapid effect of photodynamic therapy after several failures of other treatment suggests that photodynamic therapy was successful. As far as we know this is the first report of photodynamic therapy for refractory skin lesions. Larger series are needed to determine whether photodynamic therapy deserves a place in the treatment of multiresistant cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  7. PDT dose dosimeter for pleural photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Darafsheh, Arash; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    PDT dose is the product of the photosensitizer concentration and the light fluence in the target tissue. For improved dosimetry during plural photodynamic therapy (PDT), a PDT dose dosimeter was developed to measure both the light fluence and the photosensitizer concentration simultaneously in the same treatment location. Light fluence and spectral data were rigorously compared to other methods of measurement (e.g. photodiode, multi-fiber spectroscopy contact probe) to assess the accuracy of the measurements as well as their uncertainty. Photosensitizer concentration was obtained by measuring the fluorescence of the sensitizer excited by the treatment light. Fluence rate based on the intensity of the laser spectrum was compared to the data obtained by direct measurement of fluence rate by a fiber-coupled photodiode. Phantom studies were done to obtain an optical property correction for the fluorescence signal. Measurements were performed in patients treated Photofrin for different locations in the pleural cavity. Multiple sites were measured to investigate the heterogeneity of the cavity and to provide cross-validation via relative dosimetry. This novel method will allow for accurate real-time determination of delivered PDT dose and improved PDT dosimetry.

  8. Time-Resolved Fluorescence in Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chi Allison Yeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used clinically for treating various diseases including malignant tumors. The main advantages of PDT over traditional cancer treatments are attributed to the localized effects of the photochemical reactions by selective illumination, which then generate reactive oxygen species and singlet oxygen molecules that lead to cell death. To date, over- or under-treatment still remains one of the major challenges in PDT due to the lack of robust real-time dose monitoring techniques. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF provides fluorescence lifetime profiles of the targeted fluorophores. It has been demonstrated that TRF offers supplementary information in drug-molecular interactions and cell responses compared to steady-state intensity acquisition. Moreover, fluorescence lifetime itself is independent of the light path; thus it overcomes the artifacts given by diffused light propagation and detection geometries. TRF in PDT is an emerging approach, and relevant studies to date are scattered. Therefore, this review mainly focuses on summarizing up-to-date TRF studies in PDT, and the effects of PDT dosimetric factors on the measured TRF parameters. From there, potential gaps for clinical translation are also discussed.

  9. New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy in Gastroenterology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SG Bown

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT in gastroenterology to date have used porfimer sodium as the photosensitizing agent. For destroying small lesions in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract in inoperable patients, it has proved to be most effective, but attempts to achieve circumferential mucosal ablation, as in the treatment of Barrett’s esophagus, have led to a high incidence of strictures, and all patients have cutaneous photosensitivity, which can last up to three months. Two new photosensitizers are of particular interest to gastroenterologists. PDT with metatetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin produces a similar biological effect as PDT with porfimer sodium, but the light doses required are much smaller, and cutaneous photosensitivity lasts only two to three weeks. Further, it can be used with percutaneous light delivery to destroy localized pancreatic cancers. The photosensitizing agent 5-amino levulinic acid, converted in vivo into the photoactive derivative protoporphyrin IX, sensitizes the mucosa much more than the underlying layers. This makes it feasible to destroy areas of abnormal mucosa without damaging the underlying muscle and is, therefore, better for treating Barrett’s esophagus. Detailed clinical studies are required to establish the real role of PDT with the use of these and other new photosensitizers.

  10. The use of photodynamic therapy in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilas, P; Szeimies, R M

    2010-10-01

    In dermatology, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a well established treatment modality which has mainly shown to be effective for dermato-oncologic conditions like actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, in-situ squamous cell carcinoma and superficial basal cell carcinoma. However, a therapeutical benefit of PDT is also evident for inflammatory dermatoses like localized scleroderma, acne vulgaris and granuloma annulare as well as for aesthetic indications like photo aged skin or sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Recent work has been focused on the development and evaluation of topical photosensitizers like the hem precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid or its methyl ester inducing photosensitizing porphyrins. These drugs do not induce strong generalized cutaneous photosensitization like the systemically applied porphyrins or their derivatives. For dermatological purposes incoherent lamps or LED arrays can be used for light activation. Depending on the applied light dose and the concentration of the photosensitizer either cytotoxic effects resulting in tumor destruction or immunomodulatory effects improving the inflammatory conditions occur. Treating superficial oncologic lesions (tumor thickness < 2-3 mm) cure rates achieved by PDT are equal to the cure rates of the respective standard therapeutic procedure. The benefits of PDT are the low level of invasiveness and the excellent cosmetic results after treatment.

  11. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  12. New strategies to enhance photodynamic therapy for solid tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, M.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy for cancer uses laser light to specifically activate anti-cancer drugs at the tumor site. However, this potentially effective and patient-friendly therapy has seen limited clinical application due to the inability of these drugs to accumulate at the tumor site and the subsequent

  13. Photodynamic therapy: A new vista in management of periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Doshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT for periodontitis. This review also elucidates application of photodynamic therapy for noninvasive management of periodontitis without leading to bacterial resistance. Background: Periodontal diseases are one of the major causes of tooth loss in adults and are considered primarily an anaerobic bacterial infections caused by the so-called red complex species. Bacteria present in a biofilm community, enzymes, endotoxins, and other cytotoxic factors lead to tissue destruction and initiate chronic inflammation. Since many years pioneers have been working to provide logical and cost-effective therapy for management of periodontitis. Periodontal researchers have found that PDT is advantageous to suppress anaerobic bacteria. Clinical Significance: Applications of PDT in dentistry are growing rapidly. PDT application has an adjunctive benefit besides mechanical treatment at sites with difficult access. Necessity for flap surgery may be reduced, patient comfort may increase, and treatment time may decrease. The application of photosensitizing dyes and their excitation by visible light enables effective killing of periodonto-pathogens. The introduction of laser along with photosensitizers has brought a revolutionary change. Conclusion: The application of photodynamic therapy in management of periodontal diseases is very valuable. The therapy should be combined with nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Proper clinical application of photodynamic therapy can and will help patients who are systemically compromised and cannot undergo surgical therapy.

  14. Weather conditions and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Fabricius, S; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated methyl aminolaevulinate PDT (daylight-PDT) is a simple and painless treatment procedure for PDT. All daylight-PDT studies have been performed in the Nordic countries. To...

  15. Photodynamic therapy for cutaneous metastases of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Goranskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in w omen. Cutaneous metastases are observed in 20 % pa- tients with breast cancer. 36 breast cancer patients with cutaneous metastases were treated with photodynamic therapy in the de partment of laser and photodynamic therapy MRRC. Complete regression was obtained in 33.9 %, partial — in 39 % of cases, the stabilization achieved in 25.4 %, progression noted in 1.7 %. The objective response was obtained in 72.9 % of cases, treatment effect — in 97.4 %. Photodynamic therapy has good treatment results of cutaneous metastases of breast cancer with a small number of side effects.

  16. Randomized in vivo evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on deciduous carious dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this randomized in vivo study was to compare antimicrobial chemotherapies in primary carious dentin. Thirty-two participants ages 5 to 7 years underwent partial caries removal from deep carious dentin lesions in primary molars and were subsequently divided into three groups: control [chlorhexidine and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC)], LEDTB [photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with light-emitting diode associated with toluidine blue solution and RMGIC], and LMB [PACT with laser associated with methylene blue solution and RMGIC]. The participants were submitted to initial clinical and radiographic examinations. Demographic features and biofilm, gingival, and DMFT/DMFS indexes were evaluated, in addition to clinical and radiographic followups at 6 and 12 months after treatments. Carious dentin was collected before and after each treatment, and the number of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Atopobium rimae, and total bacteria was established by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No signs of pain or restoration failure were observed. All therapies were effective in reducing the number of microorganisms, except for S. sobrinus. No statistical differences were observed among the protocols used. All therapies may be considered as effective modern approaches to minimal intervention for the management of deep primary caries treatment.

  17. Photodynamic therapy induces an immune response against a bacterial pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Vecchio, Daniela; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Morimoto, Yuji; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the triple combination of photosensitizers, visible light and ambient oxygen. When PDT is used for cancer, it has been observed that both arms of the host immune system (innate and adaptive) are activated. When PDT is used for infectious disease, however, it has been assumed that the direct antimicrobial PDT effect dominates. Murine arthritis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the knee failed to respond to PDT with intravenously injected Photofrin®. PDT with intra-articular Photofrin produced a biphasic dose response that killed bacteria without destroying host neutrophils. Methylene blue was the optimum photosensitizer to kill bacteria while preserving neutrophils. We used bioluminescence imaging to noninvasively monitor murine bacterial arthritis and found that PDT with intra-articular methylene blue was not only effective, but when used before infection, could protect the mice against a subsequent bacterial challenge. The data emphasize the importance of considering the host immune response in PDT for infectious disease. PMID:22882222

  18. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combined with periodontal treatment for metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Erika Elisabeth; Fran?a, Cristiane Miranda; Veni, Priscila; de Oliveira Silva, Tamires; Gon?alves, Rafael Moredo; de Carvalho, Ver?nica Franco; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel A; Camacho, Cleber P; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Alvarenga, Let?cia Heineck; Prates, Renato Araujo

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal disease is bidirectional. DM is a predisposing and modifying factor of periodontitis, which, in turn, worsens glycemic control and increases proteins found in the acute phase of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein. The gold standard for the treatment of periodontal disease is oral hygiene orientation, scaling and planing. Moreover, systemic antibiotic therapy may be employed in some cases. In an effort to minimize...

  19. Mechanisms of Resistance to Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Adriana; Di Venosa, Gabriela; Hasan, Tayyaba; Batlle, Alcira

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of a photosensitizer (PS) followed by illumination with visible light, leading to generation of reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms of resistance to PDT ascribed to the PS may be shared with the general mechanisms of drug resistance, and are related to altered drug uptake and efflux rates or altered intracellular trafficking. As a second step, an increased inactivation of oxygen reactive species is also associated to PDT resistance via antioxidant detoxifying enzymes and activation of heat shock proteins. Induction of stress response genes also occurs after PDT, resulting in modulation of proliferation, cell detachment and inducing survival pathways among other multiple extracellular signalling events. In addition, an increased repair of induced damage to proteins, membranes and occasionally to DNA may happen. PDT-induced tissue hypoxia as a result of vascular damage and photochemical oxygen consumption may also contribute to the appearance of resistant cells. The structure of the PS is believed to be a key point in the development of resistance, being probably related to its particular subcellular localization. Although most of the features have already been described for chemoresistance, in many cases, no cross-resistance between PDT and chemotherapy has been reported. These findings are in line with the enhancement of PDT efficacy by combination with chemotherapy. The study of cross resistance in cells with developed resistance against a particular PS challenged against other PS is also highly complex and comprises different mechanisms. In this review we will classify the different features observed in PDT resistance, leading to a comparison with the mechanisms most commonly found in chemo resistant cells. PMID:21568910

  20. Programmed photosensitizer conjugated supramolecular nanocarriers with dual targeting ability for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hongxin; Du, Jianwei; Li, Huan; Jin, Qiao; Wang, Youxiang; Ji, Jian

    2016-09-29

    A programmed supramolecular nanocarrier was developed for multistage targeted photodynamic therapy. This smart nanocarrier exhibited enhanced cellular uptake and controlled mitochondria targeting, as well as an excellent photodynamic therapeutic effect after light irradiation.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of photodynamic therapy (UVA/riboflavin against Staphylococcus aureus Suscetibilidade antimicrobiana da terapia fotodinâmica (UVA/riboflavina contra Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Kashiwabuchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess S. aureus in vitro viability after the exposure to ultraviolet light A (UVA and riboflavin (B2. METHODS: Samples of S. aureus in 96 well plates (in triplicate were exposed to riboflavin (B2 and ultraviolet light A (365 nm wavelength at a power density of 3 mW/cm², 8 mm spot diameter, for 30 minutes. Control groups were prepared as well in triplicate: blank control, ultraviolet light A only, riboflavin only and dead bacteria Control. The bacterial viability was measured using fluorescent microscopy. In order to investigate the occurrence of "viable but non-culturable" microorganisms after treatment, the cell viability was also investigated by plate culture procedure onto a broth medium. Statistical analysis was performed using the triplicate values from each experimental condition. RESULTS: No difference was observed among the treatment group and the control samples (p=1. CONCLUSION: The combination of riboflavin 0.1% and ultraviolet light A at 365 nm did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against oxacillin susceptible S. aureus.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade celular de S. aureus in vitro após a exposição de riboflavina (B2 e luz ultravioleta A (UVA. MÉTODOS: Amostras de S. aureus colocadas em uma placa de 96 poços (em triplicata foram expostas a riboflavina 0,1% (B2 e luz ultravioleta (comprimento de onda de 365 nm poder de 3 mW/cm², 8 mm de diâmetro, por 30 minutos. Grupos controles foram também preparados em triplicata: controle branco, somente luz ultravioleta A, somente riboflavina e controle morto. A viabilidade bacteriana foi analisada usando microscópio de fluorescência. Para investigar a ocorrência de micro-organismos "viáveis porem não cultiváveis" a viabilidade celular foi avaliada utilizando-se placas de meio de cultivo bacteriano. Analise estatística foi realizada utilizando-se os valores obtidos em triplicata de cada grupo experimental. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença foi observada entre o grupo

  2. Antimicrobial and anticancer photodynamic activity of a phthalocyanine photosensitizer with N-methyl morpholiniumethoxy substituents in non-peripheral positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugaszewska, Jolanta; Szczolko, Wojciech; Koczorowski, Tomasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Teubert, Anna; Konopka, Krystyna; Kucinska, Malgorzata; Murias, Marek; Düzgüneş, Nejat; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves the use of a photosensitizer that is irradiated with visible light in the presence of oxygen, resulting in the formation of reactive oxygen species. A novel phthalocyanine derivative, the quaternary iodide salt of magnesium(II) phthalocyanine with N-methyl morpholiniumethoxy substituents, was synthesized, and characterized. The techniques used included mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF), UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, and photocytotoxicity against bacteria, fungi and cancer cells. The phthalocyanine derivative possessed typical characteristics of compounds of the phthalocyanine family but the effect of quaternization was observed on the optical properties, especially in terms of absorption efficiency. The results of the photodynamic antimicrobial effect study demonstrated that cationic phthalocyanine possesses excellent photodynamic activity against planktonic cells of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The bactericidal effect was dose-dependent and all bacterial strains tested were killed to a significant degree by irradiated phthalocyanine at a concentration of 1×10 -4 M. There were no significant differences in the susceptibility of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to the applied photosensitizer. The photosensitivity of bacteria in the biofilm was lower than that in planktonic form. No correlation was found between the degree of biofilm formation and susceptibility to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation. The anticancer activity of the novel phthalocyanine derivative was tested using A549 adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells and the human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells derived from tongue (HSC3) or buccal mucosa (H413). No significant decrease in cell viability was observed under different conditions or with different formulations of the compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vivo Monitoring of Photodynamic Therapy: from lab to clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kruijt (Bastiaan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPhotodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging clinical treatment modality, which utilizes light, oxygen and a light sensitive drug (the photosensitizer), for curative and palliative treatment of a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions tumors. PDT is frequently used in the

  4. Photodynamic therapy: Inception to application in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S M; MacRobert, A J; Mosse, C A; Periera, B; Bown, S G; Keshtgar, M R S

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is already being used in the treatment of many cancers. This review examines its components and the new developments in our understanding of its immunological effects as well as pre-clinical and clinical studies, which have investigated its potential use in the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanobody-photosensitizer conjugates for targeted photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heukers, Raimond; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P; Oliveira, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death through light activation of a photosensitizer (PS). Targeted delivery of PS via monoclonal antibodies has improved tumor selectivity. However, these conjugates have long half-lives, leading to relatively long photosensitivity in patients. In an attempt

  6. New insights into photodynamic therapy of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukçu, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a young method, which uses a combination of a light sensitive substance (photosensitizer) and visible light, to treat tumors. This thesis analyses the clinical efficacy of PDT in the head and neck area and introduces methods to improve the clinical results and broaden

  7. Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maździarz, Agnieszka; Osuch, Beata; Kowalska, Magdalena; Nalewczyńska, Agnieszka; Śpiewankiewicz, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar lichen sclerosus is a chronic and incurable disease that causes various unpleasant symptoms and serious consequences. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus. Participants in the study included 102 female patients aged 19-85 suffer from vulvar lichen sclerosus. The patients underwent photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the course of PDT the 5% 5- aminolevulinic acid was used in gel form. The affected areas were irradiated with a halogenic lamp PhotoDyn 501 (590-760nm) during a 10-min radiation treatment. The treatment was repeated weekly for 10 weeks. PDT has brought about a good therapeutic effect (complete or partial clinical remission), with 87.25% improvement rate in patients suffering from lichen sclerosus. The greatest vulvoscopic response was observed in the reduction of subepithelial ecchymoses and teleangiectasia (78.95%), and the reduction of erosions and fissures (70.97%). A partial remission of lichenification with hyperkeratosis was observed in 51.61% of cases. The least response was observed in the atrophic lesions reduction (improvement in 37.36% of cases). Our patients suffering from vulvar lichen sclerosus demonstrated positive responses to photodynamic therapy and the treatment was well tolerated. Photodynamic therapy used to treat lichen sclerosus yields excellent cosmetic results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro toxicity testing of supramolecular sensitizers for photodynamic therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolářová, H.; Mosinger, J.; Lenobel, René; Kejlová, K.; Jírová, D.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, 5/6 (2003), s. 775-778 ISSN 0887-2333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 153100008 Keywords : Sensitizers * Phototoxicity * Photodynamic therapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2003

  9. Photodynamic therapy in AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebeda, K. M.; Huizing, M. T.; Brouwer, P. A.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Hulsebosch, H. J.; Reiss, P.; Oosting, J.; Veenhof, C. H.; Bakker, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    For evaluating the role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the local treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), nine treatments were performed in eight human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men. The patients received 2 mg Photofrin/kg

  10. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  11. The effects of photodynamic laser therapy in the treatment of marginal chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifor, Radu; Badea, Iulia; Avram, Ramona; Chifor, Ioana; Badea, Mîndra Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the antimicrobial photodynamic laser therapy performed during the treatment of deep periodontal disease by using 40 MHz high frequency ultrasonography. The periodontal data recorded during the clinical examination before each treatment session were compared with volumetric changes of the gingiva measured on periodontal ultrasound images. The results show a significant decrease of gingival tissue inflammation proved both by a significant decrease of bleeding on probing as well as by a decrease of the gingival tissues volume on sites where the laser therapy was performed. Periodontal tissues that benefit of laser therapy besides classical non-surgical treatment showed a significant clinical improvement of periodontal status. Based on these findings we were able to conclude that the antimicrobial photodynamic laser therapy applied on marginal periodontium has important anti-inflamatory effect. The periodontal ultrasonography is a method which can provide useful data for assessing the volume changes of gingival tissues, allowing a precise monitoring of marginal periodontitis.

  12. Photodynamic Therapy With Methylene Blue for Skin Ulcers Infected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiroz, C; Sevil, M; Toyas, C; Gilaberte, Y

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality with significant antimicrobial activity. We present 2 cases of chronic lower limb ulcers in which fungal and bacterial superinfection complicated management. PDT with methylene blue as the photosensitizer led to clinical and microbiological cure with no significant adverse effects. PDT with methylene blue is a valid option for the management of superinfected chronic ulcers, reducing the use of antibiotics and the induction of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The synergistic effect of nanoparticles in photodynamic therapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Na; Tu Yu; Zhang Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel treatment: based on nanoparticles that combines radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy. With this approach, the application of traditional photodynamic therapies only to surface treatment can be solved, so that the therapeutic effect can be improved; the approach also could guarantee the effectiveness of treatment and reduce radiation doses, so it can effectively control the complications of radiotherapy, This new modality will open a new chapter for cancer therapy. (authors)

  14. Photodynamic therapy: a review of the literature and image documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Maria Cláudia Almeida; Manela-Azulay, Mônica

    2010-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of a chemical reaction activated by light energy that is used to selectively destroy tissue. The reaction requires a photosensitizer in the target tissue, a light source and oxygen. The most extensively studied photosensitizing agents for PDT are 5-aminolevulinic acid for the treatment of actinic keratosis and methyl-aminolevulinate, which has been approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease. The light sources used in photodynamic therapy should emit light at wavelengths within the absorption spectrum of the photosensitizer used in PDT treatment. Light emitting diode (LED) lamps are indicated for the photodynamic treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PDT should be considered as a therapeutic option, particularly in the case of patients with superficial, multiple or disseminated lesions and for immunosuppressed patients. More recently, PDT has been indicated for a wide range of dermatological conditions such as photo-damaged skin, acne, hidradenitis, scleroderma, psoriasis, warts and leishmaniosis, among others. This article provides an extensive review of photodynamic therapy, its mechanisms, indications and results.

  15. Daylight photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate cream as a convenient, similarly effective, nearly painless alternative to conventional photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubel, D M; Spelman, L; Murrell, D F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) has shown preliminary efficacy and safety results comparable to conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT), using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) cream. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of DL-PDT vs. c-PDT ...

  16. Photosensitizer-eluting nanofibers for enhanced photodynamic therapy of wounds: A preclinical study in immunocompromized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khordagui, Labiba; El-Sayed, Nesma; Galal, Sally; El-Gowelli, Hanan; Omar, Hoda; Mohamed, Moustafa

    2017-03-30

    Electrospun nanofibers (NFs) as drug delivery/tissue regeneration template and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) have been widely investigated as two different approaches to enhance wound healing. In the present study, the two approaches were combined in a single platform for greater healing enhancement potentials. Composite photosensitizer-eluting NFs were developed using a polyhydrohybutyrate/polyethylene glycol (60:40 PHB/PEG) polymer blend and methylene blue (MB) as antimicrobial photosensitizer (PS). NFs protected the photoactivity of entrapped MB, enhanced its photodynamic activity against two wound bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus standard strain (SA st ) and MRSA and sustained MB release allowing for flexible PS dosing and irradiation schedules. This combined PS-eluting NFs/APDT approach proved effective in the treatment of SA st -inoculated excision wounds in a challenging immunocompromized rat model. This was verified by morphological, morphometric, microbiological, histopathological and RT-PCR studies. Inclusion of PS-eluting NFs as an additional active component of APDT generates a combined non-antibiotic antimicrobial/cell regeneration approach with great potentials for wound healing and other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photodynamic therapy in the therapy for recurrent/persistent nasopharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildeman, Maarten A. M.; Nyst, Heike J.; Karakullukcu, Baris; Tan, Bing I.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Photodynamic therapy of patients with recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma we reviewed all available literature. Since the treatment options for recurrent or persistent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma are limited, the survival rates poor and the complications severe; there is

  18. Comparative effects of photodynamic therapy mediated by curcumin on standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Caroline C; Paschoal, Marco Aurélio; Correia, Marilia; Spolidório, Denise M P; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Giusti, Juçaíra S M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using curcumin (C) as a photosensitizing agent irradiated with an LED (L) in the blue wavelength as a light source on a standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in a planktonic suspension model. Suspensions of both strains were divided into 4 groups as follows: absence of C and L (control group: C-L-), with C and without L (C group: C+L-), absence of C with L (L group: C-L+) and presence of C and L (PDT group: C+L+). Three different concentrations of curcumin (0.75 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) and three light fluences of studied light source (24, 48 and 72 J cm(-2)) were tested. Aliquots of each studied group was plated in BHI agar and submitted to colony forming units counting (CFU/ml) and the data transformed into logarithmical scale. A high photoinactivation rate of more than 70% was verified to standard S. mutans strain submitted to PDT whereas the clinical isolate showed a lower sensitivity to all the associations of curcumin and LED. A slight bacterial reduction was verified to C+L- and C-L+, demonstrating no toxic effects to the isolated application of light and photosensitizer to both S. mutans strains tested. Photodynamic therapy using a combination of curcumin and blue LED presented a substantial antimicrobial effect on S. mutans standard strain in a planktonic suspension model with a less pronounced effect on its clinical isolate counterparts due to resistance to this alternative approach. Alternative antimicrobial approaches, as photodynamic therapy, should be encouraged due to optimal results against cariogenic bacteria aiming to prevent or treat dental caries.

  19. Cold Water and Pauses in Illumination Reduces Pain During Photodynamic Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Haedersdal, M.; Wulf, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pain is the main acute adverse event during photodynamic therapy of skin lesions. The objective of this randomized study was to evaluate the pain-relieving effect of pauses and cooling during illumination. Twenty-four patients with actinic keratoses were treated with photodynamic therapy in two...... intensity, while adding the intermediate pause in illumination reduced the pain considerably. Use of pauses and cooling during illumination is an easy and inexpensive way to make photodynamic therapy more tolerable for the patient Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701

  1. Candida albicans biofilm development in vitro for photodynamic therapy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Luis Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a phototherapy based on the use of a photo sensitizer (PS) in the presence of low intensity light with resonant wavelength of absorption of the PS and biological systems that can raise awareness, generating reactive oxygen species. Studies show that PDT has a lethal effect on Candida albicans. The biofilm formed by C. albicans is the cause of infections associated with medical devices such as catheters, with a proven resistance to antifungal agents, and the removal of the catheter colonized almost always is necessary. However, few studies in literature report the behavior and response of biofilm organized by C. albicans against PDT. The aims of this study were to develop a methodology for in vitro biofilm formation of C. albicans, evaluate the sensitivity of the biofilm of C. albicans to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using PS as the methylene blue (MB) and hypocrellin B: La +3 (HBL a+3 ) and analyze the biofilm by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For biofilm formation, discs were made from elastomeric silicone catheters. The PS were dissolved in solution of PBS, and the MB had two different concentrations tested in the biofilm: 100μM and 1mM; HBLa +3 only one of 10μM. The irradiation of both dyes with the microorganism was done by two different LEDs, one with red emission at λ = 630nm ± 20nm and the other one blue emission at λ = 460nm ± 30nm. We performed a curve of survival fraction versus time of irradiation of each sample with biofilm and suspension of the microorganism in the yeast form to verify the susceptibility of the front PDT. The yeast showed 100% reduction using both PS, but at different times of irradiation (30s to HBLa +3 and 6 min for the MB at 100μM). When the therapy was applied in biofilm, the MB 100μM did not show any significant reduction, while at concentration of 1mM was reduced by 100% after 6 min of irradiation. The HBLa +3 biofilm group showed a lower reduction in the concentration of 10μM in

  2. Calcium carbonate-methylene blue nanohybrids for photodynamic therapy and ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weili; Qi, Yu; Wang, Ranran; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Nana; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2018-03-14

    Photodynamic therapy plays an important role in cancer treatment. In this work, methylene blue (MB)-embedded calcium carbonate nanorods (CaCO 3 -MB NRs) have been synthesized for pH-responsive photodynamic therapy and ultrasound imaging. The morphology of CaCO 3 -MB NRs can be controlled by modulating the concentration of Na 2 CO 3 aqueous solution. The generation of effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) were confirmed by 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) probe. Both photodynamic therapy performance and echogenic performance of CaCO 3 -MB NRs were investigated to confirm the feasibility of CaCO 3 -MB nanohybrids for ultrasound image-guided photodynamic therapy.

  3. Realtime Tracking of the Photobleaching Trajectory During Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylcz, Jean-Baptiste; Bastogne, Thierry; Bourguignon, Alexia; Frochot, Celine; Barberi-Heyob, Muriel

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment for cancer, which involves the administration of a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light at a specific wavelength. This illumination causes after a sequence of photoreactions, the production of reactive oxygen species responsible for the death of the tumor cells but also the degradation of the photosensitizing agent, which then loose the fluorescence properties. The phenomenon is commonly known as the photobleaching process and can be considered as a therapy efficiency indicator. This paper presents the design and validation of a real-time controller able to track a preset photobleaching trajectory by modulating the light impulses width during the treatment sessions. This innovative solution was validated by in vivo experiments that have shown a significantly improvement of reproducibility of the interindividual photobleaching kinetic. We believe that this approach could lead to personalized PDT modalities. This work may open new perspectives in the control and optimization of photodynamic treatments.

  4. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) procedures using microfluidic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrych, Elzbieta, E-mail: ejedrych@ch.pw.edu.pl [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 300-664 Warsaw (Poland); Pawlicka, Zuzanna; Chudy, Michal; Dybko, Artur; Brzozka, Zbigniew [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 300-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-10

    A hybrid PDMS/glass microfluidic system for evaluation of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy is presented. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was used as a precursor of photosensitizer. The geometry of the microdevice presented in this paper enables to test different concentrations of the photosensitizer in a single assay. The viability of the A549 cells was determined 24 h after PDT procedure (irradiation with light which induced a photosensitizer accumulated in carcinoma cells, {lambda} = 625 nm). The presented results confirmed the possibility to perform the photodynamic therapy process in vitro in microscale and the possibility to assess its effectiveness. Moreover, because two identical microstructures on a single chip were performed, the microchip can be used for examination simultaneously various cell lines (carcinoma and normal) or various photosensitizers.

  5. Experience of treating late cerebral lungcancer metastasis using photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ryabova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment outcomes for a patient with solitary brain metastasis after long-term relapse-free follow-up of invasive lung carcinoma were presented. Brain metastasis without other signs of disease progression was diagnosed 10 years after combined modality treatment for stage II lung cancer. Removal of intracerebral metastasis with intraoperative photodynamic therapy was performed. Histology microspecimens of the primary tumor and metastasis were similar. No signs of disease progression in the brain 9 months after surgery were found. This case demonstrates that it is important to increase cancer suspicion for patients with long-term relapse-free follow-up. The use of intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photoditazine as a sensitizer in the treatment of cerebral metastases results in a favorable anti-tumor effect, thus improving life quality of patients

  6. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  7. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy for Root Canal System Asepsis: A Narrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to address the question: Does photodynamic therapy (PDT improve root canal disinfection through significant bacterial reduction in the root canal system? Methodology. A comprehensive narrative literature review was performed to compare PDT effect with sodium hypochlorite as the comparative classical irrigant. Two reviewers independently conducted literature searches using a combination of medical subject heading terms and key words to identify relevant studies comparing information found in 7 electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015. A manual search was performed on bibliography of articles collected on electronic databases. Authors were contacted to ask for references of more research not detected on the prior electronic and manual searches. Results. The literature search provided 62 titles and abstracts, from which 29 studies were related directly to the search theme. Considering all publications, 14 (48% showed PDT to be more efficient in antimicrobial outcome than NaOCl (0.5–6% concentration used alone and 2 (7% revealed similar effects between them. Toluidine blue and methylene blue are the most used photosensitizers and most commonly laser has 660 nm of wavelength with a 400 nm diameter of intracanal fiber. Conclusions. PDT has been used without a well-defined protocol and still remains at an experimental stage waiting for further optimization. The level of evidence available in clinical studies to answer this question is low and at high risk of bias.

  8. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida B; Simionato, Maria Regina L; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A A C

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm(-2); 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  9. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Partridge, W.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dees, H.C. [Photogen, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Petersen, M.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type 1 and type 2 photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined.

  10. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY WITH PHOTOSENSITIZER PHOTOLON FOR BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Tzerkovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The short-term and long-term outcomes of treatment in 130 patients with basal cell carcinoma (T1N0M0, I stage using photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer photolon based on chlorine e6 are represented in the article. The session of photodynamic therapy was performed 2.5-3 h after intravenous injection of photolon at dose of 2-2.5 mg/kg using semiconductor laser (λ=660±5 nm, laser power density — from 0.1 to 0.52 W/cm2, light dose — from 50 to 300 J/cm2. Complete regression of primary and recurrent carcinomas was observed in 90.9% and 88.9% of patients, respectively. For follow-up period of 3 to 76 months the local recurrence of the tumor was in detected in 6.9% of cases. Patients, who followed the light regimen for 2–3 days after photolon administration avoiding direct sun light exposure, had no manifestation of phototoxicity. Ten patients who failed to follow the light regimen had mild hyperemia, itching and burning in the exposed skin area selflimiting in several hours. Cosmetic results of photodynamic therapy with photolon are superior to those for traditional treatment methods for this disease.

  11. Photodynamic therapy in the upper aerodigestive tract. Overview and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgger, Veronika; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2016-12-01

    The gold standard in the treatment of (pre)malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is either surgery or (chemo)radiotherapy. Nevertheless, there are special indications where an alternative treatment, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), might be as effective for and better tolerated by the patients concerned. This article aims to present a contemporary and comprehensive review on the role of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of (pre)malignancies of the UADT. PubMed was searched for "photodynamic therapy larynx/oral cavity/oropharynx/head and neck" in 01/2016. PDT can be efficient in the treatment of recurrent, residual or multiple carcinomas of the UADT without other treatment options. It has also been used with success in the treatment of early oral or laryngeal carcinomas, widespread precancerous lesions or "difficult-to-treat" skin cancer, even though these treatments are off-label. For now, unsolved scientific and economical challenges hinder the methods spread. In special cases, PDT is a highly effective method to treat head and neck (pre)malignancies. Nevertheless, further clinical studies are needed to better define its true value in head and neck oncology. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  13. Potent peptide-conjugated silicon phthalocyanines for tumor photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Pang, Mingpei; Tan, Sihai; Wang, Jin; Chen, Qingle; Wang, Kai; Wu, Wenjie; Hong, Zhangyong

    2018-01-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are a group of promising photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, their extremely low solubility and their strong tendency to aggregate in aqueous solution greatly restrict their application. Conjugation of Pc macrocycles with peptide ligands could be a very useful strategy to optimize the physical properties of Pcs not only by increasing their water solubility and reducing their aggregation but also by endowing the conjugates with a tumor-targeting capability. To develop highly potent photosensitizers for tumor PDT, we prepared new peptide-conjugated photosensitizers using silicon Pc (SiPc), which has much higher photodynamic activity than zinc Pcs, as the light activation moiety and the cRGDfK peptide (or simply cRGD) as the peptide moiety. A polyethylene glycol linker and an extra carboxylic acid group were also tested for introduction into the conjugates to optimize the conjugate structure. The conjugates' photophysical and photodynamic behaviors were then carefully evaluated and compared using in vitro and in vivo experiments. One of the prepared conjugates, RGD-(Linker) 2 -Glu-SiPc, showed excellent physical properties and photodynamic activity, with an EC 50 (half maximal effective concentration) of 10-20 nM toward various cancer cells. This conjugate eradicated human glioblastoma U87-MG tumors in a xenograft murine tumor model after only one dose of photodynamic treatment, with no tumor regrowth during observation for up to 35 days. The conjugate RGD-(Linker) 2 -Glu-SiPc thus showed highly promising potential for use in tumor treatment.

  14. A Photosensitizer-Loaded DNA Origami Nanosystem for Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Ma, Xiaowei; Xue, Xiangdong; Jiang, Qiao; Song, Linlin; Dai, Luru; Zhang, Chunqiu; Jin, Shubin; Yang, Keni; Ding, Baoquan; Wang, Paul C; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-03-22

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) offers an alternative for cancer treatment by using ultraviolet or visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer and molecular oxygen, which can produce highly reactive oxygen species that ultimately leading to the ablation of tumor cells by multifactorial mechanisms. However, this technique is limited by the penetration depth of incident light, the hypoxic environment of solid tumors, and the vulnerability of photobleaching reduces the efficiency of many imaging agents. In this work, we reported a cellular level dual-functional imaging and PDT nanosystem BMEPC-loaded DNA origami for photodynamic therapy with high efficiency and stable photoreactive property. The carbazole derivative BMEPC is a one- and two-photon imaging agent and photosensitizer with large two-photon absorption cross section, which can be fully excited by near-infrared light, and is also capable of destroying targets under anaerobic condition by generating reactive intermediates of Type I photodynamic reactions. However, the application of BMEPC was restricted by its poor solubility in aqueous environment and its aggregation caused quenching. We observed BMEPC-loaded DNA origami effectively reduced the photobleaching of BMEPC within cells. Upon binding to DNA origami, the intramolecular rotation of BMEPC became proper restricted, which intensify fluorescence emission and radicals production when being excited. After the BMEPC-loaded DNA origami are taken up by tumor cells, upon irradiation, BMEPC could generate free radicals and be released due to DNA photocleavage as well as the following partially degradation. Apoptosis was then induced by the generation of free radicals. This functional nanosystem provides an insight into the design of photosensitizer-loaded DNA origami for effective intracellular imaging and photodynamic therapy.

  15. A Comprehensive Tutorial on In Vitro Characterization of New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Antitumor Therapy and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisch, Tim; Berneburg, Mark; Plaetzer, Kristjan

    2013-01-01

    In vitro research performed on eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell cultures usually represents the initial step for characterization of a novel photosensitizer (PS) intended for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of microorganisms. Although many experimental steps of PS testing make use of the wide spectrum of methods readily employed in cell biology, special aspects of working with photoactive substances, such as the autofluorescence of the PS molecule or the requirement of light protection, need to be considered when performing in vitro experiments in PDT/PDI. This tutorial represents a comprehensive collection of operative instructions, by which, based on photochemical and photophysical properties of a PS, its uptake into cells, the intracellular localization and photodynamic action in both tumor cells and microorganisms novel photoactive molecules may be characterized for their suitability for PDT/PDI. Furthermore, it shall stimulate the efforts to expand the convincing benefits of photodynamic therapy and photodynamic inactivation within both established and new fields of applications and motivate scientists of all disciplines to get involved in photodynamic research. PMID:23762860

  16. A Comprehensive Tutorial on In Vitro Characterization of New Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Antitumor Therapy and Photodynamic Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kiesslich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro research performed on eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell cultures usually represents the initial step for characterization of a novel photosensitizer (PS intended for application in photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer or photodynamic inactivation (PDI of microorganisms. Although many experimental steps of PS testing make use of the wide spectrum of methods readily employed in cell biology, special aspects of working with photoactive substances, such as the autofluorescence of the PS molecule or the requirement of light protection, need to be considered when performing in vitro experiments in PDT/PDI. This tutorial represents a comprehensive collection of operative instructions, by which, based on photochemical and photophysical properties of a PS, its uptake into cells, the intracellular localization and photodynamic action in both tumor cells and microorganisms novel photoactive molecules may be characterized for their suitability for PDT/PDI. Furthermore, it shall stimulate the efforts to expand the convincing benefits of photodynamic therapy and photodynamic inactivation within both established and new fields of applications and motivate scientists of all disciplines to get involved in photodynamic research.

  17. Benzochloroporphyrin derivative photosensitizer-mediated photodynamic therapy for Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengxiong; Zhou, Chenghao; Zeng, Hui; Yin, Fei; Wang, Zhuoying; Yao, Jianzhong; Hua, Yingqi; Cai, Zhengdong

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the photodynamic efficacy of a new photosensitizer, benzochloroporphyrin derivative 18 (BCPD-18), in Ewing sarcoma. We found that BCPD-18 decreased the viability of TC-71 cells irradiated by 670nm laser in a concentration dependent manner. We also observed cells undergoing apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest at the G2M phase after BCPD-18-mediated photodynamic therapy (BCPD-PDT). In addition, in vivo study (subcutaneous and orthotopic models) showed that BCPD-PDT reduced tumor size, tumor weight and tumor-bearing leg weight. After PDT, apoptosis was shown in vivo. Bax expression was increased, and Bcl-2 expression was decreased. This study provides evidence that BCPD-18 could probably be a useful photosensitizer in PDT for Ewing sarcoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Photodynamic therapy--mechanism and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpringer, Ewa; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic terapy (PDT) is a new treatment for a wide variety of malignancies and premalignant dysplasias, as well as some non-cancer indications. Therapeutic response to PTD is achieved through the activation of non-toxic photosensitiser located within neoplastic tissue, using visible light tuned to the appropriate absorption band of the photosensitiser molecule. This produces cytotoxic free radical such as singlet oxigen, which result in local photo-oxidation, cell damage and destruction of the tumour cells. Systemic administration of photosensitisers has been used with endoscopic light exposure to treat a variety of internal malignances. A topical drug delivery is used in the skin deseases treatment. The selective distribution of photosensitiser in the target tissue is the fundamental to the process of PDT. This tissue specific photosensitation and normal tissue sparing results in good healing and often very good cosmetic results. Peterson PTD can be used for the treatment of cutaneous lesions (e.g., SCC, BCC, Bowen's disease, mycosis fungoides, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Gorlin's Syndrome, actinic keratoses), lower genital tract neoplasia (VIN and CIN), gastrointestinal tumours, etc., as well as nononcological indications (e.g., acne, condyloma acuminatum, lichen planus, psoriasis, vitiligo, vulval lichen sclerosus, warts and verrucae).

  19. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  20. Effect of fiber insertion depth on antibacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in rootcanals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, Tina; Endres, Sarah; Konietschke, Frank; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Sydow, Hans Georg; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-06-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of fiber insertion depth on antimicrobial efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using a photosensitizer (PS; toluidine blue) and a red light-emitting diode (LED) in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared with nickel-titanium-instruments, sterilized, contaminated with E. faecalis, and incubated for 72 h. Roots were randomly divided into four experimental groups: PS only, LED only, aPDT with LED in the apical third, aPDT with LED in the coronal third, as well as into infection and sterile controls (each n = 10). Samples were taken by collecting standardized dentine shavings from the root canal walls. After serial dilution and culturing on blood agar, colony-forming units (CFU) were counted. Both aPDT groups showed a CFU reduction of 1-2 log 10 steps compared with the infection control, whereas the effect of fiber insertion depth was negligible (<0.5 log 10 steps). CFU reduction of approximately 0.5 log 10 steps for PS alone was detected compared with the infection control, but PS alone was less effective than both aPDT groups. No antibacterial effect was detected for LED alone. aPDT reduced E. faecalis within the root canal, whereas fiber insertion depth had a negligible influence on antimicrobial effectiveness of aPDT. The insertion depth of the light-emitting diode may not influence the antibacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy against E. faecalis in straight root canals.

  1. Optimized Photodynamic Therapy with Multifunctional Cobalt Magnetic Nanoparticles

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    Kyong-Hoon Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been adopted as a minimally invasive approach for the localized treatment of superficial tumors, representing an improvement in the care of cancer patients. To improve the efficacy of PDT, it is important to first select an optimized nanocarrier and determine the influence of light parameters on the photosensitizing agent. In particular, much more knowledge concerning the importance of fluence and exposure time is required to gain a better understanding of the photodynamic efficacy. In the present study, we synthesized novel folic acid-(FA and hematoporphyrin (HP-conjugated multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs, which were characterized as effective anticancer reagents for PDT, and evaluated the influence of incubation time and light exposure time on the photodynamic anticancer activities of CoFe2O4-HPs-FAs in prostate cancer cells (PC-3 cells. The results indicated that the same fluence at different exposure times resulted in changes in the anticancer activities on PC-3 cells as well as in reactive oxygen species formation. In addition, an increase of the fluence showed an improvement for cell photo-inactivation. Therefore, we have established optimized conditions for new multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles with direct application for improving PDT for cancer patients.

  2. Efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in treatment of nasal inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjie; Yang, Yuguang; Zou, Xianbiao

    2013-12-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in medical treatment of nasal inverted papilloma (NIP). Three patients with nasal inverted papilloma were treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy at our department from April to September 2012. The efficacy and adverse effects of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy were evaluated during 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. After treated with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy, the nasal inverted papillomas were removed. No recurrence was found during the 6-8 months of follow-up medical examination. The major adverse effects were mild erosion, pain, and exudation. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy appears to be an effective treatment of nasal inverted papilloma. It can clear the papilloma lesions and is well tolerated by the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

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    José Chibebe Junior

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS. PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics. In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively. In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192. Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095 or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025, suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to

  4. Photodynamic and antibiotic therapy impair the pathogenesis of Enterococcus faecium in a whole animal insect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibebe Junior, José; Fuchs, Beth B; Sabino, Caetano P; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C; Ribeiro, Martha S; Gilmore, Michael S; Rice, Louis B; Tegos, George P; Hamblin, Michael R; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecium has emerged as one of the most important pathogens in healthcare-associated infections worldwide due to its intrinsic and acquired resistance to many antibiotics, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative therapeutic platform that is currently under investigation for the control and treatment of infections. PDT is based on the use of photoactive dye molecules, widely known as photosensitizer (PS). PS, upon irradiation with visible light, produces reactive oxygen species that can destroy lipids and proteins causing cell death. We employed Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth) caterpillar fatally infected with E. faecium to develop an invertebrate host model system that can be used to study the antimicrobial PDT (alone or combined with antibiotics). In the establishment of infection by E. faecium in G. mellonella, we found that the G. mellonella death rate was dependent on the number of bacterial cells injected into the insect hemocoel and all E. faecium strains tested were capable of infecting and killing G. mellonella. Antibiotic treatment with ampicillin, gentamicin or the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin prolonged caterpillar survival infected by E. faecium (P = 0.0003, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). In the study of antimicrobial PDT, we verified that methylene blue (MB) injected into the insect followed by whole body illumination prolonged the caterpillar survival (P = 0.0192). Interestingly, combination therapy of larvae infected with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with antimicrobial PDT followed by vancomycin, significantly prolonged the survival of the caterpillars when compared to either antimicrobial PDT (P = 0.0095) or vancomycin treatment alone (P = 0.0025), suggesting that the aPDT made the vancomycin resistant E. faecium strain more susceptible to vancomycin action. In summary, G. mellonella provides an invertebrate model host to study the

  5. The Recurrence and Cosmetic Results After Topical Photodynamic Therapy

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    Alican Kazandı

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Photodynamic therapy (FDT is a photochemotherapy modality which is used frequently and effectively in the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and basal cell carcinomas. This study was performed to determine cure rates, cosmetic outcome and recurrence rates after aminolevulinic acid (ALA-based photodynamic therapy for skin lesions showing complete response to treatment procedure. Material and Method: Sixty-eight patients (27 females and 41 males with 78 lesions were included in the study. Among them, 25 were actinic keratosis (AK, 8 were actinic cheilitis (AC, 30 were basal cell carcinomas (BCC, 3 were Bowen disease, 10 were intraepidermal epithelioma (IEE, one lesion was parapsoriasis and one lesion was verruca plantaris. Six to 8 hours after topical administration of ALA (20%, the lesions were exposed to light from a broad-band light source. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 74 lesions for histopathological control. Results: At the end of the second month of treatment, fifty-six (72% of seventy-eight lesions showed complete clinical response, whereas fourty-seven of 74 lesions (63.5% exhibited complete histopathological clearance. A total of 9 recurrences (16% was observed during a median follow-up of 36 months. Recurrence rates were 3 (14% in AK, 1 (17% in AC, 1 (8% in superficial BCC, 3 (75% nodular BCC and 1 (12.5% in IEE. Cosmetic outcome was excellent and good in 42 lesions (89%, fair in 3 lesions (6% and poor in 2 lesions (5%. Conclusion: Topical photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive, effective and cosmetic modality of treatment in the selected skin lesions, as an alternative to the conventional procedures.

  6. Adjuvant Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy in Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual, Nestor R.; Shafirstein, Gal; Frustino, Jennifer; Seshadri, Mukund; Cooper, Michele; Wilding, Gregory; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Henderson, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE There is an immediate need to develop local intraoperative adjuvant treatment strategies to improve outcomes in patients with cancer who undergo head and neck surgery. OBJECTIVES To determine the safety of photodynamic therapy with 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) in combination with surgery in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nonrandomized, single-arm, single-site, phase 1 study at a comprehensive cancer center among 16 adult patients (median age, 65 years) with biopsy-proved primary or recurrent resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS Intravenous injection of HPPH (4.0 mg/m2), followed by activation with 665-nm laser light in the surgical bed immediately after tumor resection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Adverse events and highest laser light dose. RESULTS Fifteen patients received the full course of treatment, and 1 patient received HPPH without intraoperative laser light because of an unrelated myocardial infarction. Disease sites included larynx (7 patients), oral cavity (6 patients), skin (1 patient), ear canal (1 patient), and oropharynx (1 patient, who received HPPH only). The most frequent adverse events related to photodynamic therapy were mild to moderate edema (9 patients) and pain (3 patients). One patient developed a grade 3 fistula after salvage laryngectomy, and another patient developed a grade 3 wound infection and mandibular fracture. Phototoxicity reactions included 1 moderate photophobia and 2 mild to moderate skin burns (2 due to operating room spotlights and 1 due to the pulse oximeter). The highest laser light dose was 75 J/cm2. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The adjuvant use of HPPH-photodynamic therapy and surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seems safe and deserves further study. PMID:23868427

  7. Elsinochrome A photosensitizers: Alternative drugs for photodynamic therapy

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    Tinghui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has already been a multifunctional modality for various tumors and nontumorous diseases. However, the development of photosensitizers is relatively delayed, compared with the tremendous progress in laser technology. Elsinochrome A (EA, a perylenequinonoid pigment from China, has all the typical advantages of perylenequinones. Moreover, singlet oxygen quantum yield of EA is superior to other kinds of photosensitizers and EA could be artificially biosynthesized at present, which make it an alternative candidate for PDT. In this review, the photophysics, photochemistry, photobiology and chemical or biological syntheses of EA photosensitizers are briefly presented. Besides, the future prospects of EA photosensitizers are also proposed.

  8. Three-dimensional illumination procedure for photodynamic therapy of dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Feng-juan; Dong, Fei; Zhou, Ya

    2014-09-01

    Light dosimetry is an important parameter that affects the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the irregular morphologies of lesions complicate lesion segmentation and light irradiance adjustment. Therefore, this study developed an illumination demo system comprising a camera, a digital projector, and a computing unit to solve these problems. A three-dimensional model of a lesion was reconstructed using the developed system. Hierarchical segmentation was achieved with the superpixel algorithm. The expected light dosimetry on the targeted lesion was achieved with the proposed illumination procedure. Accurate control and optimization of light delivery can improve the efficacy of PDT.

  9. Efficient photodynamic therapy on human retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Jan; Schastak, Stanislas; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Wiedemann, Peter; Neuhaus, Jochen; Claudepierre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown to be a promising technique to treat various forms of malignant neoplasia. The photodynamic eradication of the tumor cells is achieved by applying a photosensitizer either locally or systemically and following local activation through irradiation of the tumor mass with light of a specific wavelength after a certain time of incubation. Due to preferential accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumor cells, this procedure allows a selective inactivation of the malignant tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue to the greatest extent. These features and requirements make the PDT an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of retinoblastoma, especially when surgical enucleation is a curative option. This extreme solution is still in use in case of tumours that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy or handled too late due to poor access to medical care in less advanced country. In this study we initially conducted in-vitro investigations of the new cationic water-soluble photo sensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS) regarding its photodynamic effect on human Rb-1 and Y79 retinoblastoma cells. We were able to show, that neither the incubation with THPTS without following illumination, nor the sole illumination showed a considerable effect on the proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells, whereas the incubation with THPTS combined with following illumination led to a maximal cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. Moreover the phototoxicity was lower in normal primary cells from retinal pigmented epithelium demonstrating a higher phototoxic effect of THPTS in cancer cells than in this normal retinal cell type. The results at hand form an encouraging foundation for further in-vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of this promising photosensitizer for the eyeball and vision preserving as well as potentially curative therapy of retinoblastoma.

  10. Efficient photodynamic therapy on human retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Walther

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has shown to be a promising technique to treat various forms of malignant neoplasia. The photodynamic eradication of the tumor cells is achieved by applying a photosensitizer either locally or systemically and following local activation through irradiation of the tumor mass with light of a specific wavelength after a certain time of incubation. Due to preferential accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumor cells, this procedure allows a selective inactivation of the malignant tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue to the greatest extent. These features and requirements make the PDT an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of retinoblastoma, especially when surgical enucleation is a curative option. This extreme solution is still in use in case of tumours that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy or handled too late due to poor access to medical care in less advanced country. In this study we initially conducted in-vitro investigations of the new cationic water-soluble photo sensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS regarding its photodynamic effect on human Rb-1 and Y79 retinoblastoma cells. We were able to show, that neither the incubation with THPTS without following illumination, nor the sole illumination showed a considerable effect on the proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells, whereas the incubation with THPTS combined with following illumination led to a maximal cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. Moreover the phototoxicity was lower in normal primary cells from retinal pigmented epithelium demonstrating a higher phototoxic effect of THPTS in cancer cells than in this normal retinal cell type. The results at hand form an encouraging foundation for further in-vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of this promising photosensitizer for the eyeball and vision preserving as well as potentially curative therapy of retinoblastoma.

  11. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  12. Factors related to pain during routine photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Nielsen, J S; Lophaven, S

    2011-01-01

    between pain-reducing intervention and diagnosis, pre-treatment, gender or age was found. CONCLUSIONS: Pain-reducing intervention was required in 44% of the PDT treatments. Intervention was particularly required when treating lesions in areas suited for PDT therapy for cosmetic reasons such as the scalp......BACKGROUND: Pain may be a limiting factor in the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The consequences of the pain i.e. the resources spent on pain-intervention during routine PDT therapy are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To describe the consequences of pain during PDT by describing the use of pain......-reducing interventions in routine use. We studied the frequency as well as level of pain-reducing intervention. METHODS: Descriptive data from PDT treated patients. The level of pain-reducing intervention was graded 0, no intervention; +, cold water spray and ++, pause or nerve block. RESULTS: Data from 983 PDT...

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with the novel amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I: In vitro and in vivo studies.

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    Yao Yuan

    Full Text Available Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT, as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo. The PACT protocol exposed 4I to illumination, exhibiting high antimicrobial efficacy on two different strains due to a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS and non-selectivity to microorganisms. The photoinactivation effects of 4I against two different strains were dose-dependent. At 3.9 μM and 7.8 μM, PACT induced 6 log units of inactivation of sensitive and multidrug resistant strains. In contrast, 4I alone and illumination alone treatments had no visibly antimicrobial effect. Moreover, cytotoxicity tests revealed the great safety of the photosensitizer 4I in mice. In the in vivo study, we found 4I-mediated PACT was not only able to kill bacteria but also accelerated wound recovery. Compared with non-treated mice, over 2.89 log reduction of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain was reached in PACT treat mice at 24 h post-treatment. These results imply that 4I-mediated PACT therapy is an effective and safe alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy and has clinical potential for superficial drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  14. Impact of curcumin supersaturation in antibacterial photodynamic therapy-effect of cyclodextrin type and amount

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegge, A.B.; Nielsen, T.T.; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin has been investigated as a potential photosensitizer (PS) in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). The phototoxic effect of curcumin is dependent on proper formulations of the compound because of the lipophilic nature of the molecule and the extremely low water solubility...... at physiological conditions. In the present study, the combination of curcumin with either a methylated β-cyclodextrin (CD) or polyethylene glycol-based β-CD or γ-CD polymers was investigated in aPDT using Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus faecalis as model bacteria. Solutions with various...... supersaturation ratios of curcumin were prepared with the selected CD or CD polymers. The concept of supersaturation was then investigated as a mean to enhance the phototoxic effect of curcumin, especially toward the gram-negative bacteria E. coli. A high supersaturation ratio corresponded with high phototoxicity...

  15. Upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy and other cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality for a variety of diseases including cancer. PDT based on upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) has received much attention in recent years. Under near-infrared (NIR) light excitation, UCNPs are able to emit high-energy visible light, which can activate surrounding photosensitizer (PS) molecules to produce singlet oxygen and kill cancer cells. Owing to the high tissue penetration ability of NIR light, NIR-excited UCNPs can be used to activate PS molecules in much deeper tissues compared to traditional PDT induced by visible or ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition to the application of UCNPs as an energy donor in PDT, via similar mechanisms, they could also be used for the NIR light-triggered drug release or activation of 'caged' imaging or therapeutic molecules. In this review, we will summarize the latest progresses regarding the applications of UCNPs for photodynamic therapy, NIR triggered drug and gene delivery, as well as several other UCNP-based cancer therapeutic approaches. The future prospects and challenges in this emerging field will be also discussed.

  16. Targeting epigenetic processes in photodynamic therapy-induced anticancer immunity

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    Malgorzata eWachowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer is an approved therapeutic procedure that generates oxidative stress leading to cell death of tumour and stromal cells. Cell death resulting from oxidative damage to intracellular components leads to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs that trigger robust inflammatory response and creates local conditions for effective sampling of tumour-associated antigens (TAA by antigen presenting cells. The latter can trigger development of TAA-specific adaptive immune response. However, due to a number of mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation of TAA expression, tumour cells evade immune recognition. Therefore, numerous approaches are being developed to combine PDT with immunotherapies to allow development of systemic immunity. In this review we describe immunoregulatory mechanisms of epigenetic treatments that were shown to restore the expression of epigenetically silenced or down-regulated major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules as well as TAA. We also discuss the results of our recent studies showing that epigenetic treatments based on administration of methyltransferase inhibitors in combination with photodynamic therapy can release effective mechanisms leading to development of antitumour immunity and potentiated antitumour effects.

  17. The antibacterial effect of photodynamic therapy in dental plaque-derived biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, C. R.; Abernethy, A. D.; Som, S.; Ruggiero, K.; Doucette, S.; Marcantonio, R. C.; Boussios, C. I.; Kent, R.; Goodson, J. M.; Tanner, A. C. R.; Soukos, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been advocated as an alternative to antimicrobial agents to suppress subgingival species and treat periodontitis. Bacteria located within dense biofilms, such as those encountered in dental plaques, have been found to be relatively resistant to antimicrobial therapy. In the present study, we investigated the ability of PDT to affect bacteria resistant in biofilms by comparing the photodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB) on human dental plaque microorganisms in planktonic phase and in biofilms. Material and Methods Dental plaque samples were obtained from 10 subjects with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from 5 subjects were sensitized with MB (25 μg/ml) for 5 minutes followed by exposure to red light. Multi-species microbial biofilms developed from the same plaque samples were also exposed to MB (25 μg/ml) and the same light conditions as their planktonic counterparts. In a second set of experiments, biofilms were developed with plaque bacteria from 5 subjects and sensitized with 25 and 50 μg/ml MB followed by exposure to light as above. After PDT, survival fractions were calculated from colony-forming unit counts. Results In suspension, PDT produced approximately 63% killing of bacteria. In biofilms, the effect of PDT resulted in much lower reductions of microorganisms (32% maximal killing). Conclusion Oral bacteria in biofilms are less affected by PDT than bacteria in planktonic phase. The antibacterial effect of PDT is reduced in biofilm bacteria but not to the same degree as has been reported for treatment with antibiotics under similar conditions. PMID:19602126

  18. Photodynamic therapy for inactivating endodontic bacterial biofilms and effect of tissue inhibitors on antibacterial efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    Complex nature of bacterial cell membrane and structure of biofilm has challenged the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) to achieve effective disinfection of infected root canals. In addition, tissue-inhibitors present inside the root canals are known to affect APDT activity. This study was aimed to assess the effect of APDT on bacterial biofilms and evaluate the effect of tissue-inhibitors on the APDT. Rose-bengal (RB) and methylene-blue (MB) were tested on Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) biofilms. In vitro 7- day old biofilms were sensitized with RB and MB, and photodynamically activated with 20-60 J/cm2. Photosensitizers were pre-treated with different tissue-inhibitors (dentin, dentin-matrix, pulp tissue, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and tested for antibacterial effect of APDT. Microbiological culture based analysis was used to analyze the cell viability, while Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) was used to examine the structure of biofilm. Photoactivation resulted in significant reduction of bacterial biofilms with RB and MB. The structure of biofilm under LSCM was found to be disrupted with reduced biofilm thickness. Complete biofilm elimination could not be achieved with both tested photosensitizers. APDT effect using MB and RB was inhibited in a decreasing order by dentin-matrix, BSA, pulp, dentin and LPS (Pendodontic environment.

  19. Photodynamic therapy of cancer — Challenges of multidrug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT of cancer is a two-step drug-device combination modality, which involves the topical or systemic administration of a photosensitizer followed by light illumination of cancer site. In the presence of oxygen molecules, the light illumination of photosensitizer (PS can lead to the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequently destroy cancer. Similar to many other anticancer therapies, PDT is also subject to intrinsic cancer resistance mediated by multidrug resistance (MDR mechanisms. This paper will review the recent progress in understanding the interaction between MDR transporters and PS uptake. The strategies that can be used in a clinical setting to overcome or bypass MDR will also be discussed.

  20. Antimicrobial photodynamic activity and cytocompatibility of Au25(Capt)18clusters photoexcited by blue LED light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Saori; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Hideya; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nishida, Erika; Takita, Hiroko; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Ushijima, Natsumi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au 25 (Capt) 18 ) clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation were evaluated. 1 O 2 generation of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420-460 nm) was detected by a methotrexate (MTX) probe. The antimicrobial effects of photoexcited Au clusters (0, 5, 50, and 500 μg/mL) on oral bacterial cells, such as Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , and Porphyromonas gingivalis , were assessed by morphological observations and bacterial growth experiments. Cytotoxicity testing of Au clusters and blue LED irradiation was then performed against NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the biological performance of Au clusters (500 μg/mL) was compared to an organic dye photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB; 10 and 100 μg/mL). We confirmed the 1 O 2 generation ability of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters through the fluorescence spectra of oxidized MTX. Successful application of photoexcited Au clusters to aPDT was demonstrated by dose-dependent decreases in the turbidity of oral bacterial cells. Morphological observation revealed that application of Au clusters stimulated destruction of bacterial cell walls and inhibited biofilm formation. Aggregation of Au clusters around bacterial cells was fluorescently observed. However, photoexcited Au clusters did not negatively affect the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of mammalian cells, particularly at lower doses. In addition, application of Au clusters demonstrated significantly better cytocompatibility compared to MB. We found that a combination of Au 25 (Capt) 18 clusters and blue LED irradiation exhibited good antimicrobial effects through 1 O 2

  1. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  2. Effect of photodynamic therapy with hypocrellin B on apoptosis, adhesion, and migration of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Wang, Xinna; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chuanshan

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of photodynamic therapy with hypocrellin B on apoptosis, adhesion, and migration of cancer cells in vitro. Human ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell as a cancer model cell was incubated with hypocrellin B at a concentration of 2.5 μM for 5 h and irradiated by light from a light-emitting diodes (LED) source. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and nuclear staining 6 h after hypocrellin B photoirradiation. Cell adhesion was assessed using the 3-(4, 5-dimthylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5 diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay 4 h after photodynamic treatment. Cell migration was measured 48 h after photodynamic treatment. Flow cytometry with annexin V/PI staining showed that early apoptotic and late apoptotic (necrotic) rates following photodynamic therapy with hypocrellin B markedly increased to 16.40% and 24.67%, respectively. Nuclear staining found nuclear condensation and typical apoptotic body in the treated cells. The number of cell migration was significantly decreased to 183 ± 28 after photodynamic therapy with hypocrellin B (p photodynamic action of hypocrellin B was 53.2 ± 1.8%, significantly higher than 2.7 ± 2.1% of light treatment alone and 1.0 ± 0.4% of hypocrellin B treatment alone (p photodynamic therapy with hypocrellin B remarkably induced apoptosis and inhibited adhesion and migration of cancer cells in vitro.

  3. Fluorescence emission analysis of photodynamic therapy photosensitizer as a monitoring biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Rodríguez-Colmenares, M. A.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a selective optical tumor destruction technique with practically no secondary effects. Monitoring by fluorescence photosensitizer emission is essential for an adequate treatment dosimetry, which avoids recurrence.

  4. mTHPC Mediated, Systemic Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers : Case and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Rudolf K.; Terra, Jorrit B.; Witjes, Max J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Patients with multiple nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), like immunosuppressed or nevoid basal cell carcinomas, offer a therapeutic challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the systemic photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) has the ability to treat

  5. Photoirradiation system for solid tumors in photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J.M. de la

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical procedure which induces cell death for destroying cancerous tissues mostly. This is accomplished by photochemical reaction produced by the combined action of three elements: photo sensitizer, light and oxygen. One aspect of the development of PDT is focused on the treatment of solid and deep tumors, where a set of delivering-light probes are placed into the tumor mass. However, this technique still has several challenges, for although certain parameters involved in the procedure may be adjusted, the complex geometry and non-homogeneity of a tumor difficult to establish the appropriate treatment planning. This paper addresses an overview of interstitial PDT and presents our proposal of photo irradiation system. (Author)

  6. 5-ALA-assisted photodynamic therapy in canine prostates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Muschter, Rolf; Knuechel, Ruth; Steinbach, Pia; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Martin, Thomas; Baumgartner, Reinhold

    1996-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and interstitial thermotherapy are well known treatment modalities in urology. The approach of this study is to combine both to achieve a selective treatment procedure for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma. Measurements of thy in-vivo pharmacokinetics of 5-ALA induced porphyrins by means of fiber assisted ratiofluorometry showed a maximum fluorescence intensity at time intervals of 3 - 4 h post administration. Fluorescence microscopy at that time showed bright fluorescence in epithelial cells while in the stroma fluorescence could not be observed. Interstitial PDT using a 635-nm dye laser with an irradiation of 50 J/cm2 resulted in a nonthermic hemorrhagic lesion. The lesion size did not change significantly when an irradiation of 100 J/cm2 was used. The usefulness of PDT for treating BPH as well as prostate carcinoma has to be proven in further studies.

  7. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2008-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components—light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

  8. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Brian C [Division of Biophysics and Bioimaging, Ontario Cancer Institute and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada); Patterson, Michael S [Department of Medical Physics, Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, ON L8V 5C2 (Canada)], E-mail: wilson@uhnres.utoronto.ca, E-mail: mike.patterson@jcc.hhsc.ca

    2008-05-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components-light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT. (topical review)

  9. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Brian C; Patterson, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components-light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT. (topical review)

  10. The physics, biophysics and technology of photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brian C; Patterson, Michael S

    2008-05-07

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses light-activated drugs to treat diseases ranging from cancer to age-related macular degeneration and antibiotic-resistant infections. This paper reviews the current status of PDT with an emphasis on the contributions of physics, biophysics and technology, and the challenges remaining in the optimization and adoption of this treatment modality. A theme of the review is the complexity of PDT dosimetry due to the dynamic nature of the three essential components -- light, photosensitizer and oxygen. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the problem and in developing instruments to measure all three, so that optimization of individual PDT treatments is becoming a feasible target. The final section of the review introduces some new frontiers of research including low dose rate (metronomic) PDT, two-photon PDT, activatable PDT molecular beacons and nanoparticle-based PDT.

  11. Structural and functional imaging for vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Buhong; Gu, Ying; Wilson, Brian C.

    2017-02-01

    Vascular targeted photodynamic therapy (V-PDT) has been widely used for the prevention or treatment of vascular-related diseases, such as localized prostate cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, port wine stains, esophageal varices and bleeding gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In this study, the fundamental mechanisms of vascular responses during and after V-PDT will be introduced. Based on the V-PDT treatment of blood vessels in dorsal skinfold window chamber model, the structural and functional imaging, which including white light microscopy, laser speckle imaging, singlet oxygen luminescence imaging, and fluorescence imaging for evaluating vascular damage will be presented, respectively. The results indicate that vessel constriction and blood flow dynamics could be considered as the crucial biomarkers for quantitative evaluation of vascular damage. In addition, future perspectives of non-invasive optical imaging for evaluating vascular damage of V-PDT will be discussed.

  12. Current evidence and applications of photodynamic therapy in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Marilyn T; Lin, Jennifer Y

    2014-01-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT) a photosensitizer – a molecule that is activated by light – is administered and exposed to a light source. This leads both to destruction of cells targeted by the particular type of photosensitizer, and immunomodulation. Given the ease with which photosensitizers and light can be delivered to the skin, it should come as no surprise that PDT is an increasingly utilized therapeutic in dermatology. PDT is used commonly to treat precancerous cells, sun-damaged skin, and acne. It has reportedly also been used to treat other conditions including inflammatory disorders and cutaneous infections. This review discusses the principles behind how PDT is used in dermatology, as well as evidence for current applications of PDT. PMID:24899818

  13. Photodynamic Therapy for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Cohen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non‐melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is traditionally treated with surgical excision. Nonsurgical methods such as cryotherapy and topical chemotherapeutics, amongst other treatments, are other options. Actinic keratosis (AKs are considered precancerous lesions that eventually may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Photodynamic therapy (PDT offers an effective treatment for AKs, and is also effective for superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC. Nodular BCC and Bowen’s disease (SCC in situ have shown acceptable response rates with PDT, although recurrence rates are higher for these two NMSC subtypes. Methylaminolevulinate (MAL PDT is a more effective treatment option than 5‐aminolevulinic acid (ALA PDT for nodular BCC. Several studies have shown that PDT results in superior cosmetic outcomes compared to surgical treatment. PDT is overall well‐tolerated, with pain being the most common side effect.

  14. Antifungal effect of TONS504-photodynamic therapy on Malassezia furfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Iizuka, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Numerous reports indicate therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) against skin tumors, acne and for skin rejuvenation. However, few reports exist regarding its efficacy for fungal skin diseases. In order to determine the antifungal effect, PDT was applied on Malassezia furfur. M. furfur was cultured in the presence of a novel cationic photosensitizer, TONS504, and was irradiated with a 670-nm diode laser. TONS504-PDT showed a significant antifungal effect against M. furfur. The effect was irradiation dose- and TONS504 concentration-dependent and the maximal effect was observed at 100 J/cm2 and 1 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, TONS504-PDT showed antifungal effect against M. furfur in vitro, and may be a new therapeutic modality for M. furfur-related skin disorders. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Photodynamic therapy in dermatology: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Fluhr, Joachim W.

    2013-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive therapeutic method first introduced in the field of dermatology. It is mainly used for the treatment of precancerous and superficial malignant skin tumors. Today PDT finds new applications not only for nononcologic dermatoses but also in the field of other medical specialties such as otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, neurology, gastroenterology, and urology. We are witnessing a broadening of the spectrum of skin diseases that are treated by PDT. Since its introduction, PDT protocol has evolved significantly in terms of increasing method efficacy and patient safety. In this era of evidence-based medicine, it is expected that much effort will be put into creating a worldwide accepted consensus on PDT. A review on the current knowledge of PDT is given, and the historical basis of the method's evolution since its introduction in the 1900s is presented. At the end, future challenges of PDT are focused on discussing gaps that exist for research in the field.

  16. Intensified photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses with fractional CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, K; Haak, C S; Thaysen-Petersen, D

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is effective for thin actinic keratoses (AKs) in field-cancerized skin. Ablative fractional laser resurfacing (AFXL) creates vertical channels that facilitate MAL uptake and may improve PDT efficacy.......Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is effective for thin actinic keratoses (AKs) in field-cancerized skin. Ablative fractional laser resurfacing (AFXL) creates vertical channels that facilitate MAL uptake and may improve PDT efficacy....

  17. Real time laser speckle imaging monitoring vascular targeted photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Ruth; Vyacheslav, Kalchenko; Scherz, Avigdor

    2017-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging is a technique that has been developed to non-invasively monitor in vivo blood flow dynamics and vascular structure, at high spatial and temporal resolution. It can record the full-field spatio-temporal characteristics of microcirculation and has therefore, often been used to study the blood flow in tumors after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Yet, there is a paucity of reports on real-time laser speckle imaging (RTLSI) during PDT. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with WST11, a water-soluble bacteriochlorophyll derivative, achieves tumor ablation through rapid occlusion of the tumor vasculature followed by a cascade of events that actively kill the tumor cells. WST11-VTP has been already approved for treatment of early/intermediate prostate cancer at a certain drug dose, time and intensity of illumination. Application to other cancers may require different light dosage. However, incomplete vascular occlusion at lower light dose may result in cancer cell survival and tumor relapse while excessive light dose may lead to toxicity of nearby healthy tissues. Here we provide evidence for the feasibility of concomitant RTLSI of the blood flow dynamics in the tumor and surrounding normal tissues during and after WST11-VTP. Fast decrease in the blood flow is followed by partial mild reperfusion and a complete flow arrest within the tumor by the end of illumination. While the primary occlusion of the tumor feeding arteries and draining veins agrees with previous data published by our group, the late effects underscore the significance of light dose control to minimize normal tissue impairment. In conclusion- RTSLI application should allow to optimize VTP efficacy vs toxicity in both the preclinical and clinical arenas.

  18. Low level LED photodynamic therapy using curcumin loaded tetraether liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, Lili; Pinnapireddy, Shashank Reddy; Strehlow, Boris; Jedelská, Jarmila; Bakowsky, Udo

    2017-10-07

    Oncological use of photodynamic therapy is an evolving field in cancer therapeutics. Photosensitisers are prone to accumulation inside healthy tissues causing undesirable effects. To avoid this, we have developed tetraether lipid liposomal formulations containing curcumin which is a naturally occurring anti-cancer substance and deemed to be safe towards healthy cells. Upon excitation with light at a specific wavelength, curcumin produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in presence of oxygen, thereby exhibiting a cytotoxic effect towards the surrounding tissues, giving a total control on the onset of therapy. In our study, we examined two different liposomal formulations wherein curcumin is encapsulated within the hydrophobic milieu with the intent to increase its bioavailability. Hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability, morphology and haemocompatibility of the liposomes were studied. The results confirmed the formation of stable nanometre range liposomal vesicles (200-220 nm) containing curcumin which were haemocompatible with coagulation time less than 50 s and a haemolytic potential below 40%. Increased ROS generation post irradiation (>50% compared to un-irradiated samples) was confirmed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The efficiency and selectivity of the PDT was demonstrated by assessing their viability post irradiation and by qualitative analysis using confocal microscopy showing nuclear perforation induced by PDT. Photo-destructive effects of PDT on the microvasculature were studied in vivo using chick chorioallantoic membrane model (CAM). Considerable phototoxicity could be observed in the irradiated area of the CAM 30 min post irradiation. Phototoxic effects in vitro (in SK-OV-3 and PCS-100-020™) and in vivo (in chorioallantoic membrane model) in combination with a novel custom manufactured LED irradiating device showed a formulation dependant selective photodynamic effect of the curcumin liposomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Photodynamic Therapy for Head and Neck Dysplasia and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual, Nestor R.; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Cooper, Michele; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Dougherty, Thomas; Popat, Saurin R.; Loree, Thom R.; Biel, Merrill A.; Henderson, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the response of dysplasia, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and T1 carcinoma of the oral cavity and larynx to photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium. Design Prospective trial. Setting A National Cancer Institute–designated cancer institute. Patients Patients with primary or recurrent moderate to severe oral or laryngeal dysplasia, CIS, or T1N0 carcinoma. Intervention Porfimer sodium, 2 mg/kg of body weight, was injected intravenously 48 hours before treatment. Light at 630 nm for photosensitizer activation was delivered from an argon laser or diode laser using lens or cylindrical diffuser fibers. The light dose was 50 J/cm2 for dysplasia and CIS and 75 J/cm2 for carcinoma. Main Outcome Measures Response was evaluated at 1 week and at 1 month and then at 3-month intervals thereafter. Response options were complete (CR), partial (PR), and no (NR) response. Posttreatment biopsies were performed in all patients with persistent and recurrent visible lesions. Results Thirty patients were enrolled, and 26 were evaluable. Mean follow-up was 15 months (range, 7–52 months). Twenty-four patients had a CR, 1 had a PR, and 1 had NR. Three patients with oral dysplasia with an initial CR experienced recurrence in the treatment field. All the patients with NR, a PR, or recurrence after an initial CR underwent salvage treatment. Temporary morbidities included edema, pain, hoarseness, and skin phototoxicity. Conclusion Photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium is an effective treatment alternative, with no permanent sequelae, for oral and laryngeal dysplasia and early carcinoma. PMID:19687399

  20. Malignant pleural mesothelioma segmentation for photodynamic therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Wael; Mestiri, Makram; Betrouni, Nacim; Hamrouni, Kamel

    2018-04-01

    Medical imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) combined with computer-aided diagnostic processing have already become important part of clinical routine specially for pleural diseases. The segmentation of the thoracic cavity represents an extremely important task in medical imaging for different reasons. Multiple features can be extracted by analyzing the thoracic cavity space and these features are signs of pleural diseases including the malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) which is the main focus of our research. This paper presents a method that detects the MPM in the thoracic cavity and plans the photodynamic therapy in the preoperative phase. This is achieved by using a texture analysis of the MPM region combined with a thoracic cavity segmentation method. The algorithm to segment the thoracic cavity consists of multiple stages. First, the rib cage structure is segmented using various image processing techniques. We used the segmented rib cage to detect feature points which represent the thoracic cavity boundaries. Next, the proposed method segments the structures of the inner thoracic cage and fits 2D closed curves to the detected pleural cavity features in each slice. The missing bone structures are interpolated using a prior knowledge from manual segmentation performed by an expert. Next, the tumor region is segmented inside the thoracic cavity using a texture analysis approach. Finally, the contact surface between the tumor region and the thoracic cavity curves is reconstructed in order to plan the photodynamic therapy. Using the adjusted output of the thoracic cavity segmentation method and the MPM segmentation method, we evaluated the contact surface generated from these two steps by comparing it to the ground truth. For this evaluation, we used 10 CT scans with pathologically confirmed MPM at stages 1 and 2. We obtained a high similarity rate between the manually planned surface and our proposed method. The average value of Jaccard index

  1. Investigation of photodynamic therapy optimization for port wine stain using modulation of photosensitizer administration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Liao, Xiaohua; Gu, Ying; Qiu, Haixia; Zeng, Jing

    2013-12-01

    To raise photosensitizer concentration level during the photodynamic therapy process, two new methods of photosensitizer administration were investigated. The first method involves the slow intravenous injection of photosensitizer throughout the first 15 min of irradiation, and the second method involves 30 min fomentation before photosensitizer injection and irradiation. The fluorescence spectra of port wine stain skin were monitored and the therapeutic effect correlated index was calculated with a previously published spectral algorithm. Thirty cases were divided into group A (slow injection of photosensitizer during the first 15 min), group B (fomentation), and group C (control group, traditional injection method), with 10 cases in each group. To analyze the effect of these two new methods, the change of therapeutic effect correlated index values of two photodynamic therapy sessions for each patient were calculated, and the photodynamic therapy outcome was compared. The results showed that the change of therapeutic effect correlated index in group A was slightly more remarkable than that in the control group. The change of therapeutic effect correlated index in group B was similar to that in the control group. Slow injection of photosensitizer during photodynamic therapy has a potential to increase photosensitizer concentration level during photodynamic therapy. However, fomentation before photodynamic therapy has no such potential. There is a need for new methods to be attempted.

  2. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  3. Chlorin e6 conjugated copper sulfide nanoparticles for photodynamic combined photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Moorthy, Madhappan Santha; Bui, Nhat Quang; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-09-01

    The photo-based therapeutic approaches have attracted tremendous attention in recent years especially in treatment and management of tumors. Photodynamic and photothermal are two major therapeutic modalities which are being applied in clinical therapy. The development of nanomaterials for photodynamic combined with photothermal therapy has gained significant attention for its treatment efficacy. In the present study, we designed chlorin e6 (Ce6) conjugated copper sulfide (CuS) nanoparticles (CuS-Ce6 NPs) through amine functionalization and the synthesized nanoparticles act as a dual-model agent for photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy. CuS-Ce6 NPs showed enhanced photodynamic effect through generation of singlet oxygen upon 670nm laser illumination. The same nanoparticles exerted thermal response under an 808nm laser at 2W/cm 2 . The fabricated nanoparticles did not show any cytotoxic effect toward breast cancer cells in the absence of light. In vitro cell viability assay showed a potent cytotoxicity in photothermal and photodynamic treatment. Rather than singular treatment, the photodynamic combined photothermal treatment showed an enhanced cytotoxic effect on treated cells. In addition, the CuS-Ce6 NPs exert a photoacoustic signal for non-invasive imaging of treated cells in tissue-mimicking phantom. In conclusion the CuS-Ce6 NPs act as multimodal agent for photo based imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymeric Nanoparticle-Based Photodynamic Therapy for Chronic Periodontitis in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marise de Freitas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT is increasingly being explored for treatment of periodontitis. Here, we investigated the effect of aPDT on human dental plaque bacteria in suspensions and biofilms in vitro using methylene blue (MB-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic (PLGA nanoparticles (MB-NP and red light at 660 nm. The effect of MB-NP-based aPDT was also evaluated in a clinical pilot study with 10 adult human subjects with chronic periodontitis. Dental plaque samples from human subjects were exposed to aPDT—in planktonic and biofilm phases—with MB or MB-NP (25 µg/mL at 20 J/cm2 in vitro. Patients were treated either with ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing (US + SRP or ultrasonic scaling + SRP + aPDT with MB-NP (25 µg/mL and 20 J/cm2 in a split-mouth design. In biofilms, MB-NP eliminated approximately 25% more bacteria than free MB. The clinical study demonstrated the safety of aPDT. Both groups showed similar improvements of clinical parameters one month following treatments. However, at three months ultrasonic SRP + aPDT showed a greater effect (28.82% on gingival bleeding index (GBI compared to ultrasonic SRP. The utilization of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with MB may be a promising adjunct in antimicrobial periodontal treatment.

  5. Optimization of light sources for prostate photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Martin D; Zhu, Timothy C; Li, Jun; Hahn, Stephen M

    2005-04-22

    To deliver uniform photodynamic dose to the prostate gland, it is necessary to develop algorithms that optimize the location and strength (emitted power × illumination time) of each light source. Since tissue optical properties may change with time, rapid (almost real-time) optimization is desirable. We use the Cimmino algorithm because it is fast, linear, and always converges reliably. A phase I motexafin lutetium (MLu)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) protocol is on-going at the University of Pennsylvania. The standard plan for the protocol uses equal source strength and equal spaced loading (1-cm). PDT for the prostate is performed with cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) of various lengths inserted to longitudinal coverage within the matrix of parallel catheters perpendicular to a base plate. We developed several search procedures to aid the user in choosing the positions, lengths, and intensities of the CDFs. The Cimmino algorithm is used in these procedures to optimize the strengths of the light catheters at each step of the iterative selection process. Maximum and minimum bounds on allowed doses to points in four volumes (prostate, urethra, rectum, and background) constrain the solutions for the strengths of the linear light sources. Uniform optical properties are assumed. To study how different opacities of the prostate would affect optimization, optical kernels of different light penetration were used. Another goal is to see whether the urethra and rectum can be spared, with minimal effect on PTV treatment delivery, by manipulating light illumination times of the sources. Importance weights are chosen beforehand for organ volumes, and normalized. Compared with the standard plan, our algorithm is shown to produce a plan that better spares the urethra and rectum and is very fast. Thus the combined selection of positions, lengths, and strengths of interstitial light sources improves outcome.

  6. The role of photodynamic therapy in overcoming cancer drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Rizvi, Imran; Xu, Nan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-01-01

    Many modalities of cancer therapy induce mechanisms of treatment resistance and escape pathways during chronic treatments, including photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is conceivable that resistance induced by one treatment might be overcome by another treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that the unique mechanisms of tumor cell and microenvironment damage produced by PDT could be utilized to overcome cancer drug resistance, to mitigate the compensatory induction of survival pathways and even to re-sensitize resistant cells to standard therapies. Approaches that capture the unique features of PDT, therefore, offer promising factors for increasing the efficacy of a broad range of therapeutic modalities. Here, we highlight key preclinical findings utilizing PDT to overcome classical drug resistance or escape pathways and thus enhance the efficacy of many pharmaceuticals, possibly explaining the clinical observations of the PDT response to otherwise treatment-resistant diseases. With the development of nanotechnology, it is possible that light activation may be used not only to damage and sensitize tumors but also to enable controlled drug release to inhibit escape pathways that may lead to resistance or cell proliferation. PMID:25856800

  7. Photodynamic Therapy and Its Role in Combined Modality Anticancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Guha, Chandan; Tomé, Wolfgang A

    2015-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new modality for anticancer treatment and although the interest has increased greatly in the recent years, it is still far from clinical routine. As PDT consists of administering a nontoxic photosensitizing chemical and subsequently illuminating the tumor with visible light, the treatment is not subject to dose-limiting toxicity, which is the case for established anticancer treatments like radiation therapy or chemotherapy. This makes PDT an attractive adjuvant therapy in a combined modality treatment regimen, as PDT provides an antitumor immune response through its ability to elicit the release of damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor antigens, thus providing an increased antitumor efficacy, potentially without increasing the risk of treatment-related toxicity. There is great interest in the elicited immune response after PDT and the potential of combining PDT with other forms of treatment to provide potent antitumor vaccines. This review summarizes recent studies investigating PDT as part of combined modality treatment, hopefully providing an accessible overview of the current knowledge that may act as a basis for new ideas or systematic evaluations of already promising results. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial photodynamic activity and cytocompatibility of Au25(Capt18 clusters photoexcited by blue LED light irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saori Miyata,1 Hirofumi Miyaji,1 Hideya Kawasaki,2 Masaki Yamamoto,2 Erika Nishida,1 Hiroko Takita,3 Tsukasa Akasaka,4 Natsumi Ushijima,3 Toshihiko Iwanaga,5 Tsutomu Sugaya1 1Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 2Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, Suita-shi, Osaka, 3Support Section for Education and Research, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, 4Department of Biomedical, Dental Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, 5Department of Anatomy, Laboratory of Histology and Cytology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has beneficial effects in dental treatment. We applied captopril-protected gold (Au25(Capt18 clusters as a novel photosensitizer for aPDT. Photoexcited Au clusters under light irradiation generated singlet oxygen (1O2. Accordingly, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Au25(Capt18 clusters under dental blue light-emitting diode (LED irradiation were evaluated. 1O2 generation of Au25(Capt18 clusters under blue LED irradiation (420–460 nm was detected by a methotrexate (MTX probe. The antimicrobial effects of photoexcited Au clusters (0, 5, 50, and 500 µg/mL on oral bacterial cells, such as Streptococcus mutans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, were assessed by morphological observations and bacterial growth experiments. Cytotoxicity testing of Au clusters and blue LED irradiation was then performed against NIH3T3 and MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, the biological performance of Au clusters (500 µg/mL was compared to an organic dye photosensitizer, methylene blue (MB; 10 and 100 µg/mL. We confirmed the 1O2 generation ability of Au25(Capt18 clusters through the fluorescence

  10. Electrochemical microsensor system for cancer research on photodynamic therapy in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzioch, J.; Kieninger, J.; Sandvik, J. A.; Pettersen, E. O.; Peng, Q.; Urban, G.

    2016-10-01

    An electrochemical microsensor system to investigate photodynamic therapy of cancer cells in vitro was developed and applied to monitor the cellular respiration during and after photodynamic therapy. The redox activity and therefore influence of the photodynamic drug on the sensor performance was investigated by electrochemical characterization. It was shown, that appropriate operation conditions avoid cross-sensitivity of the sensors to the drug itself. The presented system features a cell culture chamber equipped with microsensors and a laser source to photodynamically treat the cells while simultaneous monitoring of metabolic parameter in situ. Additionally, the optical setup allows to read back fluorescence signals from the photosensitizer itself or other marker molecules parallel to the microsensor readings.

  11. Photodynamic therapy in colorectal cancer treatment--The state of the art in preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Bugaj, Andrzej M; Latos, Wojciech; Zaremba, Katarzyna; Wawrzyniec, Katarzyna; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used in many different oncologic fields. Also in gastroenterology, where have been a few attempts to treat both the premalignant lesion and advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). This review aims to give a general overview of preclinical photodynamic studies related to CRC cells and animal studies of photodynamic effects related to CRC treatment to emphasize their potential in study of PDT mechanism, safety and efficiency to translate these results into clinical benefit in CRC treatment. Literature on in vitro preclinical photodynamic studies related to CRC cells and animal studies of photodynamic effects related to CRC treatment with the fallowing medical subject headings search terms: colorectal cancer, photodynamic therapy, photosensitizer(s), in vitro, cell culture(s), in vivo, animal experiment(s). The articles were selected by their relevance to the topic. The majority of preclinical studies concerning possibility of PDT application in colon and rectal cancer is focused on phototoxic action of photosensitizers toward cultured colorectal tumor cells in vitro. The purposes of animal experiments are usually elucidation of mechanisms of observed photodynamic effects in scale of organism, estimation of PDT safety and efficiency and translation of these results into clinical benefit. In vitro photodynamic studies and animal experiments can be useful for studies of mechanisms and efficiency of photodynamic method as a start point on PDT clinical research. The primary disadvantage of in vitro experiments is a risk of over-interpretation of their results during extrapolation to the entire CRC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Photodynamic Therapy Alone and Combined with Standard Antifungal Therapy on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Jiang, Shaojie; Sun, Yi; Deng, Meiqi; Wu, Qingzhi; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Fusarium spp. and Exophiala spp. are often chronic, recalcitrant, resulting in significant morbidity, causing discomfort, disfigurement, social isolation. Systemic disseminations happen in compromised patients, which are often refractory to available antifungal therapies and thereby lead to death. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been demonstrated to effectively inactivate multiple pathogenic fungi and is considered as a promising alternative treatment for mycoses. In the present study, we applied methylene blue (8, 16, and 32 μg/ml) as a photosensitizing agent and light emitting diode (635 ± 10 nm, 12 and 24 J/cm(2)), and evaluated the effects of photodynamic inactivation on five strains of Fusarium spp. and five strains of Exophiala spp., as well as photodynamic effects on in vitro susceptibility to itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, both planktonic and biofilm forms. Photodynamic therapy was efficient in reducing the growth of all strains tested, exhibiting colony forming unit-reductions of up to 6.4 log10 and 5.6 log10 against planktonic cultures and biofilms, respectively. However, biofilms were less sensitive since the irradiation time was twice longer than that of planktonic cultures. Notably, the photodynamic effects against Fusarium strains with high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥16, 4-8, 4-8, and 2-4 μg/ml for itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and amphotericin B, respectively, were comparable or even superior to Exophiala spp., despite Exophiala spp. showed relatively better antifungal susceptibility profile. MIC ranges against planktonic cells of both species were up to 64 times lower after aPDT treatment. Biofilms of both species showed high sessile MIC50 (SMIC50) and SMIC80 of ≥16 μg/ml for all azoles tested and variable susceptibilities to amphotericin B, with SMIC ranging between 1 and 16 μg/ml. Biofilms subjected to aPDT exhibited a distinct reduction in

  13. Photosensitizer-loaded gold nanorods for near infrared photodynamic and photothermal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Saheel; O'Connor, Ryan; Johnson, Jermaine; Ziebarth, Jesse D; Henderson, Luke; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancement of photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, the ability to form compact nanocomplex for combined photodynamic and photothermal cancer therapy under a single near infrared irradiation remains limited. In this work, we prepared an integrated sub-100 nm nanosystem for simultaneous near infrared photodynamic and photothermal cancer therapy. The nanosystem was formed by adsorption of silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide onto gold nanorod followed by covalent stabilization with alkylthiol linked polyethylene glycol. The effects of alkylthiol chain length on drug loading, release and cell killing efficacy were examined using 6-mercaptohexanoic acid, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. We found that the loading efficiency of silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide increased and the release rate decreased with the increase of the alkylthiol chain length. We demonstrated that the combined near infrared photodynamic and photothermal therapy using the silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide-loaded gold nanorods exhibit superior efficacy in cancer cell destruction as compared to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy alone. The nanocomplex stabilized with 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid linked polyethylene glycol provided highest cell killing efficiency as compared to those stabilized with the other two stabilizers under low drug dose. This new nanosystem has potential to completely eradicate tumors via noninvasive phototherapy, preventing tumor reoccurrence and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LED Light Source for in vitro Study of Photosensitizing Agents for Photodynamic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    N.Y. Shilyagina; V.I. Plekhanov; I.V. Shkunov; P.А. Shilyagin; L.V. Dubasova; А.А. Brilkina; Е.А. Sokolova; I.V. Turchin; I.V. Balalaeva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to develop a LED light source providing a homogeneous light distribution in 96-well plates and allowing an independent irradiation of individual wells, as well as its experimental testing in in vitro study of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. Materials and Methods. The experiments were carried out on human cell lines of epidermoid carcinoma А-431 and human bladder carcinoma Т24. Two photosensitizers for fluorescence diagnostics and photodynamic th...

  15. Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials for highly efficient tumor photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Shi, Zhenzhi; Zhang, Ling'e.; Brown, Eric Michael Bratsolias; Wu, Aiguo

    2016-06-01

    Layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received much more interest as promising photocatalysts because of their unique layered structures and high photocatalytic performance, which can be used as potential inorganic photosensitizers in tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT). In recent years, photocatalytic materials have been widely used in PDT and photothermal therapy (PTT) as inorganic photosensitizers. This investigation focuses on applying layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials toward cancer PDT, an application that has never been reported so far. The results of our study indicate that the efficiency of UV-triggered PDT was highest when using BiOCl nanoplates followed by BiOCl nanosheets, and then TiO2. Of particular interest is the fact that layered BiOCl nanomaterials showed excellent PDT effects under low nanomaterial dose (20 μg mL-1) and low UV dose (2.2 mW cm-2 for 10 min) conditions, while TiO2 showed almost no therapeutic effect under the same parameters. BiOCl nanoplates and nanosheets have shown excellent performance and an extensive range of applications in PDT.

  16. A Surgical View of Photodynamic Therapy in Oncology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, K.; Dixon, Kate; Gibbins, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has existed for over 30 years, and its scientific basis has been known and investigated for well over 100 years. The scientific foundation of PDT is solid and its application to cancer treatment for many common neoplastic lesions has been the subject of a huge number of clinical trials and observational studies. Yet its acceptance by many clinicians has suffered from its absence from the undergraduate and/or postgraduate education curricula of surgeons, physicians, and oncologists. Surgeons in a variety of specialties many with years of experience who are familiar with PDT bear witness in many thousands of publications to its safety and efficacy as well as to the unique role that it can play in the treatment of cancer with its targeting precision, its lack of collateral damage to healthy structures surrounding the treated lesions, and its usage within minimal access therapy. PDT is closely related to the fluorescence phenomenon used in photodiagnosis. This review aspires both to inform and to present the clinical aspect of PDT as seen by a surgeon. PMID:28824964

  17. Cell Death Pathways in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, Pawel, E-mail: pmroz@partners.org [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Yaroslavsky, Anastasia [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Boston University College of Engineering, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kharkwal, Gitika B [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Hamblin, Michael R. [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging cancer therapy that uses the combination of non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and destroy tumors. The PS can be localized in various organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes and this sub-cellular location governs much of the signaling that occurs after PDT. There is an acute stress response that leads to changes in calcium and lipid metabolism and causes the production of cytokines and stress response mediators. Enzymes (particularly protein kinases) are activated and transcription factors are expressed. Many of the cellular responses center on mitochondria and frequently lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase activation and release of cytochrome c. Certain specific proteins (such as Bcl-2) are damaged by PDT-induced oxidation thereby increasing apoptosis, and a build-up of oxidized proteins leads to an ER-stress response that may be increased by proteasome inhibition. Autophagy plays a role in either inhibiting or enhancing cell death after PDT.

  18. Amphiphilic Silane Modified Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Magnetically Targeted Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueke; Dong, Biao; Xu, Hongwei; Xu, Shihan; Zhang, Xinran; Lin, Yanxia; Xu, Lin; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Shuang; Song, Hongwei

    2017-04-05

    Efficient targeting is a major challenge in practical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Though the "enhanced permeability and retention" (EPR) effect is a widely used tumor targeting method, magnetic targeting strategy is more promising considering the issue of high targeting efficiency and reducing concentration-dependent toxicity. Herein, magnetic targeting and highly effective Fe 3 O 4 @Ce6/C6@silane NPs are reported as a class of precisely controlled photosensitizers (PS) for PDT. On the basis of the amphiphilic silane encapsulation, PS chlorin e6 (Ce6) and Coumarin 6 (C6) as well as Fe 3 O 4 NPs were coloaded into the inside hydrophobic environment of amphiphilic silane, forming a theranostic agent for dual-mode imaging guided and magnetic targeting enhanced in vivo PDT agent. To solve the problem of over-irradiation, the coloaded design of C6 and Ce6 molecules can afford the real time PDT monitoring by ratio emissions with same excitation wavelength. When Fe 3 O 4 @Ce6/C6@silane and Ce6/C6@silane NPs are compared in in vitro and in vivo experiments, the introduction of Fe 3 O 4 in the composite does not affect the PDT efficiency, whereas, in contrast, it brings MRI imaging and magnetic targeting functions. Fe 3 O 4 @Ce6/C6@silane injection followed with magnetic field (MF) and light irradiation is important in generating an effective PDT process, showing great potential in tumor therapy.

  19. Photosensitizer absorption coefficient modeling and necrosis prediction during Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, Irene; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2012-09-03

    The development of accurate predictive models for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) has emerged as a valuable tool to adjust the current therapy dosimetry to get an optimal treatment response, and definitely to establish new personal protocols. Several attempts have been made in this way, although the influence of the photosensitizer depletion on the optical parameters has not been taken into account so far. We present a first approach to predict the spatio-temporal variation of the photosensitizer absorption coefficient during PDT applied to dermatological diseases, taking into account the photobleaching of a topical photosensitizer. This permits us to obtain the photons density absorbed by the photosensitizer molecules as the treatment progresses and to determine necrosis maps to estimate the short term therapeutic effects in the target tissue. The model presented also takes into account an inhomogeneous initial photosensitizer distribution, light propagation in biological media and the evolution of the molecular concentrations of different components involved in the photochemical reactions. The obtained results allow to investigate how the photosensitizer depletion during the photochemical reactions affects light absorption by the photosensitizer molecules as the optical radiation propagates through the target tissue, and estimate the necrotic tumor area progression under different treatment conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Borgia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations.

  1. Photodynamic Therapy As a Promising Method Used in the Treatment of Oral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prażmo, Ewa J; Kwaśny, Mirosław; Łapiński, Mariusz; Mielczarek, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) consists of three elements: photosensitizer, light and oxygen. The photosensitizer has the property of selective accumulation in abnormal or infected tissues without causing any damage to the healthy cells. This innovative therapeutic method has already been successfully adapted in many fields of medicine, e.g. dermatology, gynecology, urology and cancer therapy. Dentistry is also beginning to incorporate photodisinfection for treatment of the oral cavity. The antibacterial and fungicidal properties of the photosensitizer have been used to achieve better results in root canal treatment, periodontal therapy and the eradication of candidiasis in prosthodontics. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness of photodynamic methods in the diagnosis and therapy of selected oral diseases. Scientific data and published papers regarding the antibacterial properties of PDT will be subjected to analysis. Photodynamic therapy will be discussed as an alternative treatment protocol in oncology, endodontics, periodontology and other fields of dentistry.

  2. Adjuvant photodynamic therapy in surgical management of cerebral tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-Qian; Wu, Si-En; Zhu, Shu-Gan

    1993-03-01

    We have performed high dose photoradiation therapy in patients with cerebral tumors. Twenty-seven patients had gliomas, two had metastatic cancer of the brain, one had malignant meningioma. Hematoporphyrin derivative was administered intravenously. All patients underwent a craniotomy with a radical or partial excision of the tumor. There was no evidence of increased cerebral edema and other toxicity from the therapy, and all patients were discharged from the hospital within 15 days after surgery. On the basis of animal experiments our institute started using photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjuvant measure to the operative therapy in 30 cases of cerebral tumors. Ten of these patients were excluded from this group because of the short postoperative following time. Here, the details of our experiences are presented as follows: 106 of C6 type glioma cell strain were implanted into the frontal lobe of a Chinese hamster. Fourteen days later intracranial gliomas developed, which were larger than 4 mm in diameter, HpD in a dosage of 4 mg/kg was injected into the tail vein of the animals. The fluorescence was seen 5 minutes later. The diagnostic laser used was He-Ca (Hc-type 15A, made at Shanghai Laser Institute) with a wavelength of 441.6 nm, power of 30 mw. The fluorescence reached its peak point 24 hours later, and the normal tissue can be identified by the lack of fluorescence. Then, the tumor tissue was further radiated with an Ar laser (made in Nanjing Electronic Factory, type 360), pumped dye-laser (made in Changchun Optic Machinery Institute, type 901) with a wavelength of 630 nm, and an energy density of more than 200 Joules/cm2, which might get the tumor cells destroyed selectively. The effect of photoradiation may reach as deep as 4 - 7 mm into the brain tissue without cerebral edema or necrosis.

  3. Case Report of Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Dental Caries on Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Leal, Cinthia Raquel Lima; Olivan, Silvia; Leal Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia; de Oliveira, Vanessa Adriana; Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    The partial removal of dental caries aiming to maintain the integrity of the pulp has been considered the therapy of choice in the treatment of deep carious lesions, as long as certain principles of diagnosis are respected. Dentists are always looking for techniques to remove the decayed tissue with biosafety, what provides more comfort to the patient especially when it comes to children. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an antimicrobial treatment. PapacárieMblue is a modification of the regular Papacárie, with a photosensitizer added to it. PapacárieMblue was used in a patient who had deep carious lesions in a primary molar. After 5 minutes of application, the soft and infected tissues were removed from the side walls of the cavity and, after, PDT was held in the pulp wall with red laser (660 nm), energy of 30 J, output power of 100 mW and 5 minutes of exposure time. This caused a reduction in the amount of dental tissue removed, what favored the prognosis of the dental element. After a period of 3 months, a control of the case was done and we discovered that the tooth that received the PDT was not painful and the x-ray showed an absence of lesions in the furcation. PDT with PapacárieMblue has been effective in the removal of a deep carious lesion that had a risk of pulp exposure.

  4. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  5. Smart pH-responsive upconversion nanoparticles for enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Chunhong; Su, Lin; Wang, Hanjie; Chang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    A smart pH-responsive photodynamic therapy system based on upconversion nanoparticle loaded PEG coated polymeric lipid vesicles (RB-UPPLVs) was designed and prepared. These RB-UPPLVs which are promising agents for deep cancer photodynamic therapy applications can achieve enhanced tumor cellular internalization and near-infrared light-triggered photodynamic therapy.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy with Hypericin Improved by Targeting HSP90 Associated Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ferenc

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have focused on the response of SKBR-3 cells to both single 17-DMAG treatment as well as its combination with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Low concentrations of 17-DMAG without any effect on survival of SKBR-3 cells significantly reduced metabolic activity, viability and cell number when combined with photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Moreover, IC10 concentation of 17-DMAG resulted in significant increase of SKBR-3 cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle, followed by an increase of cells in G2 phase when combined with photodynamic therapy. Furthermore, 17-DMAG already decreased HER2, Akt, P-Erk1/2 and survivin protein levels in SKBR-3 cells a short time after its application. In this regard, 17-DMAG protected also SKBR-3 cells against both P-Erk1/2 as well as survivin upregulations induced by photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Interestingly, IC10 concentration of 17-DMAG led to total depletion of Akt, P-Erk1/2 proteins and to decrease of survivin level at 48 h. On the other hand, 17-DMAG did not change HER2 relative expression in SKBR-3 cells, but caused a significant decrease of HER2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells characterized by low HER2 expression. These results show that targeting HSP90 client proteins increases the efficiency of antineoplastic effect of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

  7. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  8. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy in the Management of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robres, P; Aspiroz, C; Rezusta, A; Gilaberte, Y

    2015-12-01

    Onychomycosis, or fungal infection of the nails, is one of the most prevalent fungal diseases in the general population. Treatment is of limited effectiveness, tedious, and must be administered for long periods. Furthermore, systemic antifungal agents are associated with adverse effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may prove to be a viable alternative in the treatment of superficial skin infections, including onychomycosis. We review articles relating to the usefulness of PDT in onychomycosis in both in vitro and in vivo settings and discuss the potential and limitations of various photosensitizing agents. In vivo, methylene blue and 5-aminolevulinic acid have led to cure rates in 80% and 43% of cases, respectively, at 12 months. Finally, based on data in the literature and our own experience, we propose a protocol of 3 PDT sessions, separated by an interval of 1 or 2 weeks, using methyl aminolevulinate 16% as a photosensitizing agent and red light (λ=630 nm, 37 J.cm(-2)). Each session is preceded by the topical application of urea 40% over several days. Clinical trials are needed to optimize PDT protocols and to identify those patients who will benefit most from this treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Trifluoromethyl Boron Dipyrromethene Derivatives as Potential Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two novel boron dipyrromethene-based photosensitizers (BDP3 and BDP6 substituted with three or six trifluoromethyl groups have been synthesized and characterized with various spectroscopic methods, and their photo-physical, photo-chemical, and photo-biological properties have also been explored. The two photosensitizers are highly soluble and remain nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide as shown by the intense and sharp Q-band absorption. Under red light irradiation (λ = 660 nm, 1.5 J/cm2, both photosensitizers show high and comparable cytotoxicity towards HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma and HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells with IC50 values of 0.42–0.49 μM. The high photocytotoxicity of BDP3 and BDP6 can be due to their high cellular uptake and low aggregation tendency in biological media, which result in a high efficiency to generate reactive oxygen species inside the cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopic studies indicate that they have superior selective affinities to the mitochondria and lysosomes of HepG2 and HeLa cells. The results show that these two trifluoromethyl boron dipyrromethene derivatives are potential anticancer agents for photodynamic therapy.

  10. Quantification of reactive oxygen species for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zou; Zhang, Jinde; Lin, Lisheng; Li, Buhong

    2016-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective therapeutic modality that uses a light source to activate light-sensitive photosensitizers to treat both oncologic and nononcological indications. Photosensitizers are excited to the long-lived triplet state, and they react with biomolecules via type I or II mechanism resulted in cell death and tumor necrosis. Free radicals and radical ions are formed by electron transfer reactions (type I), which rapidly react with oxygen leading to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide ions, hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Singlet molecular oxygen is produced in a Type II reaction, in which the excited singlet state of the photosensitizer generated upon photon absorption by the ground-state photosensitizer molecule undergoes intersystem crossing to a long-lived triplet state. In this talk, the fundmental mechanisms and detection techniques for ROS generation in PDT will be introduced. In particular, the quantification of singlet oxygen generation for pre-clinical application will be highlighted, which plays an essential role in the establishment of robust singlet oxygen-mediated PDT dosimetry.

  11. Role of Photodynamic Therapy in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate photodynamic Therapy (PDT with Verteporfin for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV involving the fovea in Indian eyes, through a retrospective interventional case series. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 9 patients (9 eyes diagnosed to have PCV with foveal involvement between September 2001 and October 2002. Results: Nine eyes underwent PDT for PCV. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 16 months. Initial visual acuity (VA ranged from 1/60 to 6/12 and final VA varied from 1/60 to 6/9 at the end of follow- up. VA improved in 4/9 eyes (44.4% by one line and remained unchanged in 5/9 eyes (55.6%, hence it was considered stabilized in all eyes. No adverse effects or events were observed during or after treatment with verteporfin. Conclusion: PDT may be beneficial for PCV with foveal involvement. Its long-term efficacy requires to be evaluated

  12. Four-channel PDT dose dosimetry for pleural photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Cengel, Keith A.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a four-channel PDT dose dosimetry system to simultaneously acquire light dosimetry and sensitizer fluorescence data from four sites in the thoracic cavity during pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photosensitizer fluorescence emitted during PDT is of interest for the monitoring of local concentration of the photosensitizer and its photobleaching. However, the variation in tissue optical properties will cause the photosensitizer fluorescence to alter. Optical properties correction to the measured fluorescence is required for absolute quantification of photosensitizer concentration. In this study, we determine an empirical optical properties correction function using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of fluorescence for a range of physiologically relevant tissue optical properties. Optical properties correction factors for Photofrin fluorescence were determined experimentally using the same empirical function to recover the Photofrin concentration from measured fluorescence during PDT. The results showed no photobleaching of Photofrin during the course of PDT. PDT doses delivered to multiple sites in the thoracic cavity of 4 patients were presented and showed that PDT dose can be different by 4.4 times intra-patients and 9.1 times inter-patients.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy and Skin Appendage Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, Matteo; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Marasca, Claudio; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment that utilizes light treatment along with application of a photosensitizing agent. In dermatology, PDT is commonly used and approved for the treatment of oncological conditions such as actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. In the last 2 decades however, PDT has also been used for the treatment of several nonneoplastic dermatological diseases. The present review summarizes published data on PDT application in skin appendage disorders. Our literature review shows that: (a) PDT may be a suitable treatment for acne, folliculitis decalvans, hidradenitis suppurativa, nail diseases, and sebaceous hyperplasia; (b) there is a lack of agreement on PDT features (type, concentrations and incubation period of used substances, number and frequency of PDT sessions, optimal parameters of light sources, and patient characteristics [e.g., failure to previous treatments, disease severity, body surface area involved, etc.] which should guide PDT use in these diseases); (c) further research is needed to establish international guidelines helping dermatologists to choose PDT for the right patient at the right time.

  14. Photodynamic therapy for melanoma: efficacy and immunologic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers and if it cannot be completely surgically removed the prognosis is bleak. Melanomas are known to be particularly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Various types of immunotherapy have however been investigated with mixed reports of success. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has also been tested against melanoma, again with mixed effects as the melanin pigment is thought to act as both an optical shield and as an antioxidant. We have been investigating PDT against malignant melanoma in mouse models. We have compared B16F10 melanoma syngenic to C57BL/6 mice and S91 Cloudman melanoma syngenic to DBA2 mice. We have tested the hypothesis that S91 will respond better than B16 because of higher expression of immunocritical molecules such as MHC-1, tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-2 gp100, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Some of these molecules can act as tumor rejection antigens that can be recognized by antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells that have been stimulated by PDT. Moreover it is possible that DBA2 mice are intrinsically better able to mount an anti-tumor immune response than C57BL/6 mice. We are also studying intratumoral injection of photosensitzers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A and comparing this route with the more usual route of intravenous administration.

  15. Subretinal Hemorrhage after Photodynamic Therapy for Juxtapapillary Retinal Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Baba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old Japanese woman presented with a juxtapapillary retinal capillary hemangioma (RCH in her left eye. Twelve months after the initial examination, the size of the hemangioma had increased and the exudation from the RCH involved the macula. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA had decreased from 0.8 to 0.3. A total of five intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB; 1.25 mg was given but the RCH did not respond. A photodynamic therapy (PDT was done using multiple laser spots to avoid damaging the optic nerve head. After the first PDT, the subfoveal fluid was reduced but not completely gone. One week after the second PDT, a massive subretinal hemorrhage developed. The subretinal hemorrhage was successfully displaced by injecting intraocular sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas. At the 3-year follow-up examination, no subretinal hemorrhage or fluid was observed at the macula and the BCVA remained at 0.05. Our case was resistant to the combination of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and PDT and had a rare massive subretinal hemorrhage. A further collection of RCH cases treated with anti-VEGF and PDT that would justify this treatment is necessary.

  16. Photodynamic therapy and diagnosis: Principles and comparative aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jane; de Queiroz, Genilson Fernandes; Golding, Jon P

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an evolving method of treating superficial tumours that is non-invasive and carries minimal risk of toxicity. It combines tumour-selective photosensitiser dyes, tissue oxygen and targeted illumination to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the tumour. In addition to directly acting on tumour cells, PDT damages and restricts tumour microvasculature, and causes a local inflammatory response that stimulates an immune response against the tumour. Unlike surgery or radiotherapy, the surrounding extracellular matrix is unaffected by PDT; thus, tissue healing is excellent and PDT seldom causes scars. This, combined with the ease of light application, has made PDT a popular treatment for cancers and pre-cancerous conditions in human beings. Moreover, because photosensitiser dyes are fluorescent and selectively accumulate in tumour tissues, they can additionally be used to visualise and discriminate tumour from normal tissues, thereby improving the accuracy of tumour surgery. In veterinary practice, PDT has been used successfully for treatment of superficial squamous cell carcinomas of the feline nasal planum; urinary tract, urinary bladder and prostate neoplasia in dogs; and equine sarcoids. The purpose of this article is to provide a comparative review of the current literature on PDT in human and veterinary medicine, and to establish a basis for future development of PDT in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Photodynamic Therapy and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel L. Griffin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Bowen’s disease (BD and actinic keratosis (AK. A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance. PDT is an effective treatment for superficial BCC, BD and both individual and field treatment of AKs. Excellent cosmesis can be achieved with high patient satisfaction. Variable results have been reported for nodular BCC, with improved outcomes following pretreatment and repeated PDT cycles. The more aggressive basisquamous, morphoeic infiltrating subtypes of BCC and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are not suitable for PDT. Prevention of “field cancerization” in organ transplant recipients on long-term immunosuppression and patients with Gorlin syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a promising development. The optimisation of PDT techniques with improved photosensitiser delivery to target tissues, new generation photosensitisers and novel light sources may expand the future role of PDT in NMSC management.

  18. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with photodynamic therapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Niranzena Panneer; Sadaksharam, Jayachandran; Singaravelu, Ganesan; Ramu, Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common potentially malignant disorder that may transform into oral carcinoma. By treating leukoplakia in its incipient stage, the risk of occurrence of oral carcinoma can be prevented. In this aspect, photodynamic therapy (PDT) can serve as a useful treatment modality. The aim of the study is to treat patients with OL using PDT in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is used as a photosensitizer. Five patients with OL were included in the study. They were treated with 10% ALA mediated PDT (light source: Xenon lamp, power: 0.1 W, wavelength: 630 ± 5 nm, total dose: 100 J/cm(2) per session) for 6-8 sessions. Follow-up was done for a period of 1 year. One month (4 weeks) after ALA-PDT, the response was evaluated based on clinical examination. It was as follows: Complete response: Two patients; partial response: Two patients; and no response: One patient. There was no recurrence in any of the cases. There was satisfactory reduction in the size of the OL lesion without any side-effects. Thus, ALA mediated PDT seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment of OL.

  19. Selective photosensitizer delivery into plasma membrane for effective photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Santos, Olavo Amorim; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-10-10

    Subcellular localization of photosensitizers (PSs) determines the therapeutic efficacy in the photodynamic therapy. However, among the subcellular compartments, there has been little effort to deliver the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane and examine the phototherapeutic efficacy of membrane-localized PSs. Here, we developed a liposomal delivery system to localize the hydrophobic PSs selectively into the plasma membrane. The membrane fusogenic liposomes (MFLs), the membrane of which is engineered to fuse with the plasma membrane, was prepared for the membrane localization of PSs. The phototherapeutic efficacy of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was superior over that of cells treated with ZnPc-loaded non-fusogenic liposomes, which is the conventional liposomal formulation that delivers the PSs into the intracellular compartments via endocytosis. The membrane localization of ZnPc molecules led to rapid membrane disruption upon irradiation and subsequent necrosis-like cell death. The membrane-localized generation of reactive oxygen species in the cells treated with ZnPc-loaded MFLs was likely to account for the effective disruption of plasma membrane. Thus, this work provides a novel delivery method to localize the PSs selectively into the plasma membrane with the enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Photodynamic therapy induced vascular damage: an overview of experimental PDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Moriyama, L T; Bagnato, V S

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as one of the most important therapeutic options in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. By resorting to the photosensitizer and light, which convert oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), PDT will induce vascular damage and direct tumor cell killing. Another consequence of PDT is the microvascular stasis, which results in hypoxia and further produces tumor regression. To improve the treatment with PDT, three promising strategies are currently attracting much interest: (1) the combination of PDT and anti-angiogenesis agents, which more effectively prevent the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels; (2) the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of photosensitizer, which makes the photosensitizer more localized in tumor sites and thus renders minimal damage to the normal tissues; (3) the application of intravascular PDT, which can avoid the loss of energy during the transmission and expose the target area directly. Here we aim to review the important findings on vascular damage by PDT on mice. The combination of PDT with other approaches as well as its effect on cancer photomedicine are also reviewed. (review)

  1. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy in Spain: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, L; García-Gavín, J; Gilaberte, Y

    2014-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an option for the treatment of actinic keratosis, Bowen disease, and certain types of basal cell carcinoma. It is also used to treat various other types of skin condition, including inflammatory and infectious disorders. The main disadvantages of PDT are the time it takes to administer (both for the patient and for health professionals) and the pain associated with treatment. Daylight-mediated PDT has recently been reported to be an alternative to the conventional approach. Several studies have shown it to be similar in efficacy to and better tolerated than classic PDT for the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis. Nevertheless, most of these studies are from northern Europe, and no data have been reported from southern Europe. The present article reviews the main studies published to date, presents the treatment protocol, and summarizes our experience with a group of treated patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  2. Lab-on-a-chip systems for photodynamic therapy investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Michał; Tokarska, Katarzyna; Jastrzębska, Elżbieta; Bułka, Magdalena; Drozdek, Sławomir; Lamch, Łukasz; Wilk, Kazimiera A; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2018-03-15

    In recent years photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its smaller surgical trauma, better selectivity towards tumor cells, reduced side effects and possibility of repeatable treatment. Since cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, scientists constantly seek for new potential therapeutic agents including nanotechnology-based photosensitizers used in PDT. The new-designed nanostructures must be carefully studied and well characterized what require analytically useful and powerful tools that enable real progress in nanoscience development. This review describes the current status of PDT investigations using microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems, including recent developments of nanoparticle-based PDT agents, their combinations with different drugs, designs and examples of in vitro applications. This review mainly lays emphasis on biological evaluation of FDA approved photosensitizing agents as well as newly designed nanophotosensitizers. It also highlights the analytical performances of various microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip systems for PDT efficacy analysis on 3D culture and discusses microsystems designs in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of oral leukoplakia with photodynamic therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranzena Panneer Selvam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: Oral leukoplakia (OL is the most common potentially malignant disorder that may transform into oral carcinoma. By treating leukoplakia in its incipient stage, the risk of occurrence of oral carcinoma can be prevented. In this aspect, photodynamic therapy (PDT can serve as a useful treatment modality. The aim of the study is to treat patients with OL using PDT in which 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is used as a photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Five patients with OL were included in the study. They were treated with 10% ALA mediated PDT (light source: Xenon lamp, power: 0.1 W, wavelength: 630 ± 5 nm, total dose: 100 J/cm 2 per session for 6-8 sessions. Follow-up was done for a period of 1 year. Results: One month (4 weeks after ALA-PDT, the response was evaluated based on clinical examination. It was as follows: Complete response: Two patients; partial response: Two patients; and no response: One patient. There was no recurrence in any of the cases. Conclusion: There was satisfactory reduction in the size of the OL lesion without any side-effects. Thus, ALA mediated PDT seems to be a promising alternative for the treatment of OL.

  4. Development of Smart Phthalocyanine-based Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yun Sang

    Phthalocyanines are versatile functional dyes that have shown great potential in cancer theranostics, especially in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This research work aims to develop "smart" phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers for targeted PDT. This thesis describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of carefully designed phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers. Chapter 1 presents an overview of PDT, including its historical development, photophysical mechanisms, and biological mechanisms. Various classes of photosensitizers are introduced with emphasis putting on phthalocyanines, which exhibit ideal characteristics of photosensitizers for PDT. In recent years, several approaches have been used to develop photosensitizers with higher tumor selectivity and minimal skin photosensitivity after PDT. Activatable photosensitizers can provide a "turn on" mechanism to offer an additional control of the specificity of treatment. Photosensitizers can also work cooperatively with the tumor-targeting groups or anticancer drugs so as to achieve targeted or dual therapy, which can enhance the efficacy of PDT. The novel approaches mentioned above have been widely used and combined to form multi-functional photosensitizing agents. These novel concepts and development of PDT are discussed and illustrated with relevant examples at the end of this chapter. To minimize the prolonged skin photosensitivity, photosensitizers that can only be activated by tumor-associated stimuli have been developed. Due to the abnormal metabolism in tumor tissues, their surface usually exhibits a lower pH compared to that of the normal tissues. Also, the pH difference between the intracellular and the physiological environment provides a pH-activation mechanism. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a pH-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetramer, in which the phthalocyanine units

  5. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Lei; Wu, Jia-chuan; Bie, Li-Ke; Gong, Biao

    2015-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy with the placement of a biliary stent may improve the prognosis in patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this research is to determine the hazard ratio of photodynamic therapy with stent compared to biliary stenting alone or other therapies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Several databases were searched from inception to December 31 2013 for trials comparing photodynamic therapy+stent vs. stent-only or other treatments for cholangiocarcinoma. The outcomes of interest included patient survival, the changes of serum bilirubin levels, the quality of life (Karnofsky performance status), and adverse events. The hazard ratios (HR) were extracted from the survival curves using Tierney's Method. LnHR and its variance were pooled using an inverse variance-weighted average. Inconsistency was quantified using I(2) statistics. In all, 8 trials comparing PDT+stent with other therapeutic methods were selected. We made a meta-analysis based on the 7 trials, which compared the result of PDT+stent and the stent-only group. HR summarizes the survival for the two groups. Overall survival was significantly better in patients who received photodynamic therapy than those who did not [HR=0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.33∼0.73, P=0.0005]. Among the 8 trials (642 subjects), 5 assessed the changes of serum bilirubin levels, and/or Karnofsky performance status, as other indications for improvement. In all, the incidence for phototoxic reaction is 11.11%. The incidence for other events in photodynamic therapy and the stent-only group was 13.64% and 12.79%, respectively. The palliative treatment of cholangiocarcinoma, with photodynamic therapy, is associated with an increased survival benefit, an improved biliary drainage, and a better quality of life. However, the quality of this evidence is low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Photodynamic therapy-generated vaccines prevent tumor recurrence after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korbelik, M.; Sun, J.

    2003-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established clinical modality for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases, inflicts photoreactive drug-mediated oxidative stress that prompts the engagement of host inflammatory and immune responses which contribute to the therapy outcome. Recently, it has become evident that in vitro PDT-treated tumor cells or their lysates can be utilized as an effective vaccine against established tumors of the same origin. The mechanism underlying the vaccine action appears to be based on eliciting immune recognition of the tumor and developing an efficient immune response even against poorly immunogenic tumors. This study examined whether PDT-generated vaccines can be effectively combined with radiotherapy. Subcutaneous SCCVII tumors (squamous cell carcinomas) growing in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice were treated by radiotherapy (60 Gy x-ray dose). PDT-vaccine treatment, done by peritumoral injection of in vitro PDT-treated SCCVII cells (20 million/mouse), was performed either immediately after radiotherapy or ten days later. The mice were then observed for tumor regression/recurrence. The tumors treated with radiotherapy alone shrunk and became impalpable for a brief period after which they all recurred. In contrast, vaccination performed at 10 days post radiotherapy delayed tumor recurrence and prevented it in one of six mice. Even better results were obtained with mice vaccinated immediately after radiotherapy, with mice showing not only a delayed tumor recurrence but also no sign of tumor in 50% of mice. The PDT-vaccine treatment without radiotherapy produced in this trial a significant tumor growth retardation but no complete regressions. These results indicate that PDT-generated vaccines can ensure immune rejection of cancer once the lesion size is reduced by radiotherapy. Even without obtaining a systemic immunity for the elimination of disseminated malignant deposits, these findings suggest that PDT-vaccines can improve local control

  8. A PSMA-targeted theranostic agent for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Chatterjee, Samit; Lisok, Ala; Minn, Il; Pullambhatla, Mrudula; Wharram, Bryan; Wang, Yuchuan; Jin, Jiefu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Mease, Ronnie C; Pomper, Martin G

    2017-02-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is over-expressed in the epithelium of prostate cancer and in the neovasculature of many non-prostate solid tumors. PSMA has been increasingly used as a target for cancer imaging and therapy. Here we describe a low-molecular-weight theranostic photosensitizer, YC-9, for PSMA-targeted optical imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). YC-9 was synthesized by conjugating IRDye700DX N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester with a PSMA targeting Lys-Glu urea through a lysine-suberate linker in suitable yield. Optical imaging in vivo demonstrated PSMA-specific tumor uptake of YC-9 with rapid clearance from non-target tissues. PSMA-specific cell kill was demonstrated with YC-9in vitro through PDT in PSMA + PC3-PIP and PSMA - PC3-flu cells. In vivo PDT in mice bearing PSMA + PC3-PIP tumors at 4h post-injection of YC-9 (A total of four PDT sessions were performed, 48h apart) resulted in significant tumor growth delay, while tumors in control groups continued to grow. PDT with YC-9 significantly increased the median survival of the PSMA + PC3-PIP tumor mice (56.5days) compared to control groups [23.5-30.0days, including untreated, light alone, YC-9 alone (without light) and non-targeted IRDye700DX PDT treatment groups], without noticeable toxicity at the doses used. This study proves in principle that YC-9 is a promising therapeutic agent for targeted PDT of PSMA-expressing tissues, such as prostate tumors, and may also be useful against non-prostate tumors by virtue of neovascular PSMA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stimulation of dendritic cells enhances immune response after photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the administration of photosensitizers followed by illumination of the primary tumor with red light producing reactive oxygen species that cause vascular shutdown and tumor cell necrosis and apoptosis. Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due to the acute inflammatory response, priming of the immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA). The induction of specific CD8+ Tlymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. This process is however, often sub-optimal, in part due to tumor-induced DC dysfunction. Instead of DC that can become mature and activated and have a potent antigen-presenting and immune stimulating phenotype, immature dendritic cells (iDC) are often found in tumors and are part of an immunosuppressive milieu including regulatory T-cells and immunosuppressive cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL10. We here report on the use of a potent DC activating agent, an oligonucleotide (ODN) that contains a non-methylated CpG motif and acts as an agonist of toll like receptor (TLR) 9. TLR activation is a danger signal to notify the immune system of the presence of invading pathogens. CpG-ODN (but not scrambled non-CpG ODN) increased bone-marrow DC activation after exposure to PDT-killed tumor cells, and significantly increased tumor response to PDT and mouse survival after peri-tumoral administration. CpG may be a valuable immunoadjuvant to PDT especially for tumors that produce DC dysfunction.

  10. Methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy for resistant plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Manal; Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2009-01-01

    Topical treatment of resistant psoriatic plaque stage lesions may be difficult and the systemic therapies seem inappropriate. Therefore, a topical 0.1% methylene blue (MB) hydrogel was prepared and evaluated for percent drug content, drug uniformity, pH, rheological and organoleptic characters such as feel tackiness, grittiness sensation, and transparency in addition to release kinetics study in vitro. The efficiency of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MB photo-activated using 565 mW Light emitting diode (LED) 670 nm was evaluated in patients with resistant plaque psoriasis. The gel was evaluated in single blinded study. The patients were subjected to repeated sessions of irradiation, skin biopsies from each patient in the beginning and at the end of the sessions were taken for histopathological studies. Results showed the hydrogel was transparent nongritty and the drug uniformly dispersed with pH=7.2 and viscosity value=25.04 Pa. The drug content was found to be 99.4 +/- 0.15 %. Drug release was following zero order kinetics with rate constant K=0.348 +/- 0.01 and T(1/2) = 0.95 +/- 0.5 hours. Sixteen patients experienced complete clearance of their treated lesions. Skin appeared normal in color, texture, and pliability with no complications indicating the lack of skin sensitivity. Histopathological examinations showed nearly normal epidermis at the end of all sessions. The authors concluded that the prepared hydrogel was safe, stable, and very effective. The results are encouraging to accept MB as a photosensitizer for PDT and as a safe and effective method for treatment of selected cases of resistant localized psoriasis

  11. Practical approach to the use of daylight photodynamic therapy with topical methyl aminolevulinate for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, C A; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy has been shown to be an effective therapy for actinic keratoses (AKs) and a simple and tolerable treatment procedure in three randomized Scandinavian studies and two recent Phase III randomized controlled studies in Australia and Europe. OBJECT...

  12. Photodynamic therapy: a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitmaker, J. J.; Baas, P.; van Leengoed, H. L.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Star, W. M.; van Zandwijk, N.

    1996-01-01

    The first reports on photodynamic therapy (PDT) date back to the 1970s. Since then, several thousands of patients, both with early stage and advanced stage solid tumours, have been treated with PDT and many claims have been made regarding its efficacy. Nevertheless, the therapy has not yet found

  13. Choroidal haemangioma and photodynamic therapy. Anatomical and functional response of patients with choroidal hemangioma treated with photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirà, O; Brosa, H; Lorenzo-Parra, D; Arias-Barquet, L; Català-Mora, J; Cobos, E; Garcia-Bru, P; Rubio-Caso, M J; Caminal-Mitjana, J M

    2017-06-01

    To study the effectiveness and limitations of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as treatment of choice in patients with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal haemangioma. A retrospective study was conducted on 16 patients (13 men and 3 women, with mean age of 54.88 years) with circumscribed choroidal haemangioma, who attended our centre and were treated with PDT in the last 7 years. All patients had circumscribed choroidal haemangioma, which caused a decrease in visual acuity (VA) secondary to the presence of intraretinal microcystic oedema or neurosensory detachment. The mean initial VA was 0.23, and the final mean VA after performing PDT was 0.38 (all the VA were measured in decimal scale). It should be noted that patients needed a mean of 1.69 PDT sessions. Three of the patients needed rescue treatment with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (ranibizumab, aflibercept) or a dexamethasone intravitreal implant (Ozurdex ® ). The indication for a change of treatment was the persistence of intraretinal microcystic oedema and/or neurosensory detachment (or incomplete resolution) after 3 PDT sessions. As overall results, 62.5% of patients evolved into anatomical and functional (increase in AV or stability) resolution. PDT is a straight forward and fast procedure, with a good anatomical and functional response, causing minimal damage to adjacent vessels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Switching From Conventional Photodynamic Therapy to Daylight Photodynamic Therapy For Actinic Keratoses: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Velázquez, A; Redondo, P

    2017-05-01

    Actinic keratosis is a precursor lesion to the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Conventional photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be effective, but the procedure is time-consuming, can be very painful, and requires infrastructure. These shortcomings led to the emergence of daylight PDT. To obtain a global estimate of efficacy, we undertook a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis of the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of daylight PDT as compared to conventional PDT in the treatment of actinic keratosis and/or field cancerization. The conclusion is that the difference in efficacy is clinically negligible (global estimate of the mean response rate difference, -3.69%; 95% CI, -6.54% to -0.84%). The adverse effects of daylight PDT are mild and localized (79% of patients report no discomfort), and patients report less pain (P<.001). Daylight PDT gives good to excellent cosmetic results in more than 90% of patients, and patient satisfaction is greater (P<.001). Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. CYTOREDUCTIVE SURGICAL TREATMENT WITH INTRAOPERATIVE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH MUCINOUS PERITONEAL CARCINOMATOSIS

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    N. A. Grishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical observation of a patient with an orphan disease (mucinous peritoneal carcinomatosis after 2 courses of intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photogem photosensitizer is presented. During the first course of photodynamic therapy, photogem was administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, the energy density of the laser radiation was 10 J/cm2. The duration of stabilization after the first course of treatment was 2 years, after which the progression of the disease was registered. The second course of photodynamic therapy was carried out in the same way. The duration of stabilization after the first course of treatment was 2.5 years. The patient died as a result of an accident unrelated to the disease.

  16. Mitochondria-targeted cationic porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids for enhanced two-photon photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, Fabien; Poyer, Florent; Fourmois, Laura; Chen, Su; Garcia, Guillaume; Teulade-Fichou, Marie-Paule; Maillard, Philippe; Mahuteau-Betzer, Florence

    2018-01-01

    The proof of concept for two-photon activated photodynamic therapy has already been achieved for cancer treatment but the efficiency of this approach still heavily relies on the availability of photosensitizers combining high two-photon absorption and biocompatibility. In this line we recently reported on a series of porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids which exhibit high singlet oxygen production quantum yield as well as high two-photon absorption cross-sections but with a very poor cellular internalization. We present herein new photosensitizers of the same porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrid series but bearing cationic charges which led to strongly enhanced water solubility and thus cellular penetration. In addition the new compounds have been found localized in mitochondria that are preferential target organelles for photodynamic therapy. Altogether the strongly improved properties of the new series combined with their specific mitochondrial localization lead to a significantly enhanced two-photon activated photodynamic therapy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Photodynamic Therapy Against Human Cervical Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzinski, Jill A.; Guo, Jianxia; Philips, Brian J.; Basse, Per; Craig, Ethan K.; Bailey, Lisa; Comerci, John T.; Eiseman, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide [1]. Photodynamic therapy has been used for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with good responses, but few studies have used newer phototherapeutics. We evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using Pc 4 in vitro and in vivo against human cervical cancer cells. Methods CaSki and ME-180 cancer cells were grown as monolayers and spheroids. Cell growth and cytotoxicity were measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Pc 4 cellular uptake and intracellular distrubtion were determined. For in vitro Pc 4 photodynamic therapy cells were irradiated at 667nm at a fluence of 2.5 J/cm2 at 48 h. SCID mice were implanted with CaSki and ME-180 cells both subcutaneously and intracervically. Forty-eight h after Pc 4 photodynamic therapy was administered at 75 and 150 J/cm2. Results The IC50s for Pc 4 and Pc 4 photodynamic therapy for CaSki and ME-180 cells as monolayers were, 7.6μM and 0.016μM and >10μM and 0.026μM; as spheroids, IC50s of Pc 4 photodynamic therapy were, 0.26μM and 0.01μM. Pc 4 was taken up within cells and widely distributed in tumors and tissues. Intracervical photodynamic therapy resulted in tumor death, however mice died due to gastrointestinal toxicity. Photodynamic therapy resulted in subcutaneous tumor death and growth delay. Conclusions Pc 4 photodynamic therapy caused death within cervical cancer cells and xenografts, supporting development of Pc 4 photodynamic therapy for treatment of cervical cancer. Support: P30-CA47904, CTSI BaCCoR Pilot Program. PMID:28890844

  18. Targeted photodynamic therapy of established soft-tissue infections in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Hasan, Tayyaba; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2004-06-01

    The worldwide rise in antibiotic resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. Although many workers have used photodynamic therapy (PDT) to kill bacteria in vitro, the use of this approach has seldom been reported in vivo in animal models of infection. We have previously described the first use of PDT to treat excisional wound infections by Gram-negative bacteria in living mice. However these infected wound models used a short time after infection (30 min) before PDT. We now report on the use of PDT to treat an established soft-tissue infection in mice. We used Staphylococcus aureus stably transformed with a Photorhabdus luminescens lux operon (luxABCDE) that was genetically modified to be functional in Gram-positive bacteria. These engineered bacteria emitted bioluminescence allowing the progress of the infection to be monitored in both space and time with a lowlight imaging charged couple device (CCD) camera. One million cells were injected into one or both thigh muscles of mice that had previously been rendered neutropenic by cyclophosphamide administration. Twenty-four hours later the bacteria had multiplied more than one hundred-fold, and poly-L-lysine chlorin(e6) conjugate or free chlorin(e6) was injected into one area of infected muscle and imaged with the CCD camera. Thirty-minutes later red light from a diode laser was delivered as a surface spot or by interstitial fiber into the infection. There was a lightdose dependent loss of bioluminescence (to resistant soft-tissue infections.

  19. Evaluation of the dentin changes in teeth subjected to endodontic treatment and photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Floriano Lopes Santos LACERDA

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT is an efficient adjuvant technique to promote disinfection of the root canal system. Therefore, it is important to investigate changes to dentin morphology and permeability induced by the use of diode laser on the root dentin. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate morphological changes and the percentage of apical leakage after the use of laser. Material and method Forty single-rooted teeth were instrumented using rotary system and irrigated. Teeth were randomly divided in two groups: G1 - not exposed to PDT (control, and G2 - pretreated with toluidine blue photosensitizer and irradiated with AsGaAl laser diode. Ten teeth in each group were evaluated by SEM for morphological changes. The other ten teeth were filled and stained with Rhodamine B to evaluate the apical leakage. Result The results showed significant difference between G1 and G2 (p 0.001. The apical leakage was significantly higher in G2 than in G1 (p <0.001 - Student's t-test. Conclusion It was concluded that the use of low-level laser reduced the smear layer and opened the dentinal tubules. Use of laser increased the permeability of the apical dentin.

  20. Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Using Photodithazine®- Mediated Photodynamic Therapy In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmello, Juliana Cabrini; Alves, Fernanda; G Basso, Fernanda; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the treatment of oral candidiasis in a murine model using Photodithazine® (PDZ). This model of oral candidiasis was developed to allow the monitoring of the infection and the establishment of the aPDT treatment. Six-week-old female mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with C. albicans to induce oral candidiasis. PDZ-mediated aPDT and nystatin treatment were carried out for 5 consecutive days with one application per day. The macroscopic evaluation of oral lesions was performed. After each treatment, the tongue was swabbed to recover C. albicans cells. Viable colonies were quantified and the number of CFU/ml determined. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 7 days after treatment and the tongues were surgically removed for histological analysis and analysis of inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6) by RT-qPCR. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. PDZ-mediated aPDT was as effective as Nystatin (NYS group) in the inactivation of C. albicans, reducing 3 and 3.2 logs10 respectively, 24 h after treatment (poral lesions, while animals treated with NYS presented partial remission of oral lesions in both periods assessed. Histological evaluation revealed mild inflammatory infiltrate in the groups treated with aPDT and NYS in both periods assessed. The aPDT induced the TNF-α expression when compared with the control (P-L-) (poral candidiasis.

  1. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa CMA; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200–280nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400–470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. PMID:24060701

  2. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rui; Dai, Tianhong; Avci, Pinar; Jorge, Ana Elisa Serafim; de Melo, Wanessa C M A; Vecchio, Daniela; Huang, Ying-Ying; Gupta, Asheesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Prominent among these strategies, is a group of approaches which rely on light to deliver the killing blow. As is well known, ultraviolet light, particularly UVC (200-280 nm), is germicidal, but it has not been much developed as an anti-infective approach until recently, when it was realized that the possible adverse effects to host tissue were relatively minor compared to its high activity in killing pathogens. Photodynamic therapy is the combination of non-toxic photosensitizing dyes with harmless visible light that together produce abundant destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). Certain cationic dyes or photosensitizers have good specificity for binding to microbial cells while sparing host mammalian cells and can be used for treating many localized infections, both superficial and even deep-seated by using fiber optic delivered light. Many microbial cells are highly sensitive to killing by blue light (400-470 nm) due to accumulation of naturally occurring photosensitizers such as porphyrins and flavins. Near infrared light has also been shown to have antimicrobial effects against certain species. Clinical applications of these technologies include skin, dental, wound, stomach, nasal, toenail and other infections which are amenable to effective light delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of superficial fluorescence patterns in nonmelanoma skin cancer during photodynamic therapy by a dosimetric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-García, I.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the superficial fluorescence patterns in different nonmelanoma skin cancers and their photodynamic treatment response are analysed by a fluorescence based dosimetric model. Results show differences of even more than 50% in the fluorescence patterns as photodynamic therapy progresses depending on the malignant tissue type. They demonstrate the great relevance of the biological media as an additional dosimetric factor and contribute to the development of a future customized therapy with the assistance of dosimetric tools to interpret the fluorescence images obtained during the treatment monitoring and the differential photodiagnosis.

  4. Fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of skin cancer with alasens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Evstifeev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment in patients with skin cancer using the method of photodynamic therapy (PDT with alasens are represented in the article. The study enrolled 25 patients with stage 1 tumor including 23 patients with previously untreated tumors and 2 – with recurrent disease. Superficial tumor was diagnosed in 17 patients and 8 patients had nodal tumor. Alasens was used locally as application of 20% ointment on involved skin area with 6h exposure. The PDT session was performed on a single occasion immediately after the end of exposure (power density of laser irradiation of 50–100 mW/cm2, light dose – 150–200 J/cm2. All patients had fluorescence diagnosis (FD prior to application of the ointment and before PDT. The results of FD showed that intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in tumor prior to administration of alasens had near no difference from intensity of porphyrin fluorescence in normal skin (12.5±0.7 and 10.0±0.7 r.u., respectively. Six hours after application of the ointment with alasens the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX increased almost 5-fold (59.7±5.3 r.u., the fluorescence intensity in normal skin remained near baseline level during the follow-up period (maximally 11.6±1.0 r.u.. Two months after PDT the complete tumor regression was confirmed in 21 patients, partial – in 3 and stabilization of tumor growth in 1 patient. In addition, patients with superficial disease had complete regression in 94.1% of cases and partial regression in 5.9% while for patients with nodal tumor – 62.5% and 25%, respectively, stabilization – in 12.5%. 

  5. Molecular profiling of angiogenesis in hypericin mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seyed M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT involves the administration of a tumor-localizing photosensitizing drug, which is activated by light of specific wavelength in the presence of molecular oxygen thus generating reactive oxygen species that is toxic to the tumor cells. PDT selectively destroys photosensitized tissue leading to various cellular and molecular responses. The present study was designed to examine the angiogenic responses at short (0.5 h and long (6 h drug light interval (DLI hypericin-PDT (HY-PDT treatment at 24 h and 30 days post treatment in a human bladder carcinoma xenograft model. As short DLI targets tumor vasculature and longer DLI induces greater cellular damage, we hypothesized a differential effect of these treatments on the expression of angiogenic factors. Results Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed minimal CD31 stained endothelium at 24 h post short DLI PDT indicating extensive vascular damage. Angiogenic proteins such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor necrosis growth factor-α (TNF-α, interferon-α (IFN-α and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF were expressed to a greater extent in cellular targeting long DLI PDT compared to vascular mediated short DLI PDT. Gene expression profiling for angiogenesis pathway demonstrated downregulation of adhesion molecules – cadherin 5, collagen alpha 1 and 3 at 24 h post treatment. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and Ephrin-A3 (EFNA3 were upregulated in all treatment groups suggesting a possible activation of c-Met and Ephrin-Eph signaling pathways. Conclusion In conclusion, long DLI HY-PDT induces upregulation of angiogenic proteins. Differential expression of genes involved in the angiogenesis pathway was observed in the various groups treated with HY-PDT.

  6. Low dose mTHPC photodynamic therapy for cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Herbert; Kniebühler, Gesa; Pongratz, Thomas; Betz, Christian S.; Göke, Burkhard; Sroka, Ronald; Schirra, Jörg

    2013-06-01

    Objective: Demonstration of whether a low dose of mTHPC (temoporfin , Foscan) is sufficient to induce an efficient clinical response in palliative PDT of non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma (CC), while showing a low side effect profile as compared to the standard Photofrin PDT. Materials and Methods: 13 patients (14 treatment sessions) with non-resectable CC were treated with stenting and PDT (3 mg Foscan per treatment, 0.032-0.063 mg/kg body weight, 652 nm, 50 J/cm). Fluorescence measurements were performed with a single bare fiber for 5/13 patients prior to PDT at the tumor site to determine the fluorescence contrast. For another 7/13 patients, long-term fluorescence-kinetics were measured on the oral mucosa to determine the time of maximal relative fluorescence intensity. Results: Foscan fluorescence could clearly be identified spectroscopically as early as 20 hours after administration. It was not significantly different between lesion and normal tissue within the bile duct. Fluorescence kinetics assessed at the oral mucosa were highest at 72-96 hours after administration. The DLI was therefore extended from 20 hours to approx. 70 hours for the last 5 patients treated. The treatment effect was promising with a median survival of 11 months for the higher grade tumors (Bismuth types III and IV). Local side effects occurred in one patient (pancreatitis), systemic side effects were much reduced compared to prior experience with Photofrin. Conclusion: Combined stenting and photodynamic therapy (PDT) performed with a low dose of Foscan results in comparable survival times relative to standard Photofrin PDT, while lowering the risk of side effects significantly.

  7. New design of textile light diffusers for photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, Cédric; Mordon, Serge R.; Lesage, Jean Claude; Koncar, Vladan

    2013-01-01

    A homogeneous and reproducible fluence delivery rate during clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a determinant role in preventing under- or overtreatment. PDT applied in dermatology has been carried out with a wide variety of light sources delivering a broad range of more or less adapted light doses. Due to the complexities of the human anatomy, these light sources do not in fact deliver a uniform light distribution to the skin. Therefore, the development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of plastic optical fiber (POF) into textile structures could offer an interesting alternative. In this article, a textile light diffuser (TLD) has been developed using POF and Polyester yarns. Predetermined POF macrobending leads to side emission of light when the critical angle is exceeded. Therefore, a specific pattern based on different satin weaves has been developed in order to improve light emission homogeneity and to correct the decrease of side emitted radiation intensity along POF. The prototyped fabrics (approximately 100 cm 2 : 5 × 20 cm) were woven using a hand loom, then both ends of the POF were coupled to a laser diode (5 W, 635 nm). The fluence rate (mW/cm 2 ) and the homogeneity of light delivery by the TLD were evaluated. Temperature evolution, as a function of time, was controlled with an infrared thermographic camera. When using a power source of 5 W, the fluence rate of the TLD was 18 ± 2.5 mw/cm 2 . Due to the high efficiency of the TLD, the optical losses were very low. The TLD temperature elevation was 0.6 °C after 10 min of illumination. Our TLD meets the basic requirements for PDT: homogeneous light distribution and flexibility. It also proves that large (500 cm 2 ) textile light diffusers adapted to skin, but also to peritoneal or pleural cavity, PDTs can be easily produced by textile manufacturing processes

  8. New design of textile light diffusers for photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.cochrane@ensait.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ENSAIT, GEMTEX, F-59100 Roubaix (France); Mordon, Serge R.; Lesage, Jean Claude [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM U 703, Lille University Hospital — CHRU (France); Koncar, Vladan [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); ENSAIT, GEMTEX, F-59100 Roubaix (France)

    2013-04-01

    A homogeneous and reproducible fluence delivery rate during clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a determinant role in preventing under- or overtreatment. PDT applied in dermatology has been carried out with a wide variety of light sources delivering a broad range of more or less adapted light doses. Due to the complexities of the human anatomy, these light sources do not in fact deliver a uniform light distribution to the skin. Therefore, the development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of plastic optical fiber (POF) into textile structures could offer an interesting alternative. In this article, a textile light diffuser (TLD) has been developed using POF and Polyester yarns. Predetermined POF macrobending leads to side emission of light when the critical angle is exceeded. Therefore, a specific pattern based on different satin weaves has been developed in order to improve light emission homogeneity and to correct the decrease of side emitted radiation intensity along POF. The prototyped fabrics (approximately 100 cm{sup 2}: 5 × 20 cm) were woven using a hand loom, then both ends of the POF were coupled to a laser diode (5 W, 635 nm). The fluence rate (mW/cm{sup 2}) and the homogeneity of light delivery by the TLD were evaluated. Temperature evolution, as a function of time, was controlled with an infrared thermographic camera. When using a power source of 5 W, the fluence rate of the TLD was 18 ± 2.5 mw/cm{sup 2}. Due to the high efficiency of the TLD, the optical losses were very low. The TLD temperature elevation was 0.6 °C after 10 min of illumination. Our TLD meets the basic requirements for PDT: homogeneous light distribution and flexibility. It also proves that large (500 cm{sup 2}) textile light diffusers adapted to skin, but also to peritoneal or pleural cavity, PDTs can be easily produced by textile manufacturing processes.

  9. IL-6 Potentiates Tumor Resistance to Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackett, Craig M.; Owczarczak, Barbara; Ramsey, Kimberley; Maier, Patricia G.; Gollnick, Sandra O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an anticancer modality approved for the treatment of early disease and palliation of late stage disease. PDT of tumors results in the generation of an acute inflammatory response. The extent and duration of the inflammatory response is dependent upon the PDT regimen employed and is characterized by rapid induction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, and activation and mobilization of innate immune cells. The importance of innate immune cells in long-term PDT control of tumor growth has been well defined. In contrast the role of IL-6 in long-term tumor control by PDT is unclear. Previous studies have shown that IL-6 can diminish or have no effect on PDT antitumor efficacy. Study Design/Materials and Methods In the current study we used mice deficient for IL-6, Il6−/−, to examine the role of IL-6 in activation of antitumor immunity and PDT efficacy by PDT regimens known to enhance antitumor immunity. Results Our studies have shown that elimination of IL-6 had no effect on innate cell mobilization into the treated tumor bed or tumor draining lymph node (TDLN) and did not affect primary antitumor T-cell activation by PDT. However, IL-6 does appear to negatively regulate the generation of antitumor immune memory and PDT efficacy against murine colon and mammary carcinoma models. The inhibition of PDT efficacy by IL-6 appears also to be related to regulation of Bax protein expression. Increased apoptosis was observed following treatment of tumors in Il6−/− mice 24 hours following PDT. Conclusions The development of PDT regimens that enhance antitumor immunity has led to proposals for the use of PDT as an adjuvant treatment. However, our results show that the potential for PDT induced expression of IL-6 to enhance tumor survival following PDT must be considered. PMID:22057495

  10. Tin Tungstate Nanoparticles: A Photosensitizer for Photodynamic Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Carmen; Ungelenk, Jan; Zittel, Eva; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan P; Schepers, Ute; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-03-22

    The nanoparticulate inorganic photosensitizer β-SnWO4 is suggested for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of near-surface tumors via reiterated 5 min blue-light LED illumination. β-SnWO4 nanoparticles are obtained via water-based synthesis and comprise excellent colloidal stability under physiological conditions and high biocompatibility at low material complexity. Antitumor and antimetastatic effects were investigated with a spontaneously metastasizing (4T1 cells) orthotopic breast cancer BALB/c mouse model. Besides protamine-functionalized β-SnWO4 (23 mg/kg of body weight, in PBS buffer), chemotherapeutic doxorubicin was used as positive control (2.5 mg/kg of body weight, in PBS buffer) and physiological saline (DPBS) as a negative control. After 21 days, treatment with β-SnWO4 resulted in a clearly inhibited growth of the primary tumor (all tumor volumes below 3 cm(3)) as compared to the doxorubicin and DPBS control groups (volumes up to 6 cm(3)). Histological evaluations of lymph nodes and lungs as well as the volume of ipsilateral lymph nodes show a remarkable antimetastatic effect being similar to chemotherapeutic doxorubicin but-according to blood counts-at significantly reduced side effects. On the basis of low material complexity, high cytotoxicity under blue-light LED illumination at low dark and long-term toxicity, β-SnWO4 can be an interesting addition to PDT and the treatment of near-surface tumors, including skin cancer, esophageal/gastric/colon tumors as well as certain types of breast cancer.

  11. Effects of photodynamic therapy on the endocytic pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael; Caruso, Joseph; Reiners, John

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we describe an effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on membrane trafficking in murine 1c1c7 hepatoma cells. A brief exposure of 1c1c7 cells to a 20 nM concentration of the phosphatidylinositol kinase class-3 antagonist wortmannin led to the rapid appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Fluorescence monitoring of plasma membrane-associated 1-[4-(trimethylamino)-phenyl]-6-phenylhexa-1,3,5-triene (TDPH) over time demonstrated that the wortmannin-induced vacuoles were derived from endocytosed plasma membrane. Low-dose photodamage catalyzed by the lysosomal photosensitizer NPe6, prior to the addition of wortmannin, prevented formation of these vacuoles. NPe6 was found to suppress for several hours the normal trafficking of TDPH-labeled plasma membrane to the cytosol, and the formation of punctate TDPH-labeled cytoplasmic vesicles. The ability of NPe6-induced photodamage to suppress wortmannin-induced vacuolization occurred under conditions that did not disrupt lysosomes and were at or below the threshold of cytostatic/cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, the suppressive effects of NPe6-PDT were not prevented by inclusion of an agent that stabilized lysosomal membranes, or by E64d, an inhibitor of lysosomal cathepsin proteases. Mitochondrial photodamage was less effective at preventing wortmannin-induced vacuole formation and PDT directed against the ER had no effect. The role of photodamage to the endocytic pathway may be a hitherto unexplored effect on cells that selectively accumulate photosensitizing agents. These results indicate that photodamage directed against endosomes/lysosomes has effects independent of the release of lysosomal proteases. PMID:21125114

  12. In vitro evaluation of ruthenium complexes for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenna; Xie, Qiang; Lai, Linglin; Mo, Zhentao; Peng, Xiaofang; Leng, Ennian; Zhang, Dandan; Sun, Hongxia; Li, Yiqi; Mei, Wenjie; Gao, Shuying

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising anti-tumor treatment strategy. Photosensitizer is one of the most important components of PDT. In this work, the anticancer activities of PDT mediated by six new ruthenium porphyrin complexes were screened. The mechanisms of the most efficacious candidate were investigated. Photocytotoxicity of the six porphyrins was tested. The most promising complex, Rup-03, was further investigated using Geimsa staining, which indirectly detects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subcellular localization. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cell apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, c-Myc gene expression, and telomerase activities were also assayed. Rup-03 and Rup-04 had the lowest IC 50 values. Rup-03 had an IC 50 value of 29.5±2.3μM in HepG2 cells and 59.0±6.1μM in RAW264.7 cells, while Rup-04 had an IC 50 value of 40.0±3.8μM in SGC-7901 cells. The complexes also induced cellular morphological changes and impaired cellular ability to scavenge ROS, and accumulated preferentially in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Rup-03 reduced MMP levels, induced apoptosis, and repressed both c-Myc mRNA expression and telomerase activity in HepG2 cells. Among six candidates, Rup-03-mediated PDT is most effective against HepG2 and RAW264.7, with a similar efficacy as that of Rup-04-mediated PDT against SGC-7901 cells. Repression of ROS scavenging activities and c-Myc expression, which mediated DNA damage-induced cell apoptosis and repression of telomerase activity, respectively, were found to be involved in the anticancer mechanisms of Rup-03. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Galactodendritic phthalocyanine targets carbohydrate-binding proteins enhancing photodynamic therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M R Pereira

    Full Text Available Photosensitizers (PSs are of crucial importance in the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT for cancer. Due to their high reactive oxygen species production and strong absorption in the wavelength range between 650 and 850 nm, where tissue light penetration is rather high, phthalocyanines (Pcs have been studied as PSs of excellence. In this work, we report the evaluation of a phthalocyanine surrounded by a carbohydrate shell of sixteen galactose units distributed in a dendritic manner (PcGal16 as a new and efficient third generation PSs for PDT against two bladder cancer cell lines, HT-1376 and UM-UC-3. Here, we define the role of galacto-dendritic units in promoting the uptake of a Pc through interaction with GLUT1 and galectin-1. The photoactivation of PcGal16 induces cell death by generating oxidative stress. Although PDT with PcGal16 induces an increase on the activity of antioxidant enzymes immediately after PDT, bladder cancer cells are unable to recover from the PDT-induced damage effects for at least 72 h after treatment. PcGal16 co-localization with galectin-1 and GLUT1 and/or generation of oxidative stress after PcGal16 photoactivation induces changes in the levels of these proteins. Knockdown of galectin-1 and GLUT1, via small interfering RNA (siRNA, in bladder cancer cells decreases intracellular uptake and phototoxicity of PcGal16. The results reported herein show PcGal16 as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer, which is the fifth most common type of cancer with the highest rate of recurrence of any cancer.

  14. Endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesion in one session with photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant: study "in vivo"

    OpenAIRE

    Supercilio Barros Filho

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis of the study: It is assumed that the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an adjuvant in root canal therapy can promote the repair of teeth with periapical lesions treated in one session. Objectives: This in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy as an adjuvant in root canal therapy in one session for the repair of periapical lesions. Method: Fourteen human teeth with mortification pulp and periapical lesions were randomly divided into two groups (n=7): G1- ...

  15. Photodynamic therapy decrease immune-inflammatory mediators levels during periodontal maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Andrade, Priscila Vivas; Euzebio Alves, Vanessa Tubero; de Carvalho, Verônica Franco; De Franco Rodrigues, Michelle; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Holzhausen, Marinella; De Micheli, Giorgio; Conde, Marina Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) was introduced as a promising adjuvant therapy on the periodontal treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aPDT on inflammatory mediator levels in residual periodontal pockets of patients with severe chronic periodontitis under periodontal maintenance, during 12 months follow-up. A randomized controlled trial study was conducted in 28 patients with severe chronic periodontitis. After non-surgical periodontal treatment, patients with at least four teeth with residual pocket probing depth (PPD) ≥4 mm were randomly assigned to either aPDT or control group. The aPDT (low power laser: 660 nm, 40 mW, 90 J/cm 2 , methylene blue 0.01 %) was performed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months. Clinical parameters were collected before and 3 and 12 months after the intervention, and gingival crevicular fluid was collected in the same times, including 1 week after the intervention. Immunological evaluation was carried out using the Luminex assay which quantified the expression of ten cytokines: interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-1ra, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4, and IL-10. All clinical variables showed significant improvement for both groups, but there was no statistical difference between groups with no clinical benefits. IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, and VEGF showed significant differences (p  0.05). aPDT therapy can improve the benefits on inflammation control during the periodontal maintenance.

  16. The use of optical fiber in endodontic photodynamic therapy. Is it really relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Fregnani, Eduardo R; Rodriguez, Helena M; Nunez, Silvia C; Sabino, Caetano P; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the necessity of use of an optical fiber/diffusor when performing antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) associated with endodontic therapy. Fifty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. Conventional endodontic treatment was performed using a sequence of ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments), the teeth were sterilized, and the canals were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis 3 days' biofilm. The samples were divided into five groups: group 1--ten roots irradiated with a laser tip (area of 0.04 cm(2)), group 2--ten roots irradiated with a smaller laser tip (area of 0.028 cm(2)), and group 3--ten teeth with the crown, irradiate with the laser tip with 0.04 cm(2) of area. The forth group (G4) followed the same methodology as group 3, but the irradiation was performed with smaller tip (area of 0.028 cm(2)) and G5 ten teeth with crown were irradiated using a 200-mm-diameter fiber/diffusor coupled to diode laser. Microbiological samples were taken after accessing the canal, after endodontic therapy, and after PDT. Groups 1 and 2 showed a reduction of two logs (99%), groups 3 and 4 of one log (85% and 97%, respectively), and group 5 of four logs (99.99%). Results suggest that the use of PDT added to endodontic treatment in roots canals infected with E. faecalis with the optical fiber/diffusor is better than when the laser light is used directed at the access of cavity.

  17. Polymeric photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding metal stent for repeatable endoscopic photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byoung-chan; Yang, Su-Geun; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Na, Kun; Kim, Joon Mee; Costamagna, Guido; Kozarek, Richard A; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Deviere, Jacques; Seo, Dong Wan; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach for the palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. In this study, we designed photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding nonvascular metal stent (PDT-stent) which allows repeatable photodynamic treatment of cholangiocarcinoma without systemic injection of photosensitizer. Polymeric photosensitizer (pullulan acetate-conjugated pheophorbide A; PPA) was incorporated in self-expanding nonvascular metal stent. Residence of PPA in the stent was estimated in buffer solution and subcutaneous implantation on mouse. Photodynamic activity of PDT-stent was evaluated through laserexposure on stent-layered tumor cell lines, HCT-116 tumor-xenograft mouse models and endoscopic intervention of PDT-stent on bile duct of mini pigs. Photo-fluorescence imaging of the PDT-stent demonstrated homogeneous embedding of polymeric Pheo-A (PPA) on stent membrane. PDT-stent sustained its photodynamic activities at least for 2 month. And which implies repeatable endoscopic PDT is possible after stent emplacement. The PDT-stent after light exposure successfully generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen in the surrounding tissues, inducing apoptotic degradation of tumor cells and regression of xenograft tumors on mouse models. Endoscopic biliary in-stent photodynamic treatments on minipigs also suggested the potential efficacy of PDT-stent on cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed our PDT-stent, allows repeatable endoscopic biliary PDT, has the potential for the combination therapy (stent plus PDT) of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial Agents and Catheter Complications in Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sara C; Dzintars, Kathryn; Gorski, Lisa A; Williams, Deborah; Cosgrove, Sara E

    2018-03-01

    Debate about whether certain antimicrobial agents traditionally considered vesicants increase the risk of catheter complications has led to uncertainty in venous catheter placement protocols. To understand whether patients requiring home-based outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) should receive peripheral catheters (e.g., midline catheters) versus central venous catheters, and to understand whether certain antimicrobial agents place home-based OPAT patients at higher risk for catheter complications, we investigated associations between antimicrobial agent(s) and catheter complications. We performed a prospective cohort study of patients requiring home-based OPAT discharged from two urban tertiary care academic medical centers, including telephone surveys and chart abstractions. Multivariable Poisson regressions were used to evaluate: (i) associations between antimicrobial agents traditionally considered vesicants, based on pH or osmolarity, and catheter complication rates, and (ii) associations between antimicrobial agent and rates of catheter complications. Vesicant antimicrobials defined using pH or osmolarity criteria were not associated with an increased rate of catheter complications (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]: 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-2.96). Vancomycin was associated with an increased rate of catheter complications, as was daptomycin (aIRR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.20-4.46] and 4.45 [95% CI: 1.02-19.41], respectively). Staphylococcus aureus infections were also associated with an increased rate of catheter complications (aIRR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09-4.19), as were midline catheters (aIRR: 9.44, 95% CI: 2.12-41.97). Our study supports recent guidance identifying vancomycin as a vesicant, among a subset of antimicrobial agents, and removal of pH criteria for identification of vesicants. © 2018 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Outcome of patients receiving photodynamic therapy for early esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Luigi; Skarlatos, John; Boso, Caterina; Cardin, Fabrizio; Kosma, Lambrini; Koukourakis, Michael I.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Norberto, Lorenzo; Shaffer, Moshe; Beroukas, Kostantinos

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown remarkable activity in a variety of human cancers. In the present study, we report the effects of PDT on inoperable early-stage esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Sixty-two patients were treated with an argon dye laser (630 nm wavelength, 300-800 mW of power, energy dose of 200-300 J/cm) after intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg of hematoporphyrin derivative. Eighteen patients (29.5%) had in situ carcinoma (Tis), 30 (48.5%) had T1-stage cancer, 7 (11%) had T2-stage cancer, and 7 (11%) had recurrent disease in the anastomotic area after previous surgery without evidence of invasion outside the lumen. Patients with residual disease after two rounds of PDT received definitive radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated for response to therapy and survival. The follow-up time ranged from 3 to 90 months (median, 32 months). Results: The complete response (CR) rate was 37% (23 of 62) in patients who received PDT alone and 82% (51 of 62) in those who also received radiotherapy. The CR rate after PDT alone was statistically higher (p = 0.04) for patients who had Tis/T1 lesions (21 of 48; 44%) than for those with T2-stage disease (2 of 7; 28%) or recurrent tumors (0 of 7; 0%). Fifty-two percent of patients who had CR following PDT alone did not suffer local tumor recurrence. The median local progression-free survival times after PDT and additional radiotherapy (in cases with incomplete response) was 49 months for Tis- and T1-stage lesions, 30 months for those with T2-stage disease, and 14 months for patients with locally recurrent disease. Patients who completely responded to PDT had a median overall survival (OS) of 50 months, which was significantly longer (p < 0.003) than that of patients not responding to PDT. Toxicity was minimal; we recorded three cases of esophageal stenosis (7%) and one case of tracheo-esophageal fistula (2.5%) after combined PDT and radiotherapy. Conclusion: PDT is an effective regimen for early

  20. Studies of photodynamic therapy: Investigation of physiological mechanisms and dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Josephine Helen

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment for a range of malignant and benign lesions using light activated photosensitising drugs in the presence of molecular oxygen. PDT causes tissue damage by a combination of processes involving the production of reactive oxygen species (in particular singlet oxygen). Since the PDT cytotoxic effect depends on oxygen, monitoring of tissue oxygenation during PDT is important for understanding the basic physiological mechanisms and dosimetry of PDT. This thesis describes the use of non-invasive, optical techniques based on visible light reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of oxy- to deoxyhaemoglobin ratio or haemoglobin oxygen saturation (HbSat). HbSat was monitored at tissue sites receiving different light dose during aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine (AIS2PC) PDT. Results are presented on real time PDT-induced changes in HbSat in normal tissue (rat liver) and experimental tumours, and its correlation with the final biological effect under different light regimes, including fractionated light delivery. It was found to some extent that changes in HbSat could indicate whether the tissue would be necrotic after PDT and it was concluded that online physiological dosimetry is feasible for PDT. The evaluation of a new photosensitiser for PDT called palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (WST09) has been carried out in normal and tumour tissue in vivo. WST09 was found to exert a strong PDT effect but was active only shortly after administration. WST09 produced substantial necrosis in colonic tumours whilst only causing a small amount of damage to the normal colon under certain conditions indicating a degree of selectivity. Combination therapy with PDT for enhancing the extent of PDT-induced damage has been investigated in vivo by using the photochemical internalisation (PCI) technique and Type 1 mechanism enhanced phototoxicity with indole acetic acid (IAA). PCI of gelonin using AIS2PC PDT in vivo after systemic administration of

  1. Photoactivated hypericin increases the expression of SOD-2 and makes MCF-7 cells resistant to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimáková, Patrícia; Solár, Peter; Fecková, Barbora; Sačková, Veronika; Solárová, Zuzana; Ilkovičová, Lenka; Kello, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Photoactivated hypericin increased production of reactive oxygen species in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 as well as in MDA-MB-231 cells 1h after photodynamic therapy. On the other hand, reactive oxygen species dropped 3h after photodynamic therapy with hypericin, but only in MCF-7 cells, whereas in MDA-MB-231 cells remained elevated. The difference in the dynamics of reactive oxygen species after hypericin activation was related to increased activity of SOD-2 in MCF-7 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Indeed, photodynamic therapy with hypericin significantly increased SOD-2 activity in MCF-7 cells, but only slightly in MDA-MB-231 cells. In this regard, SOD-2 activity correlated well with enhanced both mRNA expression as well as SOD-2 protein level in MCF-7 cells. The role of SOD-2 in the resistance of MCF-7 cells to photodynamic therapy with hypericin was monitored using SOD-2 inhibitor - 2-methoxyestradiol. Interestingly, the combination of photodynamic therapy with hypericin and methoxyestradiol sensitized MCF-7 cells to photodynamic therapy and significantly reduced its clonogenic ability. Furthermore, methoxyestradiol potentiated the activation of caspase 3/7 and apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy with hypericin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of vascular endothelial- and fibroblast- growth factor receptors in a mouse fibrosarcoma tumor model following photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowski, P.; Osieka, B.J.; Symonwicz, K.; Chmielwski, P.; Latos-Grazynski, L.; Bronowicz, A.

    2004-01-01

    The role of angiogenic molecules, like vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in tumor angio genesis was well confirmed. Photodynamic therapy action is, to very high degree, based on tumor vasculature damage. Therefore, it seemed to be important to evaluate growth factor receptors after photodynamic therapy. The extent of receptor expression was studied by immuno-histochemical method. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor have been evaluated at different time points after photodynamic therapy of tumor- bearing BALB/c mice. Two sensitizer: hematoporphyrin derivative and 21, 23-dithia porphyrin were given intraperitoneally in doses: 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg followed by light irradiation at total doses: 50 and 100 J/sq.cm 24 hours later. The number of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor in control samples did not exceed 40 per one vessel, whereas after photodynamic therapy, a significant decrease in the number of both receptors was observed. No differences between hematoporphyrin derivative and dithia porphyrin- photodynamic therapy in anti- receptor activities were observed (p<0.001 for vascular endothelial growth factor and p<0.002 for receptor and fibroblast growth factor ). The observed decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor and receptor and fibroblast growth factor amount confirms that after photodynamic therapy, some proteins are inactivated and such a decrease may influence photodynamic therapy effectiveness

  3. Anti-cancer effects of oncolytic viral therapy combined with photodynamic therapy in human pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Yazan S; Wright, Kathleen; Melcher, Alan; Jayne, David

    2015-02-26

    Oncolytic viral therapy and photodynamic therapy are potential therapies for inoperable or advanced pancreatic cancer. Our aim was to investigate the anti-cancer killing effects of reovirus therapy combined with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-mediated photodynamic therapy on a variety of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Pancreatic cancer cell lines (PsPC-1 and BXPC-3) and a non-cancer control cell line (HEK293) were infected with reovirus serotype 3 strain Dearing (T3D) at 0, 0·1, 1, and 10 plaque-forming units (PFU) per cell for 48 h. Cells were incubated with PpIX pro-drug 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mM for 4 h. Then, cells were photo-irradiated for 15 min with visible red light-emitting diodes with a light-fluence of 0·54 J/cm(2) of 653 nm (PpIX optimal excitation wavelength). The killing effects of reovirus combined with PpIX-mediated photodynamic therapy were analysed in methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) and trypan blue assays. The effect of adding reovirus after photodynamic therapy was also assessed. The statistical significance of the difference between groups was assessed with the two-tailed Student's t test. pphotodynamic therapy resulted in a significantly increased cytotoxic effect compared with reovirus monotherapy and photodynamic therapy (p=0·042) with 100% cell death observed across pancreatic cell lines with 10 PFU per cell combined with 1 and 2 mM 5-ALA. There was no difference in cytotoxicity observed between added reovirus before or after photodynamic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first in-vitro study to combine reovirus oncolytic viral therapy with PpIX-mediated photodynamic therapy to treat pancreatic cancer. These results show a significant additive effect in cell killing and they provide initial evidence for a novel combined therapeutic intervention. National Institute for Health Research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitrat V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE, Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. Keywords: ICU, antimicrobial therapies, antimicrobial stewardship, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis

  5. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of

  6. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.; Broekgaarden, M.; Krekorian, M.; Alles, L.K.; van Wijk, A.C; Mackaaij, C.; Verheij, J.; van der Wal, A.C.; van Gullik, T.M.; Storm, Gerrit; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression

  7. Photodynamic therapy with verteporfin: observations on the introduction of a new treatment into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Bressler, Neil M; Price, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    To assess adherence to Food and Drug Administration-approved indications and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services policy through June 2001 regarding the use of photodynamic therapy in Medicare beneficiaries. Systematic review of pretreatment fluorescein angiograms of 1245 consecutive Medicare patients who received photodynamic therapy from physicians in 3 contiguous Medicare coverage areas (fee-for-service arrangement) and in 136 consecutive patients in a Medicare health maintenance organization. In the 3 Medicare fee-for-service regions, payment denial due to nonconforming fluorescein angiograms ranged from 17% to 29% by region in 1245 beneficiaries. In the health maintenance organization setting, 60 (44%) of 136 submitted angiograms were nonconforming, including 8 in which the photographic quality was too poor to grade the lesion size, composition, or both. A substantial proportion of the actual or intended clinical application of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin was directed to patients who did not meet concurrent published clinical criteria associated with treatment benefit or national coverage policy. Although this policy has evolved, it still depends on fluorescein angiographic interpretation, suggesting that there is an opportunity to improve the cost-effectiveness of delivery of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin to Medicare beneficiaries.

  8. Photodynamic therapy with ATX-S10.Na(II) inhibits synovial sarcoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ken; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Nakae, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2008-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective cancer treatment modality that allows selective destruction of malignant tumor cells. We asked whether PDT could inhibit in vivo and in vitro growth of synovial sarcoma cells. We analyzed PDT using ATX-S10.Na(II) and a diode laser for a synovial sarcoma cell line (SYO-1). Photodynamic therapy with ATX-S10.Na(II) showed an in vitro cytotoxic effect on the cultured SYO-1 cells. The in vitro effect of PDT depended on the treatment concentration of ATX-S10.Na(II) and the laser dose of irradiation. ATX-S10.Na(II) was detected in the tumor tissue specimens that were excised from nude mice bearing SYO-1 within 6 hours after intravenous injection, but it was eliminated from the tumor 12 hours after injection. Photodynamic therapy suppressed the tumor growth of nude mice bearing SYO-1, and high-dose irradiation induced no viable tumor cells in histologic specimens. Photodynamic therapy performed after marginal resection of the tumor of nude mice bearing SYO-1 reduced the rate of local recurrence of the tumor. Our results suggest PDT using ATX-S10.Na(II) and laser irradiation may be a potentially useful treatment for synovial sarcoma, especially to reduce the surgical margin and preserve critical anatomic structures adjacent to the tumor.

  9. Own Experience in Treatment of Patients with Penile Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Filonenko

    2015-01-01

    radachlorine. All patients had no complications. Complete regression was achieved in 9 patients, and partial regression in 2. Thus, the results showed that photodynamic therapy for penile cancer stage Tis-1N0M0 permits performing organ-preserving treatment with satisfactory oncological results and no impairment of patient’s quality of life.

  10. Photodynamic therapy with 5-aminolaevulinic acid or placebo for recalcitrant foot and hand warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, I M; Na, R; Fogh, H

    2000-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) followed by irradiation with incoherent light (ALA-PDT) for recalcitrant warts have had beneficial results. Therefore, we undertook a randomised, parallel, double-blind clinical trial of ALA-PDT versus placeboPDT for recalcitrant...

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2-21)....

  12. Is the thin layer of methyl aminolevulinate used during photodynamic therapy sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine R; Lerche, Catharina M; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If the recommended 1.0 mm layer of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is used during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of large areas with multiple actinic keratoses (AK) huge amounts of cream are needed. OBJECTIVES: To report the amount of MAL used for PDT of AK and basal cell carcinomas (BCC...

  13. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However...

  14. Photodynamic therapy of necrobiosis lipoidica--a multicenter study of 18 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berking, C; Hegyi, J; Arenberger, P

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a granulomatous skin disease of unknown origin, and no reliably effective treatment option exists to handle this often disfiguring disease. Recently, a patient with long-lasting NL was reported to be cured by topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). OBJECTIVE...

  15. Assembly of catalase-based bioconjugates for enhanced anticancer efficiency of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Fei, Jinbo; Du, Cuiling; Cui, Wei; Ma, Hongchao; Li, Junbai

    2013-11-25

    An oxygen generation core-shell structure uploading rose bengal has been fabricated by covalent assembly of catalase and alginate dialdehyde via Schiff's base. The composite can catalyze the decomposition of intracellular H2O2 to increase the concentration of O2, which effectively enhances the anticancer efficiency of photodynamic therapy in vitro.

  16. Quantitative Multi-Parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Response to Photodynamic Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, Tom J. L.; Hectors, Stefanie J.; Jacobs, Igor; Grüll, Holger; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a mouse cancer model using a multi-parametric quantitative MRI protocol and to identify MR parameters as potential biomarkers for early assessment of treatment outcome. CT26.WT colon carcinoma tumors were grown

  17. Fractional laser-mediated photodynamic therapy of high-risk basal cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Togsverd-Bo, K; Thaysen-Petersen, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is approved for selected nodular basal cell carcinomas (nBCC) but efficacy is reduced for large and thick tumours. Ablative fractional lasers (AFXL) facilitate uptake of methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) and may thus improve PDT outcome. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate...

  18. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinomas - an explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Skødt, V; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that daylight-photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment of actinic keratoses, nearly pain free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. Treatment of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is another main indication for PDT. OBJECTIVES: The aim...

  19. Regulating Near-Infrared Photodynamic Properties of Semiconducting Polymer Nanotheranostics for Optimized Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Houjuan; Fang, Yuan; Miao, Qingqing; Qi, Xiaoying; Ding, Dan; Chen, Peng; Pu, Kanyi

    2017-09-26

    Development of optical nanotheranostics for the capability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides opportunities for advanced cancer therapy. However, most nanotheranostic systems fail to regulate their generation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) according to the disease microenvironment, which can potentially limit their therapeutic selectivity and increase the risk of damage to normal tissues. We herein report the development of hybrid semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) with self-regulated near-infrared (NIR) photodynamic properties for optimized cancer therapy. The SPNs comprise a binary component nanostructure: a NIR-absorbing semiconducting polymer acts as the NIR fluorescent PDT agent, while nanoceria serves as the smart intraparticle regular to decrease and increase ROS generation at physiologically neutral and pathologically acidic environments, respectively. As compared with nondoped SPNs, the NIR fluorescence imaging ability of nanoceria-doped SPNs is similar due to the optically inactive nature of nanoceria; however, the self-regulated photodynamic properties of nanoceria-doped SPN not only result in dramatically reduced nonspecific damage to normal tissue under NIR laser irradiation but also lead to significantly enhanced photodynamic efficacy for cancer therapy in a murine mouse model. This study thus provides a simple yet effective hybrid approach to modulate the phototherapeutic performance of organic photosensitizers.

  20. Core-Shell-structured Dendritic Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Combined Photodynamic Therapy and Antibody Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaraju, Prasanna Lakshmi; Yang, Yannan; Yu, Meihua; Fu, Jianye; Xu, Chun; Yu, Chengzhong

    2017-07-04

    Multifunctional core-shell-structured dendritic mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a fullerene-doped silica core, a dendritic silica shell and large pores have been prepared. The combination of photodynamic therapy and antibody therapeutics significantly inhibits the cancer cell growth by effectively reducing the level of anti-apoptotic proteins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Covalently Assembled NIR Nanoplatform for Simultaneous Fluorescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Liu, Xiaomin; Zeng, Qinghui; Zhang, Youlin; Tu, Langping; Liu, Tao; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Yinghui; Cao, Feng; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Zhang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    A highly efficient multifunctional nanoplatform for simultaneous upconversion luminescence (UCL) Imaging and photodynamic therapy has been developed on the basis of selective energy transfer from multicolor luminescent NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to photosensitizers (PS).

  2. The Role of Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Giulio; Iacobone, Anna Daniela; Preti, Eleonora Petra; Vaccari, Sabina; Barisani, Alessia; Pennacchioli, Elisabetta; Cantisani, Carmen

    2018-02-02

    vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive precursor lesion found in 50-70% of patients affected by vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. In the past, radical surgery was the standard treatment for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, however, considering the psychological and physical morbidities related to extensive surgery, several less aggressive treatment modalities have been proposed since the late 1970s. Photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe treatment for cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer, with favorable cosmetic outcomes. in the present paper, the results of selected studies on photodynamic therapy in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia are reported and discussed. Overall, complete histological response rates ranged between 20% and 67% and symptom response rates ranged between 52% and 89% according to different studies and case series. the real benefit of photodynamic therapy in the setting of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia lies in its ability to treat multi-focal disease with minimal tissue destruction, preservation of vulvar anatomy and excellent cosmetic outcomes. These properties explain why photodynamic therapy is an attractive option for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia treatment.

  3. [Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for peritoneal metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Limits and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs, H; Mordon, S; Collinet, P

    2017-04-01

    High peritoneal recurrence rate in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after complete macroscopic cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, raises the issue of peritoneal microscopic disease management and requires the development of additional locoregional treatment strategies. Photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment already applied in other medical and surgical indications. After administration of a photosensitizer which accumulates in cancer cells, illumination with a light of adequate wavelength may induce photochemical reaction between photosensitizer and tissue oxygen which lead to reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxic phenomenon. Photodynamic therapy's ability to treat superficial lesions disseminated on large area makes it an excellent candidate to insure destruction of microscopic peritoneal metastases in addition to macroscopic cytoreductive surgery in order to decrease peritoneal recurrence rate. Development of intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy has been limited by its poor tolerance related to the lack of specificity of photosensitizers and the location of the metastases in proximity to adjacent intraperitoneal organs. Our aim is to review clinical data concerning intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer to identify the limits of this strategy and to provide solutions which may be applied to solve these barriers and enable safe and effective treatment. Targeted photosensitizers and innovative illumination solutions are mandatory to continue research in this field and to consider the feasibility of clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome treated with photodynamic therapy under general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, EA; Muskens, RPHM; Ballast, A; Hooymans, JMM

    Purpose: To report the treatment outcome of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT) for exudative retinal detachment associated with diffuse choroidal haemangioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome. Methods: An interventional case report of a 12-year-old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome who developed an

  5. Photodynamic Therapy of Skin using Porphyrin Precursors: Optical Monitoring, Vascular Effects and Personalized Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Middelburg (Tom)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on a photochemical reaction that involves three basic components: (1) a photosensitizer, which is a light-sensitive molecule that mediates transfer of light energy to molecular oxygen; (2) light of the appropriate wavelength that

  6. Liposomes as a drug delivery system in photodynamic therapy for colon cancer treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a drug termed a photosensitizer (PS), light (laser) of an appropriate wavelength and molecular oxygen (tissue) to elicit cell death of cancer cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enhancement of PDT...

  7. Porphyrin- or phthalocyanine-bridged silsesquioxane nanoparticles for two-photon photodynamic therapy or photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello-Jimenez, Chiara; Henry, Maxime; Aggad, Dina; Raehm, Laurence; Cattoën, Xavier; Wong Chi Man, Michel; Charnay, Clarence; Alpugan, Serkan; Ahsen, Vefa; Tarakci, Deniz Kutlu; Maillard, Philippe; Maynadier, Marie; Garcia, Marcel; Dumoulin, Fabienne; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Coll, Jean-Luc; Josserand, Véronique; Durand, Jean-Olivier

    2017-11-09

    Porphyrin- or phthalocyanine-bridged silsesquioxane nanoparticles (BSPOR and BSPHT) were prepared. Their endocytosis in MCF-7 cancer cells was shown with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) imaging. With two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (TPE-PDT), BSPOR was more phototoxic than BSPHT, which in contrast displayed a very high signal for photoacoustic imaging in mice.

  8. MULTIPLE-COURSE PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY FOR VERRUCOUS LEUKOPLAKIA OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF BODY OF THE TONGUE (CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Istomin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment of the patient with verrucous luekoplakia of mucous membrane of body of the tongue with photodynamic therapy are represented. In 2015 the patient underwent 4 courses of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer photolon. Photolon was injected at dose of 2 mg/kg 3 h before irradiation (laser output power was 0.262 W, light dose – 50 and 100 J/cm2. The result of treatment was assessed as complete regression: 4 months after multiple-course photodynamic therapy there were no clinical and histological signs of luekoplakia.

  9. Bactericidal Effect of Photodynamic Therapy, Alone or in Combination with Mupirocin or Linezolid, on Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Pérez-Laguna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatments frequently fail due to the development of antibiotic resistance, underscoring the need for new treatment strategies. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT could constitute an alternative therapy. In bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, which is commonly implicated in cutaneous and mucosal infections, we evaluated the in vitro efficacy of aPDT, using the photosensitizing agents rose bengal (RB or methylene blue (MB, alone or combined with the antibiotics mupirocin (MU or linezolid (LN. RB or MB, at concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 10 μg/ml, were added to S. aureus ATCC 29213 suspensions containing >108 cells/ml, in the absence or presence of MU or LN (1 or 10 μg/ml. Suspensions were irradiated with a white metal halide (λ 420–700 nm or light-emitting diode lamp (λ 515 and λ 625 nm, and the number of viable bacteria quantified by counting colony-forming units (CFU on blood agar. Addition of either antibiotic had no significant effect on the number of CFU/ml. By contrast, RB-aPDT and MB-aPDT effectively inactivated S. aureus, as evidenced by a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial growth. In the presence of MU or LN, the same 6 log10 reduction was observed in response to aPDT, but was achieved using significantly lower concentrations of the photosensitizers RB or MB. In conclusion, the combination of MU or LN and RB/MB-aPDT appears to exert a synergistic bactericidal effect against S. aureus in vitro.

  10. Effect of photodynamic therapy in the reduction of halitosis in patients with multiple sclerosis: clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; Kalil Bussadori, Sandra; Dadalti Fragoso, Yara; da Silva, Vinicius Vieira Belarmino; Melo Deana, Alessandro; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Horácio Pinto, Erika; Horliana, Anna Carolina RattoTempestini; Miranda França, Cristiane

    2017-10-27

    Smell and odours play a vital role in social interaction. Halitosis is a social problem that affects one third of the population, causing a negative impact on the quality of life. There is little knowledge on the prevalence and management of halitosis in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The present study aims to evaluate the presence of halitosis in patients with MS when compared to a control group, and also evaluate treatment of the problem with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). This is a case-control clinical study in which 60 patients were evaluated: 30 MS patients in treatment at the Specialties Clinic School of Medicine, and 30 healthy patients, matched in age and gender for the control group. Data was collected on the duration of the disease as well as the degree of disability and medication use in the MS group. For all patients, halitosis was assessed with Oral Chroma™. Individuals with halitosis underwent treatment with tongue scraping and aPDT. The photosensitizer was methylene blue (0.005%) and a THERAPY XT-EC ® laser (660 nm, 9 J, 100 mW for 90 s per point, 320 J cm -2 , 3537 mW cm -2 ) was used. Six points 1 cm apart from each other were irradiated in the tongue dorsum. There was a positive correlation between the disability and disease duration. No parameter was correlated with halitosis. Patients with MS have higher levels of SH 2 compounds when compared to the control group (p = 0.003, Mann-Whitney), but after aPDT both groups significantly reduced the levels to under the halitosis threshold. The aPDT scraping treatment was effective in the immediate reduction of halitosis in both groups.

  11. Photodynamic therapy associated with conventional endodontic treatment in patients with antibiotic-resistant microflora: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Aguinaldo S; Nuñez, Silvia C; Hamblim, Michael R; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha S

    2010-09-01

    This study reports the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) combined with endodontic treatment in patients with necrotic pulp infected with microflora resistant to a previous antibiotic therapy. Thirty anterior teeth from 21 patients with periapical lesions that had been treated with conventional endodontic treatment and antibiotic therapy were selected. Microbiological samples were taken (1) after accessing the root canal, (2) after endodontic therapy, and (3) after PDT. All the patients had at least 1 microorganism resistant to antibiotics. PDT used polyethylenimine chlorin(e6) as a photosensitizer and a diode laser as a light source (P = 40 mW, t = 4 minutes, E = 9.6 J). Endodontic therapy alone produced a significant reduction in numbers of microbial species but only 3 teeth were free of bacteria, whereas the combination of endodontic therapy with PDT eliminated all drug-resistant species and all teeth were bacteria-free. The use of PDT added to conventional endodontic treatment leads to a further major reduction of microbial load. PDT is an efficient treatment to kill multi-drug resistant microorganisms. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multifunctional gold nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaing Oo, Maung Kyaw

    As an important and growing branch of photomedicine, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is being increasingly employed in clinical applications particularly for the treatment of skin cancer. This dissertation focuses on the synthesis, characterization and deployment of gold nanoparticles for enhanced PDT of fibrosarcoma cancer cells. We have developed robust strategies and methods in fabrication of gold nanoparticles with positively- and negatively-tethered surface charges by photo-reduction of gold chloride salt using branched polyethyleneimine and sodium citrate respectively. An optimal concentration window of gold salt has been established to yield the most stable and monodispersed gold nanoparticles. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a photosensitizing precursor, has been successfully conjugated on to positively charged gold nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions. The 5-ALA/gold nanoparticle conjugates are biocompatible and have shown to be preferably taken up by cancer cells. Subsequent light irradiation results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells, leading to their destruction without adverse effects on normal fibroblasts. We have demonstrated for the first time that gold nanoparticles can enhance PDT efficacy by 50% compared to the treatment with 5-ALA alone. Collected evidence has strongly suggested that this enhancement stems from the elevated formation of ROS via the strongly localized electric field of gold nanoparticles. Through single cell imaging using surface-enhanced Raman scattering enabled by the very same gold nanoparticles, we have shown that multifunctionality of gold nanoparticles can be harvested concurrently for biomedical applications in general and for PDT in specific. In other words, gold nanoparticles can be used not only for targeted drug delivery and field-enhanced ROS formation, but also for monitoring cell destructions during PDT. Finally, our COMSOL Multiphysics simulation of the size-dependent electric

  13. New design of textile light diffusers for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Cédric; Mordon, Serge R; Lesage, Jean Claude; Koncar, Vladan

    2013-04-01

    A homogeneous and reproducible fluence delivery rate during clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) plays a determinant role in preventing under- or overtreatment. PDT applied in dermatology has been carried out with a wide variety of light sources delivering a broad range of more or less adapted light doses. Due to the complexities of the human anatomy, these light sources do not in fact deliver a uniform light distribution to the skin. Therefore, the development of flexible light sources would considerably improve the homogeneity of light delivery. The integration of plastic optical fiber (POF) into textile structures could offer an interesting alternative. In this article, a textile light diffuser (TLD) has been developed using POF and Polyester yarns. Predetermined POF macrobending leads to side emission of light when the critical angle is exceeded. Therefore, a specific pattern based on different satin weaves has been developed in order to improve light emission homogeneity and to correct the decrease of side emitted radiation intensity along POF. The prototyped fabrics (approximately 100 cm(2): 5×20 cm) were woven using a hand loom, then both ends of the POF were coupled to a laser diode (5 W, 635 nm). The fluence rate (mW/ cm(2)) and the homogeneity of light delivery by the TLD were evaluated. Temperature evolution, as a function of time, was controlled with an infrared thermographic camera. When using a power source of 5 W, the fluence rate of the TLD was 18±2.5 mw/cm(2). Due to the high efficiency of the TLD, the optical losses were very low. The TLD temperature elevation was 0.6 °C after 10 min of illumination. Our TLD meets the basic requirements for PDT: homogeneous light distribution and flexibility. It also proves that large (500 cm(2)) textile light diffusers adapted to skin, but also to peritoneal or pleural cavity, PDTs can be easily produced by textile manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, David; Kennedy, James C.; Brundage, Michael; Rothwell, Deanna

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) offers an alternative to plastic surgery and radiotherapy with potential for good cosmetic outcome and local control of disease. We report our clinical experience with this technique. Patients were treated prospectively on a study protocol enrolling a total of 118 patients (63 male, 55 female) with an average age of 65 years. Consecutive patients meeting eligibility criteria were invited to participate over a four year period. Median followup was 27 months (range 1 to 76 months). In the study group, 62 patients had single lesions and 56 had multiple lesions. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 33 had 2-4 lesions, 11 had 5-9, and 11 had 10 or more. All patients were treated with 20% ALA dissolved in Glaxal Base applied to the tumors for three to four hours. Following removal of the cream, fluorescence intensity and distribution were assessed using a UV-A lamp, and the lesions were exposed to photoactivating light of wavelength greater than 600 nm for a light dose ranging from 100-150 J/cm2. Lesions were reassessed in followup, and scored as complete or partial responses. At subsequent patient assessments, lesions were scored as continued complete responses or recurrences. In the patients with single lesions, there was an initial complete response rate of 90.3%. Of the 56 patients with multiple lesions, 44 had all of their lesions respond completely, and there was an overall average response rate of 95.5%. Sixty three percent of males and 44% of females had all of their lesions respond completely. (p=0.033, Chi-squared test). There was no difference in response rate with respect to age, or site of lesion. The recurrence rates were 35% for patients with single lesions, and 10.5% for patients with multiple lesions. ALA-PDT would appear to be a promising alternative to conventional treatment for superficial basal cell carcinoma. Based on these results

  15. Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic phenothiazine dyes in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Rômulo Aguiar; Anami, Lilian Costa; Mello, Isabel; Carvalho, Erica dos Santos; Habitante, Sandra Márcia; Raldi, Denise Pontes

    2014-08-01

    This study sought to assess if discoloration of tooth structures occurs after photodynamic therapy (PDT) and to determine the efficacy of a protocol to remove the photosensitizers. PDT has been used in root canal treatment to enhance cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system. PDT uses a low power laser in association with a dye as a photosensitizer. Photosensitizers can induce staining of the dental structures, resulting in an unaesthetic appearance. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups according to the photosensitizer used and pre-irradiation time: 0.01% methylene blue for 5 min (MB5); 0.01% methylene blue for 10 min (MB10); 0.01% toluidine blue for 5 min (TB5); and 0.01% toluidine blue for 10 min (TB10). Specimens were irradiated with a 660 nm diode laser with a 300 μm diameter optical fiber, at 40 mW power setting for 3 min. Immediately after, the photosensitizers were removed with Endo-PTC cream+2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The shade was measured by a Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer based on the CIELAB color system (L*a*b* values) at three different experimental times: before PDT (T0), immediately after PDT (T1), and after removal of the photosensitizer (T2). The results showed a decrease in the averages of the L*a*b* coordinate values after PDT (T1) in all the groups, when compared with the number at T0, with a significant statistical difference in group MB10. After photosensitizer removal (T2), all the values of the coordinates increased with significant statistical differences (p<0.05) between T1 and T2 in L* and a*. It can be concluded that both methylene blue and toluidine blue dyes cause tooth discoloration, and that Endo-PTC cream associated with 2.5% NaOCl effectively remove these dyes, regardless of the pre-irradiation time used for PDT.

  16. Vascular effects of photodynamic and pulsed dye laser therapy protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channual, Jennifer; Choi, Bernard; Osann, Kathryn; Pattanachinda, Daniel; Lotfi, Justin; Kelly, Kristen M

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions is associated with variable and unpredictable efficacy. Thus, alternative treatment modalities are needed. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated enhanced selective vascular destruction with benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD) monoacid ring A photodynamic therapy (PDT) followed immediately by PDL irradiation (PDT+PDL). Here, we evaluate PDT alone, PDL alone, and PDT+PDL protocols using an optimized in vivo rodent dorsal window chamber model. A dorsal window chamber was surgically installed on male Golden Syrian hamsters. BPD solution was administered intravenously via a jugular venous catheter. Evaluated interventions included: (1) Control (no BPD, no light); (2) Control (BPD, no light); (3) PDT alone (lambda = 576 nm; 25, 50, 75, or 96 J/cm2 radiant exposure; 15 minutes post-BPD injection); (4) PDL alone at 7 J/cm2 (585 nm, 1.5 milliseconds pulse duration, 7 mm spot); and (5) PDT (25 or 75 J/cm2)+PDL (7 J/cm2). Laser speckle imaging was used to monitor blood flow dynamics before, immediately after, and 1, 3, and 5 days post-intervention. Perfusion reduction on day 1 post-intervention was achieved with PDT>50 J/cm2, PDL alone, and PDT+PDL. However, by day 5 post-intervention, recovery of flow was observed with PDT alone at 50 J/cm2 (-15.1%) and PDL alone (+215%). PDT (75 J/cm2)+PDL resulted in the greatest prolonged reduction in vascular perfusion (-99.8%). Our in vivo data suggest that the PDT+PDL therapeutic protocol can result in enhanced and persistent vascular shutdown compared to PDT or PDL alone. The PDT+PDL approach has potential for considerable superficial vascular destruction and should be considered as a treatment modality for cutaneous vascular lesions. Monitoring of blood flow changes for as long as possible is crucial for accurate assessment of light-based vascular interventions. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Photodynamic therapy for the eradication of biofilms formed by catheter associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Teresa Orlandi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major opportunistic pathogen causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs associated with high mortality and morbidity. In this study 18 P. aeruginosa isolates from urine of catheterized patients were evaluated for in vitro biofilm formation.All the tested strains showed the ability to form biofilm more thicker than those formed by a cohort of 29 blood culture strains belonging to the same species. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT is a novel antimicrobial treatment that exploits a photosensitizer (PS and visible light to induce lethal oxidative damages in bacterial cells and could be used as local antimicrobial approach in CA-UTIs. Here we tested the susceptibility of planktonic and sessile cultures of P. aeruginosa strains, the model strain PAO1 and CA-UTI isolates, to photodynamic inactivation with a di cationic porphyrinic photosensitizer, the 5, 15-di (N-benzyl-4-pyridynium-porphyrin di chloride.Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regarded as a difficult target for antimicrobial chemotherapy, satisfactory bactericidal activities on both planktonic and biofilm cultures were observed.

  18. pH-responsive metallo-supramolecular nanogel for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuemei; Chen, Li; Chen, Xiaofei; Xie, Zhigang; Ding, Jianxun; He, Chaoliang; Zhang, Jingping; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-10-01

    Benefited from the high orientation of coordinated interaction, metallo-supramolecular materials have attracted enormous interest in many fields. Herein, a novel metallo-supramolecular nanogel (SNG)-based drug delivery system for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy is explored to enhance anticancer efficacy. It is fabricated by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between tetraphenylporphyrin zinc (Zn-Por) and histidine. It can respond to tumor acid microenvironment to release the co-delivered anticancer drug and photosensitizer to kill the lesion cells. Zn-Por moieties in SNG keep the photosensitivity in the range of visible wavelength and possess the ability of generating active oxygen species for photodynamic therapy. The drug-loaded SNG provides a di-functional platform for chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy. Compared with the single chemotherapy of free doxorubicine (DOX) or photodynamic therapy of Zn-Por in SNG, DOX-loaded SNG with irradiation shows higher in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anticancer therapeutic activity, endowing the SNG with great potential in cancer treatments. A combination of multiple non-cross-resistant anticancer agents has been widely applied clinically. Applying multiple drugs with different molecular targets can raise the genetic barriers and delay the cancer adaption process. Multiple drugs targeting different cellular pathways can function synergistically, giving higher therapeutic efficacy and target selectivity. Overall, developing a combination therapeutic approach might even be the key to enhance anticancer efficacy and overcome chemo-resistance. Herein, a novel metallo-supramolecular nanogel (SNG) is fabricated by the metallo-supramolecular-coordinated interaction between tetraphenylporphyrin zinc (Zn-Por) and histidine. The DOX-loaded SNG provides a di-functional platform for chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy because it can respond to tumor acid microenvironment to release the co-delivered anticancer

  19. A tumor-targeted activatable phthalocyanine-tetrapeptide-doxorubicin conjugate for synergistic chemo-photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei-Rong; Chen, Shao-Fang; Peng, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Qiao-Feng; Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2017-02-15

    Chemo-photodynamic therapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatments. However, it remains a challenge to develop a chemo-photodynamic therapeutic agent with little side effect, high tumor-targeting, and efficient synergistic effect simultaneously. Herein, we report a zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc)-doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug linked with a fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-responsive short peptide with the sequence of Thr-Ser-Gly-Pro for chemo-photodynamic therapy. In the conjugate, both photosensitizing activity of ZnPc and cytotoxicity of DOX are inhibited obviously. However, FAP-triggered separation of the photosensitizer and DOX can enhance fluorescence emission, singlet oxygen generation, dark- and photo-cytotoxicity significantly, and lead to a synergistic anticancer efficacy against HepG2 cells. The prodrug can also be specifically and efficiently activated in tumor tissue of mice. Thus, this prodrug shows great potential for clinical application in chemo-photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT), using Toluidine blue O inhibits the viability of biofilm produced by Candida albicans at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Paula; Rosseti, Isabela Bueno; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; da Silva, Bruna Graziele Marques; Alberto-Silva, Carlos; Costa, Maricilia Silva

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus producing both superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has been demonstrated that C. albicans ability to form biofilms is a crucial process for colonization and virulence. Furthermore, a correlation between the development of drug resistance and biofilm maturation at Candida biofilms has been shown. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a non-toxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PACT, using Toluidine Blue O (TBO) on the viability of biofilms produced by C. albicans at different stages of development. In this study, the effects of PACT on both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans were studied. Biofilm formation and viability were determined by a metabolic assay based on the reduction of XTT assay. In addition, the morphology of the biofilm was observed using light microscopy. PACT inhibited both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans. Furthermore, PACT was able to decrease the number of both cells and filamentous form present in the biofilm structure. This inhibitory effect was observed in both early and mature biofilms. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the potential of PACT (using TBO) as an effective antifungal therapy, including against infections associated with biofilms at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodynamic therapy as an alternative treatment for relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides: A systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingwen; Liu, Cynthia; Liu, Yuehua

    2017-03-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. It is characterized by slow progress over years to decades, developing from patches to infiltrated plaques, and sometimes to tumors. Therapies such as localized chemotherapy, photochemotherapy and radiotherapy are often employed when lesions of refractory or relapsing mycosis fungoides are resistant to conventional therapies. However, these methods have acute or chronic side effects and toxicity, which may accumulate with repeated and protracted treatment cycles. Photodynamic therapy is a promising, well-tolerated option for the treatment of localized lesions with excellent cosmetic outcomes. In this article, we systematically reviewed and discussed clinical application of photodynamic therapy in relapsed or refractory mycosis fungoides. There are 20 papers included in this review article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Porphyrin-Based Carbon Dots for Photodynamic Therapy of Hepatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zheng, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shi; Pei, Qing; Zheng, Min; Xie, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Porphyrin-containing carbon dots (CDs) possess ultrasmall size, excellent water solubility, and photostability. These CDs can effectively generate cytotoxic singlet oxygen upon irradiation, and induce the cell apoptosis. Photodynamic ability of CDs inhibits the growth of hepatoma. This work not only sheds light on developing functional carbon dots, but also highlights the importance of special-structure precursor molecules in synthesizing functional CDs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL CONFIRMATION FOR SELECTION OF IRRADIATION REGIMENS FOR INTRAPERITONEAL PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY WITH PORPHYRIN AND PHTHALOCYANINE PHOTOSENSITIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pankratov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimized irradiation regimens for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy with porphyrin and phthalocyanine photosensitizers are determined in in vitro and in vivo studies.The experimental  study on НЕр2 cell line showed that reduce of power density for constant  light dose increased significantly the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (the reduce of power density from 20-80 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2 had the same results (90% cell death for half as much concentration of the photosensitizer.The obtained results were confirmed in vivo in mice with grafted tumor S-37. For light dose of 90 J/cm2  and power density of 25 mW/cm2 none of animals in the experimental  group had total resorption of the tumor. For the same light dose and decrease  of power density to 12 mW/cm2  total tumor resorption was achieved in 34% of animals, 66% of animals died from phototoxic  shock. For twofold decrease  of light dose – to 45 J/cm2  with the same low-intensity power density (12 mW/cm2 we managed total tumor resorption in 100% of animals.In the following studies of optimized irradiation regimen for intrapleural photodynamic therapy the reaction of intact peritoneum of rats on photodynamic exposure was assessed and optimized parameters of laser irradiation, which did not cause necrosis and intense inflammatory reaction of peritoneum, were determined – light dose of 10 J/cm2  with power density of mW/cm2.Thus, the reasonability for use of low-intensity regimens of irradiation for intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy was confirmed experimentally with possibility of high efficacy of treatment without inflammatory reactions of peritoneum.

  4. Evaluation of photodynamic therapy using a light-emitting diode lamp against Enterococcus faecalis in extracted human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Alejandro; He, Jianing; Glickman, Gerald N; Spears, Robert; Schneiderman, Emet D; Honeyman, Allen L

    2011-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with high-power lasers as the light source has been proven to be effective in disinfecting root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of PDT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a low-energy light-emitting diode (LED) lamp after the conventional disinfection protocol of 6% NaOCl. Single-rooted extracted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and sealed at the apex before incubation with Enterococcus faecalis for 2 weeks. Roots were randomly assigned to five experimental groups and three control groups. Dentin shavings were collected from the root canals of all groups with a #50/.06 rotary file, colony-forming units were determined, and the bacterial survival rate was calculated for each treatment. The bacterial survival rate of the NaOCl/TBO/light group (0.1%) was significantly lower (P lamp has the potential to be used as an adjunctive antimicrobial procedure in conventional endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Sweat gland carcinoma with Topical Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic therapy: An effective treatment method to improve surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xian; Yang, Yadong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wensheng; Song, Yanying; Zeng, Yongfang; Yang, Yunchuan; Zhang, Xingcun; Li, Guoling; Gao, Yang; Lu, Yuangang

    2017-03-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is an extremely rare skin cancer, which is hard to diagnose and completely resect without causing functional and cosmetic problems. Moreover, the high rate of recurrence is hard to handle in the treatment of sweat gland carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy is a novel treatment protocol which can selectively destroy tumor cells with good functional and cosmetic outcomes. This is a case about a 53 years old patient with sweat gland carcinoma on his right foot, which received surgery and photodynamic therapy. There is no recurrence one year after treatment of surgery and photodynamic therapy. Excision combined with photodynamic therapy during operation is a promising strategy towards tumors which are hard to resect thoroughly and have a high risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of refractory solid cancers: Combining second-generation photosensitizers with multi-targeted liposomal delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Kos, Milan; van Vught, Remko; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Breukink, Eefjan; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the last-line treatment of refractory cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinomas, superficial recurrent urothelial carcinomas, and non-resectable extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas yields poor clinical outcomes and may be associated with adverse events. This

  7. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of refractory solid cancers : Combining second-generation photosensitizers with multi-targeted liposomal delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Kos, Milan; van Vught, Remko; Rauws, Erik A.J.; Breukink, Eefjan; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the last-line treatment of refractory cancers such as nasopharyngeal carcinomas, superficial recurrent urothelial carcinomas, and non-resectable extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas yields poor clinical outcomes and may be associated with adverse events. This

  8. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid vs. photodynamic therapy with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid for actinic keratosis of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Cortelazzi, Chiara; Boccaletti, Valeria; Zucchi, Alfredo; Conti, Maria Luisa; Montanari, Paola; Feliciani, Claudio; Fabrizi, Giuseppe; Pagliarello, Calogero

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy with 5-methyl-aminolevulinate and photodynamic therapy with trichloroacetic acid 50% are the two techniques utilized in the management of actinic keratosis. This study was planned to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, recurrence and cosmetic outcome of these option therapies in patients with multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp. Thirteen patients with multiple actinic keratosis were treated with one of the two treatments on half of the scalp at baseline, while the other treatment was performed on the other half 15 days apart, randomly. Efficacy, adverse effects, cosmetic outcome and recurrence were recorded at follow-up visit at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate was more effective than trichloroacetic acid although less tolerated by patients as it was more painful. Early adverse effects were almost the same even if trichloroacetic acid leads also to crust formation and to a worse cosmetic outcome characterized by hypopigmentation. Recurrence was lower in the area treated with photodynamic therapy. Trichloroacetic acid 50% is less effective than photodynamic therapy with 5 methyl-aminolevulinate in the treatment of multiple actinic keratosis of the scalp although better tolerated by patients. As this technique is less painful and less expensive than photodynamic therapy, we hypothesize and suggest that more sequential treatments could lead to better results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 5-aminolevulinic acid in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of urological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelius, Thomas; de Riese, Werner T. W.

    2003-06-01

    Completeness and certainty of tumor detection are very important issues in clinical oncology. Recent technological developments in ultrasound, radiologic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnostics are very promising, but could not improve the detection rate of early stage malignancies. One of the most promising new approaches is the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid, a potent photosensitizer, in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy. 5-aminolevulinic acid is meanwhile a well-established tool in the photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer. It has been shown to improve the sensitivity of detection of superficial tumors and carcinoma in situ, which enables to reduce the risk of tumor recurrence related to undetected lesions or incomplete transurethral resection of the primary lesions. The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid is steadily expanding in diagnostics of urological malignancies. First clinical results are now reported in detection of urethral and ureteral lesions as well as in urine fluorescence cytology. Furthermore, due to the selective accumulation in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, 5-aminolevulinic acid may be an ideal candidate for photodynamic therapy in superficial bladder cancer. Summarizing the data of multiple clinical trials, 5-aminolevulinic acid is a promising agent in photodynamic diagnostics and treatment of superficial bladder cancer.

  10. Photodynamic/photocatalytic effects on microorganisms processed by nanodyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy uses laser, LED or lamp light sources in combination with dyes - exogenous photosensitizers for the enhancement and localization of photodynamic effects within the human body. We are developing a new approach of improvement of the efficiency of antimicrobial phototherapy via combined application of photosensitizers and the photocatalysts to pathogenic microorganisms. The main goal of the paper is to conduct experiments to study the action of nanodyes, based on mixtures of nanoparticles and photosensitizers, in combination with LED irradiation of pathogens.

  11. [Corneal neovascularisation treatments compared: Subconjunctival bevacizumab injections and/or photodynamic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, J; Boulze, M; Aziz, A; Alessi, G; Hoffart, L

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficacy of subconjunctival bevacizumab injections alone, photodynamic therapy alone and combined treatments for reduction of corneal neovascularization. This study was conducted as a prospective case series. A total of seven eyes of 7 patients with corneal neovascularization caused by ocular surface disorders including fungal infectious keratitis and penetrating keratoplasty were included in the study. Patients were randomized into the three following groups: patients in group A received a single subconjunctival injection of 10mg (0.4mL) of bevacizumab, patients in group B were treated with photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (6mg/m(2)) to the neovascularized area and those in group C received a subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy 7 days later. Morphological changes in neovascularization were evaluated over 6 months using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and digital corneal photography. A computer-assisted semi-automatic analysis of the area of corneal neovascularization was performed with Image J software. Recession of corneal vessels was observed in all eyes at 1 month post-treatment. The neovascularized surface area in all groups combined showed a decrease in the first month after treatment and this decrease continued up to the 6th month. The surface area of corneal neovascularization decreased by 34.05±8.28% in group A (subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab), by 42.06±28.36% in group B (photodynamic therapy with verteporfin) and by 51.67±18.93% in group C (combined subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy). A combined treatment consisting of a subconjunctival injection followed by a PDT session 7 days later might be more effective for the treatment of corneal neovascularisation. No serious local or systemic adverse events were observed. Our medium-term results suggest that combined subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin might be used

  12. Photodynamic therapy in non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis: short term randomized clinical trial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, C.; Palaia, G.; Loskutova, E.; Libotte, F.; Kornblit, R.; Gaimari, G.; Tenore, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to exposition to plaque and tartar. Conventional treatments consist of scaling and root planing (SRP) and antibiotics administration. Among them encouraging results have been obtained using alternative protocols, like the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT). Aim of the Study: Evaluation of PDT effects added to conventional methods. Materials and Methods: 11 patients (4M/7F, 37-67 years aged, non-smoking) affected by untreated chronic periodontal disease, with >3mm pockets in at least 4 teeth were divided in two groups, test and control group. Each patient had to made full-intraoral before and after the treatment. The test group received SRP+PDT, while the control group was subjected to SRP. The PDT was performed through the HELBO®TheraLite (Bredent Medical), diode laser battery powered 670nm with an output of 75mW/cm2. The Helbo Blue photosensitizer, containing methylene blue, was used. The exposure time to the laser effect was of 10'' for each site, for a total of 60'' at 3J/cm2. Results: Both groups had a significant improvement in the reduction of pocket depth (PD), above all in the test group. Statistical analysis was performed through the T-test, evaluating PD between the two groups p=0.96 (p> 0.05), resulting not statistically significant. Conclusion: PDT is a promising support to SRP, achieving a significant reduction in the pocket depth, but more cases are needed to confirm the validity of the used protocol.

  13. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of peri-implant diseases: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri; Sridharan, Kannan

    2017-10-24

    Photodynamic therapy in peri-implantitis has been tested in randomized clinical trials. Though systematic review and meta-analysis on human and animal studies, identifies the utility of photodynamic therapy, a comparison of other interventions with photodynamic therapy for peri-implantitis does not exist. Hence the aim of this network meta-analysis is to identify the role of photodynamic therapy for peri-implantitis compared with other interventions tested in randomized human clinical trials. Randomized controlled trials comparing photodynamic therapy and other interventions in patients with peri- implantitis was searched for in electronic databases. The risk of bias was calculated using Cochrane risk of Bias tool. The heterogeneity between the studies in direct comparison was assessed using Chi-square and I 2 tests. GRADE working group approach was used to assess the quality of evidence. Publication bias was assessed using Funnel plot and Trim and Fill method was used to identify the number of missing studies. We observed a significant reduction in the level of attachment scores with the use of combined photodynamic therapy with mechanical debridement when compared with other interventions tested. For bleeding on probing, pocket depth and plaque scores no statistically significant results were obtained. The use of photodynamic therapy with mechanical debridement will definitely bring about significant improvement in patients with peri-implantitis. Further trials on the use of photodynamic therapy with other treatment modalities need to be tested to arrive at the best possible treatment option for peri-implantitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmaceutical development, composition and quantitative analysis of phthalocyanine as the photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Shao, Jingwei; Yang, Tingting; Wang, Jian; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanine (Pc) and its related derivatives are a class of functional materials that are easily activated by the light at a special wavelength. As such photosensitizer, Pc has been applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT), in addition to its broad applications in many fields, for both malignant and benign diseases. One of our long-term research focuses is to develop Pc for cancer therapy. Herein we briefly review mechanisms of action of Pc used for photodynamic therapy, its pharmaceutical development and molecular modification to enhance its drugability and improve its intracellular localization. We also describe the current status of the Pc derivatives under clinical investigation, and analyze the methods used for quantitative analysis of those Pc derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current resistance issues in antimicrobial therapy | Senekal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human gut contains 1013 - 1014 bacteria that are exposed to selection pressure whenever antibiotics are administered.1 The same selection pressure applies to respiratory flora, which is one of the reasons why antimicrobial therapy prescribed for the treatment of respiratory tract infection should aim to eradicate ...

  16. Antimicrobial therapy in neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Tzialla, C.; Borghesi, A.; Serra, G.; Stronati, M.; Corsello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Severe infections represent the main cause of neonatal mortality accounting for more than one million neonatal deaths worldwide every year. Antibiotics are the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and in industrialized countries about 1% of neonates are exposed to antibiotic therapy. Sepsis has often nonspecific signs and symptoms and empiric antimicrobial therapy is promptly initiated in high risk of sepsis or symptomatic infants. However continued us...

  17. Conjugate of biotin with silicon(IV) phthalocyanine for tumor-targeting photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Ling; Liu, Qingzhu; Lv, Gaochao; Zhao, Xueyu; Wang, Shanshan; Lin, Jianguo

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT), biotin was axially conjugated with silicon(IV) phthalocyanine (SiPc) skeleton to develop a new tumor-targeting photosensitizer SiPc-biotin. The target compound SiPc-biotin showed much higher binding affinity toward BR-positive (biotin receptor overexpressed) HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells than its precursor SiPc-pip. However, when the biotin receptors of HeLa cells were blocked by free biotin, >50% uptake of SiPc-biotin was suppressed, demonstrating that SiPc-biotin could selectively accumulate in BR-positive cancer cells via the BR-mediated internalization. The confocal fluorescence images further confirmed the target binding ability of SiPc-biotin. As a consequence of specificity of SiPc-biotin toward BR-positive HeLa cells, the photodynamic effect was also largely dependent on the BR expression level of HeLa cells. The photodynamic activities of SiPc-biotin against HeLa cells were dramatically reduced when the biotin receptors were blocked by the free biotin (IC 50 : 0.18μM vs. 0.46μM). It is concluded that SiPc-biotin can selectively damage BR-positive cancer cells under irradiation. Furthermore, the dark toxicity of SiPc-biotin toward human normal liver cell lines LO2 was much lower than that of its precursor SiPc-pip. The targeting photodynamic activity and low dark toxicity suggest that SiPc-biotin is a promising photosensitizer for tumor-targeting photodynamic therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles as a drug delivery system for targeting photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yun; Chen Zhilong; Yang Xiaoxia; Huang Peng; Zhou Xinping; Du Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an increasingly recognized alternative to cancer treatment in clinic. However, PDT therapy agents, namely photosensitizer (PS), are limited in application as a result of prolonged cutaneous photosensitivity, poor water solubility and inadequate selectivity, which are encountered by numerous chemical therapies. Magnetic chitosan nanoparticles provide excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water solubility without compromising their magnetic targeting. Nevertheless, no previous attempt has been reported to develop an in vivo magnetic drug delivery system with chitosan nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitored targeting photodynamic therapy. In this study, magnetic targeting chitosan nanoparticles (MTCNPs) were prepared and tailored as a drug delivery system and imaging agents for PS, designated as PHPP. Results showed that PHPP-MTCNPs could be used in MRI monitored targeting PDT with excellent targeting and imaging ability. Non-toxicity and high photodynamic efficacy on SW480 carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo were achieved with this method at the level of 0-100 μM. Notably, localization of nanoparticles in skin and hepatic tissue was significantly less than in tumor tissue, therefore photosensitivity and hepatotoxicity can be attenuated.

  19. Pleural Photodynamic Therapy and Surgery in Lung Cancer and Thymoma Patients with Pleural Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Cheng; Hsieh, Yi-Shan; Tseng, Ying-Fan; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Pleural spread is difficult to treat in malignancies, especially in lung cancer and thymoma. Monotherapy with surgery fails to have a better survival benefit than palliative chemotherapy, the currently accepted treatment. Photodynamic therapy utilizes a photosensitizer to target the tumor site, and the tumor is exposed to light after performing a pleurectomy and tumor resection. However, the benefits of this procedure to lung cancer or thymoma patients are unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with lung cancer or thymoma with pleural seeding who underwent pleural photodynamic therapy and surgery between 2005 and 2013. Eighteen patients enrolled in this study. The mean patient age was 52.9 ± 12.2 years. Lung cancer was the inciting cancer of pleural dissemination in 10 patients (55.6%), and thymoma in 8 (44.4%). There was no procedure-related mortality. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the 3-year survival rate and the 5-year survival rate were 68.9% and 57.4%, respectively. We compared the PDT lung cancer patients with those receiving chemotherapy or target therapy (n = 51) and found that the PDT group had better survival than non-PDT patients (mean survival time: 39.0 versus 17.6 months; P = .047). With proper patient selection, radical surgical resection combined with intrapleural photodynamic therapy for pleural spread in patients with non-small cell lung cancer or thymoma is feasible and may provide a survival benefit.

  20. Case report of combined photodynamic therapy and distant gamma-ray therapy of metastases of skin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Filinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of follow-up of patient with melanoma metastases to inguinal lymph nodes (two tumor foci are represented. The patient underwent a course of combined photodynamic therapy and distant gamma-ray therapy. Single intravenous injection of fotosens as photosensitizer at dose of 0.3 mg/kg was administered to the patient. Distant gamma-ray therapy was performed daily during 12 days (single dose of 3 Gy, total dose of 36 Gy, beginning in a day after injection of photosensitizer. Two hours after gamma-ray therapy session contact photodynamic therapy on both metastatic tumors was performed. There were 7 sessions of photodynamic therapy in all, total light dose on each tumor accounted for 1800 J. Three weeks after combined modality treatment the second step of radiotherapy on inguinal region including 12 daily irradiation sessions (single dose of 3 Gy, total dose of 36 Gy was performed. One year after treatment the patient had complete tumor resorption proved in 6 months. There were no additional treatment during this period in this patient. The patient is still under follow-up. 

  1. Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica B Ericson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marica B Ericson1,2, Ann-Marie Wennberg1, Olle Larkö11Department of Dermatology; 2Department of Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, SwedenAbstract: The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide, and so also the demand for effective treatment modalities. Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization. The cure rates are usually good, and the cosmetic outcomes excellent. The only major side effect reported is the pain experienced by the patients during treatment. This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Both potentials and limitations will be reviewed, as well as some recent development within the field.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma

  2. A model to estimate the outcome of prostate cancer photodynamic therapy with TOOKAD Soluble WST11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betrouni, Nacim; Lopes, Renaud; Puech, Philippe; Colin, Pierre; Mordon, Serge, E-mail: n-betrouni@chru-lille.fr [Inserm U703, 152 rue du Docteur Yersin, 59120 Loos (France)

    2011-08-07

    Interstitial photodynamic therapy is becoming an interesting modality to treat some early stage prostate cancers. A light-sensitive drug is injected to the patient and activated by light using optical fibres inserted inside the prostate. In this work, we were interested in the characterization of the light action model for the WST11 (Tookad (registered) Soluble) drug. A retrospective analysis was performed on results from 28 patients enrolled in phase I and II trials with the WST11 drug. A drug dose of 4 mg/kg patient, dose light of 200 J cm{sup -1} and wavelength of 753 nm were used. Correlation between the illuminated volume and the obtained necrosis, measured at day 7 MR images, was clearly established. This result suggests that photodynamic therapy planning is possible based on this model.

  3. Spectral matching technology for light-emitting diode-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ru-ting; Guo, Zhen-ning; Lin, Jie-ben

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to obtain the spectrum of light-emitting diode (LED)-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device (JPTD), the bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target spectrum. According to the spectral constructing theory, a simple genetic algorithm as the spectral matching algorithm was first proposed in this study. The optimal combination ratios of LEDs were obtained, and the required LEDs number was then calculated. Meanwhile, the algorithm was compared with the existing spectral matching algorithms. The results show that this algorithm runs faster with higher efficiency, the switching time consumed is 2.06 s, and the fitting spectrum is very similar to the target spectrum with 98.15% matching degree. Thus, blue LED-based JPTD can replace traditional blue fluorescent tube, the spectral matching technology that has been put forward can be applied to the light source spectral matching for jaundice photodynamic therapy and other medical phototherapy.

  4. Resolution of advanced cystoid macular edema following photodynamic therapy for choroidal hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Materin, Miguel A; Marr, Brian P F; Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Jerry A

    2005-01-01

    A 45-year-old man was referred for 2 months of decreasing vision in his left eye. His visual acuity was 20/200 secondary to a subtle juxtapapillary choroidal hemangioma producing profound cystoid macular edema, with the affected retina measuring 330 microns thick by optical coherence tomography. Due to the severe cystoid macular edema, visual prognosis was judged to be poor. One month following photodynamic therapy to the tumor using verteporfin, the cystoid macular edema completely resolved, foveal anatomy returned to normal, optical coherence tomography thickness was 179 microns, and visual acuity recovered to 20/25. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal hemangioma may be effective in resolving associated cystoid macular edema and improving visual acuity.

  5. Novel Topical Photodynamic Therapy of Prostate Carcinoma Using Hydroxy-aluminum Phthalocyanine Entrapped in Liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sutoris, K.; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.; Mattová, J.; Beneš, J.; Nekvasil, Miloš; Ježek, Petr; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.; Větvička, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2013), s. 1563-1568 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/026; GA MŠk(CZ) OE09026; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01010781 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : PC prostate carcinomas * LNCaP * liposomes * hydroxy-aluminum phthalocyanine * photodynamic therapy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2013

  6. Manual and Rotary Instrumentation Ability to Reduce Enterococcus faecalis Associated with Photodynamic Therapy in Deciduous Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Sérgio Luiz; Silva,Josianne Neres da; Gonçalves,Rafael Orro; Villalpando,Karina Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    This aim of this study was to assess the ability of manual or rotary instrumentation associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) to reduce Enterococcus faecalis using three combinations of light/photosensitizers: toluidine blue O/laser, fuchsin/halogen light and fuchsin/LED. Twenty deciduous molars were selected and contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis (McFarland 0.5 scale). Working length determination was performed by visual method. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups: G1 (n=1...

  7. Photodynamic therapy and imaging based on tumor-targeted nanoprobe, polymer-conjugated zinc protoporphyrin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fang, J.; Liao, L.; Yin, H.; Nakamura, H.; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel; Maeda, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 4 (2015), s. 1-13 ISSN 2056-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/1254 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : fluorescent nanoprobe * photodynamic therapy * theranostic nanomedicine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Optimum modality for photodynamic therapy of tumors: gels containing liposomes with hydrophobic photosensitizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvasil, Miloš; Zadinová, M.; Tahotná, Ludmila; Žáčková, Markéta; Poučková, P.; Ježek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2007), s. 235-252 ISSN 0272-4391 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OE152; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/026; GA MZd NC6564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : photodynamic therapy of tumors * liposomal photosensitizer gel * hydroxyl-aluminium phtalocyanine * microfluidizacion Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 0.976, year: 2007

  9. Targeted Chemo-Photodynamic Combination Platform Based on the DOX Prodrug Nanoparticles for Enhanced Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Fan; Ren, Chunhua; Yang, Lijun; Liu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Zhen; Chu, Liping; Liu, Jinjian

    2017-04-19

    Chemo-photodynamic combination therapy has been received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its excellent characteristics, such as reducing the adverse side effects of chemo-drugs and improving the therapeutic effects for various cancers. In this study, RGD and DOX was conjugated to PEG by thiol-ene addition and Schiff's base reaction, respectively, to prepare the targeted and pH-sensitive antitumor prodrug nanoparticles (RGD-PEG-DOX NPs, RGD-NPs). Subsequently, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) was encapsulated into RGD-NPs, thus obtaining a simple and efficient chemo-photodynamic combination platform (RGD-PEG-DOX/Ce6 NPs, RGD-NPs/Ce6). This nanoparticle possessed high drug loading property of both the chemo-drug and photosensitizer and could simultaneously release them under the mild acidic microenvironment of cancer cells, which was expected to realize the synchronization therapy of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Compared with free DOX and Ce6, RGD-NPs/Ce6 could significantly improve the cellular uptake capacities of DOX and Ce6, resulting in the increased contents of ROS in cancer cells and effective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells) upon a laser radiation. The in vivo experiment showed that RGD-NPs/Ce6 displayed superior tumor targeting, accumulation, and retention ability than the other groups (free DOX, free Ce6 and NPs/Ce6), and thus significantly enhancing the antitumor effect in vivo with a laser radiation. In addition, the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX was thoroughly wiped out after being loaded and delivered by the nanoparticles according to the pathological analysis. Therefore, the targeted chemo-photodynamic combination therapeutic platform may be a promising candidate for enhanced cancer therapy.

  10. Effect of erythropoietin on photodynamic therapy of ovarian adenocarcinomas A2780 and SKOV-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, J.; Solar, P.; Jendzelovsky, R.; Kleban, J.; Mikes, J.; Sackova, V.; Kulikova, L.; Fedorocko, P.

    2006-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a cytokine with a pleiotropic effect. It is the principal haematopoietic growth factor, has a proangiogenic and protective effect in diverse nonhaematopoietic organs. In our experiment cell proliferation and/or survival assay was used to demonstrate Epo's cytoprotective effect against the photodynamic therapy of hypericin. Epo protected SKOV-3 cells against the cytotoxic effect of hypericin. These results advocate a restricted use of Epo on cancer patients with EpoR positive tumors. (authors)

  11. A laser unit for photodynamic therapy and robot-assisted microsurgery in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunikhin, A. A.; Bazikyan, E. A.; Pikhtin, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    Results are presented of photochemical experiments with an IR-laser unit for microsurgery and photodynamic therapy in dentistry. The efficiency of direct generation of singlet oxygen in model organic media in the continuous-wave and pulsed nanosecond modes is examined. The unit can serve both as an independent instrument and as a part of a complex for robot-assisted surgery and dentistry.

  12. Targeted photodynamic therapy as potential treatment modality for the eradication of colon cancer and colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Natasha; Kruger, Cherie A; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly treated by tumour resection, as chemotherapy and radiation have proven to be less effective, especially if the tumour has metastasized. Resistance to therapies occurs in almost all patients with colorectal cancer, especially in those with metastatic tumours. Cancer stem cells have the ability to self-renew, and their slow rate of cycling enhances resistance to treatment and increases the likelihood of tumour recurrence. Most metastatic tumours are unable to be surgically removed, thus creating a need for treatment modalities that target cancers directly and destroy cancer stem cells. Photodynamic therapy involves a photosensitizer that when exposed to a light source of a particular wavelength becomes excited and produces a form of oxygen that kills cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy is currently being investigated as a treatment modality for colorectal cancer, and new studies are exploring enhancing photodynamic therapy efficacy with the aid of drug carriers and immune conjugates. These modifications could prove effective in targeting cancer stem cells that are thought to be resistant to photodynamic therapy. In order for photodynamic therapy to be an effective treatment in colorectal cancer, it requires treatment of both primary tumours and the metastatic secondary disease that is caused by colon cancer stem cells. This review focuses on current photodynamic therapy treatments available for colorectal cancer and highlights proposed actively targeted photosynthetic drug uptake mechanisms specifically mediated towards colon cancer stem cells, as well as identify the gaps in research which need to be investigated in order to develop a combinative targeted photodynamic therapy regime that can effectively control colorectal cancer primary and metastatic tumour growth by eliminating colon cancer stem cells.

  13. Extrapleural pneumonectomy, photodynamic therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kevin L; Both, Stefan; Friedberg, Joseph S; Rengan, Ramesh; Hahn, Stephen M; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has recently been proposed for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Here, we describe our experience with a multimodality approach for the treatment of mesothelioma, incorporating extrapleural pneumonectomy, intraoperative photodynamic therapy and postoperative hemithoracic IMRT. From 2004-2007, we treated 11 MPM patients with hemithoracic IMRT, 7 of whom had undergone porfimer sodium-mediated PDT as an intraoperative adjuvant to surgical debulking. The median radiation dose to the planning treatment volume (PTV) ranged from 45.4-54.5 Gy. For the contralateral lung, V20 ranged from 1.4-28.5%, V5 from 42-100% and MLD from 6.8-16.5 Gy. In our series, 1 patient experienced respiratory failure secondary to radiation pneumonitis that did not require mechanical ventilation. Multimodality therapy combining surgery with increased doses of radiation using IMRT, and newer treatment modalities such as PDT , appears safe. Future prospective analysis will be needed to demonstrate efficacy of this approach in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma. Efforts to reduce lung toxicity and improve dose delivery are needed and provide the promise of improved local control and quality of life in a carefully chosen multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Development of pH sensitive 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate based nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Cheng-Liang; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Lin, Wuu-Jyh [Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, PO Box 3-27, Longtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Shu-Jyuan; Shieh, Ming-Jium [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ping-Shan, E-mail: soloman@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Chung-Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-16

    Photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment for tumors that involves the administration of light-activated photosensitizers. However, most photosensitizers are insoluble and non-specific. To target the acid environment of tumor sites, we synthesized three poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PEGMA-co-DPA) copolymers capable of self-assembly to form pH sensitive nanoparticles in an aqueous environment, as a means of encapsulating the water-insoluble photosensitizer, meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC). The critical aggregation pH of the PEGMA-co-DPA polymers was 5.8-6.6 and the critical aggregation concentration was 0.0045-0.0089 wt% at pH 7.4. Using solvent evaporation, m-THPC loaded nanoparticles were prepared with a high drug encapsulation efficiency (approximately 89%). Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape and 132 nm diameter of the nanoparticles. The in vitro release rate of m-THPC at pH 5.0 was faster than at pH 7.0 (58% versus 10% m-THPC released within 48 h, respectively). The in vitro photodynamic therapy efficiency was tested with the HT-29 cell line. m-THPC loaded PEGMA-co-DPA nanoparticles exhibited obvious phototoxicity in HT-29 colon cancer cells after light irradiation. The results indicate that these pH sensitive nanoparticles are potential carriers for tumor targeting and photodynamic therapy.

  15. Activation of photodynamic therapy in vitro with Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R.

    2016-03-01

    Translation of photodynamic therapy to the clinical setting has primarily been limited to easily accessible and/or superficial diseases where traditional light delivery can be performed noninvasively. Cerenkov luminescence, as generated from medically relevant radionuclides, has been suggested as a means to deliver light to deeper tissues noninvasively in order to overcome this depth limitation. We report on the use of Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 as a means to active the photodynamic therapy process in monolayer tumor cell cultures. The current study investigates the utility of Cerenkov luminescence for activating both the clinically relevant aminolevulinic acid at 1.0 mM and also the more efficient photosensitizer TPPS2a at 1.2 µM. Cells were incubated with aminolevulinic acid for 6 hours prior to radionuclide addition, as well as additional daily treatments for three days. TPPS2a was delivered as a single treatment with an 18 hour incubation time before radionuclide addition. Experiments were completed for both C6 glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Although aminolevulinic acid proved ineffective for generating a therapeutic effect at any activity for either cell line, TPPS2a produced at least a 20% therapeutic effect at activities ranging from 6 to 60 µCi/well for the C6 cell line. Current results demonstrate that it may be possible to generate a therapeutic effect in vivo using Cerenkov luminescence to activate the photodynamic therapy process with clinically relevant photosensitizers.

  16. Optimization of hydrogel containing toluidine blue O for photodynamic therapy by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hui; Xu, Jialin; Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Jianxing; Peng, Wei; Yan, Jinhua; Li, Zelin; Li, Qingyong

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy with toluidine blue O (TBO) hydrogel exhibits antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in this paper. The response surface methodology is employed to optimize formulations for antibacterial activity. The optimal formulations are carbomer concentration of 3% (w/v), TBO concentration of 0.1mg/mL and the quality ratio of NaOH and carbomer of 0.4 (w/w). Under the optimized formulations, the log-transformed of CFUmL -1 on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are 0.84 and 1.26 (the log-transformed of CFUmL -1 of negative control groups on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are 8.21 and 8.47), respectively. In comparison with photodynamic therapy with TBO aqueous solution, the proposed formulations provide a much stronger antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. TBO hydrogels are stable during 6weeks at three different temperatures (4, 25 and 40°C) with respect to no change of color, transparency, pH and viscosity. 50% and 68.26% of TBO are released from carbomer hydrogel after 4h and 24h, respectively. TBO hydrogel alone or light alone (630nm) treatment is incapable of showing antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Therefore, photodynamic therapy with the novel optimized TBO hydrogel formulations is a promising treatment strategy for periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 0.5% Liposome-encapsulated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy for acne treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byung-Yoon; Cho, Soyun; Kwon, In-Ho; Choi, Won-Woo; Kang, Seong-Min; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy using topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been successful in treating acne vulgaris, but sun avoidance for at least 48 hours after treatment is necessary due to the risk of post-treatment photosensitivity. Recently, a lower concentration of liposome-encapsulated 5-ALA was introduced to minimize this risk. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA in the photodynamic therapy of inflammatory acne and its effects on sebum secretion in Asian skin. Thirteen Korean subjects with inflammatory acne were administered 0.5% ALA spray before photoradiation treatment. Photoradiation was performed at 3.5-6.0 J/cm(2) three times during each of two visits, performed 2 weeks apart. Improvement of acne was evaluated subjectively and objectively based on the Korean Acne Grading System. Sebum secretion was measured quantitatively at each visit. The mean reduction in acne grade at the end of the treatment was 43.2%. Of the patients, 69.2% reported improvements in subjective skin oiliness, but fewer showed objective reductions in sebum secretion as determined by the Sebumeter® SM10. No serious adverse events were observed. Photodynamic therapy using liposome-encapsulated 0.5% 5-ALA improved inflammatory acne with minimal side effects in Asians.

  18. 131I-Zn-Chlorophyll derivative photosensitizer for tumor imaging and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Er, Ozge; Kiyak, Guven; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Gunduz, Cumhur; Kayabasi, Cagla

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, the photodynamic therapy studies have gained considerable attention as an alternative method to surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which is commonly used to fight cancer. In this study, biological potentials of a benzyloxy bearing zinc(II) pheophorbide-a (Zn-PH-A) were investigated via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Zn-PH-A was labeled with (131)I with high efficiency (95.3 ± 2.7%) and its biodistribution studies were investigated on female Albino Wistar rats. The radiolabeled photosensitizer had been intravenously injected into the tail vein, and then the animals were sacrificed at 30, 60 and 120 min post injection. The percent of radioactivity per gram of organs (%ID/g) was determined. The radiolabeled Zn-PH-A showed high uptake in ovary. In addition, photodynamic therapy studies of the photosensitizer were conducted in EMT6, murine mammary carcinoma and HeLa, human cervix carcinoma cell lines. For the photodynamic therapy studies, the cells with Zn-PH-A were exposed to red light (650 nm) at the doses of 10-30 J/cm(2). The results showed that Zn-PH-A has stronger PDT effect in EMT6 than HeLa cell. Our present work demonstrates (131)I-labeled photosensitizer as a bifunctional agent (PDT and nuclear imaging) which could be improved in future by using EMT6 growing tumor in nude mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cystic fibrosis microbiology: Advances in antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Valerie; Smyth, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Much of the improvement in the survival of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to advancements in antimicrobial treatments. New aerosolized antibiotic formulations have recently been introduced (such as inhaled aztreonam), and others are in development (inhaled levofloxacin and liposomal amikacin). Licensed dry powder formulations include tobramycin inhalation powder and dry powder colistimethate (available in Europe). Although inhaled antibiotics have the advantage of being able to deliver high intrapulmonary concentrations of drug, antimicrobial resistance can still develop and is a concern in CF. Antimicrobial resistance might be mitigated by using non-antibiotic treatments, antibiotic adjuvants, which have activity against bacteria. Examples include agents such as gallium, antimicrobial peptides and anti-biofilm compounds such as alginate oligosaccharides (OligoG) and garlic. Vaccination strategies and antibody therapy (IgY) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been attempted to prevent initial infection with this organism in CF. Although aggressive and long-term use of antibiotics has been crucial in slowing lung function decline and improving survival in people with CF, it has added a significant burden of care and associated toxicities in these individuals. Careful surveillance and the use of preventative strategies for antibiotic related toxicity (such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity) are essential. Continued development of effective antimicrobial agents that can function in the conditions encountered in the CF lung, such as against bacterial biofilm growth and under anaerobic conditions, is needed. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The ins and outs of periodontal antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Michael G; Slots, Jørgen

    2002-04-01

    A multifaceted antimicrobial approach is necessary for the successful management of destructive periodontal disease. Effective antimicrobial periodontal therapy aims to overwhelm periodontal pathogens with aggressive initial therapy and prevent previously suppressed pathogens from rising up anew through daily oral hygiene measures and frequent professional cleaning. Current antimicrobial periodontal therapy employs mechanical debridement performed with and without surgery, antibiotics, and antiseptics. Subgingival irrigation with povidone-iodine at the dentist's office and subgingival irrigation with dilute sodium hypochlorite for home-care constitute effective, safe, and affordable periodontal antimicrobial therapy. This article describes theoretical and practical guidelines for implementing rational and cost-effective antimicrobial principles in the management of periodontal disease.

  1. Overcoming photodynamic resistance and tumor targeting dual-therapy mediated by indocyanine green conjugated gold nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaomeng; Kong, Fenfen; Zhang, Hanbo; Luo, Lihua; Li, Qingpo; Zhu, Chunqi; Yang, Jie; Du, Yongzhong; You, Jian

    2017-07-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) have captured much attention due to the great potential to cure malignant tumor. Nevertheless, photodynamic resistance of cancer cells has limited the further efficacy of PDT. Unfortunately, the resistance mechanism and efforts to overcome the resistance still have been rarely reported so far. Here, we report a nanosystem with specific tumor targeting for combined PDT and PTT mediated by near-infrared (NIR) light, which was established by covalently conjugating indocyanine green (ICG) and TNYL peptide onto the surface of hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS). Our nanosystem (TNYL-ICG-HAuNS) was proved to possess significantly increased light stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and photothermal effect under NIR light irradiation, thus presenting a remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy. The up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2) in cancer cells during PDT induced a significant increase of ABCG2, NQO-1 and HIF-1α expression, causing PDT resistance of the cells. Interestingly, ABCG2 expression could almost keep a normal level in the whole PDT process mediated by TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. After repeated irradiations, TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could still produce almost constant ROS in cells while the Nrf2 expression reduced significantly. Furthermore, PDT resistance induced an obvious decrease of the internalization of free ICG, but didn't influence the cell uptake of TNYL-ICG-HAuNS. Our data explained that TNYL-ICG-HAuNS could overcome the photodynamic resistance of cancer cells, acting as a promising modality for simultaneous photothermal and photodynamic cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT CLINICAL FORMS OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Matveeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy is frequently applied for non-invasive destruction of basal cell carcinomas (BCC of the skin; though, there is lack of evidence for efficacy of the method. Aim: To assess objective response of BCCs to photodynamic therapy with intralesional administration of photosensitizer Radachlorin in patients with different clinical forms, stages, flow patterns and localization of BCC. Materials and methods: 45  stage I–II BCCs patients with primary and recurrent solitary (ulcerative, superficial, scleroderma-like and nodular forms and multiple lesions (predominantly Т₁– Т₂N₀M₀, with difficult to treat localization and high risk of recurrence were included during the period from March 2004 to March 2007. All patients received one cycle of photodynamic therapy with intralesional Radachlorin (0.5–1  ml/1  cm² tumor surface and irradiation dose 300  J/cm² (wavelength 662 nm. A primary outcome measure was grade of clinical and cytological lesion regression after three months. Secondary outcome measure was stable clinical and cytological reaction at the lesion site. In the long-term, lesion recurrence was assessed yearly during 5 years. Results: Complete regression of BCCs was found in 43  (95.5% patients and 47  (95.9% lesions. In 2 (4.5% patients with partial regression of 2 (4.1% lesions repeated cycles of photodynamic therapy resulted in complete response. In BCCs Т₁N₀M₀, early outcome was independent from the clinical form of the diseases; by contrast, in BCCs Т₂N₀M₀, treatment of scleroderma-like BCCs was non-significantly less effective (66.7% compared to nodular, surface (100% for both and ulcerative (92.8% forms. In the long-term, 1  tumor recurrence was observed after 29 months at the site of completely regressed ulcerative lesion. Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy with intralesional administration of photosensitizer Radachlorin is an effective treatment method for different

  3. Household light source for potent photo-dynamic antimicrobial effect and wound healing in an infective animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Azeem; Zhang, Yuxiang; Iqbal, Zafar; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional antibiotic approach. We have previously developed a novel PS containing five lysine amino acids, pentalysine-β-carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc (ZnPc(Lys) 5 ), which in the presence of light, is highly toxic against a range of bacterial strains, including hospital isolated, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we study the effect of light fluence of the two light sources on the PACT potency of ZnPc(Lys) 5 . We observed that an exposure of E.coli to a red LED light for only 2 seconds (light fluence of 0.15 J/cm 2 ) in the presence of ZnPc(Lys) 5 significantly eradicated 80% of the E.coli . We further demonstrated that a light fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 from a household light source induced a noticeable photodynamic effect in vitro and in vivo animal model. This study points to a new research direction of reducing light illumination time by increasing potency of PS.

  4. Skin reactions after photodynamic therapy are unaffected by 839 nm photobiomodulation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Vissing, Anne-Cathrine; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    measured erythema and pigment percentages and skin temperatures. RESULTS: PDT interventions induced a standardized range of erythema and edema in all subjects. Skin reactions were clinically unaffected by PBM throughout the active treatment period and at all subsequent follow-up visits (PBM vs. placebo......-PBM, P = 1.000). Clinical results were supported by similar erythema intensities and skin temperatures in PBM and placebo-PBM treated skin: median erythema 28.1% versus 30.3% (AFXL-PDT with 30 minutes MAL-incubation), 36.1% versus 35.2% (90 minutes MAL-incubation) and 39.4% versus 40.9% (180 minutes MAL......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is associated with erythema and edema. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy may stimulate the skin recovery process. We investigated the potential of PBM to reduce PDT-induced skin reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Healthy volunteers (n = 20) were...

  5. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  6. Overview on Topical 5-ALA Photodynamic Therapy Use for Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cantisani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UV contributes to a variety of skin diseases including inflammation, degenerative aging, and cancer. Historically, humans have been exposed to UV radiation mainly through occupational exposure; recreational UV exposure, however, has increased dramatically in recent years, because of outdoor leisure activities and to purposely tan for cosmetic purposes. Both UVB and UVA radiation have been shown to cause DNA damage and immunosuppression, the important forms of biological damage that lead to NMSC. Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common malignancy, whose public health significance is often unrecognized which continues to grow at an alarming rate, becoming an occupational disease. Available treatments alternative to surgery include photodynamic therapy, electrochemotherapy, cryotherapy, ablative lasers, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, ingenol mebutate, and diclofenac. Among these, photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive technique with excellent cosmetic outcome and good curative results, when used in initial stages of skin cancers for superficial lesions. It is administered under numerous and significantly varied regimens and there are a wide range of cure rates reported, permitting treatment of large and multiple lesions with excellent cosmetic results. This is an overview of photodynamic applications especially for the treatment of NMSC, with a short focus on daylight modality.

  7. Influence of protoporphyrin IX loaded phloroglucinol succinic acid dendrimer in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M. Suresh; Aruna, P.; Ganesan, S.

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems reported clinically for photosensitizers (PS) in Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is, the cause of side-effects to normal tissue due to dark toxicity. The usefulness of photosensitizers can be made possible by reducing its dark toxicity nature. In such scenario, biocompatible carriers can be used as a drug delivery system to evade the problems that arises while using free (dark toxic) drugs. So in this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system called Phloroglucinol Succinic acid (PGSA) dendrimer, entrapped a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) inside the system and investigated whether the photodynamic efficacy of the anionic surface charged dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation is enhanced than achieved by the free PpIX in HeLa cancer cell lines. Moreover, the Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored using 2‧,7‧-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA)- ROS Marker with phase contrast microscopy for the IC50 values of free and dendrimer-PpIX nano formulation. Similarly, the mode of cell death has been confirmed by cell cycle analysis for the same. For the in vitro PDT application, we have used a simple light source (Light Emitting Diode) with a power of 30-50 mW for 20 min irradiation. Hence, in this study we have taken steps to report this anionic drug delivery system is good to consider for the photodynamic therapy applications with the photosensitizer, PpIX which satisfied the prime requirement of PDT.

  8. Reactive oxygen species generating systems meeting challenges of photodynamic cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijian; Song, Jibin; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-11-21

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanism is the major cause underlying the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The PDT procedure is based on the cascade of synergistic effects between light, a photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen, which greatly favors the spatiotemporal control of the treatment. This procedure has also evoked several unresolved challenges at different levels including (i) the limited penetration depth of light, which restricts traditional PDT to superficial tumours; (ii) oxygen reliance does not allow PDT treatment of hypoxic tumours; (iii) light can complicate the phototherapeutic outcomes because of the concurrent heat generation; (iv) specific delivery of PSs to sub-cellular organelles for exerting effective toxicity remains an issue; and (v) side effects from undesirable white-light activation and self-catalysation of traditional PSs. Recent advances in nanotechnology and nanomedicine have provided new opportunities to develop ROS-generating systems through photodynamic or non-photodynamic procedures while tackling the challenges of the current PDT approaches. In this review, we summarize the current status and discuss the possible opportunities for ROS generation for cancer therapy. We hope this review will spur pre-clinical research and clinical practice for ROS-mediated tumour treatments.

  9. Is the photobleaching signal a useful tool for dosimetry during photodynamic therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Heinritz, H.; Heil, Peter; Ludwig, M.; Wessels, Jurina M.

    1994-03-01

    Photosensitizing drugs (e.g. porphyrins) are likely to be degraded upon irradiation. The mechanisms of photodegradation are complex. The photodegradation behavior of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) could be used as a tool for dosimetry and for protecting adjacent tissue against photodynamic effects. The photobleaching behavior of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid induced porphyrins has been studied. The results of in vitro experiments (Protoporphyrin IX in organic solvent) and the in vivo tests (SSK2-fibrosarcoma on C3H-mice) have shown the bleaching rate to be dependent on the environment of the photosensitizer. During its photodegradation a chlorine-type photoproduct is formed. Its spectrometric detection reveals on signals proposed for dosimetry in PDT.

  10. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

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    Ivan Mfouo-Tynga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of cell death can be predetermined (programmed or not and categorized into apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways. The process of Hayflick limits completes the execution of death-related mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are associated with oxidative stress and subsequent cytodamage by oxidizing and degrading cell components. ROS are also involved in immune responses, where they stabilize and activate both hypoxia-inducible factors and phagocytic effectors. ROS production and presence enhance cytodamage and photodynamic-induced cell death. Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT uses non-toxic chemotherapeutic agents, photosensitizer (PS, to initiate a light-dependent and ROS-related cell death. Phthalocyanines (PCs are third generation and stable PSs with improved photochemical abilities. They are effective inducers of cell death in various neoplastic models. The metallated PCs localize in critical cellular organelles and are better inducers of cell death than other previous generation PSs as they favor mainly apoptotic cell death events.

  11. Optimization and Evaluation of a Chitosan/Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Hydrogel Containing Toluidine Blue O for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh-Pin Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI combined with chitosan has been shown as a promising antimicrobial approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a chitosan hydrogel containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, chitosan and toluidine blue O (TBO to improve the bactericidal efficacy for topical application in clinics. The PDI efficacy of hydrogel was examined in vitro against the biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM was performed to investigate the penetration level of TBO into viable S. aureus biofilms. Incorporation of HMPC could increase the physicochemical properties of chitosan hydrogel including the hardness, viscosity as well as bioadhesion; however, higher HMPC concentration also resulted in reduced antimicrobial effect. CSLM analysis further demonstrated that higher HPMC concentration constrained TBO diffusion into the biofilm. The incubation of biofilm and hydrogel was further performed at an angle of 90 degrees. After light irradiation, compared to the mixture of TBO and chitosan, the hydrogel treated sample showed increased PDI efficacy indicated that incorporation of HPMC did improve antimicrobial effect. Finally, the bactericidal efficacy could be significantly augmented by prolonged retention of hydrogel in the biofilm as well as in the animal model of rat skin burn wounds after light irradiation.

  12. Intraoperative Photodynamic Diagnosis Using Talaporfin Sodium Simultaneously Applied for Photodynamic Therapy against Malignant Glioma: A Prospective Clinical Study

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    Kazuhide Shimizu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis (PDD of malignant glioma using the fluorescence from talaporfin sodium (TS, which is used simultaneously for photodynamic therapy (PDT.MethodsPatients with suspected primary malignant glioma who were eligible for surgical removal of the tumor and PDT with TS were enrolled in this prospective study. Tissue samples were obtained from the contrast-enhanced (CE region and from the surrounding non-contrast-enhanced (NCE marginal tissue at the boundary between the tumor and normal tissue. The excised samples were set into a fluorescence measurement system, which consisted of a semiconductor laser with a 400-nm wavelength for excitation, and a compact spectrometer for detection, which were applied and received through a custom-made probe consisting of coaxial optical fibers. The fluorescence spectrum was obtained, and peak intensity was calculated. Tumor cellularity was histopathologically analyzed and semi-quantitatively classified into four (0–3 categories.Results86 samples from 17 surgical cases were available for fluorescence measurement and analysis. The fluorescence from TS had a single peak at 664 nm that was easily distinguished from the 400-nm excitation light. Samples from the CE regions showed higher fluorescence intensity than those from the NCE regions (P < 0.001. DAPI staining and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that cells in the CE regions showed red fluorescence in their cytoplasm. The fluorescence was notably strong along vascular endothelium. CE samples from newly diagnosed versus recurrent cases showed no difference in fluorescence intensity (P = 0.26. Among all samples (CE and NCE combined, the fluorescence intensity was very high in those of histopathological class 3, and a trend of increased fluorescence according to histopathological class (P < 0.001 was shown. Differences between class 0 and 3 (P < 0

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy activity of gallium tetra-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin when conjugated to differently shaped platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managa, Muthumuni; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on the conjugation of differently shaped Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) with ClGa(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (ClGaTCPP). The resulting conjugates were used for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy against Staphylococcus aureus. The degree of photo-inactivation is dependent on concentration of the conjugates, light dose (fluence) and illumination time. The log reduction obtained for ClGaTCPP when conjugated to cubic PtNPs was 4.64 log (which indicate 99.99% of the bacteria have been killed), which is much higher than 3.94 log unit for ClGaTCPP-Hexagonal PtNPs and 3.31 log units for ClGaTCPP-Unshaped PtNPs. ClGaTCPP alone gave a log unit reduction of less than 3, showing the importance of conjugation to PtNPs.

  14. Immune and antioxidizing response in cancer patients to photodynamic therapy with photohem and photosens as photosensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Sokolov, Victor V.; Nemtzova, H. R.; Oganezov, Victor K.; Scherbitskaya, I. Y.; Filonenko, H. V.; Aristarkhova, E. I.; Chissov, Valery I.

    1996-01-01

    Free radicals are the main basis of anticancer effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT). At the same time, they cause different complications. The goal of this study is to investigate the changes in homeostasis of cancer patients under the influence of PDT. It was shown, as a result of study of antioxidizing and immune status of these patients, that there are significant deviations in their indices even before PDT. The treatment leads to further development of disbalance in these systems which demands correction. Several remedies have been offered for correction therapy. The application of these remedies causes the reduction of overstrain in antioxidizing defence and leads to decrease in cases of complications.

  15. Primary prevention of skin dysplasia in renal transplant recipients with photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, K; Omland, S H; Wulf, H C

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) are at high risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); prevention includes early treatment of premalignant actinic keratosis (AK). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive field therapy that reduces new AKs in patients with existing AK...... and delays SCC development in mice. We investigated the effect of repeated PDT over 5 years for primary prophylaxis of skin dysplasia. These data represent an interim analysis of an on-going randomized controlled trial. During 2008-2011, 25 renal transplant recipients with clinically normal skin were...

  16. Examples of adjuvant treatment enhancing the antitumor effect of photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Cecic, Ivana; Sun, Jinghai; Chaplin, David J.

    1999-07-01

    Strategies for improving the clinical efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in treatment of solid cancers include applications of different types of adjuvant treatments in addition to this modality that may result in superior therapeutic outcome. Examples of such an approach investigated using mouse tumor models are presented in this report. It is shown that the cures of PDT treated subcutaneous tumors can be substantially improved by adjuvant therapy with: metoclopramide (enhancement of cancer cell apoptosis), combretastatin A-4 (selective destruction of tumor neovasculature), Roussin's Black Salt (light activated tumor localized release of nitric oxide), or dendritic cell-based adoptive immunotherapy (immune rejection of treated tumor).

  17. Photo-activated elimination of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in planktonic culture: Comparison of photodynamic therapy versus photothermal therapy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Khoei, Farzaneh; Bahador, Abbas; Hakimiha, Neda

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal pathogens are the main factors responsible for periodontal diseases and considering the limitations of conventional mechanical debridement, new treatment approaches are under investigation. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effects of two different systems of photodynamic and photothermal therapy on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as the main pathogen involved in aggressive Periodontitis. Cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were exposed to 662nm laser in presence of Radachlorin ® photosensitizer (photodynamic group) or 810nm laser in presence of EmunDo ® photosensitizer (photothermal group), then bacterial suspension of each well in the study groups were diluted and subcultured on the surface of Muller-Hinton agar plates. subsequently the number of colony forming units per milliliter of the wells were determined and checked by analysis of variance and Tukey test (pphotodynamic and photothermal therapy with no priority. Based on the results of this study, photodynamic and photothermal therapy can be proposed as a new promising approaches for bacterial elimination in periodontal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pain management in photodynamic therapy using a nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture: a prospective, within-patient, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, C; Uhlmann, L; Enk, A; Gholam, P

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses. Nevertheless, severe pain during the procedure is a serious adverse effect, which leads to interruption or even termination. Complete pain relief remains a difficult challenge. To evaluate the effect of a nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture on pain intensity during photodynamic therapy. This clinical trial has been designed as a prospective, single-centre, explorative, controlled, observational study. We were able to detect a significant overall pain reduction of 55.2% after application of a nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture by means of an intra-individual comparison. Furthermore, the total number of therapy interruption significantly decreased by 82% after the inhalation analgesia. Additionally, treatment satisfaction ranged from 'extremely to very satisfied'. This study shows that analgesia by means of a nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture is a very effective and well-tolerated method for achieving significant pain reduction during photodynamic therapy. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Combination of ablative fractional laser and daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant recipients – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lei, Ulrikke; Erlendsson, A M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) for actinic keratoses (AK) is hampered by pain during illumination and inferior efficacy in organ-transplant recipients (OTR). OBJECTIVES: We assessed ablative fractional laser (AFL)-assisted daylight photodynamic therapy (PDT) (AFL-dPDT) compared...

  20. Long-pulsed dye laser versus long-pulsed dye laser-assisted photodynamic therapy for acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, M.; Togsverd, K.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL)-assisted photodynamic therapy has been suggested to be superior to laser alone for acne vulgaris but no evidence is available. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of LPDL alone versus LPDL in photodynamic therapy with methylaminolevulinic acid...

  1. Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of early stage laryngeal malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gayl Schweitzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of PHOTOFRINmediated photodynamic therapy (PDT for the treatment of Tis-T1N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCCa of the larynx in patients not amenable to or who failed conventional head and neck treatment. This is a retrospective study of 26 patients with early stage Tis-T1 SqCCa of the larynx treated with PHOTOFRIN-mediated PDT. Intravenous PHOTOFRIN (porfimer-sodium (dose 2.0 mg/kg was administered outpatient, followed by intraoperative photoactivation at 630 nm via fiberoptic microlens surface delivery (surgical light dose 50–100 J/cm2 48–60 h later. As much as 16 out of 26 patients (62% have demonstrated complete remission (average follow-up 40 months. There were 10 patients who were noted to have partial remission with recurrence observed 2–33 months subsequently retreated with either repeated PDT therapy or conventional therapy. PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy can be used as a primary modality to treat Tis-T1N0M0 tumors of the larynx or for treatment for those who have failed prior surgery and/or radiation therapy. PDT allows for preservation of function and structure to maintain or improve voice with absence of systemic toxicity. Patients may have multiple drug administrations and laser light retreatment for local disease control.

  2. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapies in a Colon Carcinoma Tumor Model (CT26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive therapeutic method for tumors with a maximum depth of 5 mm. On the other hand, most photosensitizers are also susceptible to ultrasound waves (the basis of sonodynamic therapy. Therefore, it is expected that a combination of the two therapeutic methods will increase effectiveness of photodynamic therapies for lower doses of sensitizer and curing deeper tumors. This study evaluates the synergistic effects of photodynamic and sonodynamic therapies.     Materials and methods: The study was conducted on a colon carcinoma tumor model in Balb/c mice. The colon carcinoma tumors were induced in the mice by subcutaneous injection. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal injection of Zinc Phthalocyanine liposome as a sensitizer, at first ultrasound irradiation with a known frequency and intensity was performed followed by illumination of the tumor area. Evaluation of the treatment efficacy was done using daily measurement of the tumors and calculation of their relative volumes. Also, all control groups were considered to confirm the effect of each therapeutic option in the study.   Results: In the first ten days post treatment, the relative volumes of all groups decreased significantly in comparison with the main control group, but the best response was observed in the photodynamic or sonodynamic therapy groups. The longest doubling time of tumor size was related to groups under photodynamic, sonodynamic and main therapies, and the shortest belonged to the control group.   Discussion and conclusion: Zinc phthalocyanine liposome is both a photosensitizer and sonsensitizer. Photodynamic and sonodynamic therapies can be efficient in retarding tumor growth rate. In this study, combination of the two methods did not cause improved therapeutic outcomes. It is predicted that this result is related to the choice of therapeutic agents and could be optimized in future.

  3. 2-Bromo-5-hydroxyphenylporphyrins for photodynamic therapy: photosensitization efficiency, subcellular localization and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Mafalda; Serra, Arménio C; Abrantes, Margarida; Piñeiro, Marta; Gonçalves, Ana C; Casalta-Lopes, João; Carvalho, Lina; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana B; Rocha-Gonsalves, António; Botelho, Filomena

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality capable of inducing cell death by oxidative stress through activation of a sensitizer by light. Aryl-porphyrin with hydroxyl groups are good photosensitizers and presence of bromine atoms can enhance the photodynamic activity through heavy atom effect. These facts and our previous work made pertinent to compare the photodynamic capacity of tetraaryl brominated porphyrin (TBr4) with the corresponding diaryl (BBr2) derivative. Cell cultures were incubated with the sensitizers, ranging from 50nM to 10μM and irradiated until 10J. Cell proliferation was analysed by MTT assay. Flow cytometry studies evaluated cell death pathways, mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS. For in vivo studies Balb/c nu/nu mice were injected with 4×10(6)cells. After PDT, monitoring was carried out for 12 days to establish Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Tumours were excised and histological analysis was performed. Both sensitizers seem to accumulate in the mitochondria. The molecules have no intrinsic cytotoxicity or in non-tumour cells at therapeutic concentrations. Both sensitizers induced a significant decrease of cell proliferation and growth of xenografts of melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Diaryl BBr2 is more efficient than tetraaryl TBr4, concerning intracellular ROS production, mitochondrial disruption and induction of cell death. The main cell death pathway is necrosis. TBr2 and BBr4 are promising sensitizers with good photodynamic properties and have the ability to induce cell death in human melanoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. We consider that BBr2 is a molecule that should be the subject of extensive studies towards clinical use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekgaarden, M.; van Vught, R.; Oliveira, S.; Roovers, R. C.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P. M. P.; Pieters, R. J.; van Gulik, T. M.; Breukink, E.; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and

  5. Site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies to liposomes enhances photosensitizer uptake and photodynamic therapy efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, M; van Vught, R; Oliveira, S; Roovers, R C; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P M P; Pieters, R J; Van Gulik, T M; Breukink, E; Heger, M

    2016-03-28

    Photodynamic therapy for therapy-resistant cancers will greatly benefit from targeted delivery of tumor photosensitizing agents. In this study, a strategy for the site-specific conjugation of single domain antibodies onto liposomes containing the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine was developed and tested.

  6. Current state and future of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Mimikos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy has shown promise in the treatment of early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. In photodynamic therapy (PDT, a light sensitive drug (photosensitizer and visible light cause cancer cell death by the creation of singlet oxygen and free radicals, inciting an immune response, and vascular collapse. In this paper, we review several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of early stage SCC of the head and neck, with some showing a similar response rate to surgery. Two cases are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of PDT. Then, new advances are discussed including the discovery of STAT3 crosslinking as a potential biomarker for PDT response and interstitial PDT for locally advanced cancers. Keywords: Photodynamic therapy, PDT, Squamous cell carcinoma, Head and neck cancer

  7. Conscious sedation with inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix in photodynamic therapy sessions for vulvar lichen sclerosus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabete, Joana; Campos, Sara; Lestre, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been described as an effective therapeutic option in selected cases of anogenital lichen sclerosus that are refractory to first-line treatments. However, procedure-related pain is a limiting factor in patient adherence to treatment. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old woman with highly symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus, successfully treated with photodynamic therapy. An inhaled 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen premix was administered during sessions, producing a pain-relieving, anxiolytic, and sedative effect without loss of consciousness. This ready-to-use gas mixture may be a well-tolerated and accepted alternative to classical anesthetics in Photodynamic therapy, facilitating patients' adherence to illumination of pain-prone areas.

  8. Combination photodynamic therapy of human breast cancer using salicylic acid and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh; Jahanshiri, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with methylene blue (MB) assisted photodynamic therapy (PDT) and salicylic acid (SA) as chemo-therapy anticancer agent. The binding of salicylic acid to methylene blue was studied using spectrophotometric method. The results show the 1:2 complex formation between SA and MB. The binding constants and related Gibbs free energies o are obtained (Kb1 = 183.74, Kb2 = 38.13 and ∆ Gb1° = 12.92 kJ·mol- 1, ∆ Gb2° =9.02 kJ·mol- 1). The spectrophotometric results show the improvement in solubilization and reduction prevention for SA and MB in the complex form. These results are in agreements with cellular experiments. The dark toxicity measurements represent the improve efficacy of chemotherapy using combination of SA and MB. The photodynamic therapy results (using red LED as light source (630 nm; power density: 30 mW cm- 2)) show that the cancer cell killing efficiency of MB increases in the combination with SA due to reduction prevention and stabilization of monomeric form of MB.

  9. Active immunotherapy of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Vasiliu, Virgil V.; Laky, Dezideriu; Ionescu, Paul; Dima, Stefan V.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with Walker-256 carcinosarcoma receiving as sole treatment photodynamic therapy (PDT), tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), or associated therapy (PDT + TIL - A; PDT + TIL - B). The control batch (HBSS) consisted of animals with untreated Walker-256 tumors. The results were as follows: the sole treatment (PDT, TIL) gave survival rates between 41.4 and 52.9%, the cure rates ranging from 13.8 to 38.2%. The `combined' therapy in multiple doses increased significantly (92.8%) the survival rate of tumor bearing rats as well as the highest incidence of complete tumor regression (82.1%). Cell-mediated immunity test values in batches III and IV exposed to multiple doses of PDT + TIL showed higher values as compared to the values noticed in batches I - II and the control batch V, performed at 10 and 21 days post-treatment. Summing up, this work demonstrates that `combined' photodynamic therapy with immunotherapy with TIL stimulates cell-mediated antitumoral activity, increases survival rates, and reduces incidence of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma in the rat model.

  10. EGFR-targeted photodynamic therapy by curcumin-encapsulated chitosan/TPP nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai WH

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Hsuan Tsai,1 Kun-Hua Yu,1 Yi-Cheng Huang,2 Cheng-I Lee1 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung City, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective therapy for cancers and is a minimally invasive therapy with low dark toxicity and limited side effects. PDT employs the combination of photosensitizers with a specific light source to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS to damage tumor cells. Methods: We fabricated nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin through crosslinking chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP. Additionally, the chitosan was conjugated to epidermal growth factor in order to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, overexpressed on cancer cells. To investigate PDT using fabricated nanoparticles, we measured cell viabilities and ROS production in relation to EGFR-overexpressing gastric cancer cells and non-cancer gastric cells.Results: The targeting nanoparticles displayed a superior PDT effect in the cancer cell, with a resultant approximately fourfold decrease in the IC50. The PDT mechanism of curcumin-encapsulated nanoparticles is further identified as the generation of 1O2, the major pathway in PDT.Conclusion: These curcumin-encapsulated chitosan/TPP nanoparticles are a promising targeted-PDT against EGFR-overexpressing cancers. Keywords: EGFR-targeting, cancer, photodynamic therapy, curcumin, chitosan 

  11. Multifunctional polycationic photosensitizer conjugates with rich hydroxyl groups for versatile water-soluble photodynamic therapy nanoplatforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Hu, Hao; Zhao, Nana; Xia, Tian; Yu, Bingran; Shen, Chuanan; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has already shown immense potential in antitumor fields due to its low systemic toxicity and negligible drug resistance. However, the clinical application of current photosensitizers is still restricted by the low singlet oxygen yield or insolubility. Herein, series of star-like hydroxyl-rich polycations (Pc-PGEA/Pc) with flanking phthalocyanine (Pc) were proposed for effective water-soluble photosensitizers. The designed Pc-PGEA/Pc polymers consist of one Pc core and four ethanolamine and Pc-difunctionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate) arms. The strong π-π stacking and hydrophobicity of introduced Pc units drive the amphipathic Pc-PGEA/Pc polymers to self-assemble into well-defined cationic nanoparticles. Such Pc-PGEA/Pc nanoparticles present impressive photodynamic therapy effects under moderate irradiation and remarkable photoacoustic imaging (PAI) ability. These kinds of nanoparticles also exhibit good performance as gene vectors. The PAI ability given by the proper wavelength absorbance of Pc units provides one promising method for PAI-guided combined antitumor therapy. The present work would contribute valuable information for the development of new strategies of visible antitumor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination therapy of intravitreal triamcinolone and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the six months follow-up outcome of combined intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA and photodynamic therapy (PDT for subfoveal choroidal neovascularization compared to PDT alone. Study design: Prospective interventional pilot study. Materials and Methods: Patients with six months follow-up of IVTA following PDT (Group I, eight eyes and PDT alone (Group II, eight eyes were included. Four mg/ 0.1 ml of IVTA was injected 7-10 days following PDT. The patients were reevaluated every month for the first two months and every three months thereafter in both the groups. Results: Group I: The mean age was 65.8±11.8 years (range: 47-79 years. Five patients were male. The total treatment sessions in six months were 11 (mean: 1.36. At six months, one eye had ³ 10 letters gain and three eyes had > 10 letters loss. Four eyes had stable vision. Two eyes (25% developed increased intraocular pressure (>40 mmHg during follow-up. Group II: The mean age was 58.7±11.7 years (range: 46-76 years. Five patients were male. The total treatment sessions in six months were 17 (mean: 2.13. At six months, six eyes had ³ 10 letters gain and none had > 10 letters loss. Two eyes had stable vision. Conclusion: The mean number of treatment sessions following combination therapy of IVTA (4 mg and PDT appears relatively less (1.36 at six months compared to PDT alone (mean: 2.13. ( P =0.02

  13. A comparison between effect of photodynamic therapy by LED and calcium hydroxide therapy for root canal disinfection against Enterococcus faecalis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Ashraf, Hengameh; Rahmati, Afsaneh; Amini, Neda

    2017-03-01

    Insufficient root canal disinfection is one of the main reasons for persistent periapical pathology. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proven effective in disinfecting infected root canals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photo activated disinfection (PAD) when using toluidine blue as photosensitizer and a LED lamp after the conventional treatment, and comparing it with calcium hydroxide therapy in vivo. This clinical trial includes 20 patients with molars requiring endodontic retreatment. After the conventional treatment, first microbiological samples were obtained using sterile rotary ProTaper F2 file and 3 paper points and transferred to a microbiology laboratory. Group 1 (n=10) specimens underwent PAD with photosensitizer (PS) solution (0.1mg/mL TB) and irradiation with Fotosan light emitting diode (LED) lamp (635nm, 200mW/cm2) for 60s. Creamy Ca(OH)2 paste was used in group 2 (n=10) for two weeks. A second sample was then obtained. The samples were cultured and then bacterial colonies were counted. Data included number of colony forming units (CFUs) before and after treatments, analyzed by t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS vs.18. A significant difference between results of before and after treatment of both groups (calcium hydroxide therapy p=0.02therapy and PAD with LED irradiation was 10.1968 and 11.3773. After treatment, the mean numbers were 9.4202 and 8.3772, respectively. The difference in results after treatment between groups was significant (p=0.01therapy, as auxiliary methods adjunct to conventional root canal therapy, are both effective in root canal disinfection. In comparison with calcium hydroxide therapy, PAD leads to a greater reduction in enterococcus faecalis number in the infected root canals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro evaluation of Radachlorin sensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, Samuel; Lhommeau, Isabelle; Olivier, David; Patrice, Thierry

    2010-02-12

    This paper reports the evaluation of a new photosensitizer, Radachlorin in comparison with one of its well known components but used solely, Chlorin e(6). The photodynamic properties and cell uptake and localisation of the two drugs were compared. In vitro studies were conducted on human adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) and lung carcinoma cell line (A549). Both dyes showed an absorption maximum between 640 and 650 nm, but those absorption peaks are enhanced by interactions with serum, with a shifted maximum at 661 and 664 nm, and much higher absorbance. As Radachlorin is constituted of different products and as photoreactivity is dependent on absorbed light energy, we chose to adapt concentrations so that both drugs had the same absorption at the irradiation wavelength (664 nm) for photoreactivity tests, and express concentrations in optical density at 664 nm. The capacity of the two drugs to generate Reactive Oxygen Species was identical, but on HT29 cells, Radachlorin reaches its optimal LD50 sooner than Chlorin e(6). Radachlorin LD50 on HT29 cells was 0.0251 OD(664 nm) after 2 h and 0.0672 OD(664 nm) for Chlorin e(6) for a 20 J cm(-2) irradiation. Radachlorin gave very similar results on A549 cells, LD50 being 0.05 for 5 J irradiation, and 0.026 for 10 and 20 J cm(-2). Pharmacokinetics using fluorescence showed that, even if Radachlorin quickly crossed HT29 (a human colonic cancer line) cell membrane, cellular distribution evolved from a diffuse cytoplasmic repartition 1 hour after Radachlorin addition to a delimited localisation into organelles all around the nucleus. Radachlorin intracellular fluorescence decreased after 4 h, whereas we did not observe a decrease of Chlorin e(6) intracellular fluorescence for times up to 24 h. In both case, a quick decline was observed as soon as the culture medium was replaced with a drug-free one. Radachlorin appears to be an excellent photosensitizer, with similar phototoxicity to Chlorin e(6) on cell cultures, but with quicker

  15. SU-E-T-191: First Principle Calculation of Quantum Yield in Photodynamic Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abolfath, R; Guo, F; Chen, Z; Nath, R [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a first-principle method to calculate the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen induced by any photon fields especially in MeV energy range. The optical pumping is mediated through photosensitizers, e.g., porphyrin and/or ensemble of quantum dots. Methods: Under normal conditions, oxygen molecules are in the relatively non-reactive triplet state. In the presence of certain photosensitizer compounds such as porphyrins, electromagnetic radiation of specific wavelengths can excite oxygen to highly reactive singlet state. With selective uptake of photosensitizers by certain malignant cells, photon irradiation of phosensitized tumors can lead to selective killing of cancer cells. This is the basis of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite several attempts, PDT has not been clinically successful except in limited superficial cancers. Many parameters such as photon energy, conjugation with quantum dots etc. can be potentially combined with PDT in order to extend the role of PDT in cancer management. The key quantity for this optimization is the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen by any photon field. The first principle calculation model presented here, is an attempt to fill this need. We employ stochastic density matrix description of the quantum jumps and the rate equation methods in quantum optics based on Markov/Poisson processes and calculate time evolution of the population of the optically pumped singlet oxygen. Results: The results demonstrate the feasibility of our model in showing the dependence of the optical yield in generating spin-singlet oxygen on the experimental conditions. The adjustable variables can be tuned to maximize the population of the singlet oxygen hence the efficacy of the photodynamic therapy. Conclusion: The present model can be employed to fit and analyze the experimental data and possibly to assist researchers in optimizing the experimental conditions in photodynamic therapy.

  16. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma with intralesional injection of radachlorine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Sukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of the efficiency of photodynamic therapy with photosensitizer radachlorine for basal cell carcinoma are represented. The study included patients with primary and recurrent cancer, solitary and multiple foci of different histological subtypes. All tumors corresponded stages T1-2N0M0. The radachlorine solution was injected into pathological focus at dose of 1.75-3.50 mg/ cm2 of tumor 15 min before the onset of irradiation (wavelength of 662 nm, light dose of 300 J/cm2. The evaluation of efficiency by means of short-term and long-term outcomes was performed on the basis of clinical and cytological data. According to shortterm outcomes evaluation, the total tumor regression was in 43 (95,5% patients for 47 (95,9% tumors. The partial regression was achieved in 2 (4,5% patients, who subsequently had one repeated course of photodynamic therapy with short-term outcome as total tumor regression. All patients with multiple, superficial and nodal forms of basal cell carcinoma had total tumor regression in 100% of cases, with ulcerated form – in 94,4%, with morphea-like form – in 83,3%. During follow-up in subjects, 44 (97,7% patients had 5-year recurrence-free period. The relapse of tumor was detected in 1 (2,3% patient after PDT for primary cancer of nasal ala stage Т2N0M0 of solid and adenoid histological subtype. Thus, photodynamic therapy with intralesional injection of radachlorine showed high efficiency for treating all existent clinical forms and histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. 

  17. Perspectives on the Role of Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a noninvasive procedure involving a photosensitizing agent that is activated by light to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS that selectively destroy tumor cells. In recent years, PDT has been used in the treatment of pancreatic cancer (PC. The antitumor effects of PDT include three main mechanisms: direct tumor cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagy, vascular destruction, and immune system activation. The present paper systematically summarizes the effects of PDT in the treatment of PC from the experimental studies to the clinical studies and discusses the mechanisms of PDT-induced PC destruction.

  18. Evaluation of prostatic optical properties and tissue response to photodynamic therapy in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sugandh D.; Chen, Qun; Schultz, Daniel; Wilson, Brian C.; Patterson, Michael S.; Hetzel, Fred W.; Cerny, Joseph C.

    1994-03-01

    A new modality of interstitial therapy to treat prostate cancer using photodynamic principles has been studied in a canine model. The effect of interstitial application of monochromatic light from an argon pumped dye laser at 630 nm was studied in a canine model. No significant hyperthermia was seen during the treatment. A concentric zone around the treatment fiber was seen during the treatment. A concentric zone around the treatment fiber was seen in PDT treated dogs and the maximum size was 18 mm. The data suggests that PDT may be clinically applicable in achieving tissue necrosis using interstitial light application in a solid organ like prostate.

  19. Temoporfin-loaded 1-tetradecanol-based thermoresponsive solid lipid nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brezaniova, I.; Hrubý, Martin; Králová, Jarmila; Král, V.; Černochová, Zulfiya; Černoch, Peter; Šlouf, Miroslav; Kredatusová, Jana; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 241, 10 November (2016), s. 34-44 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * nanomedicine * drug delivery Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  20. Prospects of radical-interacting porphyrin photosensitizers and their possible use in photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Dezso; Shuliakovskaya, T.; Vidoczy, Tamas; Elzemzam, Saleh; Vasvari, Gabor; Suemegi, L.; Kuti, Zsolt

    1994-03-01

    Based on literature data obtained in various fields with respect to studies on the role of free radicals in biology and on the kinetics of triplet-doublet interactions, it is suggested that excited photosensitizers react in vivo with free radicals formed in malignant tissues during photodynamic therapy (PDT) and this interaction competes with sensitizer-radical + molecule and the singlet oxygen mediated effects. Experimental results by laser flash photolysis and electron spin resonance revealed that sensitizer applied in PDT react with stable free radicals presumably both by energy transfer and electron transfer.

  1. The relation between methyl aminolevulinate concentration and inflammation after photodynamic therapy in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Susanne; Lerche, Catharina Margrethe; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and pain are well known adverse-effects in photodynamic therapy (PDT). There is currently a tendency towards introducing lower concentrations of the photosensitizer than used in the standard treatment for various indications. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reduced...... concentrations of methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) can reduce inflammation (erythema) during PDT treatment. We measured the formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) using fluorescence and monitored both erythema and pain during and after PDT treatment with conventional 16% MAL and threee reduced concentrations of 2, 0...

  2. Topical corticosteroid reduces inflammation without compromising the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S R; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and established treatment for actinic keratoses (AK) and nonmelanoma skin cancer. The main side-effects of PDT are post-treatment erythema and oedema, and pain during illumination. Severe erythema after PDT enhances the down time associated...... with methyl aminolaevulinate PDT in two symmetrical areas. One area was randomized to superpotent corticosteroid (clobetasol propionate) before and just after PDT. Objective and visual erythema, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and pain were evaluated. RESULTS: Topical corticosteroid significantly...

  3. Optoacoustic imaging of tissue blanching during photodynamic therapy of esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Viator, John A.; Paltauf, Guenther

    2000-05-01

    Esophageal cancer patients often present a highly inflamed esophagus at the time of treatment by photodynamic therapy. Immediately after treatment, the inflamed vessels have been shut down and the esophagus presents a white surface. Optoacoustic imaging via an optical fiber device can provide a depth profile of the blanching of inflammation. Such a profile may be an indicator of the depth of treatment achieved by the PDT. Our progress toward developing this diagnostic for use in our clinical PDT treatments of esophageal cancer patients is presented.

  4. [Photochemical internalisation (PCI): a further development of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Berg, K; Selbo, P K; Hofbauer, G F L

    2010-11-17

    Recently, several new and non-invasive methods have been introduced for the treatment of skin cancers. Topical creams using the immune modulator imiquimod or the COX inhibitor diclofenac (with hyaluronic acid) are now registered for use against neoplasms such as basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Another modern treatment option is photodynamic therapy (PDT). A refined version of PDT, namely photochemical internalisation, is currently subject to a first clinical trial in patients with osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer as well as adenocarcinoma of the breast. Preliminary results from this trial suggest that PCI seems to be a promising treatment.

  5. Photodynamic therapy with simultaneous suppression of multiple treatment escape pathways (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Bryan Q.; Sears, R. Bryan; Zheng, Lei Z.; Mai, Zhiming; Watanabe, Reika; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Villa, Elizabeth; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    We introduce photoactivatable multi-inhibitor nanoliposomes (PMILs) for photodynamic tumor cell and microvessel damage in synchrony with photo-initiation of tumor-confined, multikinase inhibitor release. The PMIL is a biodegradable delivery system comprised of a nanoliposome carrying a photoactivable chromophore (benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid A, BPD) in its bilayer. A multikinase inhibitor-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticle is encapsulated within the liposome, which acts a barrier to nanoparticle erosion and drug release. Following intravenous PMIL administration, near infrared irradiation of tumors triggers photodynamic therapy and initiates tumor-confined drug release from the nanoparticle. This talk presents promising preclinical data in mouse models of pancreatic cancer utilizing this concept to suppress the VEGF and MET signaling pathways—both critical to cancer progression, metastasis and treatment escape. A single PMIL treatment using low doses of a multikanse inhibitor (cabozantinib, XL184) achieves sustained tumor reduction and suppresses metastatic escape, whereas combination therapy by co-administration of the individual agents has significantly reduced efficacy. The PMIL concept is amenable to a number of molecular inhibitors and offers new prospects for spatiotemporal synchronization of combination therapies whilst reducing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicities.

  6. Effect of photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab injection on circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shun Xue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy(PDTcombined with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab on circumscribed choroidal hemangioma(CCH. METHODS:A retrospective study was performed for 6 eyes(6 casesdiagnosed as CCH. Before treatment, OCT examination showed macular cystoid edema and retinal neurepithelium layer detachment in all patients. All patients underwent photodynamic therapy, then intravitreal injection of ranibizumab 0.5mg(0.05mLwere administered at 48h after PDT. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, examination of the ocular fundus, fundus photography, fluorescence fundus angiography(FFA, indocyanine green angiography(ICGA, eye B ultrasonic and optical coherence tomography(OCTwere performed respectively at 1, 3 and 6mo after treatment. RESULTS:The patients were followed up for 4 to 10mo, the final vision of follow-up increased than before, it was raised 7 lines. The images of ICGA revealed hypofluorescence or no leakage in focal area. Eye B ultrasonic showed that hemangioma shrunk or faded. The images of ICGA revealed macular region retinal reattached well and edema disappeared completely. Mean flow-up was 6mo postoperative. There had no evidence of recurrence. CONCLUSION:For CCH patients, hemangioma got smaller obviously by PDT. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection promote effusion absorption under the retina. Combining use of the two therapies could improve visual acuity in a short-term.

  7. Influence of ultrasonic activation on photodynamic therapy over root canal system infected with Enterococcus faecalis--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinzelli, Guilherme Cavagnoli; Souza, Matheus Albino; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of ultrasonic activation on photodynamic therapy over root canal system infected with Enterococcus faecalis. The root canals of 50 single-rooted human extracted teeth were enlarged up to a file 60, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 30 days. The samples were divided into five groups (n=10) according to the protocol of decontamination: G1 (control group) - no procedure was performed; G2 - photosensitizer (0.01% methylene blue); G3 - ultrasonic activation of photosensitizer (0.01% methylene blue); G4 - photodynamic therapy with no ultrasonic activation; and G5 - photodynamic therapy with ultrasonic activation. Microbiological tests (CFU counting) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to evaluate and illustrate, respectively, the effectiveness of proposed treatments. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test (α=0.05). The microbiological test demonstrated that G5 (photodynamic therapy with ultrasonic activation) showed the lowest mean contamination (3.17 log CFU/mL), which was statistically different from all other groups (pphotodynamic therapy) showed a mean of contamination of 3.60 log CFU/mL, which was statistically different from groups 1, 2 and 3 (pphotodynamic therapy improved its potential for decontamination, resulting in the higher elimination Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delivering precision antimicrobial therapy through closed-loop control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, T M; O’Hare, D; Herrero, P; Sharma, S; Moore, L S P; de Barra, E; Roberts, J A; Gordon, A C; Hope, W; Georgiou, P; Cass, A E G; Holmes, A H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sub-optimal exposure to antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Mechanisms for optimizing the concentration of a drug within the individual patient are under development. However, several barriers remain in realizing true individualization of therapy. These include problems with plasma drug sampling, availability of appropriate assays, and current mechanisms for dose adjustment. Biosensor technology offers a means of providing real-time monitoring of antimicrobials in a minimally invasive fashion. We report the potential for using microneedle biosensor technology as part of closed-loop control systems for the optimization of antimicrobial therapy in individual patients. PMID:29211877

  9. Photosensitizer and peptide-conjugated PAMAM dendrimer for targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsireddy A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amreddy Narsireddy,1 Kurra Vijayashree,2 Mahesh G Adimoolam,1 Sunkara V Manorama,1 Nalam M Rao21CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, 2CSIR – Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Challenges in photodynamic therapy (PDT include development of efficient near infrared-sensitive photosensitizers (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl-21H,23H-porphine [PS] and targeted delivery of PS to the tumor tissue. In this study, a dual functional dendrimer was synthesized for targeted PDT. For targeting, a poly(amidoamine dendrimer (G4 was conjugated with a PS and a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA group. A peptide specific to human epidermal growth factor 2 was expressed in Escherichia coli with a His-tag and was specifically bound to the NTA group on the dendrimer. Reaction conditions were optimized to result in dendrimers with PS and the NTA at a fractional occupancy of 50% and 15%, respectively. The dendrimers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using PS fluorescence, cell uptake of these particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PS-dendrimers are more efficient than free PS in PDT-mediated cell death assays in HER2 positive cells, SK-OV-3. Similar effects were absent in HER2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Compared to free PS, the PS-dendrimers have shown significant tumor suppression in a xenograft animal tumor model. Conjugation of a PS with dendrimers and with a targeting agent has enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effects of the PS.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, dendrimers, nanoparticle, targeted delivery, Affibody, xenograft animal model

  10. Adjustment of treatment parameters for photodynamic therapy of cervical pre-cancer and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Aminodova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive study for optimization of parameters of photodynamic action with fotoditazin in patients with tumor and pre-tumor cervical diseases was conducted. The study included 52 female patients: pre-invasive cervical diseases were diagnosed in 34 (CIN I – in 9, CIN II – in 13, CIN III – in 12, cervical cancer – in 11 (8 had squamous cell cancer, 3 – adenocarcinoma of cervical canal, chronic cervicitis – in 7. The study agent in the form of 0,5% gel was applied on cervix in dose of 1 ml. To detect optimal interval between gel application and conduction of photodynamic therapy dynamics of accumulation and elimination of photosensitizer by means of its fl uorescence was studied. Fotoditazin was shown to have good accumulation in pathological tissues. The maximal agent accumulation was noticed in 30 min, continued about 15 min, and then gradually decreased. Maximal fl uorescence of photosensitizer was observed in foci of malignant tumor and severe intraepithelial neoplasia. To detect optimal light dose for irradiation cytological study of cell smear from specimen after light exposure with different light doses was performed. The minimal light dose necessary for activation of photochemical reaction pathway was 100 J/cm2, and optimal – 250 J/cm2. This dose allowed to destroy all atypical cells in the area of light exposure after application of gel fotoditazin. According to obtain data we suppose that the most effi cient regimen of photodynamic therapy with local application of fotoditazin-gel for treating dysplasia and pre-invasive cervical cancer was a dose of laser irradiation of 250 J/cm2 with duration of application of 30–45 min. 

  11. Combining magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy for tumor ablation with photoresponsive magnetic liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corato, Riccardo; Béalle, Gaëlle; Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Espinosa, Ana; Clément, Olivier; Silva, Amanda K A; Ménager, Christine; Wilhelm, Claire

    2015-03-24

    The ongoing nanotech revolution has the potential to transform diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Stimuli-triggered nanotherapies based on remotely activated agents have become attractive alternatives to conventional chemotherapy. Herein, we designed an optimized smart nanoplatform based on dually loaded hybrid liposomes to achieve enhanced tumor therapy. The aqueous core was highly loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles, while the lipid bilayer was supplied with a photosensitizer payload. The double cargo translated into double functionality: generation of singlet oxygen under laser excitation and heat production under alternating magnetic field stimulation, coupling photodynamic therapy (PDT) to magnetic hyperthermia (MHT). These liposomes address both therapeutic agents within tumor cells, and the combined PDT/MHT therapy resulted in complete cancer cell death in vitro while total solid-tumor ablation was achieved in an in vivo rodent model.

  12. Photoinduced transfer processes in complex carrier systems for photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Regehly, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Der Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die photophysikalische Untersuchung von drei unterschiedlichen Photosensibilisator-Transportsystemen hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung für die photodynamische Therapie. In Fulleren-Pyropheophorbid-a-Konjugaten (P6, FHP6, FP6) finden nach Lichtabsorption effiziente Energietransferprozesse sowie exzitonische Wechselwirkungen unter den Pyropheophorbid a Chromophoren statt. Exzitonische Interaktionen limitieren das Potential der Komplexe zytotoxischen Singulett...

  13. NIR photoregulated chemo- and photodynamic cancer therapy based on conjugated polyelectrolyte-drug conjugate encapsulated upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Youyong; Min, Yuanzeng; Hu, Qinglian; Xing, Bengang; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    The design of nanoplatforms with target recognition and near-infrared (NIR) laser photoregulated chemo- and photodynamic therapy is highly desirable but remains challenging. In this work, we have developed such a system by taking advantage of a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE)-drug conjugate and upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). The poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted CPE not only serves as a polymer matrix for UCNP encapsulation, but also as a fluorescent imaging agent, a photosensitizer as well as a carrier for chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) through a UV-cleavable ortho-nitrobenzyl (NB) linker. Upon 980 nm laser irradiation, the UCNPs emit UV and visible light. The up-converted UV light is utilized for controlled drug release through the photocleavage of the ortho-nitrobenzyl linker, while the up-converted visible light is used to initiate the polymer photosensitizer to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy. The NIR photo-regulated UCNP@CPE-DOX showed high efficiency of ROS generation and controlled drug release in cancer cells upon single laser irradiation. In addition, the combination therapy showed enhanced inhibition of U87-MG cell growth as compared to sole treatments. As two light sources with different wavelengths are always needed for traditional photodynamic therapy and photoregulated drug release, the adoption of UCNPs as an NIR light switch is highly beneficial to combined chemo- and photodynamic therapy with enhanced therapeutic effects.

  14. Optimizing Zn porphyrin-based photosensitizers for efficient antibacterial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Khazna; Tovmasyan, Artak; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Benov, Ludmil T

    2017-03-01

    Efficient photodynamic inactivation of microbes requires highly efficient photosensitizers which kill microbial cells, but spare host tissues. One way to achieve such selectivity is to use photosensitizers that are rapidly taken up by microbes and, when applied at low concentrations, efficiently kill them after a short illumination. Design of such photosensitizers requires insight into molecular properties which are critical for antimicrobial photo-efficiency. This study explores the contribution of molecular shape and exposure of charges, to the antimicrobial activity of tetra-cationic Zn porphyrin-based photosensitizers. Two isomers, ortho (2) and meta (3) hexyl and octyl Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-alkylpyridinium-2(3)-yl)porphyrins [ZnTnHex-2(3)-PyP and ZnTnOct-2(3)-PyP] were compared for uptake and photo-efficiency against a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The highest photo-efficiency was displayed by the meta hexyl derivative. At concentration as low as 1.0μM and during only 5min of preincubation with the cells, ZnTnHex-3-PyP decreased viable cell number by about 6log 10 after only 5min of illumination. Since bacterial suspensions were thoroughly washed after preincubation with photosensitizers, this effect can be attributed only to photosensitizer taken up or bound to E. coli. Irrespective of its highest uptake by the cells, the octyl meta isomer, ZnTnOct-3-PyP, did not show higher antibacterial activity than the shorter-chain hexyl derivative, ZnTnHex-3-PyP. Efficiency and eventually selectivity of antimicrobial photosensitizers can be improved by optimizing the shape of the molecule and the position of electric charges. Increasing lipophilicity and cellular uptake per se, does not necessarily materialize in high antimicrobial efficiency of the photosensitizer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  16. Photodynamic therapy with green light for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus - Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiecka, B J; Jurczyszyn, K; Nockowski, P; Murawski, M; Ziółkowski, P

    2017-03-01

    The standard treatment for lichen sclerosus (LS) is symptomatic and is primarily based on the chronic use of corticosteroids, sometimes resulting in unsatisfactory effects. Therefore, other non-pharmacological methods are being sought, which are less aggravating for the patient. LS can be treated topically by using photodynamic therapy (PDT) based on 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA). Unfortunately, therapy with the red light is often connected with severe local pain during the illumination. Green light can also be characterised by its ability to turn on photodynamic reactions in cells. The aim of this study was an evaluation into the efficacy and tolerance of 5-ALA-PDT with a green light (540nm±15nm) in 11 patients with chronic LS that were characterised by severe itching. The disease lasted from 1.5 to 4 years. All the patients were treated with three sessions of PDT. Following treatment with PDT, a significant improvement of local status, as well as a reduction of the main symptom (pruritus), were observed. No patient complained of severe pain during the sessions that would have required an interruption of irradiation or local application of analgesics. Our preliminary results of using green light in PDT for superficial skin non-oncological lesions are very promising but require further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of two photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy using light pulses in femtosecond regime: an animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Clóvis; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality for cancer treatment based on the interaction of light with a sensitizer agent and molecular oxygen present into the target cells. The aim of this study is the evaluation of photodynamic therapy using pulsed light source in the femtosecond regime through necrosis induced in healthy rat liver. The induced necrosis profile with CW laser and pulsed laser were evaluated in animal model, which received Photodithazine (chlorine e6 derivative). The light sources used in these studies were a 660 nm CW diode laser and a Ti:Sapphire Regenerative Amplifier laser (1 kHz repetition rate and 100 fs pulse width) associated with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to convert to 660 nm. The results were compared with a previous study when was used a hematoporphyrin derivative (Photogem) as a sensitizer. The induced necrosis with Photogen was greater with pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm) in comparison with CW laser (1.0 ± 0.2 mm), while in Photodithazine the induced necrosis with was greater with CW laser (2.9 +/- 0.2 mm) comparing the pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm). These results indicate dependence of PDT mechanisms with photosensitizer and the light regime applied.

  18. Clinical effect of photodynamic therapy on primary carious dentin after partial caries removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Adriano Moreno NEVES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to assess the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT in the decontamination of the deep dentin of deciduous molars submitted to partial removal of carious tissue. After cavity preparation, dentin samples were taken from the pulp wall of nineteen deciduous molars before and after PDT application. Remaining dentin was treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye followed by irradiation with an InGaAlP diode laser (λ – 660 nm; 40 mW; 120 J/cm2; 120 s. Dentin samples were microbiologically assessed for the enumeration of total microorganisms, Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci. There was no significant difference in the number of colony-forming units (CFU for any of the microorganisms assessed (p > 0.05. Photodynamic therapy, using 0.01% methylene blue dye at a dosimetry of 120 J/cm2 would not be a viable clinical alternative to reduce bacterial contamination in deep dentin.

  19. Autophagy Contributes to the Death/Survival Balance in Cancer PhotoDynamic Therapy

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    Luciana Dini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cellular program with a “double face” role, since it promotes either cell survival or cell death, also in cancer therapies. Its survival role occurs by recycling cell components during starvation or removing stressed organelles; when damage becomes extensive, autophagy provides another programmed cell death pathway, known as Autophagic Cell Death (ACD. The induction of autophagy is a common outcome in PhotoDynamic Therapy (PDT, a two-step process involving the irradiation of photosensitizer (PS-loaded cancer cells. Upon tissue oxygen interaction, PS provokes immediate and direct Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS-induced damage to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER, mitochondria, plasma membrane, and/or lysosomes. The main biological effects carried out in cancer PDT are direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells, vasculature damage and induction of inflammatory reactions stimulating immunological responses. The question about the role of autophagy in PDT and its putative immunological impact is hotly controversial and largely studied in recent times. This review deals with the induction of autophagy in PDT protocols and its dual role, also considering its interrelationship with apoptosis, the preferential cell death program triggered in the photodynamic process.

  20. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the head and neck: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-07-01

    Forty-nine patients with neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx and tracheobronchial tree have been treated with photodynamic therapy with follow-up to 40 months. Those patients with primary recurrent leukoplakia, carcinoma-in-situ, and T1 carcinomas obtained a complete response after one photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment and remain free of disease. Eight patients with T2 and T3 carcinomas treated with PDT obtained a complete or partial response, but in all cases, the carcinomas recurred locally, many times with overlying normal mucosa. This is due to the inability to adequately deliver laser light to the depths of the tumor bed, despite aggressive use of interstitial implantation. PDT is highly effective for the curative treatment of early carcinomas (CIS, T1) of the head and neck. Further development of devices to measure and deliver light into the depths of a tumor bed are required prior to the use of PDT to effectively treat larger solid tumors of the head and neck.

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bernegossi, Jéssica; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-03-11

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  2. Colloidal gold nanorings for improved photodynamic therapy through field-enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Yang, Yamin; Wang, Hongjun; Du, Henry

    2013-02-01

    Au nanostructures that exhibit strong localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have excellent potential for photo-medicine, among a host of other applications. Here, we report the synthesis and use of colloidal gold nanorings (GNRs) with potential for enhanced photodynamic therapy of cancer. The GNRs were fabricated via galvanic replacement reaction of sacrificial Co nanoparticles in gold salt solution with low molecular weight (Mw = 2,500) poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as a stabilizing agent. The size and the opening of the GNRs were controlled by the size of the starting Co particles and the concentration of the gold salt. UV-Vis absorption measurements indicated the tunability of the SPR of the GNRs from 560 nm to 780 nm. MTT assay showed that GNRs were non-toxic and biocompatible when incubated with breast cancer cells as well as the healthy counterpart cells. GNRs conjugated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) photosensitizer precursor led to elevated formation of reactive oxygen species and improved efficacy of photodynamic therapy of breast cancer cells under light irradiation compared to 5-ALA alone. These results can be attributed to significantly enhance localized electromagnetic field of the GNRs.

  3. Photodynamic therapy versus ultrasonic irrigation: interaction with endodontic microbial biofilm, an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Omid H; Chevalier, Marlene; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Brulat-Bouchard, Nathalie; Medioni, Etienne

    2014-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy was introduced as an adjuvant to conventional chemo-mechanical debridement during endodontic treatment to overcome the persistence of biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to disrupt an experimental microbial biofilm inside the root canal in a clinically applicable working time. Thirty extracted teeth were prepared and then divided in three groups. All samples were infected with an artificially formed biofilm made of Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus salivarius, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia bacteria. First group was treated with Aseptim Plus® photo-activated (LED) disinfection system, second group by a 650 nm Diode Laser and Toluidine blue as photosensitizer, and the third group, as control group, by ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) using EDTA 17% and NaOCl 2.6% solutions. The working time for all three groups was fixed at 3 min. Presence or absence of biofilm was assessed by aerobic and anaerobic cultures. There was no statistically significant difference between results obtained from groups treated by Aseptim Plus® and Diode Laser (Ptherapy could not disrupt endodontic artificial microbial biofilm and could not inhibit bacterial growth in a clinically favorable working time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photodynamic therapy by conjugation of cell-penetrating peptide with fluorochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kyu; Kim, Yong Ho; Hwangbo, Suhyun; Cho, Hoonsung

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative therapy that could be used as an adjunct to chemotherapy and surgery for cancer, and works by destroying tissue with visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer (PS) and oxygen. The PS should restrict tissue destruction only to the tumor and be activated by light of a specific wavelength; both of these properties are required. Arginine-rich peptides, such as cell-penetrating peptides, have membrane-translocating and nuclear-localizing activities, which have led to their application in various drug delivery modalities. Protamine (Pro) is an arginine-rich peptide with membrane-translocating and nuclear-localizing properties. The reaction of an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of rhodamine (Rho) and clinical Pro was carried out in this study to yield RhoPro, and a demonstration of its phototoxicity, wherein clinical Pro improved the effect of PDT, was performed. The reaction between Pro and the NHS ester of Rho is a solution-phase reaction that results in the complete modification of the Pro peptides, which feature a single reactive amine at the N-terminal proline and a single carboxyl group at the C-terminal arginine. This study aimed to identify a new type of PS for PDT by in vitro and in vivo experiments and to assess the antitumor effects of PDT, using the Pro-conjugated PS, on a cancer cell line. Photodynamic cell death studies showed that the RhoPro produced has more efficient photodynamic activities than Rho alone, causing rapid light-induced cell death. The attachment of clinical Pro to Rho, yielding RhoPro, confers the membrane-internalizing activity of its arginine-rich content on the fluorochrome Rho and can induce rapid photodynamic cell death, presumably owing to light-induced cell membrane rupture. PDT using RhoPro for HT-29 cells was very effective and these findings suggest that RhoPro is a suitable candidate as a PS for solid tumors.

  5. In-office Painless Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy: A Proof of Concept Study and Clinical Experience in More Than 100 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pain of in-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy aimed at decreasing treatment-associated pain in patients undergoing removal of actinic keratoses. Prospective split-face study comparing short aminolevulinic acid incubation times of 15 minutes followed by extended exposure (60 minutes) of continuous blue light versus conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Prospective assessment of pain in patients undergoing in-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Clinical practice office. Three patients with actinic keratoses participated in the split-face study and 101 in the pain assessment study. Evaluations in the split-face study included removal of actinic keratoses, skin temperature, and pain measured on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale in the pain assessment study. In the split-face study, in-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy resulted in a 52-percent reduction in lesions versus 44 percent for conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy. Maximum pain scores of in-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy were all 0 at each time point, and the average score for conventional aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy was 7. Baseline skin temperatures increased from a baseline of 29 to 32°C to 34 to 35°C by minute 10 of blue light activation on both sides of the face. RESULTS from the pain assessment study indicated no or minimal (scores 0-2) pain in nearly all patients who received in-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy as monotherapy or in combination with 5-fluoruacil or imiquimod used as pretreatments. In-office "painless" aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy appears to be effective for removing actinic keratoses and is associated with little or no pain in nearly all patients. This procedure should be evaluated in large-scale controlled trials.

  6. "Smart" nickel oxide based core–shell nanoparticles for combined chemo and photodynamic cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bano S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shazia Bano,1–3,* Samina Nazir,2,* Saeeda Munir,3 Mohamed Fahad AlAjmi,4 Muhammad Afzal,1 Kehkashan Mazhar3 1Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 2Nanosciences and Technology Department, National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, 3Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We report “smart” nickel oxide nanoparticles (NOPs as multimodal cancer therapy agent. Water-dispersible and light-sensitive NiO core was synthesized with folic acid (FA connected bovine serum albumin (BSA shell on entrapped doxorubicin (DOX. The entrapped drug from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA was released in a sustained way (64 hours, pH=5.5, dark conditions while a robust release was found under red light exposure (in 1/2 hour under λmax=655 nm, 50 mW/cm2, at pH=5.5. The cell viability, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diphenylisobenzofuran assays conducted under light and dark conditions revealed a high photodynamic therapy potential of our construct. Furthermore, we found that the combined effect of DOX and NOPs from NOP-DOX@BSA-FA resulted in cell death approximately eightfold high compared to free DOX. We propose that NOP-DOX@BSA-FA is a potential photodynamic therapy agent and a collective drug delivery system for the systemic administration of cancer chemotherapeutics resulting in combination therapy. Keywords: light-triggered drug release, cancer, bovine serum albumin, multi-model therapy

  7. The effect of photodynamic therapy and polymer solution containing nano-particles of Ag /ZnO on push-out bond strength of the sealers AH-Plus and MTA Fillapex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Negin; Divband, Baharak; Rezaei, Yashar; Jabbari, Golchin; Payahoo, Salar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to examine and compare the effect of photodynamic therapy and solution containing nano particles Ag/ZnO on adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentinal walls of human root canal. Ninty single-rooted human teeth were selected and their clinical crown was cut from the cemento-enamel junction zone. Canals were prepared by RaCe rotary system and the smear layer was removed using 17% EDTA and 5.25% NaOCl. Samples were randomly divided into two groups of AH Plus and MTA Fillapex based on the sealer type and each group based on antimicrobial method was divided into two sub-groups of photodynamic therapy and polymer containing nano particles of Ag / ZnO and a control sub-group (N = 15). After obturation of canals with gutta-percha and sealers mentioned, the samples were incubated for a week at a humidity of 95% and 37°C and then 2mm thick discs were prepared from the middle region of roots for Push-out test. The maximum failure force was recorded in newton and converted to MPa. Then, 3 random specimens of each subgroup were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed by Two way ANOVA and ( P particles, Photodynamic therapy, Push-out.

  8. Remarkable response to photodynamic therapy in residual T4N0M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indrasari, S. R.; Timmermans, A. J.; Wildeman, M. A.; Karakullukcu, M. B.; Herdini, C.; Hariwiyanto, B.; Tan, I. B.

    2012-01-01

    Local treatment of residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a challenge. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established treatment modality for incurable head and neck carcinoma. Several studies reported induction of an immune response after PDT. We present a patient with residual T4N0M0

  9. Photodynamic therapy with topical methyl- and hexylaminolevulinate for prophylaxis and treatment of UV-induced SCC in hairless mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Poulsen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) is a long-chained 5-aminolevulinic acid-ester that has been proposed as a novel photosensitizing agent to methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). The more lipophilic HAL, may improve treatment outcome for non-melanoma skin cancer....

  10. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF THE CANINE PERITONEUM - NORMAL TISSUE-RESPONSE TO INTRAPERITONEAL AND INTRAVENOUS PHOTOFRIN FOLLOWED BY 630NM LIGHT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TOCHNER, Z; MITCHELL, JB; HOEKSTRA, HJ; SMITH, P; DELUCA, AM; BARNES, M; HARRINGTON, F; MANYAK, M; RUSSO, D; RUSSO, A

    1991-01-01

    A toxicity study was performed in a canine model to explore the feasibility of using intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Dogs received 1.25 mg/kg Photofrin II both intravenously (48 hours) and intraperitoneally (2 hours) before intraperitoneal light

  11. Studying the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to enhance healing of femur fractures using polarimetric second-harmonic generation microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaraei, Ahmad; Raja, Vaishnavi; Akens, Margarete K.; Wilson, Brian C.; Barzda, Virginijus

    2017-07-01

    Linear polarization-in, polarization-out second-harmonic generation microscopy was used to study the effect of Photodynamic therapy treatment on enhancing the healing of femur fracture by investigating the ultrastructure of collagen as a major component of bone matrix.

  12. Use of fluorescent probes for ROS to tease apart Type I and Type II photochemical pathways in photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves the excitation of a non-toxic dye by harmless visible light to produce a long-lived triplet state that can interact with molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage biomolecules and kill cells. ROS produced by electron transfer (Type 1......, phenothiazinium dyes interacting with inorganic salts such as azide....

  13. Fractionated aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy provides additional evidence for the use of PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E. R. M.; de Vijlder, H. C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    ?Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an accepted treatment for superficial basal cel carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowens disease. In Rotterdam, extensive preclinical research has lead to an optimized twofold illumination scheme for aminolevulinic acid-PDT (ALA-PDT). Objective To provide additional

  14. Monitoring ALA-induced PpIX Photodynamic Therapy in the Rat Esophagus Using Fluorescence and Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; de Bruijn, Henriette S.; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of phased protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) bleach kinetics has been shown to correlate with esophageal response to 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in animal models. Here we confirm the existence of phased PpIX photobleaching by increasing the temporal resolution of

  15. Pretreatment with 5-Fluorouracil Cream Enhances the Efficacy of Daylight-mediated Photodynamic Therapy for Actinic Keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Heerfordt, Ida Marie; Wiegell, Stine R

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate is reduced when treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the extremities in comparison with the face and scalp. Studies indicate that PDT efficacy can be improved by combining PDT with other treatment modalities. This randomized int...

  16. EGFR targeted nanobody-photosensitizer conjugates for photodynamic therapy in a pre-clinical model of head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Driel, Pieter B A A; Boonstra, Martin C.; Slooter, Maxime D.; Heukers, Raimond; Stammes, Marieke A.; Snoeks, Thomas J A; De Bruijn, Henriette S.; Van Diest, Paul J.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; Van De Velde, Cornelis J H; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Robinson, Dominic J.; Oliveira, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces cell death through local light activation of a photosensitizer (PS) and has been used to treat head and neck cancers. Yet, common PS lack tumor specificity, which leads to collateral damage to normal tissues. Targeted delivery of PS via antibodies has

  17. Meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin photodynamic therapy in early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copper, Marcel P.; Tan, I. Bing; Oppelaar, Hugo; Ruevekamp, Marjan C.; Stewart, Fiona A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new treatment modality for various types of cancer, including cancer of the head and neck. The advent of the second-generation photosensitizers such as meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) (Foscan; Scotia Pharmaceuticals, Stirling, Scotland),

  18. Changes in cell migration due to the combined effects of sonodynamic therapy and photodynamic therapy on MDA-MB-231 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    Sono-photodynamic therapy is an emerging method with an increasing amount of research having demonstrated its anti-cancer efficacy. However, the impacts of cell migration ability after sono-photodynamic therapy have seldom been reported. In this study, we identified cell migration by wound healing and transwell assays. Significant inability of cell migration was observed in combined groups accompanied by the decline of cell adhesion. Cells in combined treatment groups showed serious microfilament network collapse as well as decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9. These results suggested that sono-photodynamic therapy could inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell migration and that the microfilament and matrix metalloproteinases-9 disorder might be involved.

  19. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II for Hilar type early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an increase in lung cancer incidence has been recognized internationally, and more early stage cases of lung cancer are being detected as a result of improvements in survey and diagnostic techniques, including flexible bronchofiberscope. However, some early stage cases that are inoperable due to age, poor pulmonary function, etc. are generally treated with conventional modalities, such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Modality to curatively treat such inoperable early stage lung cancers has still not been established. PhotoDynamic Therapy is a newly developed local therapeutic modality which has been shown to be able to obtain complete response and cure in those early stage lung cancers with carcinoma in situ. The objective of this study is, first, to evaluate the activity and toxicity of PDT with Photofrin II in hilar type of early lung cancer, and second, to determine the complete response rate as primary end-point. (author). 5 tabs

  20. Water-soluble polymer conjugates of ZnPP for photodynamic tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehly, M; Greish, K; Rancan, F; Maeda, H; Böhm, F; Röder, B

    2007-01-01

    Zn-protoporphyrin (ZnPP) is a promising candidate for cancer therapy. It is known to inhibit heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), resulting in suppressed biliverdin/bilirubin production accompanying lowered antioxidative capacity. As a consequence, a significant suppression of tumor growth in vivo was reported. Recent findings also showed that ZnPP efficiently generated reactive singlet oxygen under illumination of visible light. In the present report, we describe the photosensitizing capabilities of water-soluble polymer conjugates of ZnPP as novel compounds for photodynamic therapy against solid tumors. The polymer conjugation made ZnPP water-soluble, thus possible for injection for its aqueous solution. The cellular uptake and photobiological activity of ZnPP derivatives have been tested using a human T-cell leukemia cell line in vitro and demonstrated most potent phototoxic effects of SMA-ZnPP followed by PEG-ZnPP under aerobic conditions.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for mycosis fungoides: a case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Hunger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. In early stages of the disease, topical therapeutic approaches like steroids, chemotherapy, phototherapy or spot radiation therapy are most commonly used. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is widely executed in the treatment of actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. The effective use of PDT for early forms of MF has been previously demonstrated in a series of cases. In this instance, the treatment of MF (n = 6, 11 lesions with methyl alanine PDT (MAL-PDT in 73% of the treated lesions showed a complete response. Within the timeframe of 25-51 months, no recurrence of the successfully treated lesions was observed, on the contrary some of the patients developed new lesions on different sites. Hence, this case study shows that patients having a single or few MF lesions can be successfully treated by PDT.

  2. A graphene quantum dot photodynamic therapy agent with high singlet oxygen generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiechao; Lan, Minhuan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Guo, Liang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Qingyan; Niu, Guangle; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Hangyue; Meng, Xiangmin; Wang, Pengfei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-08-08

    Clinical applications of current photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are often limited by their low singlet oxygen ((1)O2) quantum yields, as well as by photobleaching and poor biocompatibility. Here we present a new PDT agent based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) that can produce (1)O2 via a multistate sensitization process, resulting in a quantum yield of ~1.3, the highest reported for PDT agents. The GQDs also exhibit a broad absorption band spanning the UV region and the entire visible region and a strong deep-red emission. Through in vitro and in vivo studies, we demonstrate that GQDs can be used as PDT agents, simultaneously allowing imaging and providing a highly efficient cancer therapy. The present work may lead to a new generation of carbon-based nanomaterial PDT agents with overall performance superior to conventional agents in terms of (1)O2 quantum yield, water dispersibility, photo- and pH-stability, and biocompatibility.

  3. Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy of moderate to thick actinic keratoses of the face and scalp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Fabricius, S.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    response rate and light dose in patients who received an effective light dose of > 3·5 J cm . Conclusions: Daylight-mediated PDT of moderate to thick AKs was less effective than daylight-mediated PDT of thin AKs especially in some centres. However, nearly all thicker lesions (grades II and III) were......Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for nonmelanoma skin cancers and actinic keratoses (AKs). Daylight-mediated PDT is a simple and tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. Methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT is approved for the treatment of thin or nonhyperkeratotic AKs...... on the face and scalp. However, thick AK lesions are often treated as well when present in the field-cancerized treatment area. Objectives: In a randomized multicentre study to evaluate efficacy of daylight-mediated PDT for different severity grades of AKs. Methods One hundred and forty-five patients...

  4. Effectiveness of erythrosine-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on dental plaque aerobic microorganisms: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Manohar; Acharya, Swathi; Prasad, Kakarla Veera Venkata; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Bhat, Anithraj; Bhat, Devikripa

    2017-01-01

    Dental plaque is one of the predominant causes of major oral diseases. Although mechanical and chemical methods are extensively followed to control the development of plaque, plaque-related diseases still persist. Therefore, this necessitates for alternative measures of plaque control, one such alternative is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Split mouth randomized clinical trial (CTRI/2017/03/008239) was conducted on 30 participants who reported to the hospital. Participants were asked to rinse their mouth for 1 min using 10 ml of 25 μM erythrosine solutions. Same tooth on both quadrants of the same jaw are selected as the test and control. Intervention used was halogen-based composite curing light with wavelength of 500-590 nm. Plaque sample from the control tooth and test tooth was collected before and after exposure, respectively, and sent to microbiological laboratory for colony count. Logarithmic mean and standard deviation of control group with 10 2 dilutions of aerobic microbial count were found to be 5.34 ± 0.94, and for experimental group, it was 4.47 ± 1.37. The statistical difference between mean CFU values between aerobic bacterial counts was significant ( P = 0.006). Erythrosine-mediated PACT reduces the extent of dental plaque microbial count and has a potential preventive and therapeutic use in day-to-day life and dental clinics.

  5. The treatment of larynxpapillomas with the aid of photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyh, H.

    1992-01-01

    HPV associated papillomas are the most common benign laryngeal tumors in children and show similar distribution to both sexes. Papilloma and condyloma are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) belonging to the family of papovaviruses. Numerous studies have shown that there are at least 16 HPV subspecies apparent in man causing different diseases. In children larynx papillomas are histologically benign whereas in adults papillomatosis turns into cancer in 20% of the cases. Conventional therapy is based on a surgical removal of the papillomas by means of carbondiogsite laser systems. Because of the recurrent character of this disorder the increasing number of surgical interventions leave scars in the mucous membranes of the vocal cords of the larynx. This results in increasing malfunctioning of the larynx. All other treatment agents that have been added to surgery like steroids, aureomycine, Idoxoridine, Podophyllin, Vaccine and Interferon showed no significant effect to prolonge the treatment interval for the recurrent larynx papillomatosis. As a new treatment modality PDT confirmed to be a functional therapeutic agent for recurrent laryngeal papillomas. (author). 12 refs

  6. Effectiveness of repeated photodynamic therapy in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prażmo, Ewa Joanna; Godlewska, Renata Alicja; Mielczarek, Agnieszka Beata

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and to analyse how a repeated light irradiation, replenishment of oxygen and photosensitiser affect the results of the photodynamic disinfecting protocol. After chemomechanical preparation, 46 single-rooted human teeth were infected with a clinical strain of E. faecalis and incubated for a week in microaerobic conditions. The experimental procedures included groups of single application of photodynamic therapy, two cycles of PDT, irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl solution and negative and positive control. The number of residing bacterial colonies in the root canals was determined based on the CFU/ml method. In the group of preparations irrigated with NaOCl, bacterial colonies were not observed. A single PDT eliminated 45% of the initial CFU/ml. Repeated PDT eradicated 95% of the intracanal bacterial biofilm. Photodynamic therapy has a high potential for the elimination of E. faecalis biofilm. There is a safe therapeutic window where photoinduced disinfection can be used as an adjuvant to conventional endodontic treatment, which remains the most effective.

  7. Near-infrared Au nanorods in photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia agents, and near-infrared optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Chich-Neng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Meng-Heng; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    The development of multifunctional nanomaterials is currently a topic of interest in the field of nanotechnology. Integrated systems that incorporate therapeutics, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities are considered to be the next generation of multifunctional nanomedicine. In this work, we present the first example of using Au nanorods simultaneously serving not only as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy A549 malignant cells but also as optical contrast agents simultaneously to monitor cellular image. Au nanorods were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia. With the combination of PDT and hyperthermia proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or hyperthermia treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction. Moreover, Au nanorods conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and simultaneously acted as a promising cellular image probe. As a result, the preparation of Au nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials.

  8. A study of the control of oral plaque biofilms via antibacterial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmassebi, J F; Drogkari, E; Wood, S R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the most effective erythrosine concentration and light dose for the erythrosine-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral plaque biofilms formed in vivo. A randomised controlled study with 15 volunteers was carried out to investigate the effect of photo-sensitiser and light dose on the killing of bacteria in oral plaque biofilms formed in vivo. All volunteers wore a removable in situ appliance carrying six enamel slabs for two phases of 2 weeks each. During this time, plaque biofilms accumulated on the enamel slabs. The slabs were then removed from the appliances for PDT treatment in vitro. In the first phase of the study, erythrosine doses of 22 and 220 μM were used for the photodynamic treatment of the biofilms. In the second phase, the erythrosine concentration was kept constant, and the light dose was varied. Following treatment, the biofilms were disaggregated, and the total bacterial killing was determined using colony counting. The erythrosine dose of 220 μM caused the most cell killing relative to controls. Fifteen minutes of continuous irradiation with light and light fractionation of 5 × 1 min irradiation separated by 2-min-dark recovery periods were found to be the most effective bactericidal regimes. Erythrosine-based PDT shows promise as an antibacterial treatment for oral plaque biofilms. Further research is needed to prove its clinical and cost-effectiveness compared with current best practice.

  9. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization with enlargement of the spot size to include the feeding complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas, Alexandros A Rouvas, Dimitrios A Karagiannis, Athanasios I Kotsolis, Ioannis D LadasDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical School of Athens University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: This is a case report of a 83-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV, due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD in his right eye. Digital fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICG were performed, which disclosed predominantly classic subfoveal CNV and a dilated and tortuous feeding complex. The visual acuity was 20/800. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment was suggested, however, the patient was not keen to receive an intraocular injection. Modified photodynamic therapy (PDT with spot size enlarged, to include not only the CNV lesion but the feeding complex as well, was performed. Ten days after one session of PDT, ICG showed absence of leakage from the CNV and complete occlusion of the feeding complex. The visual acuity gradually improved to 20/100 and remained stable during the following 23 months. No evidence of CNV leakage was seen in the FA and ICG during the follow up period. Adjustment of the PDT spot size to include the detectable by ICG feeding complex might be an additional option in order to close the subfoveal CNV and might be considered as an alternative to intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF in selected cases where anti-VEGF treatment is not available.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, photodynamic treatment, feeder vessel

  10. Functional manganese dioxide nanosheet for targeted photodynamic therapy and bioimaging in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongchan; Ahn, Seong Min; Lee, Ji-Seon; Kim, Tae Shik; Min, Dal-Hee

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been widely studied as a promising non-invasive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. However, the poor solubility of photosensitizer (PS) in aqueous solution and inefficient cell-penetrating capability have limited the target-specific PDT. Herein, we develop a novel targeted photodynamic therapeutic and bioimaging system based on folic acid (FA)-conjugated MnO2 (FA-MnO2) nanosheet as a new carrier of PS, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). ZnPc loaded FA-MnO2 nanosheet (FA-MnO2/ZnPc) complex is successfully formed by electrostatic interaction and coordination. We find that FA-MnO2/ZnPc complex exhibits excellent targeted delivery of ZnPc into folate receptor positive cancer cells and the ZnPc is released out from the complex via endogenous glutathione (GSH) stimulus, facilitating simultaneous bioimaging and targeted PDT by singlet oxygen (SO) generation upon light irradiation, showing high efficacy with only one tenth of conventional PS dosage in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles loaded with Photosens photosensitizer for effective photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanadeev, Vitaly; Khlebtsov, Boris; Packirisamy, Gopinath; Khlebtsov, Nikolai

    2017-03-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used for drug delivery applications due to high biodegradability, low toxicity and high loading capacity. The focus of this study is the development of photosensitizer Photosens (PS) loaded albumin NPs for efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT). To fabricate PS-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-PS NPs), we used a coacervation method with glutaraldehyde followed by passive loading of PS. Successful loading of PS was confirmed by appearance of characteristic peak in absorption spectrum which allows to determine the PS loading in BSA NPs. The synthesized BSA-PS NPs demonstrated low toxicity to HeLa cells at therapeutic concentrations of loaded PS. Compared to free PS solution, the synthesized BSA-PS NPs generated the singlet oxygen more effectively under laser irradiation at 660 nm. In addition, due to presence of various chemical groups on the surface of BSA-PS NPs, they are capable to adsorb on cell surface and accumulate in cells due to cellular uptake mechanisms. Owing to combination of PD and cell uptake advantages, BSA-PS NPs demonstrated higher efficacy of photodynamic damage to cancer cells as compared to free PS at equivalent concentrations. These results suggest that non-targeted BSA-PS NPs with