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Sample records for antimicrobial chemotherapy pact

  1. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT), using Toluidine blue O inhibits the viability of biofilm produced by Candida albicans at different stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Paula; Rosseti, Isabela Bueno; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; da Silva, Bruna Graziele Marques; Alberto-Silva, Carlos; Costa, Maricilia Silva

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus producing both superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has been demonstrated that C. albicans ability to form biofilms is a crucial process for colonization and virulence. Furthermore, a correlation between the development of drug resistance and biofilm maturation at Candida biofilms has been shown. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a non-toxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PACT, using Toluidine Blue O (TBO) on the viability of biofilms produced by C. albicans at different stages of development. In this study, the effects of PACT on both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans were studied. Biofilm formation and viability were determined by a metabolic assay based on the reduction of XTT assay. In addition, the morphology of the biofilm was observed using light microscopy. PACT inhibited both biofilm formation and viability of the biofilm produced by C. albicans. Furthermore, PACT was able to decrease the number of both cells and filamentous form present in the biofilm structure. This inhibitory effect was observed in both early and mature biofilms. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the potential of PACT (using TBO) as an effective antifungal therapy, including against infections associated with biofilms at different stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  4. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Li, Linsen; Hu, Ping; Chen, Song; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys) 5 ) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys) 5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  5. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  6. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial chemotherapy and Sustainable Development: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy is a highly valued medical science which has shaped modern humanity in a phenomenal fashion. Within the past half century, a wide variety of antimicrobial substances have been discovered, designed and synthesized; literally hundreds of drugs have been successfully used in some fashion ...

  8. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy with the novel amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Yuan

    Full Text Available Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT, as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo. The PACT protocol exposed 4I to illumination, exhibiting high antimicrobial efficacy on two different strains due to a high yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS and non-selectivity to microorganisms. The photoinactivation effects of 4I against two different strains were dose-dependent. At 3.9 μM and 7.8 μM, PACT induced 6 log units of inactivation of sensitive and multidrug resistant strains. In contrast, 4I alone and illumination alone treatments had no visibly antimicrobial effect. Moreover, cytotoxicity tests revealed the great safety of the photosensitizer 4I in mice. In the in vivo study, we found 4I-mediated PACT was not only able to kill bacteria but also accelerated wound recovery. Compared with non-treated mice, over 2.89 log reduction of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain was reached in PACT treat mice at 24 h post-treatment. These results imply that 4I-mediated PACT therapy is an effective and safe alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy and has clinical potential for superficial drug-resistant bacterial infections.

  9. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  10. Randomized in vivo evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on deciduous carious dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this randomized in vivo study was to compare antimicrobial chemotherapies in primary carious dentin. Thirty-two participants ages 5 to 7 years underwent partial caries removal from deep carious dentin lesions in primary molars and were subsequently divided into three groups: control [chlorhexidine and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC)], LEDTB [photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with light-emitting diode associated with toluidine blue solution and RMGIC], and LMB [PACT with laser associated with methylene blue solution and RMGIC]. The participants were submitted to initial clinical and radiographic examinations. Demographic features and biofilm, gingival, and DMFT/DMFS indexes were evaluated, in addition to clinical and radiographic followups at 6 and 12 months after treatments. Carious dentin was collected before and after each treatment, and the number of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Atopobium rimae, and total bacteria was established by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No signs of pain or restoration failure were observed. All therapies were effective in reducing the number of microorganisms, except for S. sobrinus. No statistical differences were observed among the protocols used. All therapies may be considered as effective modern approaches to minimal intervention for the management of deep primary caries treatment.

  11. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  12. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida B; Simionato, Maria Regina L; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A A C

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm(-2); 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  13. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  14. Evaluation of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Therapy (PACT) against Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi: In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; Aciole, Jouber M. S.; Aciole, Gilberth T. S.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-08-01

    Policies to combat Chagas disease presents a considerable degree of negligence and is classified at level III by TDR, where the focus of research is based on the improvement and wider dissemination of existing tools and strategies for combating them. The PACT is based on topical or systemic administration of a nontoxic dye sensitive to light, followed by low dose irradiation with visible light of wavelength appropriate. In the presence of oxygen found in the cells, the photosensitizer (FS) enabled may react with molecules in its vicinity by electron transfer or hydrogen, leading to production of free radicals (type I reaction) or by energy transfer to oxygen (type II reaction), leading to production of singlet oxygen. Both paths can lead to cell death and the destruction of diseased tissue. In this work, we verify the effectiveness of PACT associated with a semiconductor laser InGaAlP, a wavelength (λ) equal to 660 nm±10 nm, 30 mW optical power, emitting red light in the visible spectrum, with a dose of 4 J/cm2 in continuous mode, using methylene blue in five differents concentrations on the infective trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. To determine the viability of the parasites, one sample from each treatment group at each concentration was removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer, observing the decrease in the number of live parasites for the solution without treatment. The results demonstrated significant percentage of parasite lysis (up to 86% lethality), what can not be observed in the groups treated with laser or with the FS.

  15. Effectiveness of erythrosine-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on dental plaque aerobic microorganisms: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Manohar; Acharya, Swathi; Prasad, Kakarla Veera Venkata; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Bhat, Anithraj; Bhat, Devikripa

    2017-01-01

    Dental plaque is one of the predominant causes of major oral diseases. Although mechanical and chemical methods are extensively followed to control the development of plaque, plaque-related diseases still persist. Therefore, this necessitates for alternative measures of plaque control, one such alternative is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Split mouth randomized clinical trial (CTRI/2017/03/008239) was conducted on 30 participants who reported to the hospital. Participants were asked to rinse their mouth for 1 min using 10 ml of 25 μM erythrosine solutions. Same tooth on both quadrants of the same jaw are selected as the test and control. Intervention used was halogen-based composite curing light with wavelength of 500-590 nm. Plaque sample from the control tooth and test tooth was collected before and after exposure, respectively, and sent to microbiological laboratory for colony count. Logarithmic mean and standard deviation of control group with 10 2 dilutions of aerobic microbial count were found to be 5.34 ± 0.94, and for experimental group, it was 4.47 ± 1.37. The statistical difference between mean CFU values between aerobic bacterial counts was significant ( P = 0.006). Erythrosine-mediated PACT reduces the extent of dental plaque microbial count and has a potential preventive and therapeutic use in day-to-day life and dental clinics.

  16. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A.; Brady, Aaron J.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for

  17. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT. In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96

  18. Toward Photopharmacological Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Using Photoswitchable Amidohydrolase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Claire E; Krämer, Andreas; Colin, Felix; Yildiz, Özkan; Baud, Matthias G J; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2017-02-10

    Photopharmacological agents exhibit light-dependent biological activity and may have potential in the development of new antimicrobial agents/modalities. Amidohydrolase enzymes homologous to the well-known human histone deacetylases (HDACs) are present in bacteria, including resistant organisms responsible for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and deaths. We report photopharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes, using two classes of photoswitches embedded in the inhibitor pharmacophore: azobenzenes and arylazopyrazoles. Although both classes of inhibitor show excellent inhibitory activity (nM IC 50 values) of the target enzymes and promising differential activity of the switchable E- and Z-isomeric forms, the arylazopyrazoles exhibit better intrinsic photoswitch performance (more complete switching, longer thermal lifetime of the Z-isomer). We also report protein-ligand crystal structures of the E-isomers of both an azobenzene and an arylazopyrazole inhibitor, bound to bacterial histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolases (HDAHs). These structures not only uncover interactions important for inhibitor binding but also reveal conformational differences between the two photoswitch inhibitor classes. As such, our data may pave the way for the design of improved photopharmacological agents targeting the HDAC superfamily.

  19. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care: a Position Paper from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and European Wound Management Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn; Nathwani, Dilip; Seaton, Ronald Andrew; Stryja, Jan

    2016-11-01

    With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing antibiotics. This guidance document is aimed at providing clinicians an understanding of: the basic principles of why AMS is important in caring for patients with infected wounds; who should be involved in AMS; and how to conduct AMS for patients with infected wounds. We assembled a group of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document. All open wounds will be colonized with bacteria, but antibiotic therapy is only required for those that are clinically infected. Therapy is usually empirical to start, but definitive therapy should be based on results of appropriately collected specimens for culture. When prescribed, it should be as narrowly focused, and administered for the shortest duration, as possible. AMS teams should be interdisciplinary, especially including specialists in infection and pharmacy, with input from administrative personnel, the treating clinicians and their patients. Available evidence is limited, but suggests that applying principles of AMS to the care of patients with wounds should help to reduce the unnecessary use of systemic or topical antibiotic therapy and ensure the safest and most clinically effective therapy for infected wounds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae Isolated From Men With Acute Urethritis: Its Pathogenic Roles, Responses to Antimicrobial Chemotherapies, and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Shimuta, Ken; Kondo, Hiromi; Mizutani, Kosuke; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohinishi, Makoto; Deguchi, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    There have been few comprehensive studies on Haemophilus influenza-positive urethritis. In this retrospective study, we enrolled 68 men with H. influenzae-positive urethritis, including coinfections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and/or genital mycoplasmas: 2, 3, 20, and 43 treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, and extended-release azithromycin (azithromycin-SR), respectively. We assessed microbiological outcomes in 54 men and clinical outcomes in 46 with H. influenzae-positive monomicrobial nongonococcal urethritis. We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 6 antimicrobial agents for 59 pretreatment isolates. H. influenzae was eradicated from the men treated with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, or sitafloxacin. The eradication rate with azithromycin-SR was 85.3%. The disappearance or alleviation of urethritis symptoms and the decreases in leukocyte counts in first-voided urine were significantly associated with the eradication of H. influenzae after treatment. For the isolates, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, azithromycin, tetracycline, and doxycycline MICs were ≤0.008-0.25, 0.008-0.5, 0.001-0.008, 0.12-1, 0.25-16, and 0.25-2 μg/mL, respectively. The azithromycin MICs for 3 of 4 strains persisting after azithromycin-SR administration were 1 μg/mL. H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL increased chronologically. H. influenzae showed good responses to the chemotherapies for urethritis. The significant associations of the clinical outcomes of the chemotherapies with their microbiological outcomes suggested that H. influenzae could play pathogenic roles in urethritis. All isolates, except for one with decreased susceptibility to tetracyclines, were susceptible to the examined agents. However, the increase in H. influenzae with an azithromycin MIC of 1 μg/mL might threaten efficacies of azithromycin regimens on H. influenzae-positive urethritis.

  1. The antimicrobial effect of Iseganan HCl oral solution in patients receiving stomatotoxic chemotherapy: analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elad, S.; Epstein, J.B.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Donnelly, P.; Strahilevitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic chemotherapy induces changes in the oral microflora that may cause oral and systemic infections in myelosuppressed cancer patients. These complications prompted us to assess the antimicrobial activity of a topical Iseganan HCl mouthwash vs. placebo on the aerobic and

  2. The antimicrobial effect of Iseganan HCl oral solution in patients receiving stomatotoxic chemotherapy: analysis from a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, phase III clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elad, Sharon; Epstein, Joel B.; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Donnelly, Peter; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy induces changes in the oral microflora that may cause oral and systemic infections in myelosuppressed cancer patients. These complications prompted us to assess the antimicrobial activity of a topical Iseganan HCl mouthwash vs. placebo on the aerobic and facultatively

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy activity of gallium tetra-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin when conjugated to differently shaped platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managa, Muthumuni; Nyokong, Tebello

    2015-11-01

    This work reports on the conjugation of differently shaped Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) with ClGa(III) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (ClGaTCPP). The resulting conjugates were used for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy against Staphylococcus aureus. The degree of photo-inactivation is dependent on concentration of the conjugates, light dose (fluence) and illumination time. The log reduction obtained for ClGaTCPP when conjugated to cubic PtNPs was 4.64 log (which indicate 99.99% of the bacteria have been killed), which is much higher than 3.94 log unit for ClGaTCPP-Hexagonal PtNPs and 3.31 log units for ClGaTCPP-Unshaped PtNPs. ClGaTCPP alone gave a log unit reduction of less than 3, showing the importance of conjugation to PtNPs.

  4. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Day

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients.

  5. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients.

  6. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients. PMID:26820986

  7. Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document is an informational bulletin about the problems associated with access to diagnosis and therapy of cancers in developing countries and the role of the Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  8. The Pact of Bogota: Cases and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Infante Caffi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ under the Pact of Bogota (1948 is part of a system of norms attributing competenceto the referenced tribunal along with other means of settlement. The system sets out principles and general exceptions applicable to all the means of peaceful settlement embodied in the Pact. This study will topic relates to the theory of dispute settlement and treaty interpretation hemispheric politics and diplomacy.

  9. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy for Root Canal System Asepsis: A Narrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to address the question: Does photodynamic therapy (PDT improve root canal disinfection through significant bacterial reduction in the root canal system? Methodology. A comprehensive narrative literature review was performed to compare PDT effect with sodium hypochlorite as the comparative classical irrigant. Two reviewers independently conducted literature searches using a combination of medical subject heading terms and key words to identify relevant studies comparing information found in 7 electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015. A manual search was performed on bibliography of articles collected on electronic databases. Authors were contacted to ask for references of more research not detected on the prior electronic and manual searches. Results. The literature search provided 62 titles and abstracts, from which 29 studies were related directly to the search theme. Considering all publications, 14 (48% showed PDT to be more efficient in antimicrobial outcome than NaOCl (0.5–6% concentration used alone and 2 (7% revealed similar effects between them. Toluidine blue and methylene blue are the most used photosensitizers and most commonly laser has 660 nm of wavelength with a 400 nm diameter of intracanal fiber. Conclusions. PDT has been used without a well-defined protocol and still remains at an experimental stage waiting for further optimization. The level of evidence available in clinical studies to answer this question is low and at high risk of bias.

  10. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  11. The PACT Project: improving communication at handover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eileen; Squire, Sally; Heyme, Anne; Mickle, Mary-Ellen; Petrie, Eileen

    2009-06-01

    To describe and evaluate the PACT (Patient assessment, Assertive communication, Continuum of care, Teamwork with trust) Project, aimed at improving communication between hospital staff at handover. The PACT Project was conducted between April and December 2008 at a medium-sized private hospital in Victoria. Action research was used to implement and monitor the project, with seven nurses acting as a critical reference group. Two communication tools were developed to standardise and facilitate shift-to-shift and nurse-to-doctor communication. Both tools used SBAR (situation, background, assessment, recommendation) principles. All nurses attended workshops on assertive communication strategies and focused clinical assessment of the deteriorating patient. Questionnaires were distributed to nurses and doctors at baseline, and post-implementation questionnaires and qualitative data were collected from nurses immediately after the project. Nurses' opinions of improvement in structure and content of handover; nurses' confidence in their communication skills. At baseline, 85% of nurses believed communication needed improvement. After implementation, 68% of nurses believed handover had improved and 80% felt more confident when communicating with doctors. Early evidence supports the use of standardised communication tools for handover, together with specific training in assertive communication and patient assessment. Long-term evaluation of patient outcomes is needed.

  12. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  13. PACT - IAEA Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) is the IAEA's response to the cancer challenge in developing countries. The long-term objective of PACT is Sustainable National Capacity for Cancer Care. The vision of PACT is to (a) build sustainable national cancer care infrastructure and capacity towards eventual self-sufficiency through South-South and North-South partnerships, (b) systematically plan and build capacity to diagnose and treat all patients with radiosensitive cancers, (c) focus on eliminating all cancer morbidity and mortality from unmet treatment needs among patients for whom radiotherapy is most effective and (d) deploy consistent and predictable resources and processes including investments from private donors to meet these objectives over a 5 to 10 year strategy. After the IAEA Board approval in 2004 the PACT office established early 2005. Engaged substantial steps followed to strategize and operationlise PACT. Public awareness campaign was initiated trough the public service announcements, web site development and national outreach seminars. Engagement with WHO, IARC, PAHO, ACS and others followed. The WHA resolution in May 2005 welcomes PACT and asks for a possible joint WHO-IAEA programme. PACT is being operationalised using specific mechanisms such as 'imPACT' (integrated missions of PACT). The 'imPACT' review will assist governments to review, analyse and formulate National Cancer Strategies and Action Plans for capacity building from prevention through palliation. It will also enable institutions to build and develop human resources and plans for capacity in radiation and nuclear oncology. The results of 'imPACT' will enable governments to work with partners, focus on centres of competence/reference to deliver quality cancer care, raise public awareness of cancer prevention, diagnosis and therapy and apply best practices, expand and continue professional development. The expected outcome will be integrated national strategies, action plans

  14. Prediction of the persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium after antimicrobial chemotherapy by quantification of leukocytes in first-void urine from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Mizutani, Kohsuke; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is regarded as another pathogen of male non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate this mycoplasma is associated with persistent or recurrent NGU, but this mycoplasma is not routinely examined in clinical practice. In cases of M. genitalium-positive NGU, therefore, some criteria are needed to assess the success or failure of antimicrobial chemotherapy other than microbiological outcomes. We enrolled 49 men with M. genitalium-positive non-chlamydial NGU. At successive visits after treatment, we inquired about their symptoms, observed their urethral meatus for urethral discharge, and examined their first-void urine (FVU) for quantification of leukocytes and for the persistence of M. genitalium. M. genitalium was eradicated in 34 patients after treatment, whereas the mycoplasma persisted in 15. Urethritis symptoms and urethral discharges were not found to be predictors of the persistence of M. genitalium up to the 25th day after the start of treatment. Leukocyte counts in FVU from the patients with persistence of M. genitalium were significantly higher than those from the patients with eradication of the mycoplasma. Leukocyte counts of 10 leukocytes/μl or more between the 18th and 24th day after the start of treatment were most significantly associated with the persistence of M. genitalium. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU would appear to be crucial to judge the outcome of treatment in patients with non-chlamydial NGU and could be helpful to predict the persistence of M. genitalium after treatment when M. genitalium is not routinely examined in clinical specimens in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oldham

    Full Text Available This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy: a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1, glioma (CT2A and sarcoma (KP-B cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p<0.0001. We also show that apoptosis increases as doses of phosphor, psoralen, or radiation increase. Finally, in an in-vivo pilot study of BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001. Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA

  16. 77 FR 50548 - Agency Information Collection: (PACT Qualitative Evaluation: Patient & Caregiver Interviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Patient & Caregiver)] Agency Information Collection: (PACT Qualitative Evaluation: Patient & Caregiver Interviews); Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) Systems Redesign, document patients' and their informal caregivers...

  17. Household light source for potent photo-dynamic antimicrobial effect and wound healing in an infective animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Azeem; Zhang, Yuxiang; Iqbal, Zafar; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Chen, Zhuo; Huang, Mingdong

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is considered a promising alternative to conventional antibiotic approach. We have previously developed a novel PS containing five lysine amino acids, pentalysine-β-carbonylphthalocyanine Zinc (ZnPc(Lys) 5 ), which in the presence of light, is highly toxic against a range of bacterial strains, including hospital isolated, drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Here, we study the effect of light fluence of the two light sources on the PACT potency of ZnPc(Lys) 5 . We observed that an exposure of E.coli to a red LED light for only 2 seconds (light fluence of 0.15 J/cm 2 ) in the presence of ZnPc(Lys) 5 significantly eradicated 80% of the E.coli . We further demonstrated that a light fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 from a household light source induced a noticeable photodynamic effect in vitro and in vivo animal model. This study points to a new research direction of reducing light illumination time by increasing potency of PS.

  18. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  19. Pollution added credit trading (PACT). New dimensions in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Thomas, Tom

    1996-01-01

    To date, sources of hazardous, toxic, or otherwise harmful emissions have been regulated on a pollutant by pollutant basis. Environmental policies, even the more advanced 'incentive-based' programs, have focused on individual substances rather than on the overall environmental problem to which the substances contribute. This has produced results that are less economically efficient and ecologically effective than is desirable. A more comprehensive approach combines the principles of emission reduction credit trading with advances made recently in the field of environmental impact assessment, to yield an advanced form of inter-pollutant trading, which we refer to as pollution added credit trading (PACT). PACT incorporates a method for estimating the total environmental harm generated (pollution added) by a facility emitting a variety of pollutants. Weightings that reflect relative harm are used to calculate total pollution added. Each facility covered by PACT would receive annual allowances for total pollution added that they could discharge to the environment. As with existing emissions trading programs, surplus allowances could be sold and shortfalls would be covered by purchasing other facilities' surplus allowances. PACT is more efficient than single-pollutant emissions trading in that it captures differences in marginal reduction costs that exist between pollutants as well as between facilities. It is more ecologically effective because it focuses on the overall environmental problem, rather than on the individual pollutants that contribute to the problem

  20. Nato and warsaw pact | Wagner | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nato and warsaw pact. N Wagner ...

  1. Palestinian Adolescents Coping with Trauma (PACT) - Phase III ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Palestinian Adolescents Coping with Trauma (PACT) - Phase III. Violent conflict has been repeatedly shown to result in severe, long-term social and mental health problems for exposed children and adolescents. While in the developed world, it is generally accepted that individuals seek professional one-on-one ...

  2. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, G. Levy; Kanj, S.S.; Pagani, L.; Abbo, L.; Endimiani, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.; Tattevin, P.; Mehtar, S.; Cardoso, F.; Unal, S.; Gould, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results:

  3. A model of cooperation: the Pact op Zuid information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Spierings

    2010-06-01

    Welzijnsorganisaties, onderzoekinstellingen, overheidsinstellingen en woningcorporaties zijn alle potentiële partners in stedelijke herstructureringsprogramma’s. Het combineren van de belangen van deze organisaties vormt een interessante managementuitdaging. Ook is het een uitdaging om een informatiesysteem te ontwikkelen dat tegemoet komt aan de informatiebehoefte van alle partners, zowel de afzonderlijke organisaties, als het collectief. Dit artikel zal deze uitdaging van informatiemanagement bespreken, door een case study naar cooperative knowledge production te presenteren. De case study heeft betrekking op het Rotterdamse stedelijk investeringssprogramma “Pact op Zuid”, een programma waarin tussen 2006 en 2016 1.5 miljard euro wordt geïnvesteerd in stedelijk gebied met 190.000 inwoners. Dit artikel geeft allereerst inzicht in literatuur over innovatieconfiguraties en lerende netwerken, concepten die belangrijk zijn om de complexiteit van stedelijke renovatie en cooperative knowledge production te begrijpen. Het bespreekt eveneens hoe cooperative knowledge production binnen Pact op Zuid plaatsvond.

  4. Rethinking the Territorial Pact in the Context of European Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SAGHIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue through this paper, the importance of rethinking the recently abandoned tools that can be reactivated in times of crisis. EU 2020 Strategy and other EU documents create a favorable frame in order to achieve the priorities set by reconsidering the territorial pact concept. Recent documents define the partnership agreement concept, which seems to be more rigid and less flexible than the territorial pact. Having as a starter point Romania’s specifics, there are individualized 10 thematic territorial pacts and 8 global pacts. They must generate territorial synergies capable of ensuring the coherence between regions, states and the European Union as a whole.

  5. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  6. Adolescents palestiniens et stress post-traumatique (PACT) - phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adolescents palestiniens et stress post-traumatique (PACT) - phase III. Les conflits violents, cela a été maintes fois démontré, entraînent de graves problèmes sociaux et de santé mentale à long terme chez les enfants et les adolescents qui y sont exposés. Si, dans les pays développés, il est généralement accepté qu'une ...

  7. 77 FR 50551 - Agency Information Collection: Emergency Submission for OMB Review (PACT VISN20 Health Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Collection: Emergency Submission for OMB Review (PACT VISN20 Health Care Experiences of Patients With.... 2900-New (VA Form 10-0535). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: PACT VISN20 Health Care Experiences of...: Veterans Health Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  8. Having an IM-PACT: A Model for Improving Instructional Presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    Explains IM-PACT (Instructional Model-Purpose, Audience, Content, Technique), a framework for systematic lesson design in an information literacy context. Includes an example of IM-PACT's application to a high school-level information skills lesson plan, collaboratively designed by the teacher-librarian and English teacher. (LRW)

  9. AMDD: Antimicrobial Drug Database

    OpenAIRE

    Danishuddin, Mohd; Kaushal, Lalima; Hassan Baig, Mohd; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance is one of the major concerns for antimicrobial chemotherapy against any particular target. Knowledge of the primary structure of antimicrobial agents and their activities is essential for rational drug design. Thus, we developed a comprehensive database, anti microbial drug database (AMDD), of known synthetic antibacterial and antifungal compounds that were extracted from the available literature and other chemical databases, e.g., PubChem, PubChem BioAssay and ZINC, etc. The ...

  10. Utility of the ImPACT test with deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesman, Jennifer; Pineda, Jill; Carver, Jenny; Brice, Patrick J; Zabel, T Andrew; Schatz, Philip

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study included empirical examination of the utility of the Immediate and Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test with adolescents who are deaf or hard-of-hearing and to investigate patterns of performance at baseline that may arise in the assessment of this population. Baseline assessment of student-athletes has been conducted on a widespread scale with focus on performance of typically developing student-athletes and some clinical groups, though to date no studies have examined adolescents who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Retrospective and de-identified ImPACT baseline test used with deaf and hard-of-hearing high-school student-athletes (N = 143; 66% male, mean age = 16.11) was examined. Review indicated significant differences in some composite scores between the deaf and hard-of-hearing group and hearing normative comparisons. A possible marker of task misunderstanding was identified to occur more frequently within the deaf and hard-of-hearing sample (13% in deaf sample vs. .31% in hearing sample). Results may provide support for the consideration and use of additional measures to ensure comprehension of task demands when considering this tool for use with deaf and hard-of-hearing adolescents.

  11. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  12. [Challenges for a new health pact: biotechnology and risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use and the incorporation of biotechnological practices in Public Health, in a risk society context. Considering the contemporary social theoreticians, the implications of the biotechnological uses have been analyzed. The article was divided into three different parts. In the first part, the examples of biological manipulation are presented, developed in the health scope and the consequences of using the techniques on the ecological dynamic of the populations involved on it. Then it presents what these biological modified hybrid species are, and how their incorporation on the common practices of Public Health occurs. The second part presents the theoretical references, which are used to the analysis that places the contemporary society in the reflexive stage of modernization and has its form in the risk society. The third and last part of the article argues the biotechnological uses on health, specifically on Public Health, tackling the risk aspects of its application, showing that another sanitary pact is needed.

  13. Contingent deficit sanctions and moral hazard with a stability pact: Unpublished technical appendices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Jensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Technical appendices not intended for publication. Appendices belonging to: "Contingent Deficit Sanctions and Moral Hazard with a Stability Pact" (with Henrik Jensen), Journal of International Economics, Vol.61, No.1, 187-208, 2003.

  14. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  15. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-01-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  16. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M., E-mail: khalilmohammad@hotmail.com [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, IN2P3/CNRSand Paris-Sud University, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E. [APC Laboratory, 10rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1–10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1–10 MeV range.

  17. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT: Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile H Kicken

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC. It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage.The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP, collagen-related peptide (CRP and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6. Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA was performed as a reference.Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis.PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor-, time- and cost efficiency.

  18. [Clinical knowledge as anthropological knowledge: Reflections on the care pact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaletti, María L

    2017-01-01

    A discomfort pervades current Psychiatry: striving to be linked and identifed with Neurology, it cannot however ignore the subjectivity of patients. Moreover, the practice of Psychiatry as a Know-How, should also be subject to a political and ethical dimension. It must rely on justice and politics to the extent that it receives social demands, articulating the attention to vulnerable people with fair institutions (Ricoeur), but also it has to include them in society through their abilities. In this ethical dimension, it should seek to reform assistance institutions so that patients are protected and their rights respected. In this sense, it is necessary to consider the concept of therapeutic alliance (Paul Ricoeur), alliance that is only possible if it takes the form of a mutual promise, from both the therapist and the patient. It is a pact of care, even in situations where the skills and abilities are disproportionate. Clinical knowledge is somehow an anthropological knowledge about man as subject of disease, as homo patiens, but also about he who wants to accompany him in his suffering.

  19. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  20. Understanding Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is also called “chemo.” Today, there are ... help me? Chemotherapy can be used to: l Destroy cancer cells l Stop cancer cells from spreading l Slow ...

  1. Measuring cognitive change with ImPACT: the aggregate baseline approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared M; Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; Hutchison, Michael G; Aubry, Mark; Comper, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) is commonly used to assess baseline and post-injury cognition among athletes in North America. Despite this, several studies have questioned the reliability of ImPACT when given at intervals employed in clinical practice. Poor test-retest reliability reduces test sensitivity to cognitive decline, increasing the likelihood that concussed athletes will be returned to play prematurely. We recently showed that the reliability of ImPACT can be increased when using a new composite structure and the aggregate of two baselines to predict subsequent performance. The purpose of the present study was to confirm our previous findings and determine whether the addition of a third baseline would further increase the test-retest reliability of ImPACT. Data from 97 English speaking professional hockey players who had received at least 4 ImPACT baseline evaluations were extracted from a National Hockey League Concussion Program database. Linear regression was used to determine whether each of the first three testing sessions accounted for unique variance in the fourth testing session. Results confirmed that the aggregate baseline approach improves the psychometric properties of ImPACT, with most indices demonstrating adequate or better test-retest reliability for clinical use. The aggregate baseline approach provides a modest clinical benefit when recent baselines are available - and a more substantial benefit when compared to approaches that obtain baseline measures only once during the course of a multi-year playing career. Pending confirmation in diverse samples, neuropsychologists are encouraged to use the aggregate baseline approach to best quantify cognitive change following sports concussion.

  2. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  3. HIV chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  4. The implementation of the Plan Esperanza and response to the imPACT Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Tatiana; Santos, Carlos; Gómez, Henry; Sarria, Gustavo; Amorin, Edgar; López, Marga; Regalado, Roxana; Manrique, Javier; Tarco, Duniska; Ayestas, Carlos; Calderón, Mónica; Mas, Luis; Neciosup, Silvia; Salazar, Miriam; Chávez, Juan Carlos; Ubillus, Milward; Limache, Abel; Ubillus, José Carlos; Navarro, Jeannie; Sarwal, Kavita; Sutcliffe, Simon; Gutiérrez-Aguado, Alfonso; Silva, Marianela; Mena, Amalia; Guillén, María Eugenia; Castañeda, Carlos; Abugattas, Julio

    2017-10-01

    Following the implementation of the National Cancer Prevention and Control Results-based Budget Programme (PpR Cancer-024) in 2011, the Peruvian Government approved the Plan Esperanza-a population-based national cancer control plan-in 2012. Legislation that ensured full government-supported funding for people who were otherwise unable to access or afford care and treatment accompanied the Plan. In 2013, the Ministry of Health requested an integrated mission of the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (imPACT) report to strengthen cancer control in Peru. The imPACT Review, which was executed in 2014, assessed Peru's achievements in cancer control, and areas for improvement, including cancer control planning, further development of population-based cancer registration, increased prevention, early diagnosis, treatment and palliative care, and the engagement and participation of civil society in the health-care system. This Series paper gives a brief history of the development of the Plan Esperanza, describes the innovative funding model that supports it, and summarises how funds are disseminated on the basis of disease, geography, and demographics. An overview of the imPACT Review, and the government's response in the context of the Plan Esperanza, is provided. The development and execution of the Plan Esperanza and the execution of and response to the imPACT Review demonstrates the Peruvian Government's commitment to fighting cancer across the country, including in remote and urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Silence pact from the perspective of caretakers of palliative care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo López, Ángela; López López, Begoña; Duarte Rodríguez, Miguel; Crespo Serván, María Pilar; Coronado Illescas, Concepción; de la Fuente Rodríguez, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    To determine why terminally-ill patients, family caregivers and health care providers make a pact of silence about the terminal status of the patient, and to identify the attitudes, experiences and opinions of family caregivers concerning the conspiracy of silence in palliative care. A qualitative phenomenological study based on an interpretive analysis, conducted in Primary Health Care, Seville, Spain. Study dimensions: knowledge of the diagnosis and prognosis of the condition; disclosure of information; reaction to information received, feelings and approach to death; information disclosed to the patient and reasons behind partial disclosure; communication between patients, families, and health care providers. Family caregivers of patients on palliative care suspicious about a pact of silence. Family caregivers hamper professional-patient communication; use of deceit to conceal the truth; suspicion that the patient knows the truth; the clinician conceals the truth; paternalist attitudes; feelings of sadness, grief, resignation, acceptance of the disease. The pact of silence has negative effects on coping with death, quality of life in the last days of life, and mourning. Communication between patients, health care providers, and families should be improved to prevent the pact of silence, and help patients cope with death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42–47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility. PMID:28139694

  7. 77 FR 50548 - Agency Information Collection: (PACT Clinical Innovation Study: Engaging Caregivers in the Care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... Collection: (PACT Clinical Innovation Study: Engaging Caregivers in the Care of Veterans With Dementia... care management program for veterans and their caregivers facilitates access to and use of medical and... improve dementia care for patients and family caregivers. Affected Public: Individuals or households...

  8. Devil Pact Narratives in Rural Central America : Class, Gender and 'Resistance'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, K.; Roquas, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Faustian bargain, or 'pact with the devil', made by a person who exchanges human souls in order to obtain unattainable riches and power, is a widespread peasant narrative in Central and South America. The narrative expresses various overlapping meanings, of which a sudden increase in wealth and

  9. Supporting Positive Parenting for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The PACT Therapeutic Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melley, Alison Heinhold; Cosgrove, Kim; Norris-Shortle, Carole; Kiser, Laurel J.; Levey, Eric B.; Coble, Catherine A.; Leviton, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive parenting and secure attachment can serve as protective factors against developmental risks associated with high-risk environments such as homelessness and shelter living. This article describes a program for mothers with children from birth to 3 years old whose families are living in shelters and who are enrolled in PACT: Helping…

  10. Pact for Life and the Reduction of Homicides in the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ratton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pact for Life, the Public Security Policy implemented in Pernambuco in 2007, is identified as a successful policy that produced a large reduction in homicides in Pernambuco. This article seeks to discuss and interpret the main dimensions of this policy and also point to the progress and challenges, especially in how it is perceived by civil society organizations.

  11. chemotherapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Augustyniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practices for cancer have become popular among oncology patients. An increasing interest in alternative medicine can be explained by the inefficiency of conventional treatment, dissatisfaction with treating patients like objects, and the will to use all available treatment methods. Objectives . The authors assessed how often patients use CAM methods, and which of them are most popular. Material and methods . The study was conducted in Military Hospital no. 109 and the Independent Public Clinical Hospital no. 1 in Szczecin among 100 chemotherapy patients. This survey-based study was performed using an original questionnaire. Results. Most respondents (68% did not use alternative methods to fight the disease. The most popular treatment methods were: herbal medicine (50%, alternative medicine preparations (38% and diet (25%, and the least common: hypnosis (3% and aromatherapy (3%. Analyzed sociodemographic factors had no effects on a choice of a CAM method. Patients obtained information about CAM methods mainly from the Internet (40%, medical staff (37% and literature (31%. Conclusions . 1. Using CAM by patients receiving chemotherapy for neoplasms is quite a common phenomenon. 2. CAM were more often chosen by women. Neither the duration of the disease nor sociodemographic data had effects on making the decision to use CAM methods. 3. The most popular CAM were: herbal medicine, alternative medicine preparations, and diet. 4. Cancer patients should receive special support from nurses and doctors as well as other members of the therapeutic team. Oncology patients should never be left on their own so that they were forced to seek help and support in therapies unconfirmed by scientific investigation.

  12. Scoring and psychometric validation of the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essers B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Perception of Anti-Coagulant Treatment Questionnaire' (PACT-Q was developed to assess patients' expectations of, and satisfaction with their anticoagulant treatment. This questionnaire needs to be finalised and psychometrically validated. Methods The PACT-Q was included in the United States, the Netherlands and France into three phase III multinational clinical trials conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of a new long-acting anticoagulant drug (idraparinux compared to vitamin K antagonist (VKA. PACT-Q was administered to patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT, atrial fibrillation (AF or pulmonary embolism (PE at Day 1, to assess patients' expectations, and at 3 and 6 months to assess patients' satisfaction and treatment convenience and burden. The final structure of the PACT-Q (Principal Component Analysis – PCA – with Varimax Rotation was first determined and its psychometric properties were then measured with validity of the structure (Multitrait analysis, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients and known-group validity. Results PCA and multitrait analyses showed the multidimensionality of the "Treatment Expectations" dimension, comprising 7 items that had to be scored independently. The "Convenience" and "Burden of Disease and Treatment" dimensions of the hypothesised original structure of the questionnaire were combined, thus resulting in 13 items grouped into the single dimension "Convenience". The "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension remained unchanged and included 7 items. All items of the "Convenience" and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimensions displayed good convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency reliability was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 for the "Convenience" dimension, and 0.76 for the "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension. Known-group validity was good, especially with regard to occurrence of

  13. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  14. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  15. Antibioticoterapia oral versus endovenosa em crianças neutropênicas febris recebendo quimioterapia Oral vs. intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenic patients receiving childhood cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rech Cagol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso de antibioticoterapia endovenosa versus oral. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas todas as crianças e adolescentes neutropênicos com idade inferior a 18 anos classificados como baixo risco para complicações e recebendo quimioterapia. O estudo ocorreu entre 2002 e 2005 na Unidade de Oncologia Pediátrica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (RS. Os pacientes, divididos em grupo A e grupo B, eram randomizados para receber terapia oral ou endovenosa. O tratamento utilizado para o grupo A foi ciprofloxacina e amoxicilina/clavulanato via oral e placebo endovenoso e, para o grupo B, cefepime e placebo oral. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 91 episódios consecutivos de neutropenia febril em 58 crianças. Para os pacientes do grupo A, a taxa de falência foi de 51,2% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 8 dias (variação de 2-10. Para os pacientes tratados com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, a taxa de falência foi de 45,8% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 7 dias (variação de 3-10. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não houve diferenças entre a antibioticoterapia oral versus a terapia endovenosa. Estudos randomizados com maior número de pacientes são necessários antes de padronizar a terapêutica oral como tratamento para esta população de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of intravenous vs. oral antibiotic therapy. METHODS: All febrile neutropenic patients younger than 18 years old with low risk of complications and receiving chemotherapy were selected. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were divided into group A and group B and were randomly assigned to receive oral or intravenous therapy. The empirical antimicrobial treatment used for group A consisted in oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate and intravenous placebo, and group B received cefepime and oral placebo

  16. Evaluation of the effect of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy in dentin caries: a pilot in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, F. M. C.; de-Melo, M. A. S.; Lima, J. M. P.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.

    2010-02-01

    In vitro and in situ studies have demonstrated that the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) is effective in reducing Streptococcus mutans population in artificially carious dentin. This pilot in vivo study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PACT using toluidine blue O (TBO) and a light-emitting diode (LED) in carious dentin lesions. Five healthy adult volunteers (19-36 yr), with at least 4 active carious cavities each, participated in this study. Teeth of each volunteer were randomly divided into four groups: (1) without TBO and without light (Control); (2) with TBO alone (TBO); (3) with LED at 94/J cm2 alone (LED); and (4) with TBO plus LED at 94 J/cm2 (PACT). Each cavity was divided into two halves. The baseline carious dentin sample was collected from half of each cavity. Following, the treatments were performed using a random distribution of tooth into treatments. Then, the second collection of carious dentin samples was performed. Before and after treatments, dentin samples were analyzed with regard to the counts of total viable microorganisms, total streptococci, mutans streptococci, and lactobacilli. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (α=5%). Log reductions ranged from -0.12 to 2.68 and significant reductions were observed for PACT (group 4) when compared to the other groups (1, 2, and 3) for total streptococci and mutans streptococci. Concluding, PACT was effective in killing oral microorganisms present in in vivo carious dentin lesions and may be a promising technique for eliminating bacteria from dentin before restoration.

  17. Dos pactos políticos à política dos pactos na saúde From political pacts to health policy pacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jória Viana Guerreiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objeto a política de pactuação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre pactos na saúde frequentemente os relacionam à consolidação dos princípios do SUS, especificamente à implantação da descentralização. Aqui são evidenciadas as raízes dessa política, mostrando-se como estão articuladas ao movimento de reestruturação do próprio Estado brasileiro, ocorrido nas últimas décadas do século XX, por meio da reconstrução da democracia, do federalismo e da Reforma do Estado. Neste período, são identificados avanços na democracia política, porém pouca evolução na consolidação da democracia social. Os pactos na saúde articulam-se aos pactos sociais e políticos, estes últimos essenciais para tornar possível a vida em sociedade, garantir a legitimidade dos governos, a governabilidade e a efetividade das políticas públicas. A pactuação é um mecanismo de gestão que compreende negociação permanente, buscando a superação dos conflitos intergovernamentais, pautada pela responsabilização solidária. Por meio da negociação de metas, indicadores e ações, os pactos se constituem numa forma de accountability e transparência, capaz de favorecer o controle social e o do próprio governo.The object of this article is the pact policy of the Unified Health System (SUS. The few works available in the literature about health pacts frequently relates them to the principles of SUS consolidation, specifically to the implantation of decentralization. Here, the roots of this policy are evidenced showing how they are linked with the restructuration movement of the proper Brazilian State in the last decades from the 20th century, by democracy rebuilding, federalism and State Reform. During this period, some advances in politics democracy were identified, however a few results in consolidation of social democracy were identified. Health pacts are articulated with social and

  18. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, John; Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-08-01

    While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Retrospective cohort study. Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury had a composite reaction time that was slower by 5.8%. Females had

  19. Influence of Language of Administration on ImPACT Performance by Bilingual Spanish-English College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman Blake, Margaret; Ott, Summer; Villanyi, Elizabeth; Kazhuro, Katia; Schatz, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that there are performance differences on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery related to language of administration, such that scores are higher with the English than the Spanish version of the battery. This study extended those findings in a within-subjects design, evaluating neurocognitive performance of 58 bilingual English-Spanish-speaking individuals who completed ImPACT in both languages. Results revealed a significant multivariate effect of language of test administration, p linguistic biases of the ImPACT and functional language dominance that may contribute to the lower scores. These results extend previous findings and suggest a need for separate normative data for Spanish-speaking individuals completing the ImPACT battery if baseline data are not present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Antiviral activity of double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT against influenza A virus mediated via suppression of viral RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Ping; Yuen, Chun-Kit; Cheung, Pak-Hin Hinson; Fung, Sin-Yee; Lui, Pak-Yin; Chen, Honglin; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2018-03-07

    PACT is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that has been implicated in host-influenza A virus (IAV) interaction. PACT facilitates the action of RIG-I in the activation of the type I IFN response, which is suppressed by the viral nonstructural protein NS1. PACT is also known to interact with the IAV RNA polymerase subunit PA. Exactly how PACT exerts its antiviral activity during IAV infection remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrated the interplay between PACT and IAV polymerase. Induction of IFN-β by the IAV RNP complex was most robust when both RIG-I and PACT were expressed. PACT-dependent activation of IFN-β production was suppressed by the IAV polymerase subunits, polymerase acidic protein, polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), and PB2. PACT associated with PA, PB1, and PB2. Compromising PACT in IAV-infected A549 cells resulted in the augmentation of viral RNA (vRNA) transcription and replication and IFN-β production. Furthermore, vRNA replication was boosted by knockdown of PACT in both A549 cells and IFN-deficient Vero cells. Thus, the antiviral activity of PACT is mediated primarily via its interaction with and inhibition of IAV polymerase. Taken together, our findings reveal a new facet of the host-IAV interaction in which the interplay between PACT and IAV polymerase affects the outcome of viral infection and antiviral response.-Chan, C.-P., Yuen, C.-K., Cheung, P.-H. H., Fung, S.-Y., Lui, P.-Y., Chen, H., Kok, K.-H., Jin, D.-Y. Antiviral activity of double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT against influenza A virus mediated via suppression of viral RNA polymerase.

  1. Brochure on Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT): Building partnerships to stop the global cancer epidemic. Grant raising prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D. III

    2006-11-01

    The Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) was created within the IAEA in 2004. PACT builds upon IAEA's extensive experience in cancer therapy and was designed to strengthen the links between technology transfer for radiotherapy and national capacity building in cancer prevention and control. While the IAEA continues to focus on technology transfer in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, PACT is aimed at integrating radiotherapy into the broader cancer prevention and control framework. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, treatment and palliative care as well as broader challenges such as capacity building in infrastructure development and surveillance (including cancer registries). Only through collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders in cancer prevention and control will low and middle income countries be able to build effective programmes that reduce avoidable cancers and cancer in its later stages, and therefore improve survival and quality of life for cancer patients. PACT is therefore building partnerships with leading cancer organizations worldwide. Each organization is making a significant contribution in their respective areas of expertise within the broader cancer control framework. Outreach to more international organizations continues. Together with these other agencies, PACT seeks to comprehensively support cancer control needs in low and middle income countries over the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. PACT is seeking to accelerate widespread and sustained access to all essential cancer care services, and make cancer therapy more effective. Such an approach is widely acknowledged to be the only viable way to attract major donors (including development banks, international health philanthropies and other charities) either directly or through the IAEA. Partnering with other organizations also raises, or in many cases, establishes the IAEA's profile within the international public health arena. To lay the groundwork for

  2. Convergent and discriminant validity of the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing Battery (ImPACT) in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Lisa M; Walls, Brittany D; Brothers, Stacey L; Morris, Sarah N; Glueck, Amanda C; Schmitt, Frederick A; Berry, David T R; Han, Dong Y

    2018-02-21

    Sports concussions are recognized as significant injuries among young athletes. Research demonstrates that return-to-play prior to becoming asymptomatic has significant repercussions including sustained cognitive deficits. Many programs have begun to use computerized testing rather than traditional neuropsychological tests to (a) determine baseline performance, (b) track symptoms, and (c) measure symptoms following concussion. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is one such tool. The current study examined ImPACT's convergent and discriminant validity by comparing scores from sports-related concussion athletes (SRC) to those from nonconcussed controls (CTL). SRC included 29 athletes, ages 12-16, referred for neuropsychological assessment following sports-related concussions. CTL included 25 healthy athletes, ages 12-16, who were concussion-free in the past year. Overall, results showed general support for ImPACT, when used to screen cognition. In fact, all ImPACT domains successfully differentiated between SRC and CTL athletes. Evidence supporting appropriate convergent validity was best for the Visual Memory domain. Further, ImPACT domains demonstrated variable discriminant validity. Overall examination of validity demonstrated that ImPACT has some weaknesses but may have utility in detecting postconcussion cognitive impairment.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  4. Comparison of baseline ImPACT performance in amateur motocross riders to football and basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie K; Worts, Phillip R; Burkhart, Scott; Henry, Luke

    2018-01-01

    The American Motorcyclist Association requires professional riders to undergo baseline computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT) using the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test for concussion management. It is recommended this practice be expanded to the amateur level, but limited research has explored whether baseline testing is necessary for youth when normative data is available. This study evaluates the utility of baseline testing for amateur riders by comparing their performance to those of traditional youth sports comprising normative datasets. An cross-sectional study comparing amateur motocross (N = 100) riders matched by age and sex to football (N = 100) and basketball (N = 100) athletes performance on baseline ImPACT testing. ANCOVAs revealed a significant medium effect of group on measures of visual motor speed (F = 11.25, p  .05) between sport on measures of memory or symptoms. Youth motocross riders performed significantly slower on speed measures compared to football and basketball athletes, providing preliminary support for the expansion of baseline ImPACT testing to the amateur level.

  5. 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jared; Echemendia, Ruben; Meeuwisse, Willem; Comper, Paul; Sisco, Amber

    2014-01-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery is widely used to assess neurocognitive outcomes following sports-related concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine the 1 year test-retest reliability of ImPACT in a multilingual sample of professional hockey players. A total of 305 professional hockey players were tested 1 year apart using ImPACT. Reliable change confidence intervals were calculated and test-retest reliability was measured using Pearson and Intraclass correlation coefficients. Results indicated that the 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites ranged from low to high (.52 to .81). In contrast, 1-year test-retest reliabilities for the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites were low (.22 to .58). The 1-year test-retest results provided mixed support for the use of Visual Motor and Reaction Time Composites in select samples; in contrast, the Verbal and Visual Memory Composites may not be sensitive to clinical change.

  6. Validity of ImPACT for measuring processing speed following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; Collins, Michael W

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), a computerized neuropsychological test battery, for measuring attention and processing speed in athletes with concussions. This was accomplished by comparing the computerized testing to a traditional neuropsychological measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Participants were 72 amateur athletes who were seen within 21 days of sustaining a sports-related concussion (Mean = 9.4, SD = 5.4 days). As predicted, the SDMT correlated more highly with the Processing Speed and Reaction Time composites than the Verbal Memory and Visual Memory Composites from ImPACT. The composite scores from ImPACT and the SDMT were subjected to exploratory factor analysis, revealing a two-factor solution interpreted as Speed/Reaction Time and Memory. It appears as if the Processing Speed Composite, Reaction Time Composite, and SDMT are measuring a similar underlying construct in this sample of concussed amateur athletes.

  7. The Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT): A Social Work-Led Model of Transitional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Lipani, Maria; Holster, Kathleen; Bussey, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, the Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT), a social work-led transitional care model, was developed at Mount Sinai to reduce 30-day readmissions among high-risk patients. PACT begins with a comprehensive bedside assessment to identify the psychosocial drivers of readmission. In partnership with the patient and family, a patient-centered action plan is developed and carried out through phone calls, accompaniments, navigations and home visits, as needed, in the first 30 days following discharge. 620 patients were enrolled during the pilot from September 2010-August 2012. Outcomes demonstrated a 43% reduction in inpatient utilization and a 54% reduction in emergency department visits among enrollees. In addition, 93% of patients had a follow-up appointment within 7-10 days of discharge and 90% of patients attended the appointment. The success of PACT has led to additional funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services under the Community-based Care Transitions Program and several managed care companies seeking population health management interventions for high risk members.

  8. Cancer Chemotherapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Cancer Chemotherapy - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Handling Chemotherapy Safely - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) ...

  9. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine to treat cancer. Standard chemotherapy works by killing cancer cells and some normal cells. Targeted treatment ... of control. They keep growing to form a mass of cells, or tumor. Chemotherapy attacks dividing cells. ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial ... Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated ...

  12. Antimicrobials and QT prolongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jay W

    2017-05-01

    Solithromycin, a ketolide/macrolide antibiotic, has recently been reported to be free of the expected QT-prolonging effect of macrolides. It appears that its keto substitution provides a structural basis for this observation, as the other two tested ketolides also have minimal QT effect.Among non-cardiovascular therapies, antimicrobials probably carry the greatest potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias. This is a result of their propensity to bind to the delayed rectifier potassium channel, IKr, inducing QT prolongation and risk of torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia, their frequent interference with the metabolism of other QT prolongers and their susceptibility to metabolic inhibition by numerous commonly used drugs.Unfortunately, there is evidence that medical practitioners do not take account of the QT/arrhythmia risk of antimicrobials in their prescribing practices. Education on this topic is sorely needed. When a macrolide is indicated, a ketolide should be considered in patients with a QT risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Bacterial Resistance to the Tetracyclines and Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing of tetracycline antibiotics dosing and duration in human and animal healthcare and food production might help minimize the emergence of resistance in some situations. New approaches to antimicrobial chemotherapy are needed if we are to survive the increasing rates of tetracycline antibiotic resistance ...

  14. An academic-VA partnership: Student interprofessional teams integrated with VA PACT teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenty, Constance L; Schaar, Gina L; Butler, Ryan M

    2016-12-01

    Veterans are challenged with multiple unique healthcare issues related to their military service environment. Likewise, health care providers must understand the special concerns associated with military conflict and recognize how the veteran's care can be optimized by interprofessional care delivery. Little is taught didactically or clinically that supports nursing students in addressing the unique issues of the veteran or the student's need to work collaboratively with allied health team members to enhance the veteran's care. Because of limited exposure to the veteran's special conditions, nursing students who may seek a career with the veteran population often face challenges in rendering appropriate care. The VA offers an invaluable opportunity for health profession students to collaborate with VA interprofessional Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) ultimately optimizing veteran health outcomes. This academic partnership, that implements an interprofessional model, will prepare students to better embrace the veteran population. This article describes the immersion of health profession students in interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) using PACT team principles which ultimately promotes the students' ability to link theory content to patient care delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2: Turbine, Rotor and Blade Logistics; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.

    2001-01-01

    Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. This program will explore advanced technologies that may reduce the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines. The initial step in the WindPACT program is a series of preliminary scaling studies intended to determine the optimum sizes for future turbines, help define sizing limits for certain critical technologies, and explore the potential for advanced technologies to contribute to reduced COE as turbine scales increase. This report documents the results of Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics. For this report, we investigated the transportation, assembly, and crane logistics and costs associated with installation of a range of multi-megawatt-scale wind turbines. We focused on using currently available equipment, assembly techniques, and transportation system capabilities and limitations to hypothetically transport and install 50 wind turbines at a facility in south-central South Dakota

  16. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 2: Turbine, Rotor and Blade Logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.

    2001-07-16

    Through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. This program will explore advanced technologies that may reduce the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines. The initial step in the WindPACT program is a series of preliminary scaling studies intended to determine the optimum sizes for future turbines, help define sizing limits for certain critical technologies, and explore the potential for advanced technologies to contribute to reduced COE as turbine scales increase. This report documents the results of Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics. For this report, we investigated the transportation, assembly, and crane logistics and costs associated with installation of a range of multi-megawatt-scale wind turbines. We focused on using currently available equipment, assembly techniques, and transportation system capabilities and limitations to hypothetically transport and install 50 wind turbines at a facility in south-central South Dakota.

  17. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 -- Balance-of-Station Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-07-24

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW.

  18. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies: Technical Area 4 - Balance-of-Station Cost; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, D. A.; Strawmyer, K. R.; Conley, R. M.; Guidinger J. H.; Wilkie, D. C.; Zellman, T. F.

    2001-01-01

    DOE's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program explores the most advanced wind-generating technologies for improving reliability and decreasing energy costs. The first step in the WindPact program is a scaling study to bound the optimum sizes for wind turbines, to define size limits for certain technologies, and to scale new technologies. The program is divided into four projects: Composite Blades for 80-120-meter Rotors; Turbine, Rotor, and Blade Logistics; Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility; and Balance-of-Station Cost. This report discusses balance-of-station costs, which includes the electrical power collector system, wind turbine foundations, communications and controls, meteorological equipment, access roadways, crane pads, and the maintenance building. The report is based on a conceptual 50-megawatt (MW) wind farm site near Mission, South Dakota. Cost comparisons are provided for four sizes of wind turbines: 750 kilowatt (kW), 2.5 MW, 5.0 MW, and 10.0 MW

  19. Chemotherapy in eye cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemotherapy in eye cancer. Chemotherapy is one of several treatment strategies used to halt the uncontrolled division, proliferation and unpredictable growth patterns of malignant cells. R Dolland, BSc, MB BCh, FC Ophth (SA). Consultant, St John Eye Hospital, Division of Ophthalmology, Department of Neurosciences, ...

  20. Postoperative Chemotherapy for Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate and cognitive function of 43 children, age <3 years, with medulloblastoma treated with intensive postoperative chemotherapy alone, without radiotherapy, were determined at the University of Wurzburg and other centers in Germany Chemotherapy consisted of three two-month cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide.

  1. Sandbagging on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a high school athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Denney, Robert L; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-05-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to assess cognitive functioning after a concussion. It is recommended that application of ImPACT utilizes a baseline administration so athletes have an individualized baseline with which to compare post-injury results should they sustain a concussion. It has been suggested that athletes may provide suboptimal effort, called "sandbagging," in order to return to their baseline cognitive scores, and thus to play, more quickly. This research examines ImPACT baseline scores when high school athletes were asked to attempt to "sandbag," and compares those scores with scores obtained when they were asked to give their "best effort." Fifty-four high school student athlete volunteers participated in the study. In contrast to previous research that just looked at the cut-score invalidity indicators built into ImPACT, this research developed a regression equation to predict sandbagging. A logistic regression equation developed with four variables that demonstrated the largest effect size between "best effort" and "sandbagged" baselines showed a 99.7% classification accuracy for the "best effort" and "sandbag" groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video) Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation of ...

  3. Antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J Vaun; Tuckfield, R C; Baker-Austin, C

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved unique mechanisms that allow them survive in the presence of strong selection pressures. Included in these mechanisms is the ability to share genetic determinants among and between species of bacteria thus spreading metal or antibiotic resistance traits quickly. The textile industry in response to demand has developed antimicrobial fabrics by the addition of bactericidal compounds during production. Some of these antimicrobials include metal nanoparticles, quaternary ammonia compounds, and broad spectrum compounds like triclosan. Bacteria have already expressed resistance to each of these bactericides. Here we discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of antimicrobial textiles in terms of co-selection. We predict that continued use of such materials could result in increased and widespread resistance to specific antimicrobials, especially metals, with an increased resistance to antibiotics. Such increases have the potential to find their way into other bacterial populations of human pathogens leading to serious and unintended public health consequences.

  4. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be harboring disease organisms. Determining human and ecological risks from exposure to antimicrobial pesticides requires different ... Open Government Regulations.gov Subscribe USA.gov White House Ask. Contact Us Hotlines FOIA Requests Frequent Questions ...

  5. Goodbye to Competitive Corporatism in Spain? Social Pacting and Conflict in the Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Luque Balbona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has placed the corporatist framework in Spain under significant strain. Labour unrest has also intensified, shifting to the political arena and threatening to overwhelm existing institutional channels. This article evaluates the tendencies toward consensus and conflict in democratic Spain, examining the theoretical debate on the competitive reorientation of national models of corporatism in Southern Europe within the context of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. In addition, it examines the symptoms of erosion in the Spanish corporatist experience within a scenario of economic crisis. The article emphasizes the underlying continuity in the political exchange between government and social partners and concludes that, despite the deterioration of social dialogue, the mechanisms for the production of social pacts in Spain have not completely fractured, and there are possibilities for their reactivation

  6. Meanings of teaching education developed by the National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Klein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the teaching continuing education as a public policy focused on confronting the illiteracy problem in the early years of elementary school, through the perceptions of 1.515 literacy teachers from the northwestern region of São Paulo that participated in the federal program Pacto Nacional pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa (National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age during the year 2013. Teacher education is discussed based on the authors Tardif, Imbernón and Nóvoa. To collect data, a questionnaire with open and closed questions available on an online server for researches was used. The methodology was qualitative and the data shows that the processes involved in conducting training, such as group work and methodology, are as valued as access to new knowledge.

  7. Probability and Confidence Trade-space (PACT) Evaluation: Accounting for Uncertainty in Sparing Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif; Box, Neil; Carter, Katrina; DiFilippo, Denise; Harrington, Sean; Jackson, David; Lutomski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are two general shortcomings to the current annual sparing assessment: 1. The vehicle functions are currently assessed according to confidence targets, which can be misleading- overly conservative or optimistic. 2. The current confidence levels are arbitrarily determined and do not account for epistemic uncertainty (lack of knowledge) in the ORU failure rate. There are two major categories of uncertainty that impact Sparing Assessment: (a) Aleatory Uncertainty: Natural variability in distribution of actual failures around an Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) (b) Epistemic Uncertainty : Lack of knowledge about the true value of an Orbital Replacement Unit's (ORU) MTBF We propose an approach to revise confidence targets and account for both categories of uncertainty, an approach we call Probability and Confidence Trade-space (PACT) evaluation.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation of Antimicrobial ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Antimicrobial Resistance More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: ...

  10. After chemotherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Adrenal Gland Cancer Anal Cancer Bladder Cancer Bone Cancer Brain Tumors Breast Cancer Cancer Chemotherapy ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  11. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document....... RESULTS: All open wounds will be colonized with bacteria, but antibiotic therapy is only required for those that are clinically infected. Therapy is usually empirical to start, but definitive therapy should be based on results of appropriately collected specimens for culture. When prescribed, it should...

  12. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...

  13. Maternal HIV/AIDS and adolescent depression: A covariance structure analysis of the “Parents and Adolescents Coping Together” (PACT) model

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Amaro, Hortensia

    2009-01-01

    The current study assessed the efficacy of selected variables from the Parents and children Coping Together (PACT) model, which was designed to predict maternal HIV effects on child/adolescent outcomes. Data from two longitudinal studies applying PACT measures were utilized, encompassing a seven-year assessment timespan for HIV-infected mothers and their children. Both maternal and child-based measures were evaluated, and a sequential longitudinal design was adopted. Structural equation model...

  14. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of implantable cardiac electronic device infection. Report of a joint Working Party project on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC, host organization), British Heart Rhythm Society (BHRS), British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), British Heart Valve Society (BHVS) and British Society for Echocardiography (BSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoe, Jonathan A T; Barlow, Gavin; Chambers, John B; Gammage, Michael; Guleri, Achyut; Howard, Philip; Olson, Ewan; Perry, John D; Prendergast, Bernard D; Spry, Michael J; Steeds, Richard P; Tayebjee, Muzahir H; Watkin, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Infections related to implantable cardiac electronic devices (ICEDs), including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices, are increasing in incidence in the USA and are likely to increase in the UK, because more devices are being implanted. These devices have both intravascular and extravascular components and infection can involve the generator, device leads and native cardiac structures or various combinations. ICED infections can be life-threatening, particularly when associated with endocardial infection, and all-cause mortality of up to 35% has been reported. Like infective endocarditis, ICED infections can be difficult to diagnose and manage. This guideline aims to (i) improve the quality of care provided to patients with ICEDs, (ii) provide an educational resource for all relevant healthcare professionals, (iii) encourage a multidisciplinary approach to ICED infection management, (iv) promote a standardized approach to the diagnosis, management, surveillance and prevention of ICED infection through pragmatic evidence-rated recommendations, and (v) advise on future research projects/audit. The guideline is intended to assist in the clinical care of patients with suspected or confirmed ICED infection in the UK, to inform local infection prevention and treatment policies and guidelines and to be used in the development of educational and training material by the relevant professional societies. The questions covered by the guideline are presented at the beginning of each section. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Credibility, rules and power in the European Union institutions: a transactional analysis of the "Stability and Growth pact"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Abel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The credibility of the rules and the elements of power constitute fundamental keys in the analysis of the political institutions. This paper opens the "black box" of the European Union institutions and analyses the problem of credibility in the commitment of the Stability and Growth pact (SGP. This Pact (SGP constituted a formal rule that tried to enforce budgetary discipline on the European States. Compliance with this contract could be ensured by the existence of "third party enforcement" or by the coincidence of the ex-ante and ex-post interests of the States (reputational capital. The fact is that states such as France or Germany failed to comply with the ruling and managed to avoid the application of sanctions. This article studies the transactions and the hierarchy of power that exists in the European institutions, and analyses the institutional framework included in the new European Constitution.

  16. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1-Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A.

    2001-04-30

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. As part of the WindPACT program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), was awarded contract number YAM-0-30203-01 to examine Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling, Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics, and Technical Area 3-Self-Erecting Towers. This report documents the results of GEC's Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling. The primary objectives of the Blade-Scaling Study are to assess the scaling of current materials and manufacturing technologies for blades of 40 to 60 meters in length, and to develop scaling curves of estimated cost and mass for rotor blades in that size range.

  17. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  18. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  19. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  20. National disparities in the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Europe: an observational study in 29 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Lucy; Armstrong, David; Ashworth, Mark; Dregan, Alexandru; Malik, Umer; White, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    . Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chemotherapy in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chemotherapy alone, either as a single drug or a combination of drugs with or without external radiation (ER) is useful for treatment of locally advanced disease and non iodine concentrating metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). The reported response is not encouraging, but the absence of better alternatives leave no choice for the treatment of such cases. However, for treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancers (ANC), chemotherapy (CT) in combination with ER results in local control. In medullary thyroid cancers (MTC), the results obtained with multimodal treatment are encouraging

  2. Too lonely to die alone: internet suicide pacts and existential suffering in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa-de Silva, Chikako

    2008-12-01

    Most striking in the recent rise of suicide in Japan are the increase in suicide among young Japanese and the emergence of Internet suicide pacts. An ethnography of suicide-related Web sites reveals a distinctive kind of existential suffering among visitors that is not reducible to categories of mental illness and raises questions regarding the meaning of an individual "choice" to die, when this occurs in the context of an intersubjective decision by a group of strangers, each of whom is too afraid to die alone. Anthropology's recent turn to subjectivity enables analyses of individual suffering in society that provide a more nuanced approach to the apparent dichotomy between agency and structure and that connect the phenomenon of suicide in Japan to Japanese conceptions of selfhood and the afterlife. The absence of ikigai [the worth of living] among suicide Web site visitors and their view of suicide as a way of healing show, furthermore, that analyses of social suffering must be expanded to include questions of meaning and loss of meaning and, also, draw attention to Japanese conceptions of self in which relationality in all things, including the choice to die, is of utmost importance.

  3. Law, bioethics and practice in France: forging a new legislative pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiau, Denis

    2013-02-01

    In France, bioethics norms have emerged in close interaction with medical practices. The first bioethics laws were adopted in 1994, with provisions for updates in 2004 and most recently, in 2011. As in other countries, bioethics laws indirectly refer to certain fundamental values. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, I shall briefly describe the construction of the French bioethics laws and the values they are meant to protect. Secondly, I will show that the practice of clinical ethics, as reported in a few studies on ART, living organ donation and PGD, challenge the role attributed to doctors as "gatekeepers" of those fundamental values. Thirdly, I will suggest that the quality of medical practices would improve if the law focused on strengthening the tacit pact between doctors and patients, rather than putting doctors in charge of enforcing societal values. Doctors, for their part, would limit their role to what they can do best: provide sufficient patient support and safe care. Against those who argue that we should dispense with bioethics laws altogether, I hold that the laws are useful in order to limit the development of abusive practices. However, a new legislative approach should be adopted which would a positive presumption in favor of patients' requests.

  4. Construction of women's citizenship: contributions of “the national pact to combat violence against women”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Dufloth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years laws and public policies have been developed to support women in building their status as citizens. However, advances in Brazilian legislation show us that they are no longer the formal aspects that inhibit women full process of citizenship. Thus, in this scenario it is important to discuss what are the improvements and challenges today for the implementation of the rights guaranteed by law. It is highlighted here the analysis of instruments promoted by the government through the policies and actions taken to guarantee the exercise of rights already provided by law. This article analyzes the main contributions of the National Pact to Combat Violence against Women and the State Plan of Policies for Women for the construction of female citizenship, in particular the plan adopted by the State of Minas Gerais, from the understanding that it should be constantly examined how federal entities are mobilized to the topic in question. The survey was exploratory in nature, developed from several sources. It concludes that although there are growing initiatives technical directives, there is still an undeniable fragility in the structure offered by the government to combat violence against.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Adem Bahar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics.

  6. Chemotherapy in Glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Taal (Walter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractGliomas are primary brain tumors and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and mixed oligo-astrocytomas. Currently, treatment of newly diagnosed diffuse adult gliomas exists of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We were the first to show a high incidence of progressive MRI

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  10. Collegiate Student Athletes With History of ADHD or Academic Difficulties Are More Likely to Produce an Invalid Protocol on Baseline ImPACT Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderino, Lisa; Gunstad, John

    2018-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other academically-relevant diagnoses have been suggested as modifiers of neurocognitive testing in sport-related concussion, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). These preexisting conditions may suppress ImPACT scores to the extent that they are indistinguishable from low scores because of poor effort. The present study hypothesized that student athletes with history of ADHD or academic difficulties produce lower ImPACT composite scores and are more likely to produce invalid protocols than those without such conditions. Cross-sectional study. Midsized public university. Nine hundred forty-nine National College Athletic Association athletes (average age = 19.2 years; 6.8% ADHD, 5.6% Academic Difficulties, 2.0% comorbid ADHD/Academic Difficulties). Three seasons of baseline ImPACT protocols were analyzed. Student athletes were grouped using self-reported histories of ADHD or academic difficulties taken from ImPACT demographic questions. ImPACT composite scores and protocol validity. Student athletes in the academic difficulties and comorbid groups performed worse on ImPACT composite scores (Pillai's Trace = 0.05), though this pattern did not emerge for those with ADHD. Student athletes with comorbid history were more likely to produce an invalid baseline (10.5% invalid) (χ (2) = 11.08, P = 0.004). Those with ADHD were also more likely to produce an invalid protocol (7.7% invalid, compared with 2.6% in student athletes with no history) (χ (2) = 10.70, P = 0.005). These findings suggest that student athletes reporting comorbid histories or histories of academic difficulties alone produce lower ImPACT composite scores, and that those with comorbid histories or histories of ADHD alone produce invalid protocol warnings more frequently than student athletes without such histories. Future studies should further examine invalid score thresholds on the ImPACT, especially in student

  11. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  13. Antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat oral mucositis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, J.P.; Bellm, L.A.; Epstein, J.B.; Sonis, S.T.; Symonds, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Oral mucositis represents a significant source of morbidity after chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Since infection may have an important role in the pathophysiology of oral mucositis, several antimicrobial agents have been investigated for their efficacy in preventing and treating this disease.

  14. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  15. Evaluation of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug-Resistant Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) as a Topical Broad- Spectrum Antimicrobial for Drug- Resistant Wound Infections 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...demonstrated the antimicrobial properties of Carbohydrate-Derived Fulvic Acid (CHD-FA) against a broad collection of multi-drug resistant bacterial and...spectrum antimicrobial for drug- resistant wound infections) at the 54th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2014

  16. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 3 -- Self-Erecting Tower and Nacelle Feasibility: March 2000--March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Global Energy Concepts, LLC

    2001-05-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has implemented the Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program to explore advanced technologies for improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind energy technology. Global Energy Concepts (GEC) prepared this report on self-erecting towers as part of the WindPACT program. The objectives of the work were to identify potential methods for erecting wind turbine towers without the use of large conventional cranes, establish the most promising methods, and compare the costs of the most promising methods to the costs of conventional cranes.

  17. PACT- and RIG-I-Dependent Activation of Type I Interferon Production by a Defective Interfering RNA Derived from Measles Virus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ting-Hin; Kew, Chun; Lui, Pak-Yin; Chan, Chi-Ping; Satoh, Takashi; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The live attenuated measles virus vaccine is highly immunostimulatory. Identification and characterization of its components that activate the innate immune response might provide new strategies and agents for the rational design and development of chemically defined adjuvants. In this study, we report on the activation of type I interferon (IFN) production by a defective interfering (DI) RNA isolated from the Hu-191 vaccine strain of measles virus. We found that the Hu-191 virus induced IFN-β much more potently than the Edmonston strain. In the search for IFN-inducing species in Hu-191, we identified a DI RNA specifically expressed by this strain. This DI RNA, which was of the copy-back type, was predicted to fold into a hairpin structure with a long double-stranded stem region of 206 bp, and it potently induced the expression of IFN-β. Its IFN-β-inducing activity was further enhanced when both cytoplasmic RNA sensor RIG-I and its partner, PACT, were overexpressed. On the contrary, this activity was abrogated in cells deficient in PACT or RIG-I. The DI RNA was found to be associated with PACT in infected cells. In addition, both the 5′-di/triphosphate end and the double-stranded stem region on the DI RNA were essential for its activation of PACT and RIG-I. Taken together, our findings support a model in which a viral DI RNA is sensed by PACT and RIG-I to initiate an innate antiviral response. Our work might also provide a foundation for identifying physiological PACT ligands and developing novel adjuvants or antivirals. IMPORTANCE The live attenuated measles virus vaccine is one of the most successful human vaccines and has largely contained the devastating impact of a highly contagious virus. Identifying the components in this vaccine that stimulate the host immune response and understanding their mechanism of action might help to design and develop better adjuvants, vaccines, antivirals, and immunotherapeutic agents. We identified and characterized

  18. Development of an expert professional curriculum for antimicrobial pharmacists in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Jacqueline; Gilchrist, Mark; Wickens, Hayley

    2015-05-01

    The role of antimicrobial pharmacists has changed considerably over the past 15 years. We describe here the development and ratification of a new expert professional curriculum to guide the training and development of antimicrobial specialist pharmacists. The curriculum has been developed by the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association Pharmacy Infection Network and endorsed by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society as a tool to support pharmacists in meeting the requirements for joining the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Faculty. This new resource has also been endorsed by PHE, the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group and the BSAC, and will support antimicrobial pharmacists in delivery of antimicrobial stewardship, which will in turn help the fight against antimicrobial resistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. DNA replication proteins as potential targets for antimicrobials in drug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Erika; Wittekoek, Bert; Kuijper, Ed J; Smits, Wiep Klaas

    2017-05-01

    With the impending crisis of antimicrobial resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobials to combat difficult infections and MDR pathogenic microorganisms. DNA replication is essential for cell viability and is therefore an attractive target for antimicrobials. Although several antimicrobials targeting DNA replication proteins have been developed to date, gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitors are the only class widely used in the clinic. Given the numerous essential proteins in the bacterial replisome that may serve as a potential target for inhibitors and the relative paucity of suitable compounds, it is evident that antimicrobials targeting the replisome are underdeveloped so far. In this review, we report on the diversity of antimicrobial compounds targeting DNA replication and highlight some of the challenges in developing new drugs that target this process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  20. Is debt restructuring needed to make the Stability and Growth Pact (more credible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Körner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the so-called PIIGS crisis which in 2009 became acute due to strongly diverging risk premiums, marked the beginning of a new phase for the European Monetary Union. Whilst the run-up to EMU had been characterized by an encouraging convergence of macroeconomic fundamentals of its member countries, it is now facing a serious threat in particular due to excessive levels of public debt. In 1997, the Stability and Growth Pact introduced a mechanism designed to prevent excessive public debt of the type currently observed; the fact of the matter, however, seems to be that levels of public debt has continuously grown from one economic cycle to the next. But the SGP apparently not only failed to fulfil its aim to keep the deficit and the debt level within its limits but also suffered from a severe loss of credibility; unless some profound action is taken it may further diminish, severely hampering the loose structure of the European Monetary Union. In order to regain some credibility, mitigate financial market’s concerns and, hence, lower borrowing cost, a consolidation path is needed to returns to acceptable levels of debt in the foreseeable future. This process has already started and measures have been taken by several eurozone countries to speed up fiscal consolidation. The aim of the paper is to analyze whether or not the group of the PIIGS countries are likely to return to debt levels in accordance with the SGP criteria or if it might be necessary to undergo a process of debt restructuring or default. By analysing different scenarios where nominal interest rates on debt (r and nominal growth rates (n as well as gaps thereof (r-n, herein called the automatic debt dynamics, are varied, this paper comes to the conclusion, that debt restructuring or default is a likely outcome for some of the PIIGS; arithmetics is in particular playing against Greece. As disillusioning and disappointing this outcome might be for some observers, it

  1. CLARITY and PACT-based imaging of adult zebrafish and mouse for whole-animal analysis of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Cronan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of infection and the associated host response has been challenging in adult vertebrates. Owing to their transparency, zebrafish larvae have been used to directly observe infection in vivo; however, such larvae have not yet developed a functional adaptive immune system. Cells involved in adaptive immunity mature later and have therefore been difficult to access optically in intact animals. Thus, the study of many aspects of vertebrate infection requires dissection of adult organs or ex vivo isolation of immune cells. Recently, CLARITY and PACT (passive clarity technique methodologies have enabled clearing and direct visualization of dissected organs. Here, we show that these techniques can be applied to image host-pathogen interactions directly in whole animals. CLARITY and PACT-based clearing of whole adult zebrafish and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mouse lungs enables imaging of mycobacterial granulomas deep within tissue to a depth of more than 1 mm. Using established transgenic lines, we were able to image normal and pathogenic structures and their surrounding host context at high resolution. We identified the three-dimensional organization of granuloma-associated angiogenesis, an important feature of mycobacterial infection, and characterized the induction of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF within the granuloma using an established fluorescent reporter line. We observed heterogeneity in TNF induction within granuloma macrophages, consistent with an evolving view of the tuberculous granuloma as a non-uniform, heterogeneous structure. Broad application of this technique will enable new understanding of host-pathogen interactions in situ.

  2. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    with the use of Medline; additional cited works not detected on the initial search regarding neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer were reviewed. Evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management...... the published literature on chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. This article reports the development of international guidelines for the treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Bladder preservation is also discussed......, as is chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. The conference panel consisted of 10 medical oncologists and urologists from 3 continents who are experts in this field and who reviewed the English-language literature through October 2004. Relevant English-language literature was identified...

  3. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

  4. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2 [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K Dickerman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP PACT/RAX is to activate the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT/RAX in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT/RAX in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional models are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT/RAX functions.  In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify functionally orthologous dsRNA-binding proteins.  Transgenic Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level.

  5. Chromonychia Secondary to Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marien Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy drugs can affect the skin and its appendages. Several clinical presentations can be observed, depending on the affected structure. The most common dermatological side effect is chromonychia. The main causative agents are: (1 cyclophosphamide, which can provoke a diffuse, black pigmentation, longitudinal striae and dark grey pigmentation located proximally on the nails; (2 doxorubicin, which promotes dark brown bands alternating with white striae and dark brown pigmentation in transverse bands, and (3 hydroxyurea, which produces a distal, diffuse, dark brown pigmentation. In the majority of cases, the effects are reversible after the suspension of the causative agent for a few months. We report a patient who developed chromonychia while undergoing treatment with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone, methotrexate and cytarabine for acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  6. Principles of magnetodynamic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M; Leszczynska, D; Sourivong, P; Babinec, P; Leszczynski, J

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles of a novel method of cancer treatment are explained. Method is based on the thermal activation of an inactive prodrug encapsulated in magnetoliposomes via Neél and Brown effects of inductive heating of subdomain superparamagnetic particles to sufficiently high temperatures. This principle may be combined with targeted drug delivery (using constant magnetic field) and controlled release (using high-frequency magnetic field) of an activated drug entrapped in magnetoliposomes. Using this method drug may be applied very selectively in the particular site of organism and this procedure may be repeated several times using e.g. stealth magnetoliposomes which are circulating in a blood-stream for several days. Moreover the magnetoliposomes concentrated by external constant magnetic field in tumor vasculature may lead to embolic lesions and necrosis of a tumor body and further the heat produced for thermal activation of a drug enhances the effect of chemotherapy by local hyperthermic treatment of neoplastic cells.

  7. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η 2  = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η 2  = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η 2  = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η 2  = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... version) Arabic Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Chinese Translation of Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance French Translation ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. ... concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-01-01

    An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic). Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted ...

  12. CARE-PACT: a new paradigm of care for acutely unwell residents 
in aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Ellen; Scott, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Ageing population trends create a strong imperative for healthcare systems to develop models of care that reduce dependence on hospital services. People living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) currently have high rates of presentation to emergency departments. The care provided in these environments may not optimally satisfy the needs of frail older persons from RACFs. To describe the Comprehensive Aged Residents Emergency and Partners in Assessment, Care and Treatment 
(CARE-PACT) program: a hospital substitutive care and demand management project that aims to improve, in a fiscally efficient manner, the quality of care received by residents of aged care facilities when their acute healthcare needs exceed the scope of the aged care facility staff and general practitioners to manage independently of the hospital system. The project delivers high-quality gerontic nursing and emergency specialist assessment, collaborative care planning, skills sharing across the care continuum and an individualised, resident-focused approach.

  13. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Public health risk of antimicrobial resistance transfer from companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomba, Constança; Rantala, Merja; Greko, Christina; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Mateus, Ana; Moreno, Miguel A; Pyörälä, Satu; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Kunsagi, Zoltan; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Jukes, Helen; Törneke, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Antimicrobials are important tools for the therapy of infectious bacterial diseases in companion animals. Loss of efficacy of antimicrobial substances can seriously compromise animal health and welfare. A need for the development of new antimicrobials for the therapy of multiresistant infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria, has been acknowledged in human medicine and a future corresponding need in veterinary medicine is expected. A unique aspect related to antimicrobial resistance and risk of resistance transfer in companion animals is their close contact with humans. This creates opportunities for interspecies transmission of resistant bacteria. Yet, the current knowledge of this field is limited and no risk assessment is performed when approving new veterinary antimicrobials. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the use and indications for antimicrobials in companion animals, drug-resistant bacteria of concern among companion animals, risk factors for colonization of companion animals with resistant bacteria and transmission of antimicrobial resistance (bacteria and/or resistance determinants) between animals and humans. The major antimicrobial resistance microbiological hazards originating from companion animals that directly or indirectly may cause adverse health effects in humans are MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, VRE, ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-negative bacteria. In the face of the previously recognized microbiological hazards, a risk assessment tool could be applied in applications for marketing authorization for medicinal products for companion animals. This would allow the approval of new veterinary medicinal antimicrobials for which risk levels are estimated as acceptable for public health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For

  15. Blood culture-guided de-escalation of empirical antimicrobial regimen for critical patients in an online antimicrobial stewardship programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Yin; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Huang, Ching-Tai; Cheng, Chun-Wen; Lin, Yu-Jr; Hsu, Ying-Jen; Chen, Chi-Hua; Deng, Shin-Tarng; Leu, Hsieh-Shong

    2014-12-01

    A blood culture-guided review strategy was applied to a hospital-wide computerised antimicrobial approval system (HCAAS) at a medical centre in Taiwan. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of this deployment on prescribers' behaviours, antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial expenditure and healthcare quality in adult intensive care units (ICUs). The HCAAS automatically identifies patients with positive blood cultures and notifies the pre-assigned infectious diseases (ID) physicians for an online second review of the current antimicrobial regimen. Patients from 16 adult ICUs were selected as a focus group. Descriptive analysis, McNemar's test, interrupted time-series analysis and univariate regression analysis were applied. The number of prescriptions assigned for second review increased from 304 in 2010 to 682 in 2012. The approval rate for the antimicrobial regimen in the second review exceeded 70%. In disapproved cases, prescribers accepted the recommendation from ID physicians in 66.1% of cases in the first year; the acceptance rate increased to 80.6% in 2012. Among the restricted antimicrobial agents, consumption gradients decreased for all eight drug classes. The overall antimicrobial expenditure gradient declined significantly following deployment of the second review strategy. The healthcare-associated infection rate continued to decrease over time, and the mortality and ICU re-admission rates remained stable after deployment. A blood culture-guided review of antimicrobial use based on clinical and microbiological evidence improves accuracy in choosing appropriate antimicrobial agents and encourages de-escalation. Consumption and expenditure gradients of antimicrobial agents decreased after the intervention, and healthcare quality was not compromised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Metronomic chemotherapy regimens in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy implies the regular use of cytotoxic agents in doses much smaller than the maximum tolerable doses for a long time. Preclinical experiments show that this treatment option has a many-sided (antiangiogenic, immunostimulating, and direct cytotoxic effect on tumor. Moreover, this approach has gained the widest acceptance in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer in clinical practice. By taking into account the high activity of angiogenesis in colon cancer progression, it is interesting to study the impact of metronomic chemotherapy regimens for this nosological entity as well. This literature review considers not only the history of metronomic chemotherapy, the mechanisms of action, and a range of drugs having an antitumor effect in the metronomic regimens, but also analyzes clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

  17. chemotherapy at the uch, ibadan.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , at different times during the course of their treatment with chemotherapy received palliative radiotherapy to sites of painfial bony lesions and/or fracture sites (after immobilization). External radiation therapy was delivered through a cobalt-60 ...

  18. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David

    2011-01-01

    receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy will be reviewed. Consensus statements are given, including optimal dose and schedule of serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. The most significant recommendations (and changes since the 2004...... version of the guidelines) are as follows: the best prophylaxis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (not including a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) is the combination of palonosetron and dexamethasone on the day of chemotherapy, followed by dexamethasone...... on days 2-3. In patients receiving a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide, a combination of a serotonin(3) receptor antagonist plus dexamethasone, plus the neurokinin(1) receptor antagonist aprepitant on the day of chemotherapy, followed by aprepitant days 2-3, is recommended....

  19. [Metropolitan and regional health planning: dilemmas of the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Monteiro, Paulo Henrique Nico; Alves, Olga Sofia Fabergé; Morais, Maria de Lima Salum e; Barboza, Renato

    2012-05-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between metropolitan and regional health planning based on the processes of regionalization and the Pact for Health in the Baixada Santista Metropolitan Area, São Paulo State, Brazil. The method used was a case study in two stages, namely during initial implementation of the Pact for Health (2007) and the Regional Administration Committees (CGR) and in 2010. Municipal and regional health systems managers and the director of the Metropolitan Agency were interviewed, and records were analyzed from ten years of meetings of the Regional Inter-Administration Committee and the Regional Development Council. Four issues emerged: financing and infrastructure; health services utilization; inefficiency of the Regional Health Administration's instruments and decision-making levels; and the relationship between different levels in the Administration. Metropolitan health management remained as an underlying issue, appearing only incidentally or tangentially to regional management. Despite some limitations, the CGR has been legitimized as a space for regional health management.

  20. STUDY ON IDENTIFYING THE CONSULTANCY NEEDS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE TERRITORIAL PACT AND THE COUNTY PARTNERSHIPS IN THE CENTRE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA-TEODORA CIUHUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure some quality consulting services within the activity “Providing consultancy services to develop applications for European funding with focus on the SOP HRD 2007-2013”, in order to identify the organisations’ consultancy needs, the problems they face in elaborating the financing applications and implementing projects, there has been elaborated, within the PTS, the document “Questionnaire on identifying the consultancy needs of the members of the Territorial Pact and the County Partnerships - Centre”. The questionnaire was sent via e-mail to the member organisations of the Pact and the County Partnerships and also, it has been posted on the web site www.stpcentru.ro, so that all members may have access to it. The questionnaires collected until May, 25th, 2010 from 27 organisations were centralised in an excel format Data base.

  1. The influence of validity criteria on Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test-retest reliability among high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Benjamin L; Solomon, Gary S

    2017-04-01

    Research findings to date on the stability of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) Composite scores have been inconsistent, requiring further investigation. The use of test validity criteria across these studies also has been inconsistent. Using multiple measures of stability, we examined test-retest reliability of repeated ImPACT baseline assessments in high school athletes across various validity criteria reported in previous studies. A total of 1146 high school athletes completed baseline cognitive testing using the online ImPACT test battery at two time periods of approximately two-year intervals. No participant sustained a concussion between assessments. Five forms of validity criteria used in previous test-retest studies were applied to the data, and differences in reliability were compared. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged in composite scores from .47 (95% confidence interval, CI [.38, .54]) to .83 (95% CI [.81, .85]) and showed little change across a two-year interval for all five sets of validity criteria. Regression based methods (RBMs) examining the test-retest stability demonstrated a lack of significant change in composite scores across the two-year interval for all forms of validity criteria, with no cases falling outside the expected range of 90% confidence intervals. The application of more stringent validity criteria does not alter test-retest reliability, nor does it account for some of the variation observed across previously performed studies. As such, use of the ImPACT manual validity criteria should be utilized in the determination of test validity and in the individualized approach to concussion management. Potential future efforts to improve test-retest reliability are discussed.

  2. Influenza vaccination in children being treated with chemotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Ginette M; Kremer, Leontien C M; van de Wetering, Marianne D

    2013-08-01

    Influenza infection is a potential cause of severe morbidity in children with cancer; therefore vaccination against influenza is recommended. However, data are conflicting regarding the immune response to influenza vaccination in children with cancer, and the value of vaccination remains unclear. 1. To assess the efficacy of influenza vaccination in stimulating an immunological response in children with cancer during chemotherapy, compared with control groups.2. To assess the efficacy of influenza vaccination in preventing confirmed influenza and influenza-like illness and/or in stimulating immunological response in children with cancer treated with chemotherapy, compared with placebo, no intervention or different dosage schedules.3. To identify the adverse effects associated with influenza vaccines in children with cancer treated with chemotherapy, compared with other control groups. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 2012) up to August 2012. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP). We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which the serological response to influenza vaccination of children with cancer was compared with that of control groups. We also considered RCTs and CCTs that compared the effects of influenza vaccination on clinical response and/or immunological response in children with cancer being treated with chemotherapy, compared with placebo, no intervention or different dosage schedules. Two independent review authors assessed the methodological quality of included studies and extracted the data. We included 1 RCT and 9 CCTs

  3. Efficacy of low intensity, therapist-implemented Project ImPACT for increasing social communication skills in young children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Walton, Katherine M

    2017-11-01

    Project ImPACT is a Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI) for young children with ASD. Preliminary research supports its feasibility and efficacy as a parent-mediated intervention; however, its efficacy as a low-intensity, therapist-implemented intervention is unclear. A single-case, multiple-baseline design evaluated the effect of 2 h per week of therapist-implemented Project ImPACT on social engagement, language, and play in nine children with ASD. Language and play skills were targeted separately for five children and together for four children. Children increased their rates of social engagement and language when language or play was the sole target and when language and play were targeted together; however, gains in play skills were evident only when they were targeted separately. This study provides support for the efficacy of the Project ImPACT when implemented by therapists at a low intensity and suggests the way in which skills are targeted can affect child learning.

  4. Antimicrobials and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein-DeVore, L

    1991-10-01

    Effective control of plaque and gingivitis are among our most important treatment goals. Several antimicrobial products have demonstrated safety and various degrees of effectiveness as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control. Our clinical decisions relating to antimicrobial products should be based on the expanding body of research that documents product safety and effectiveness in reducing both plaque and gingivitis. Antimicrobials present exciting prospects for in-office and home use, but they do not replace thorough root debridement and traditional plaque control. However, when selected based on individual patient needs and used in recommended regimens, antimicrobials can be important additions to both professional treatment and oral hygiene practices.

  5. „STABILITY AND GROWTH PACT, COMMUNITY DOCUMENT „REVIVED” IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PAUN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes to make a reasoned radiography Stability and Growth Pact, EU document revived therefore need to strengthen financial discipline and budget 6 to 7 September 2010 meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council (ECOFIN. He talked about the introduction of the Stability and Growth in a 'European quarter' which will be monitored in structural and fiscal policies of the Member States. He also held a first exchange of views about the possible introduction of a levy on banks and a tax on financial transactions. Thus, the European Union has moved to create the world's first supranational system of control over the financial markets, particularly in order to reduce the risk of global financial crisis. The system will act in early 2011. For the first time in history, European financial control agencies will have more seats than national governments. In addition, the European Central Bank will see a branch that will track the emergence of crisis risk.The financial crisis has diminished the EU's growth potential, and made it clear just how interdependent its members' economies are, particularly inside the eurozone. The most important priority now is to restore growth and create effective mechanisms for regulating financial markets - in Europe and internationally. In strengthening its system of economic governance, Europe must learn from previous shortcomings which have put the financial stability of the whole eurozone at risk:- poor observance of the EU's sound rules and procedures for economic policy coordination- insufficient reduction in public debt during the good times – with peer pressure proving an adequate incentive- failure to deal effectively with the build-up of macroeconomic imbalances - despite the Commission's warnings – resulting in high current account deficits, large external indebtedness and high public debt levels in a number of countries (above the official 60% limit for eurozone countries. Greater economic

  6. MAIA pathfinder: Imaging Polarimetric Assessment and Characterization of Tropospheric Particulate Matter (ImPACT-PM) field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Seidel, F. C.; Xu, F.; Garay, M. J.; Wu, L.; Bruegge, C. J.; van Harten, G.; Val, S.; Diner, D. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Bates, K. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Bradley, C. L.; Kupinski, M.; Clements, C. B.; Camacho, C.; Yorks, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) instrument, which was recently selected under NASA's third Earth Venture Instrument call, will improve aerosol particle type sensitivity through the atmospheric column as well as at the surface through the use of multiangular, multispectral, and polarimetric observations. MAIA will provide new information that enables estimates of speciated (size- and particle type classifications) surface particulate matter (PM) from space over major cities around the globe, and enable improved associations between particulate air pollution and human health. As a pathfinder to MAIA, the ImPACT-PM field campaign was a joint JPL/Caltech effort to combine measurements from MISR and AirMSPI with in situ airborne measurements and a chemical transport model to validate remote sensing retrievals of different types of airborne particulate matter. We will present highlights of the successfully completed ImPACT-PM field campaign which took place in the California Central Valley on July 5-8, 2016. We had two NASA ER-2/ CIRPAS Twin Otter collocated flights coincident with Terra/MISR overpasses on Tuesday and Thursday July 5 and 7; and two ER-2/Twin Otter collocations over local fires on Friday, July 8th. The AirMSPI, AirSPEX, and CPL instruments were integrated on the ER-2, and Caltech aerosol/cloud in-situ instruments were integrated on the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft in addition to the normal Twin Otter payload. We also deployed the JPL/University of Arizona GroundMSPI instrument and a ground-based lidar from San José State University at the Fresno California Air Resources Board super-site. While the overall aerosol and PM levels were low at this time, we were able to see a gradient of pollution in specially processed MISR high-resolution 4.4 km resolution aerosol data on both days. We will present initial results of AirMSPI WRF-Chem-constrained retrievals in comparison with EPA Speciation Trends Network stations in Fresno and Bakersfield, and with

  7. SU-C-204-06: Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Kilovoltage X-Ray-Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold

  8. Outpatient management following intensive induction or salvage chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland B; Taylor, Lenise R; Gardner, Kelda M; Dorcy, Kathleen Shannon; Vaughn, Jennifer E; Estey, Elihu H

    2013-01-01

    Adults with newly diagnosed or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) commonly receive intensive chemotherapy to achieve disease remission. In the United States and many other countries, it is standard practice that these patients remain hospitalized "preemptively" until blood count recovery, owing to the risk for overwhelming infections and bleeding during pancytopenia. This care policy requires hospitalization for an average of 3 to 4 weeks after completion of chemotherapy. However, highly effective oral prophylactic antimicrobials are now available, and transfusion support of outpatients has become routine in recent years. As a result, the care of patients with hematologic malignancies treated with intensive modalities is increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Benefits of this shift could include the reduced need for medical resources (eg, transfusions or intravenous antimicrobial therapy), improved quality of life (QOL), decreased rates of nosocomial infections, and lower costs. Increasing evidence indicates that select AML patients undergoing intensive remission induction or salvage chemotherapy can be discharged early after completion of chemotherapy and followed closely in a well-equipped outpatient facility in a safe and costeffective manner. Further demonstration that the current approach of preemptive hospitalization is medically unjustified, economically more burdensome, and adversely affects health-related QOL would very likely change the management of these patients throughout this country and elsewhere, resulting in the establishment of a new standard practice that improves cancer care.

  9. Career readiness and externalizing behaviors of children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS: 15-year outcomes of the PACT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Cook, Mekeila

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this 15-year longitudinal study was to assess the effects of maternal HIV/AIDS on child/adolescent career readiness and externalizing behaviors. Interviews were conducted with 66 pairs of healthy children and their mothers living with HIV/AIDS (MLH), who are participants in the Parents And children Coping Together (PACT) project begun in 1997. All study participants were English or Spanish speaking. About half (48.5%) of the youth were female. Maternal health status (e.g., viral load biomedical marker, illness symptoms, physical functioning and depression) and child/adolescent outcomes (e.g., career readiness, conduct disorder, drug use, sexual behaviors, parent attachment and youth autonomy) were assessed over 20 time-points. Individual growth and GEE logistic regression models showed lower variability in maternal viral load was positively associated with better career readiness and parent attachment among adolescent/young adults. Externalizing behaviors (conduct disorder, alcohol and crystal methamphetamine use) were positively associated with maternal depression. Adolescent coping efficacy was shown to be a protective factor when applied to models on career readiness. Stability in MLH health positively affects children’s career readiness over time, particularly career planning and career choices. The finding that adolescent coping efficacy may act as a protective factor against poor career planning has important implications for developing interventions to assist children in coping with parental HIV. PMID:28983322

  10. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT): brief interventions in routine care pathway - a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Rama; Whitty, Megan; Thomas, Mahiban; Kavangh, David; Palmer, Didier; Thomson, Valerie; Griffin, Carolyn; Mayo, Luke; D'Abbs, Peter; Nagel, Tricia

    2013-01-18

    Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone) fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) and an Expert Reference Group (ERG).Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.

  11. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT: brief interventions in routine care pathway – a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Rama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG and an Expert Reference Group (ERG. Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies.

  12. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT): brief interventions in routine care pathway – a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone) fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) and an Expert Reference Group (ERG). Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies. PMID:23331868

  13. The N-Pact Factor: Evaluating the Quality of Empirical Journals with Respect to Sample Size and Statistical Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R. Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)—the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings. PMID:25296159

  14. Missense mutation in the second RNA binding domain reveals a role for Prkra (PACT/RAX during skull development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K Dickerman

    Full Text Available Random chemical mutagenesis of the mouse genome can causally connect genes to specific phenotypes. Using this approach, reduced pinna (rep or microtia, a defect in ear development, was mapped to a small region of mouse chromosome 2. Sequencing of this region established co-segregation of the phenotype (rep with a mutation in the Prkra gene, which encodes the protein PACT/RAX. Mice homozygous for the mutant Prkra allele had defects not only in ear development but also growth, craniofacial development and ovarian structure. The rep mutation was identified as a missense mutation (Serine 130 to Proline that did not affect mRNA expression, however the steady state level of RAX protein was significantly lower in the brains of rep mice. The mutant protein, while normal in most biochemical functions, was unable to bind dsRNA. In addition, rep mice displayed altered morphology of the skull that was consistent with a targeted deletion of Prkra showing a contribution of the gene to craniofacial development. These observations identified a specific mutation that reduces steady-state levels of RAX protein and disrupts the dsRNA binding function of the protein, demonstrating the importance of the Prkra gene in various aspects of mouse development.

  15. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  16. The N-pact factor: evaluating the quality of empirical journals with respect to sample size and statistical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)-the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings.

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ol Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System ... If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Raw or cooked vegetables, such as broccoli, corn, green beans, peas, and spinach Snacks ••Granola ••Nuts ••Popcorn •• ... gov/livehelp NCI has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo- ...

  3. Chemotherapy of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus J. Bacchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Africa trypanosomiasis is a centuries-old disease which has disrupted sub-Saharan Africa in both physical suffering and economic loss. This article presents an update of classic chemotherapeutic agents, in use for >50 years and the recent development of promising non-toxic combination chemotherapy suitable for use in rural clinics.

  4. Chemotherapy-associated recurrent pneumothoraces in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2012-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare cause of pneumothorax in women. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, who had never had a pneumothorax prior to commencing chemotherapy for breast cancer. During chemotherapy she developed 3 pneumothoraces and 2 episodes of pneumomediastinum. We suggest that the pneumothoraces were caused by the chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of chemotherapy triggering pneumothoraces in a woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

  5. [Improving nursing staff accuracy in administering chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Ying; Chu, Yun-Li; Chiou, Yen-Gan; Chiang, Ming-Chu

    2009-12-01

    As most anticancer drugs are cytotoxic, their safe and error-free application is important. We analyzed data from the hematology-oncology ward chemotherapy checklist dated January 13th through February 3rd, 2007 and found accuracy rates for chemotherapy drug usage as low as 68.4%. Possible causes identified for this poor result include incomplete chemotherapy standards protocols, lack of chemotherapy quality control, and insufficient chemotherapy knowledge amongst nursing staff. This project aimed to improve the accuracy of nursing staff in administering chemotherapy and to raise nursing staff knowledge regarding chemotherapy. Our strategies for improvement included completing a chemotherapy standards protocol, establishing a chemotherapy quality-control monitoring system, augmenting chemotherapy training and adding appropriate equipment and staff reminders. After strategies were implemented, accuracy in chemotherapy administration rose to 96.7%. Related knowledge amongst nursing staff also improved from an initial 77.5% to 89.2%. Implementing the recommended measures achieved a significant improvement in the accuracy and quality of chemotherapy administered by nursing personnel.

  6. “Patti di morte”. Internet, suicidi e la spettacolarità del crimine / "Pactes de mort." Internet, suicides et spectacularité du crime / “Pact of death”: Web, Suicides and the Crime Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Web è diventato davvero uno specchio per vanitosi? Giovani e adulti si cimentano in bravate, oscenità, per poi filmarsi e pubblicare il video. Anche il suicidio può venire facilitato dal Web: mentre in Giappone si sottoscrivono patti di morte con sconosciuti, in occidente ci si toglie la vita di fronte la webcam nella solitudine della propria stanza. Se nel paese orientale le persone cercano di fuggire da una società che le rifiuta, che accetta solo la maschera che mostrano in pubblico e non il volto che essa cela, in occidente si scopre la mancanza di valore per la vita. Non essendo capaci di raccontarsi, scelgono di mostrare la propria immagine, l’unica cosa che è permesso loro gestire. Da spettatori, ora pretendono la parte dei protagonisti e la loro è una voglia di urlare parole rimaste soffocate per tanto tempo. Cercano di colpire gli occhi, costringendo il mondo ad assistere alla loro decisione definitiva. Le Web est-il vraiment devenu un miroir pour les vaniteux? Jeunes et adultes se livrent à des bravades, des obscénités, qu’ils filment dans la perspective de publier la vidéo. Ainsi, même le suicide peut être facilité par le Web. Alors qu’au Japon on signe des pactes de mort avec des inconnus, en Occident on s’ôte la vie devant une webcam, dans la solitude de son domicile. Si en Orient il s’agit d’une tentative de fuir une société qui refuse, qui accepte seulement le masque que l’on montre en public et non pas le visage qu’il cache, à l’Ouest nous découvrons le manque de valeur accordée à la vie. N'étant pas capables de se raconter, les gens choisissent de mettre en scène leur propre image, la seule chose qu’il leur est donné de gérer. Hier spectateurs, ils exigent aujourd’hui de devenir des protagonistes, et ainsi de pouvoir hurler des mots qui ont si longtemps été étouffés. Ils essaient de frapper les yeux, en obligeant le monde à assister à leur décision définitive.Is the Web

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides in Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoek, Monique L.

    2014-01-01

    Reptiles are among the oldest known amniotes and are highly diverse in their morphology and ecological niches. These animals have an evolutionarily ancient innate-immune system that is of great interest to scientists trying to identify new and useful antimicrobial peptides. Significant work in the last decade in the fields of biochemistry, proteomics and genomics has begun to reveal the complexity of reptilian antimicrobial peptides. Here, the current knowledge about antimicrobial peptides in reptiles is reviewed, with specific examples in each of the four orders: Testudines (turtles and tortosises), Sphenodontia (tuataras), Squamata (snakes and lizards), and Crocodilia (crocodilans). Examples are presented of the major classes of antimicrobial peptides expressed by reptiles including defensins, cathelicidins, liver-expressed peptides (hepcidin and LEAP-2), lysozyme, crotamine, and others. Some of these peptides have been identified and tested for their antibacterial or antiviral activity; others are only predicted as possible genes from genomic sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis of the reptile genomes is presented, revealing many predicted candidate antimicrobial peptides genes across this diverse class. The study of how these ancient creatures use antimicrobial peptides within their innate immune systems may reveal new understandings of our mammalian innate immune system and may also provide new and powerful antimicrobial peptides as scaffolds for potential therapeutic development. PMID:24918867

  8. Antimicrobials in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, Wim; Daeseleire, Els; De Brabander, Hubert F; Herman, Lieve

    2012-07-06

    The bee diseases American and European foulbrood and nosemosis can be treated with anti-infectious agents. However, in the EU and the USA the use of these agents in beekeeping is strictly regulated due to the lack of tolerance (e.g. Maximum Residue Limit) for residues of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in honey. This article reviews the literature dealing with antimicrobials of interest in apiculture, stability of these antimicrobials in honey, and disposition of the antimicrobials in honeybee hives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class...... of antimicrobial drugs, and computational methods utilizing molecular descriptors can significantly accelerate the development of new peptide drug candidates. Areas covered: This paper gives a broad overview of peptide and amino-acid scale descriptors available for AMP modeling and highlights which...

  10. Cancer cell adaptation to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Johnson, Penny; Somers, Shaw S; Toh, Simon; Higgins, Bernie; Lamont, Alan; Gulliford, Tim; Hurren, Jeremy; Yiangou, Constantinos; Cree, Ian A; Mercer, Stuart J; Knight, Louise A; Gabriel, Francis G; Whitehouse, Pauline A; Sharma, Sanjay; Fernando, Augusta; Glaysher, Sharon; Di Palma, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    Tumor resistance to chemotherapy may be present at the beginning of treatment, develop during treatment, or become apparent on re-treatment of the patient. The mechanisms involved are usually inferred from experiments with cell lines, as studies in tumor-derived cells are difficult. Studies of human tumors show that cells adapt to chemotherapy, but it has been largely assumed that clonal selection leads to the resistance of recurrent tumors. Cells derived from 47 tumors of breast, ovarian, esophageal, and colorectal origin and 16 paired esophageal biopsies were exposed to anticancer agents (cisplatin; 5-fluorouracil; epirubicin; doxorubicin; paclitaxel; irinotecan and topotecan) in short-term cell culture (6 days). Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure up- or down-regulation of 16 different resistance/target genes, and when tissue was available, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the protein levels. In 8/16 paired esophageal biopsies, there was an increase in the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) following epirubicin + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy and this was accompanied by increased expression of the MDR-1 encoded protein, P-gp. Following exposure to doxorubicin in vitro, 13/14 breast carcinomas and 9/12 ovarian carcinomas showed >2-fold down-regulation of topoisomerase IIα (TOPOIIα). Exposure to topotecan in vitro, resulted in >4-fold down-regulation of TOPOIIα in 6/7 colorectal tumors and 8/10 ovarian tumors. This study suggests that up-regulation of resistance genes or down-regulation in target genes may occur rapidly in human solid tumors, within days of the start of treatment, and that similar changes are present in pre- and post-chemotherapy biopsy material. The molecular processes used by each tumor appear to be linked to the drug used, but there is also heterogeneity between individual tumors, even those with the same histological type, in the pattern and magnitude of response to the same drugs. Adaptation

  11. Cancer cell adaptation to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Bernie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor resistance to chemotherapy may be present at the beginning of treatment, develop during treatment, or become apparent on re-treatment of the patient. The mechanisms involved are usually inferred from experiments with cell lines, as studies in tumor-derived cells are difficult. Studies of human tumors show that cells adapt to chemotherapy, but it has been largely assumed that clonal selection leads to the resistance of recurrent tumors. Methods Cells derived from 47 tumors of breast, ovarian, esophageal, and colorectal origin and 16 paired esophageal biopsies were exposed to anticancer agents (cisplatin; 5-fluorouracil; epirubicin; doxorubicin; paclitaxel; irinotecan and topotecan in short-term cell culture (6 days. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure up- or down-regulation of 16 different resistance/target genes, and when tissue was available, immunohistochemistry was used to assess the protein levels. Results In 8/16 paired esophageal biopsies, there was an increase in the expression of multi-drug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 following epirubicin + cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil (ECF chemotherapy and this was accompanied by increased expression of the MDR-1 encoded protein, P-gp. Following exposure to doxorubicin in vitro, 13/14 breast carcinomas and 9/12 ovarian carcinomas showed >2-fold down-regulation of topoisomerase IIα (TOPOIIα. Exposure to topotecan in vitro, resulted in >4-fold down-regulation of TOPOIIα in 6/7 colorectal tumors and 8/10 ovarian tumors. Conclusion This study suggests that up-regulation of resistance genes or down-regulation in target genes may occur rapidly in human solid tumors, within days of the start of treatment, and that similar changes are present in pre- and post-chemotherapy biopsy material. The molecular processes used by each tumor appear to be linked to the drug used, but there is also heterogeneity between individual tumors, even those with the same histological type, in the

  12. Daptomycin: the first approved lipopeptide antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, David R P

    2004-07-01

    To review the literature concerning the first Food and Drug Administration-approved lipopeptide antimicrobial, daptomycin. A PUBMED search was conducted to identify pertinent English-language journal articles between 1985 and November 2003, and additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of these articles. Abstracts from the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy meetings from 1985 through 2003 also were reviewed. All studies evaluating any aspect of daptomycin. Daptomycin is a semisynthetic lipopeptide, the first such antimicrobial agent to reach the marketplace. Its mechanism of action differs from that of the related agent vancomycin in that much of its effect is not because of inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis, but instead is a result of alterations in cell-membrane electrical charge and transport. It exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes, including methicillin-, penicillin-, aminoglycoside-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. In subjects with normal renal function, the terminal disposition half-life is about 7 to 10 hours. It is principally eliminated as unchanged drug in the urine. Available clinical trial data demonstrate efficacy in complicated skin and skin-structure infections resulting from susceptible gram-positive pathogens, but not in pneumonia. The principal adverse event of concern, although rare, is myotoxicity, manifested by muscle pain and/or weakness and elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations. The approved dosage regimen is 4 mg/kg intravenously over 30 minutes once daily for 7 days to 14 days. Studies are underway evaluating doses of up to 8 mg/kg once daily. Daptomycin, the first lipopeptide antimicrobial to be marketed, exhibits activity against multiresistant gram-positive pathogens, including linezolid- and quinupristindalfopristin-resistant strains. As such, it is a potentially valuable agent to treat infections resulting from

  13. Penile carcinoma: The role of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Titus Chacko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cytotoxic chemotherapy in the management of carcinoma of the penis is not clearly defined. Patients may receive chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting to help optimize surgery, the adjuvant setting to improve outcomes with surgery and in the setting of advanced disease for palliation. Chemotherapy may also be combined with radiation to increase response rates and improve survival. We have briefly reviewed the possible roles of chemotherapy in the management of carcinoma of the penis and present a retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients who received chemotherapy at our centre for carcinoma of the penis.

  14. Antimicrobial biosurfactants from marine Bacillus circulans: extracellular synthesis and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Das, P; Sivapathasekaran, C; Sen, R

    2009-03-01

    To purify the biosurfactant produced by a marine Bacillus circulans strain and evaluate the improvement in surface and antimicrobial activities. The study of biosurfactant production by B. circulans was carried out in glucose mineral salts (GMS) medium using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) for quantitative estimation. The biosurfactant production by this strain was found to be growth-associated showing maximum biosurfactant accumulation at 26 h of fermentation. The crude biosurfactants were purified using gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex G-50 matrix. The purification attained by employing this technique was evident from UV-visible spectroscopy and TLC analysis of crude and purified biosurfactants. The purified biosurfactants showed an increase in surface activity and a decrease in critical micelle concentration values. The antimicrobial action of the biosurfactants was also enhanced after purification. The marine B. circulans used in this study produced biosurfactants in a growth-associated manner. High degree of purification could be obtained by using gel filtration chromatography. The purified biosurfactants showed enhanced surface and antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial biosurfactant produced by B. circulans could be effectively purified using gel filtration and can serve as new potential drugs in antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  15. Combined chemotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Retinoblastoma (RB is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children. Although systemic chemotherapy has been the primary treatment, intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC represents a new treatment option. Here, we performed alternate systemic chemotherapy and IAC and retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of this approach. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Patients diagnosed with intraocular RB between January 2000 and December 2011 at Severance Children’s Hospital, Yonsei University, were reviewed. Before February 2010, the primary treatment for RB was chemotherapy (non-IAC/CTX. Since February 2010, the primary treatment for RB has been IAC (IAC/CTX. External beam radiotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy (HDCTX were used as “last resort” treatments just prior to enucleation at the time of progression or recurrence during primary treatment. Enucleation-free survival (EFS and progression-free survival were assessed. &lt;b&gt; Results:&lt;/b&gt; We examined 19 patients (median age, 11.9 months; range, 1.4 to 75.6 months with a sum of 25 eyes, of which, 60.0% were at advanced Reese Ellsworth (RE stages. The enucleation rate was 33.3% at early RE stages and 81.8% at advanced RE stages (P =0.028. At 36 months, EFS was significantly higher in the IAC/CTX group than in the non-IAC/CTX group (100.0% vs. 40.0%, P=0.016. All 5 patients treated with IAC achieved eye preservation, although most patients were at advanced RE stages (IV-V. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Despite the limitation of a small sample size, our work shows that an alternative combined approach using IAC and CTX may be safe and effective for eye preservation in advanced RB.

  16. Experimental studies on cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    The further development of the chemotherapy of cancer in the experimental and clinical fields necessitates a profound knowledge of its chemical, biochemical and pharmacological fundamentals and the mechanism of physiological and pathological growth processes. The 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zytostatika' includes chemists, biochemists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, physicians and immunologists of various scientific institutes and clinics in the Federal Republic of Germany and in West Berlin. It is their aim to carry out basic research as well as clinical-orientated research in the field of the chemotherapy of cancer. In the 15 years of cooperation, fundamental knowledge was gained, especially in the field of the cytotoxic specificity and cancerotoxic selectivity of alkylating cytostatics. New cytostatics with a greater oncostatic selectivity and an altered spectrum of activity were tested and greater knowledge was won on the molecular-biological prerequisites of a rational drug design. (orig.) [de

  17. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma: Surgery and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Trabelsi; Olfa, Gharbi; Faten, Hammedi; Makrem, Hochlef; Slim, Ben Ahmed; Moncef, Mokni

    2009-12-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma of high malignant potential. It most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera. We report a case of 52-year-old woman who presented with an invasive hidradenocarcinoma of the finger, treated with surgical excision. The patient presented with skin and lymph node metastases four years after, treated by chemotherapy. Hidradenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor. It seems important to use adjuvant therapies particularly for recurrent and metastatic forms.

  18. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma: Surgery and chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mokni Moncef; Hochlef Makrem; Ben Ahmed Slim; Hammedi Faten; Gharbi Olfa; Trabelsi Amel

    2009-01-01

    Context: Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma of high malignant potential. It most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera. Case report: We report a case of 52-year-old woman who presented with an invasive hidradenocarcinoma of the finger, treated with surgical excision. The patient presented with skin and lymph node metastases four years after, treated by chemotherapy. Conclusion: Hidradenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor. It seems important to use adjuvant therapies parti...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (video) Animation ... Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to veterinarians, livestock producers, lawmakers, consumer ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Monitoring System About NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  3. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... complex. This video was designed to make the concept of antimicrobial resistance more real and understandable to ... audiences. We hope this animation will make the concept more understandable to non-scientists by showing how ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary ... both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  8. SYNTHESIS, STEREOCHEMISTRY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: 4-Phenylsemicarbazone, Metal complexes, Stereochemistry, Antimicrobial activity. INTRODUCTION ... stereochemistry of semicarbazone metal complexes [8-13], this group of ligands deserve further investigations. ..... The cytotoxicity of tested compounds generally increased with increase concentration and ...

  9. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  10. Novel Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Emma

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides serve as a first line of defence against invading microorganisms and are an essential part of our fast innate immune system. They are ancient molecules found in all classes of life. Antimicrobial peptides rapidly kill a broad spectrum of microbes and are immunomodulatory, i.e. having additional actions influencing inflammation and other innate immune responses. Results presented in this thesis demonstrate that proteases of common human pathogens degrade and inactivate t...

  11. Stability and Growth Pact - Between Failure and Consolidation in the Context of the Sovereign Debt Crisis. EU's Reform in Public Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Turșie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing a complex economic, financial and social crisis, maybe the worst crisis in the history of the European Union, putting into question its greatest achievement – the single currency – European Union is also facing a credibility crisis. Though it was designed as a guardian of the Economic and Monetary Union, the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP failed in fulfilling its tasks, due to strategic opportunistic behavior of member states. After analyzing the causes of SGP failure, this paper presents the newly designed integrated European economic governance architecture, which should be implemented starting with 2012 as an ultimate response to the crisis.

  12. Evaluating the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the ImPACT post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Victoria C; Bradson, Megan L; Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A

    2017-07-20

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50.0% male) who underwent neuropsychological testing as part of their participation in their psychology department's research subject pool. The majority of the participants were Caucasian (94.7%) and had no history of concussion (73.7%). All participants completed the ImPACT at two time points, approximately 6 weeks apart. The PCSS was the main outcome measure, and eight symptom indices were calculated (a total symptom score, three symptom summary indices, and four symptom clusters). Pearson correlations (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed as measures of test-retest reliability. Overall, reliabilities ranged from low to high (r = .44 to .80; ICC = .44 to .77). The cognitive symptom cluster exhibited the highest test-retest reliability (r = .80, ICC = .77), followed by the positive symptom total (PST) index, an indicator of the total number of symptoms endorsed (r = .71, ICC = .69). In contrast, the commonly used total symptom score showed lower test-retest reliability (r = .67, ICC = .62). Paired-samples t tests revealed no significant differences between test and retest for any of the symptom variables (all p > .01). Finally, reliable change indices (RCI) were computed to determine whether differences observed between test and retest represented clinically significant change. RCI values were provided for each symptom index at the 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that evaluating additional symptom

  13. IN.PACT Amphirion paclitaxel eluting balloon versus standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for infrapopliteal revascularization of critical limb ischemia: rationale and protocol for an ongoing randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Iris; Scheinert, Dierk; Brodmann, Marianne; Bosiers, Marc; Micari, Antonio; Peeters, Patrick; Vermassen, Frank; Landini, Mario

    2014-02-19

    The effectiveness and durability of endovascular revascularization therapies for chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) are challenged by the extensive burden of infrapopliteal arterial disease and lesion-related characteristics (e.g., severe calcification, chronic total occlusions), which frequently result in poor clinical outcomes. While infrapopliteal vessel patency directly affects pain relief and wound healing, sustained patency and extravascular care both contribute to the ultimate "patient-centric" outcomes of functional limb preservation, mobility and quality of life (QoL). IN.PACT DEEP is a 2:1 randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy and safety of infrapopliteal arterial revascularization between the IN.PACT Amphirion™ paclitaxel drug-eluting balloon (IA-DEB) and standard balloon angioplasty (PTA) in patients with Rutherford Class 4-5-6 CLI. This multicenter trial has enrolled 358 patients at 13 European centers with independent angiographic core lab adjudication of the primary efficacy endpoint of target lesion late luminal loss (LLL) and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) in major amputation-free surviving patients through 12-months. An independent wound core lab will evaluate all ischemic wounds to assess the extent of healing and time to healing at 1, 6, and 12 months. A QoL questionnaire including a pain scale will assess changes from baseline scores through 12 months. A Clinical Events Committee and Data Safety Monitoring Board will adjudicate the composite primary safety endpoints of all-cause death, major amputation, and clinically driven TLR at 6 months and other trial endpoints and supervise patient safety throughout the study. All patients will be followed for 5 years. A literature review is presented of the current status of endovascular treatment of CLI with drug-eluting balloon and standard PTA. The rationale and design of the IN.PACT DEEP Trial are discussed. IN.PACT DEEP is a milestone, prospective

  14. Treatment Effect of Drug-Coated Balloons Is Durable to 3 Years in the Femoropopliteal Arteries: Long-Term Results of the IN.PACT SFA Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter A; Laird, John R; Tepe, Gunnar; Brodmann, Marianne; Zeller, Thomas; Scheinert, Dierk; Metzger, Christopher; Micari, Antonio; Sachar, Ravish; Jaff, Michael R; Wang, Hong; Hasenbank, Melissa S; Krishnan, Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have reported favorable 1-year outcomes with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) for the treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease when compared with standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Evidence remains limited on the durability of the treatment effect with DCBs in the longer term. IN.PACT SFA is a single-blind, randomized trial (Randomized Trial of IN.PACT Admiral Paclitaxel-Coated Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty [PTA] Balloon Catheter vs Standard PTA for the Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Superficial Femoral Artery [SFA] and/or Proximal Popliteal Artery [PPA]) that enrolled 331 patients with symptomatic (Rutherford 2-4) femoropopliteal lesions up to 18 cm in length. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive treatment with DCB or PTA. The 36-month assessments included primary patency, freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization, major adverse events, and functional outcomes. At 36 months, primary patency remained significantly higher among patients treated with DCB compared with PTA (69.5% versus 45.1%; log rank P <0.001). The rates of clinically driven target lesion revascularization were 15.2% and 31.1% ( P =0.002) for the DCB and PTA groups, respectively. Functional outcomes were similarly improved between treatment groups even though subjects in the DCB group required significantly fewer reinterventions versus those in the PTA group ( P <0.001 for target lesion revascularization, P =0.001 for target vessel revascularization). There were no device- or procedure-related deaths as adjudicated by an independent Clinical Events Committee. Three-year results demonstrate a durable and superior treatment effect among patients treated with DCB versus standard PTA, with significantly higher primary patency and lower clinically driven target lesion revascularization, resulting in similar functional improvements with reduced need for repeat interventions. URL: http

  15. Report on the third meeting of the project advisory committee (technical) for IAEA/WHO Project EGY/6/004 (Egyptian Cancer Project) 27-29 April 1985, at NEMROCK, Cairo. PACT(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1985-06-01

    The Project was launched in March 1983, with the first meeting of the Committee (PACT(I)). It was planned for a duration of four years. Now, after two years experience, PACT(III) met to review results so far and to advise on actions for the remaining two years. Appendix 1 lists those present at the meeting. Since 1983 a Pilot Project has been running at NEMROCK, the Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Oncology Centre at Cairo University Hospital, at which the Project is based. Two training courses have been given, in November 1983 and November 1984, and treatment has been given using protocols developed under the project. PACT(III) examined clinical results obtained so far and made recommendations for the extension of the scheme to other hospitals in Egypt

  16. Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause nerve problems and burning, numbness, tingling, or shooting pain in the fingers and toes. Certain types ... more comfortable wearing hats, scarves, or wigs to school or other events. Or, you may look great ...

  17. Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor and your parent say it's OK, get together with your friends and have some fun! Reviewed by: Lisa Wray, ... Kids Cancer Center What Is Cancer? When a Friend Has Cancer Radiation Therapy Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Hodgkin Lymphoma When Cancer Keeps You Home View ...

  18. Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy Based on Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yang Zhao; Rui Cheng; Zhe Yang; Zhong-Min Tian

    2018-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR) and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover,...

  19. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  20. Antimicrobial ceramics. Kokinsei ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, T.; Uchida, M. (Shinagawa Fuel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of infection by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), for which almost all antibiotics do not affect, in facilities such as hospitals is causing trouble. The antimicrobial property of silver has been known empirically since the ancient times. However, since 1985, so called silver zeolite in which zeolite carries silver ions has become utilized as an inorganic antimicrobial agent with silver as its constituent. In this article, the effect of inhibiting MRSA propagation of antimicrobial fibers containing silver zeolite is explained centering around the physical properties of silver zeolite. MRSA has resistance against antibiotics, methicillin which is mainly used at present. When the antimicrobial power of silver zeolite is compared with those of copper zeolite and zinc zeolite, the antimicrobial power of silver zeolite is the strongest and further increases as the silver ion concentration in the zeolite increases. Silver zeolite is safe to use and used for tools and clothes to be used in the fields of food and medical care. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Chemotherapy and Cancer - childrens experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Prytz, Anna; Harnfeldt, Linda

    2006-01-01

    With good knowledge about the disease and the treatment, the fear and worry of children and parents can be reduced. Children may be helped by painting to express their experiences. In order to have a good care, the care-personnel need to see and understand what the children need. It is important to live an as regular life as possible during the disease and its treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate how children experience chemotherapy in conection with their cancer disease. The met...

  2. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji eMorita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration.Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc. induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor.Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa

  3. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  5. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  6. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuyama, Yukio; Fujii, Masato; Tanaka, Juichi; Takaoka, Tetsuro; Hosoda, Hyonosuke; Kawaura, Mitsuhiro; Toji, Masao

    1988-01-01

    There are 4 modalities of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy which include (1) concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy, (2) sequential use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy (pre-radiation chemotherapy), (3) pre-radiation chemotherapy followed by concurrent radiation and chemotherapy, and (4) alternating use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy based upon Looney's hypothesis. We studied concurrent use of radiotherapy and UFT by means of animal experimentation and clinical trials. The results obtained revealed that UFT was a most suitable agent together with 5-fluorouracil for concurrent application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy including pre-radiation chemotherapy was also studied in cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From the results, it seemed desirable to use cisplatin and bleomycin analogs sequentially in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be studied successively to improve local tumor control rates and prevent distant metastases. For future perspectives, new trials of alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy based upon Looney's hypothesis seem necessary. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  8. Combined chemotherapy of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellinger, K.; Volc, D.; Grisold, W.; Flament, H.; Vollmer, R.; Weiss, R. (Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien-Lainz (Austria). Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Neurobiologie)

    1983-01-01

    A controlled study of 226 age-matched patients with histologically proven grade 3 and 4 supratentorial gliomas with maximum feasible tumour resection, postoperative Karnofsky performance over 50 and minimum survival of 8 weeks compares the results of supportive care (45 cases), high-dose irradiation of 40 to 66 Gy (59 cases), COMP protocol (CCNU, procarbazine, vincristine, methotrexate, prednisone in 15 day cycles-42 cases) and simultaneous irradiation and COMP chemotherapy (80 cases including 30 survivors). Median recurrent-free intervals in the treatment groups (7 to 11.7 months) were significantly longer than after supportive care (4.4 months). Median survival with supportive care (6.7 months) was significantly shorter than after radiation or COMP treatment (11.7 and 12.3 months) and 14.9 to over 19.9 months with combined treatment, where the two-year survival rates were 33 and 67% (for survivors), and the 3-year survival rates 13 to 30%. Toxic side effects of multimodality treatment were more frequent than after chemotherapy. In addition to space-occupying intracranial cysts often simulating tumour recurrence (12%) and rare radiation necrosis, about 15% of long-term survivors developed progressive intellectual dysfunction with brain atrophy, in the absence of tumour regrowth. Despite some promising results of multimodality approaches towards the management of malignant supratentorial gliomas, the overall results are unsatisfactory and need further optimization.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Chemotherapy is frequently used as a conditioning regimen to destroy malignant marrow cells before transplantation. Xerostomia, dysphagia, altered taste perception, mucositis, soft‑tissue ulceration, and infection are common adverse oral effects of chemotherapy. The study was aimed to compare decayed, missing, ...

  11. Experiences of patients undergoing chemotherapy - a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dealing actively with discomfort and accepting negative impacts in hope of a cure helped the participants manage the acute complications related to the treatment. We recommend the development of interventions to ease discomfort due to chemotherapy. Keywords: Cancer, chemotherapy, experiences, nursing, qualitative ...

  12. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: 02/23/2018 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and Players . Language Assistance Available: Español | 繁體ä¸æ–‡ | ...

  13. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Enzler, Mark J.; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement...

  14. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The dr...

  15. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit ... non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material ...

  16. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  17. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... 語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map ...

  18. Multifactorial antimicrobial wood protectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Coleman; Carol A. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    It is unlikely that a single antimicrobial compound, whether synthetic or natural, will provide the ‘magic bullet’ for eliminating multiple biological agents affecting wood products. Development of synergistic combinations of selected compounds, especially those derived from natural sources, is recognized as a promising approach to improved wood protection. Recent...

  19. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NARMS 2015 NARMS Integrated Report Data Meetings and Publications Resources Judicious Use of Antimicrobials Page Last Updated: ... Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR ...

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains ... human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One of the major obstacles to understanding the ... Page Last Updated: 02/23/2018 ...

  1. Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy Based on Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Cheng, Rui; Yang, Zhe; Tian, Zhong-Min

    2018-04-04

    Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR) and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover, to achieve the accurate pre-diagnosis and real-time monitoring for tumor, the research of nano-theranostics, which integrates diagnosis with treatment process, is a promising field in cancer treatment. In this review, the recent studies on combinational therapy based on chemotherapy will be systematically discussed. Furthermore, as a current trend in cancer treatment, advance in theranostic nanoparticles based on chemotherapy will be exemplified briefly. Finally, the present challenges and improvement tips will be presented in combination therapy and nano-theranostics.

  2. Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy Based on Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yang Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover, to achieve the accurate pre-diagnosis and real-time monitoring for tumor, the research of nano-theranostics, which integrates diagnosis with treatment process, is a promising field in cancer treatment. In this review, the recent studies on combinational therapy based on chemotherapy will be systematically discussed. Furthermore, as a current trend in cancer treatment, advance in theranostic nanoparticles based on chemotherapy will be exemplified briefly. Finally, the present challenges and improvement tips will be presented in combination therapy and nano-theranostics.

  3. Chemotherapy of metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. In 2008 inRussian Federation55 719 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed and 37 911 patients died of this disease. A significant progress was achieved in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment during the last decades. A lot of treatment options became available: from 5-fluoruracil monotherapy to combined treatment treatment schemes including surgery. A group of patients with isolated liver metastases was distinguished, who can achieve 5-year survival rate of 40 % after systemic treatment and surgery. Today, based on clinical data and molecular analysis, we come close to individualized treatment of this patient group. In this literature review results of metastatic colorectal cancer chemotherapy are being analyzed and rational treatment tactic is proposed based on therapy goals. 

  4. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  5. Assessment of Brain absorbed X-ray dose during CT- Scan using ImPACT software in Tehran Univeristy hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilpour M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CT scan was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and since then has grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In 1998, the UK National Radiological Protection Board reported that 20% of the national collective dose from medical X-ray examinations derived from CT-scans, although it represented only 2% of all X- ray examinations the aim of this study was to determine the X-ray dosage received by patients in brain CT scan."n"n Methods: In this work, we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in five hospitals in Tehran. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 150 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. "ImPACT" version 0.99v was used to estimate organ and effective dose. Brain examinations were performed with fixed Kvp, mAs and T (slice thickness for each scanner. "n"n Results: Patients, who were scanned by CT of emam Khomeini center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner, received maximum organ dose (brain and minimum organ dose was delivered to patients who were scanned by CT of amir alam center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner. Maximum effective dose was 1.7 mSv acquired in this study for emam Khomeini haspital, smaller than

  6. Targeting Mechanisms of Resistance to Taxane-Based Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Chung-Yung

    2006-01-01

    .... Further, current clinical, pathological and molecular markers poorly predict the response and resistance of chemotherapy, and the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance are largely unknown...

  7. Targeting Mechanisms of Resistance to Taxane-Based Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Chung-Ying

    2007-01-01

    .... Further current clinical pathological and molecular markers poorly predict the response and resistance of chemotherapy and the molecular mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance are largely unknown...

  8. Preliminary Effectiveness of Project ImPACT: A Parent-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Delivered in a Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole A.; Stahmer, Aubyn; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This is a pilot study of the effectiveness of Project ImPACT, a parent-mediated intervention for ASD delivered in a community program. The primary aim was to compare child and parent outcomes between the intervention group and a community comparison for 30 young children with ASD at baseline and 12 weeks. The secondary aim was to identify parent factors associated with changes in child outcomes. Results indicated significant improvement in child communication skills and a strong trend for parent intervention adherence for the intervention group from baseline to 12 weeks. Higher baseline parenting stress was negatively related to child social gains from baseline to 12 weeks. Findings provide further support for delivering parent-mediated interventions in community settings to children with ASD. PMID:25633920

  9. Evaluation of AirMSPI photopolarimetric retrievals of smoke properties with in-situ observations collected during the ImPACT-PM field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Seidel, F.; Diner, D. J.; Seinfeld, J.; Bates, K. H.; Kong, W.; Kenseth, C.; Cappa, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce and evaluate an approach for obtaining closure between in situ and polarimetric remote sensing observations of smoke properties obtained during the collocated CIRPAS Twin Otter and ER-2 aircraft measurements of the Lebec fire event on July 8, 2016. We investigate the utility of multi-angle, spectropolarimetric remote sensing imagery to evaluate the relative contribution of organics, non-organic and black carbon particles to smoke particulate composition. The remote sensing data were collected during the Imaging Polarimetric and Characterization of Tropospheric Particular Matter (ImPACT-PM) field campaign by the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI), which flew on NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. The ImPACT-PM field campaign was a joint JPL/Caltech effort to combine measurements from the Terra Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), AirMSPI, in situ airborne measurements, and a chemical transport model to validate remote sensing retrievals of different types of airborne particulate matter with a particular emphasis on carbonaceous aerosols. The in-situ aerosol data were collected with a suite of Caltech instruments on board the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft and included the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), the Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA), and the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). The CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft was also equipped with the Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), nephelometer, a particle counter, and meteorological sensors. We found that the multi-angle polarimetric observations are capable of fire particulate emission monitoring by particle type as inferred from the in-situ airborne measurements. Modeling of retrieval sensitivities show that the characterization of black carbon is the most challenging. The work aims at evaluating multi-angle, spectropolarimetric capabilities for particulate matter characterization in support of the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols (MAIA) satellite investigation

  10. Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment for Femoropopliteal Artery Disease: The IN.PACT Global Study De Novo In-Stent Restenosis Imaging Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Marianne; Keirse, Koen; Scheinert, Dierk; Spak, Lubomir; Jaff, Michael R; Schmahl, Randy; Li, Pei; Zeller, Thomas

    2017-10-23

    This study sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a paclitaxel-coated drug-coated balloon (DCB) for the treatment of patients with de novo in-stent restenosis (ISR). Treatment of patients with ISR remains a challenge. Current strategies are plagued by high rates of recurrent restenosis and need for reintervention. The best intervention for ISR remains to be elucidated. The IN.PACT Global study is an independently adjudicated multicenter, prospective, single-arm study that enrolled 1,535 subjects with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease of the superficial femoral and/or popliteal arteries, including de novo ISR lesions. Patients enrolled in the pre-specified ISR imaging cohort were evaluated for vessel patency and reintervention within the 12-month follow-up period. A total of 131 subjects with 149 ISR lesions were included for analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 67.8 years. Mean lesion length was 17.17 ± 10.47 cm, including 34.0% total occlusions and 59.1% calcified lesions. The 12-month Kaplan-Meier estimate of primary patency was 88.7%. The rate of clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD TLR) at 12 months was 7.3%. The primary safety outcome, a composite of freedom from device- and procedure-related mortality through 30 days and freedom from major target limb amputation and CD TLR within 12 months, was 92.7%. There were no major target limb amputations, no deaths, and a low (0.8%) thrombosis rate. Results from the ISR imaging cohort demonstrate high patency and a low rate of CD TLR at 12 months. These data confirm the safety and effectiveness of the IN.PACT Admiral DCB (Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) in complex femoropopliteal lesions, including this challenging subset. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; Norris, Ross; Paterson, David L; Martin, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing the prescription of antimicrobials is required to improve clinical outcome from infections and to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance. One such method to improve antimicrobial dosing in individual patients is through application of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The aim of this manuscript is to review the place of TDM in the dosing of antimicrobial agents, specifically the importance of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) to define the antimicrobial exposures necessary for maximizing killing or inhibition of bacterial growth. In this context, there are robust data for some antimicrobials, including the ratio of a PK parameter (e.g. peak concentration) to the minimal inhibitory concentration of the bacteria associated with maximal antimicrobial effect. Blood sampling of an individual patient can then further define the relevant PK parameter value in that patient and, if necessary, antimicrobial dosing can be adjusted to enable achievement of the target PK/PD ratio. To date, the clinical outcome benefits of a systematic TDM programme for antimicrobials have only been demonstrated for aminoglycosides, although the decreasing susceptibility of bacteria to available antimicrobials and the increasing costs of pharmaceuticals, as well as emerging data on pharmacokinetic variability, suggest that benefits are likely. PMID:21831196

  12. Randomised controlled trial of a supervised exercise rehabilitation program for colorectal cancer survivors immediately after chemotherapy: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eakin Elizabeth G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosis and the ensuing treatments can have a substantial impact on the physical and psychological health of survivors. As the number of CRC survivors increases, so too does the need to develop viable rehabilitation programs to help these survivors return to good health as quickly as possible. Exercise has the potential to address many of the adverse effects of CRC treatment; however, to date, the role of exercise in the rehabilitation of cancer patients immediately after the completion of treatment has received limited research attention. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial which will evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise program (ImPACT Program on the physiological and psychological markers of rehabilitation, in addition to biomarkers of standard haematological outcomes and the IGF axis. Methods/Design Forty CRC patients will be recruited through oncology clinics and randomised to an exercise group or a usual care control group. Baseline assessment will take place within 4 weeks of the patient completing adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The exercise program for patients in the intervention group will commence a week after the baseline assessment. The program consists of three supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions per week for 12 weeks. All participants will have assessments at baseline (0 wks, mid-intervention (6 wks, post-intervention (12 wks and at a 6-week follow-up (18 wks. Outcome measures include cardio-respiratory fitness, biomarkers associated with health and survival, and indices of fatigue and quality of life. Process measures are participants' acceptability of, adherence to, and compliance with the exercise program, in addition to the safety of the program. Discussion The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the role of supervised exercise in improving life after CRC. Additionally

  13. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    to determine the strength of the relationship between expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea. METHODS: The findings from 17 relevant studies (n = 2,400) identified through systematic searches of Medline, PsycInfo, and Cinhal were analyzed using a combination of meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: Overall......, there was a robust positive association between expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea (ESr = 0.18, equivalent to Cohen's d = 0.35), suggesting that patients with stronger expectancies experience more chemotherapy-induced nausea. Although weaker associations were found in studies employing multivariate analysis...

  14. Natural antimicrobials in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Stock, Sarah J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials are peptides that are essential components of the innate immune system, providing broad-spectrum protection against bacteria, yeasts and some viruses. In addition to their innate immune activity, they exhibit properties suggesting they interact with the adaptive immune system. These functions imply they may be of particular importance in pregnancy. Intrauterine infection is responsible for approximately one third of cases of preterm labour, and normal ...

  15. Antimicrobial Modifications of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on antimicrobial modifications of polymer materials intended for medical devices production. Firstly, a brief introduction into the field of medical application of polymers is presented. Considering the fact that polymer medical devices are often connected with occurrence of nosocomial infections, the next part refers to this phenomenon and its causes. One of the possibilities of reducing of the infection occurrence is aimed at polymer modification. It is a key topic o...

  16. Antimicrobial Tolerance in Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    The tolerance of microorganisms in biofilms to antimicrobial agents is examined through a meta-analysis of literature data. A numerical tolerance factor comparing the rates of killing in the planktonic and biofilm states is defined to provide a quantitative basis for the analysis. Tolerance factors for biocides and antibiotics range over three orders of magnitude. This variation is not explained by taking into account the molecular weight of the agent, the chemistry of the agent, the substrat...

  17. Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Falagas, Matthew E

    2015-04-01

    Substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs are a growing global problem. The most common substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials include beta-lactams (among antibiotics) and chloroquine and artemisin derivatives (among antimalarials). The most common type of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs have a reduced amount of the active drug, and the majority of them are manufactured in Southeast Asia and Africa. Counterfeit antimicrobial drugs may cause increased mortality and morbidity and pose a danger to patients. Here we review the literature with regard to the issue of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobials and describe the prevalence of this problem, the different types of substandard/counterfeit antimicrobial drugs, and the consequences for the individuals and global public health. Local, national, and international initiatives are required to combat this very important public health issue. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-19

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.  Created: 10/19/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/26/2006.

  19. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma with respect...

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  1. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  3. Cancer chemotherapy and biotherapy: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chabner, Bruce; Longo, Dan L

    2011-01-01

    "Updated to include the newest drugs and those currently in development, Cancer Chemotherapy and Biotherapy, Fifth Edition is a comprehensive reference on the preclinical and clinical pharmacology of anticancer agents...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, Patricia L; Montforts, M. H. M. M

    2012-01-01

    .... Recognizing the connectivity between overlapping complex systems, the book discusses the subject from the perspective of an ecosystem approach"-- "This book explores the role that antimicrobial...

  5. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Rajesh R; Kohli, Gurdeep Singh; Katekhaye, Vijay M; Swami, Onkar C

    2014-07-01

    The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is rising and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in clinical and community setting. Spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and development of superbugs have further complicated the effective control strategies. International, national and local approaches have been advised for control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance. Rational use of antimicrobials, regulation on over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, improving hand hygiene and improving infection prevention and control are the major recommended approaches. Thorough understanding of resistance mechanism and innovation in new drugs and vaccines is the need. A multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is demanded for combating antimicrobial resistance.

  6. Delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Randi; Malmsten, Martin

    2017-01-01

    on the identification such peptides, as well as on their optimization to reach potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects at simultaneously low toxicity against human cells. In comparison, delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides have attracted considerably less interest. However, such delivery systems......, or through achieving co-localization with intracellular pathogens. Here, an overview is provided of the current understanding of delivery systems for antimicrobial peptides, with special focus on AMP-carrier interactions, as well as consequences of these interactions for antimicrobial and related biological...

  7. Antimicrobial resistant coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Isolates of coagulase positive S. aureus resistance to 10 antimicrobials was determined by disc diffusion method. Staphylococcus .... Table 1: Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase positive Staphylococcus. aureus isolates from chickens in Maiduguri,. Nigeria. Antimicrobials .... on Danish poultry and pig farms. Preventive.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): beyond sorafenib-chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Won; Talati, Chetasi; Kim, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer with poor prognosis. The incidence of HCC and HCC-related deaths have increased over the last several decades. However, the treatment options for advanced HCC are very limited. Sorafenib remains the only drug approved for systemic treatment for advanced HCC. However, prior to sorafenib era conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies have been studied in advanced HCC. In this review, clinical studies of systemic chemotherapy for advanced HCC will be summarized and discussed.

  9. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): beyond sorafenib—chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Won; Talati, Chetasi; Kim, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer with poor prognosis. The incidence of HCC and HCC-related deaths have increased over the last several decades. However, the treatment options for advanced HCC are very limited. Sorafenib remains the only drug approved for systemic treatment for advanced HCC. However, prior to sorafenib era conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies have been studied in advanced HCC. In this review, clinical studies of systemic chemotherapy for ...

  10. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G Vichaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms of chemotherapy include (i cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients.

  11. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jung-Il; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Won Seog; Kwon, Ki-Hoon; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC. Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC

  12. Metronomic palliative chemotherapy in maxillary sinus tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay M Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronomic chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate and celecoxib recently has shown promising results in multiple studies in head and neck cancers. However, these studies have not included patients with maxillary sinus primaries. Hence, the role of palliative metronomic chemotherapy in patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma that is not amenable to radical therapy is unknown. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of carcinoma maxillary sinus patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between August 2011 and August 2014. The demographic details, symptomatology, previous treatment details, indication for palliative chemotherapy, response to therapy, and overall survival (OS details were extracted. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics have been performed. Survival analysis was done by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Five patients had received metronomic chemotherapy. The median age was 60 years (range 37-64 years. The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months were 40%, 40%, and 20%, respectively. The estimated median OS was 126 days (95% confidence interval 0-299.9 days. The estimated median survival in patients with an event-free period after the last therapy of <6 months was 45 days, whereas it was 409 days in patients with an event-free period postlast therapy above 6 months (P = 0.063. Conclusion: Metronomic chemotherapy in carcinoma maxillary sinus holds promise. It has activity similar to that seen in head and neck cancers and needs to be evaluated further in a larger cohort of patients.

  13. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  14. Antimicrobial Food Packaging: Potential & Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHANU eMALHOTRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line.

  15. for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... An acetone extract of Loxostylis alata was separated into six fractions based on polarity by a solvent- solvent fractionation procedure and the different fractions were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The number of antimicrobial compounds in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform ...

  16. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Agave sisalana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the leaves and leaf waste discarded in the process of obtaining the hard fibers of Agave sisalana. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the paper disk diffusion method using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (non-.

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Indran; Shorten, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    As pathology services become more centralized and automated, the measurement of therapeutic antimicrobial drugs concentrations is increasingly performed in clinical biochemistry or 'blood science' laboratories. This review outlines key groups of antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, antifungal agents and antituberculosis agents, their role in managing infectious diseases, and the reasons why serum concentration measurement is important. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2018-02-01

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical and radiological effect of medialized cortical bone trajectory for lumbar pedicle screw fixation in patients with degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (mPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschugg, Anja; Kavakebi, Pujan; Hartmann, Sebastian; Lener, Sara; Wipplinger, Christoph; Löscher, Wolfgang N; Neururer, Sabrina; Wildauer, Matthias; Thomé, Claudius

    2018-02-20

    Spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation represents the gold standard for lumbar degenerative disc disease with instability. Although it is an established technique, it is nevertheless an invasive intervention with high complication rates. Therefore, minimally invasive approaches have been developed, the medialized bilateral screw pedicel fixation (mPACT) being one of them. The study objective is to evaluate prospectively the efficacy and safety of the mPACT technique compared with the traditional trajectory for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. This is a single-center, randomized, controlled, parallel group, superiority trial. A total of 154 adult patients are allocated in a ratio of 1:1. Sample size and power calculation were performed to detect the minimal clinically important difference of 10%, with an expected standard deviation of 20% in the primary outcome parameter, the Oswestry Disability Index, with power of 80%, based on an assumed maximal dropout rate of 20%. Secondary outcome parameters include the EuroQoL 5-Dimension questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the painDETECT questionnaire and the "timed up and go" test. Furthermore, radiological and health economic outcomes will be evaluated. Follow up is performed until 5 years after surgery. Major inclusion criteria are lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis with Meyerding grade I or II, which qualifies for decompression and fusion by medialised posterior screw placement with cortical trajectory (mPACT) or by a traditional trajectory for lumbar pedicle screw placement. This trial will contribute to the understanding of the short-term and long-term clinical and radiological postoperative course in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease, in which the mPACT technique is used. ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN99263604 . Registered on 3 November 2016.

  1. Partnered research in healthcare delivery redesign for high-need, high-cost patients: development and feasibility of an Intensive Management Patient-Aligned Care Team (ImPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Ezeji-Okoye, Stephen C; Shaw, Jonathan G; Hummel, Debra L; Holloway, Katie S; Smither, Sasha F; Breland, Jessica Y; Chardos, John F; Kirsh, Susan; Kahn, James S; Asch, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    We employed a partnered research healthcare delivery redesign process to improve care for high-need, high-cost (HNHC) patients within the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. Health services researchers partnered with VA national and Palo Alto facility leadership and clinicians to: 1) analyze characteristics and utilization patterns of HNHC patients, 2) synthesize evidence about intensive management programs for HNHC patients, 3) conduct needs-assessment interviews with HNHC patients (n = 17) across medical, access, social, and mental health domains, 4) survey providers (n = 8) about care challenges for HNHC patients, and 5) design, implement, and evaluate a pilot Intensive Management Patient-Aligned Care Team (ImPACT) for a random sample of 150 patients. HNHC patients accounted for over half (52 %) of VA facility patient costs. Most (94 %) had three or more chronic conditions, and 60 % had a mental health diagnosis. Formative data analyses and qualitative assessments revealed a need for intensive case management, care coordination, transitions navigation, and social support and services. The ImPACT multidisciplinary team developed care processes to meet these needs, including direct access to team members (including after-hours), chronic disease management protocols, case management, and rapid interventions in response to health changes or acute service use. Two-thirds of invited patients (n = 101) enrolled in ImPACT, 87 % of whom remained actively engaged at 9 months. ImPACT is now serving as a model for a national VA intensive management demonstration project. Partnered research that incorporated population data analysis, evidence synthesis, and stakeholder needs assessments led to the successful redesign and implementation of services for HNHC patients. The rigorous design process and evaluation facilitated dissemination of the intervention within the VA healthcare system. Employing partnered research to redesign care for high-need, high

  2. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Antimicrobial mechanism of monocaprylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Sutherland, Duncan S; Sundh, Maria; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-04-01

    Monoglyceride esters of fatty acids occur naturally and encompass a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Monocaprylate is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and can function both as an emulsifier and as a preservative in food. However, knowledge about its mode of action is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the mechanism behind monocaprylate's antimicrobial effect. The cause of cell death in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was investigated by examining monocaprylate's effect on cell structure, membrane integrity, and its interaction with model membranes. Changes in cell structure were visible by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and propidium iodide staining showed membrane disruption, indicating the membrane as a site of action. This indication was confirmed by measuring calcein leakage from membrane vesicles exposed to monocaprylate. AFM imaging of supported lipid bilayers visualized the integration of monocaprylate into the liquid disordered, and not the solid ordered, phase of the membrane. The integration of monocaprylate was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance measurements, showing an abrupt increase in mass and hydration of the membrane after exposure to monocaprylate above a threshold concentration. We hypothesize that monocaprylate destabilizes membranes by increasing membrane fluidity and the number of phase boundary defects. The sensitivity of cells to monocaprylate will therefore depend on the lipid composition, fluidity, and curvature of the membrane.

  4. Durability of Treatment Effect Using a Drug-Coated Balloon for Femoropopliteal Lesions: 24-Month Results of IN.PACT SFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John R; Schneider, Peter A; Tepe, Gunnar; Brodmann, Marianne; Zeller, Thomas; Metzger, Christopher; Krishnan, Prakash; Scheinert, Dierk; Micari, Antonio; Cohen, David J; Wang, Hong; Hasenbank, Melissa S; Jaff, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Evidence from large, randomized, controlled peripheral artery disease trials reporting long-term outcomes using drug-coated balloons (DCBs) is limited. Previously, the DCB showed favorable 1-year outcomes compared with conventional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), yet durability of the treatment effect with DCBs remains unknown. This study sought to investigate the longer-term outcomes of a paclitaxel-eluting DCB compared to PTA for femoropopliteal lesions. We enrolled 331 patients with symptomatic (Rutherford 2 to 4) femoropopliteal lesions up to 18 cm in length. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to treatment with DCB or PTA. The 24-month assessments included primary patency, freedom from clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR), major adverse events, and quality of life and functional outcomes as assessed by the EuroQOL-5D quality-of-life questionnaire, walking impairment questionnaire, and 6-min walk test. At 24 months, patients treated with DCB showed significantly higher primary patency when compared with PTA (78.9% vs. 50.1%; p < 0.001). The rates of CD-TLR were 9.1% and 28.3% (p < 0.001) for the DCB and PTA groups, respectively. The overall mortality rate in the DCB group was 8.1% versus 0.9% in the PTA group (p = 0.008). There were no device- or procedure-related deaths and no major amputations in either group through 24-month follow-up. The rate of vessel thrombosis was low (1.5% DCB vs. 3.8% PTA; p = 0.243), with no new events reported between 1 and 2 years. Both groups showed similar functional improvement at 2 years, although DCB patients achieved this level of function with 58% fewer reinterventions. The 24-month outcomes from the trial demonstrate a durable and superior treatment effect of DCB versus PTA with significantly higher primary patency, lower CD-TLR, and similar functional status improvement with fewer repeat interventions. (Randomized Trial of IN.PACT Admiral Drug Eluting Balloon vs Standard PTA

  5. Drug-eluting balloon versus standard balloon angioplasty for infrapopliteal arterial revascularization in critical limb ischemia: 12-month results from the IN.PACT DEEP randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Thomas; Baumgartner, Iris; Scheinert, Dierk; Brodmann, Marianne; Bosiers, Marc; Micari, Antonio; Peeters, Patrick; Vermassen, Frank; Landini, Mario; Snead, David B; Kent, K Craig; Rocha-Singh, Krishna J

    2014-10-14

    Drug-eluting balloons (DEB) may reduce infrapopliteal restenosis and reintervention rates versus percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and improve wound healing/limb preservation. The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy and safety of IN.PACT Amphirion drug-eluting balloons (IA-DEB) compared to PTA for infrapopliteal arterial revascularization in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Within a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial with independent clinical event adjudication and angiographic and wound core laboratories 358 CLI patients were randomized 2:1 to IA-DEB or PTA. The 2 coprimary efficacy endpoints through 12 months were clinically driven target lesion revascularization (CD-TLR) and late lumen loss (LLL). The primary safety endpoint through 6 months was a composite of all-cause mortality, major amputation, and CD-TLR. Clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Significant baseline differences between the IA-DEB and PTA arms included mean lesion length (10.2 cm vs. 12.9 cm; p = 0.002), impaired inflow (40.7% vs. 28.8%; p = 0.035), and previous target limb revascularization (32.2% vs. 21.8%; p = 0.047). Primary efficacy results of IA-DEB versus PTA were CD-TLR of 9.2% versus 13.1% (p = 0.291) and LLL of 0.61 ± 0.78 mm versus 0.62 ± 0.78 mm (p = 0.950). Primary safety endpoints were 17.7% versus 15.8% (p = 0.021) and met the noninferiority hypothesis. A safety signal driven by major amputations through 12 months was observed in the IA-DEB arm versus the PTA arm (8.8% vs. 3.6%; p = 0.080). In patients with CLI, IA-DEB had comparable efficacy to PTA. While primary safety was met, there was a trend towards an increased major amputation rate through 12 months compared to PTA. (Study of IN.PACT Amphirion™ Drug Eluting Balloon vs. Standard PTA for the Treatment of Below the Knee Critical Limb Ischemia [INPACT-DEEP]; NCT00941733). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  6. Administering chemotherapy in nononcology settings: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy

    2011-08-01

    Providing chemotherapy for patients in a variety of settings may be a challenge for oncology nurses. Increased acuity and comorbidities of patients needing chemotherapy have resulted in a greater incidence of administration in nononcology settings, such as intensive care units (ICUs). In addition, patients with conditions other than cancer are receiving chemotherapy. Because of a lack of certified and experienced chemotherapy nurses in the ICU, oncology nurses may be pulled from their unit to administer chemotherapy. Another possibility is that nonchemotherapy-certified nurses may be asked to administer chemotherapy. Caring for patients receiving chemotherapy may be stressful for nononcology nurses because of their lack of knowledge regarding chemotherapy precautions and the management of side effects and toxicities. Not only is coordination and cooperation between nursing personnel vital, certified oncology nurses must be able to assess the situation, provide the necessary information and education, and safely administer the chemotherapy. This article describes a case study and provides suggestions for planning in similar situations.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide photolysis against Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Shirato, Midori; Kanno, Taro; Örtengren, Ulf; Lingström, Peter; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of dental caries with maximum conservation of intact tooth substance remains a challenge in dentistry. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of H2O2 photolysis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm, which may be a novel antimicrobial chemotherapy for treating caries. S. mutans biofilm was grown on disk-shaped hydroxyapatite specimens. After 1-24 h of incubation, growth was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and viable bacterial counting. Resistance to antibiotics (amoxicillin and erythromycin) was evaluated by comparing bactericidal effects on the biofilm with those on planktonic bacteria. To evaluate the effect of the antimicrobial technique, the biofilm was immersed in 3% H2O2 and was irradiated with an LED at 365 nm for 1 min. Viable bacterial counts in the biofilm were determined by colony counting. The thickness and surface coverage of S. mutans biofilm increased with time, whereas viable bacterial counts plateaued after 6 h. When 12- and 24-h-old biofilms were treated with the minimum concentration of antibiotics that killed viable planktonic bacteria with 3 log reduction, their viable counts were not significantly decreased, suggesting the biofilm acquired antibiotic resistance by increasing its thickness. By contrast, hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of 3% H2O2 effectively killed S. mutans in 24-h-old biofilm, with greater than 5 log reduction. The technique based on H2O2 photolysis is a potentially powerful adjunctive antimicrobial chemotherapy for caries treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Retinoblastoma Control With Primary Intra-arterial Chemotherapy: Outcomes Before and During the Intravitreal Chemotherapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Alset, Adel E; Say, Emil Anthony T; Caywood, Emi; Jabbour, Pascal; Shields, Jerry A

    2016-09-01

    To compare outcomes of intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma as primary therapy before (Era I) and during (Era II) the intravitreal chemotherapy era. In this retrospective interventional case series at a tertiary referral center, 66 eyes of 66 patients with untreated unilateral retinoblastoma were used. intraarterial chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery under fluoroscopic guidance was performed using melphalan in every case, with additional topotecan as necessary. Intravitreal chemotherapy using melphalan and/or topotecan was employed as needed for active vitreous seeding. Globe salvage was measured based on the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) during two eras. The two eras encompassed 2008 to 2012 (intraarterial chemotherapy alone, Era I) and 2012 to 2015 (intraarterial chemotherapy plus intravitreal chemotherapy, Era II). Over this period, there were 66 patients with unilateral untreated retinoblastoma treated with primary intra-arterial chemotherapy. A comparison of features (Era I vs Era II) revealed no significant difference in mean patient age (24 vs 24 months), ICRB groups, mean largest tumor diameter (19 vs 17 mm), mean largest tumor thickness (10 vs 10 mm), vitreous seed presence (56% vs 59%), subretinal seed presence (67% vs 62%), retinal detachment (70% vs 66%), or vitreous hemorrhage (0% vs 5%). There was no significant difference in mean number of intra-arterial chemotherapy cycles (3 vs 3.1) or intraarterial chemotherapy dosages. Following therapy, there was a significant difference (Era I vs Era II) in the need for enucleation overall (44% vs 15%, P = .012), especially for group E eyes (75% vs 27%, P = .039). Four of the eyes that initiated therapy in Era I later required intravitreal chemotherapy during Era II. The enucleation rate was 0% for groups B and C in both eras and non-significant for group D (23% vs 13%). There were no patients with stroke, seizure, limb ischemia, extraocular tumor extension, secondary

  9. IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

  10. Estimating peak skin and eye lens dose from neuroperfusion examinations: use of Monte Carlo based simulations and comparisons to CTDIvol, AAPM Report No. 111, and ImPACT dosimetry tool values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Cagnon, Chris H; Villablanca, J Pablo; McCollough, Cynthia H; Cody, Dianna D; Zankl, Maria; Demarco, John J; McNitt-Gray, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    CT neuroperfusion examinations are capable of delivering high radiation dose to the skin or lens of the eyes of a patient and can possibly cause deterministic radiation injury. The purpose of this study is to: (a) estimate peak skin dose and eye lens dose from CT neuroperfusion examinations based on several voxelized adult patient models of different head size and (b) investigate how well those doses can be approximated by some commonly used CT dose metrics or tools, such as CTDIvol, American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and the ImPACT organ dose calculator spreadsheet. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate peak skin and eye lens dose on voxelized patient models, including GSF's Irene, Frank, Donna, and Golem, on four scanners from the major manufacturers at the widest collimation under all available tube potentials. Doses were reported on a per 100 mAs basis. CTDIvol measurements for a 16 cm CTDI phantom, AAPM Report No. 111 style peak dose measurements, and ImPACT calculations were performed for available scanners at all tube potentials. These were then compared with results from Monte Carlo simulations. The dose variations across the different voxelized patient models were small. Dependent on the tube potential and scanner and patient model, CTDIvol values overestimated peak skin dose by 26%-65%, and overestimated eye lens dose by 33%-106%, when compared to Monte Carlo simulations. AAPM Report No. 111 style measurements were much closer to peak skin estimates ranging from a 14% underestimate to a 33% overestimate, and with eye lens dose estimates ranging from a 9% underestimate to a 66% overestimate. The ImPACT spreadsheet overestimated eye lens dose by 2%-82% relative to voxelized model simulations. CTDIvol consistently overestimates dose to eye lens and skin. The ImPACT tool also overestimated dose to eye lenses. As such they are still useful as a conservative predictor of dose for CT

  11. Chemotherapy safety in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahn, Shawna

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  13. Theoretical and practical outline of the Copenhagen PACT narrative-based exercise counselling manual to promote physical activity in post-therapy cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, Julie

    2013-02-01

    Sedentary behaviour and reduced exercise capacity are potential persisting effects of anti-cancer therapy that may predispose to serious health conditions. It is well-established that physical exercise may prevent some of these problems. However, the extent to which cancer survivors are able to adopt long-term physical activity habits depends largely on their motivation. This theoretical paper aims to outline how researchers and practitioners can draw from Antonovsky's salutogenetic theory and White & Epston's Narrative Therapy to develop and implement intervention efforts centered on promotion of long-term physical activity behaviour, while at the same time increasing the individual cancer survivor's sense of meaning and personal health resources. The Copenhagen PACT (Physical Activity after Cancer Treatment) Study targeting adoption and maintenance of regular physical activity in post-therapy cancer survivors is briefly presented including a brief review of the theoretical rationale behind the psychological component of the intervention, i.e. a narrative-based exercise counselling programme. Subsequently, particular attention is given to the core principles, different components and structure of the counselling manual including sample questions and examples of written documents that have emanated from the individual counselling sessions. The discussion includes consideration of some methodological challenges that arise when attempting to evaluate narrative-based interventions in the context of physical activity promotion in cancer rehabilitation and survivorship care.

  14. Test-retest, retest, and retest: Growth curve models of repeat testing with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maerlender, Arthur C; Masterson, Caitlin J; James, Tiffany D; Beckwith, Jonathan; Brolinson, Per Gunner; Crisco, Joe; Duma, Stefan; Flashman, Laura A; Greenwald, Rick; Rowson, Steven; Wilcox, Beth; McAllister, Tom W

    2016-10-01

    Computerized neuropsychological testing has become an important tool in the identification and management of sports-related concussions; however, the psychometric effect of repeat testing has not been studied extensively beyond test-retest statistics. The current study analyzed data from Division I collegiate athletes who completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) baseline assessments at four sequential time points that varied over the course of their athletic careers. Administrations were part of a larger National Institutes of Health (NIH) study. Growth curve modeling showed that the two memory composite scores increased significantly with successive administrations: Change in Verbal Memory was best represented with a quadratic model, while a linear model best fit Visual Memory. Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time composites showed no significant linear or quadratic growth. The results demonstrate the effect of repeated test administrations for memory composite scores, while speed composites were not significantly impacted by repeat testing. Acceptable test-retest reliability was demonstrated for all four composites as well.

  15. Combined, sequential intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy (bridge chemotherapy for young infants with retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Pierre Gobin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial (i.a. chemotherapy has more risks of procedural complications in neonates and young infants. For these reasons, we have developed a strategy of bridge intravenous single agent chemotherapy to postpone i.a. chemotherapy in these children PROCEDURE: Neonates and young infants with retinoblastoma who required chemotherapy were treated with systemic carboplatin chemotherapy (18.7 mg/kg i.v. every 3-4 weeks until they reached the age of 3 months and a weight of 6 Kg. If necessary, i.a. chemotherapy was subsequently performed at 4 weeks intervals. Efficacy was judged by tumor regression on ophthalmological examination. Retinal toxicity was judged by electroretinography. RESULTS: Eleven children (19 eyes were treated. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or second malignancies (mean follow-up 27 months, range 9-46 months. Intravenous carboplatin (median 2 cycles, range 1-5 combined with cryotherapy and laser was given to all children. This was effective for five eyes, which did not require i.a. chemotherapy. I.a. chemotherapy was administered to 14 eyes (median 3.5 cycles per eye, range 1 to 6. No radiation therapy was required. The Kaplan Meier estimate of ocular radiation-free survival was 94.7% at one year (95% confidence interval 68.1-99.2%. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. ERG showed no deterioration of retinal function. CONCLUSION: Bridge i.v.-i.a. chemotherapy was feasible and safe, and is a promising strategy to treat retinoblastoma in neonates and young infants.

  16. Antimicrobial Agents and Catheter Complications in Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sara C; Dzintars, Kathryn; Gorski, Lisa A; Williams, Deborah; Cosgrove, Sara E

    2018-03-01

    Debate about whether certain antimicrobial agents traditionally considered vesicants increase the risk of catheter complications has led to uncertainty in venous catheter placement protocols. To understand whether patients requiring home-based outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) should receive peripheral catheters (e.g., midline catheters) versus central venous catheters, and to understand whether certain antimicrobial agents place home-based OPAT patients at higher risk for catheter complications, we investigated associations between antimicrobial agent(s) and catheter complications. We performed a prospective cohort study of patients requiring home-based OPAT discharged from two urban tertiary care academic medical centers, including telephone surveys and chart abstractions. Multivariable Poisson regressions were used to evaluate: (i) associations between antimicrobial agents traditionally considered vesicants, based on pH or osmolarity, and catheter complication rates, and (ii) associations between antimicrobial agent and rates of catheter complications. Vesicant antimicrobials defined using pH or osmolarity criteria were not associated with an increased rate of catheter complications (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR]: 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-2.96). Vancomycin was associated with an increased rate of catheter complications, as was daptomycin (aIRR: 2.32 [95% CI: 1.20-4.46] and 4.45 [95% CI: 1.02-19.41], respectively). Staphylococcus aureus infections were also associated with an increased rate of catheter complications (aIRR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.09-4.19), as were midline catheters (aIRR: 9.44, 95% CI: 2.12-41.97). Our study supports recent guidance identifying vancomycin as a vesicant, among a subset of antimicrobial agents, and removal of pH criteria for identification of vesicants. © 2018 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  18. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinoblastoma (RB) has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms “RB,” and “treatment,” “chemotherapy,” “systemic chemotherapy,” “IVC,” “IAC,” “periocular chemotherapy,” or “intravitreal chemotherapy.” Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827539

  19. Antimicrobial resistance in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keen, Patricia L; Montforts, M. H. M. M

    2012-01-01

    ... or antibiotic resistance genes as environmental contaminants. It also considers alternate uses and functions for antimicrobial compounds other than those intended for medicinal purposes in humans, animals, and fish...

  20. Synthesis, characterisation, stereochemistry and antimicrobial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    benzodiazepine also supports boat conformation in the solid state. The antimicrobial activity for -acetyltetrahydro-1,5-benzodiazepines have been carried out. -morpholinoacetyl-2,2,4-trimethyl-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine demonstrated better antibacterial and ...

  1. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zubairi, Ishtiaq H

    2006-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are symptoms that cause major concern to oncology patients. This article explores the types of nausea and vomiting in the context of chemotherapy, and discusses their pathogenesis and management.

  2. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A cause of heart disease? Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including ...

  3. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  5. Ultrasound sensitizes chemotherapy in chemoresistant ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Chemotherapy resistance is still a great challenge to the management of ovarian cancers. Using ... gynecological malignancies. Of those factors .... it is difficult to develop a chemical sensitizer. Either adriamycin- or cisplatin-resistance was overcome by insonation in this. GAPDH. MDR. Control Ultrasound ...

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a different color, such as orange, red, green, or dark yellow l Urine that has a strong smell l Trouble urinating It is common for your urine to change color or smell different during chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor or nurse to learn ...

  7. Experiences of patients undergoing chemotherapy - a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer is a global public health challenge and how patients in countries with poor healthcare infrastructure expe- ... Purpose: The objective of this study was to describe adult Ugandan cancer patients' experiences of undergoing chemotherapy .... and breast), as well as treatment (limited surgery, radio-.

  8. New therapies for antiemetic prophylaxis for chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar P

    2016-01-01

    A number of new advances have occurred over the past 2 years in the management of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting (CINV). A new neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (NK1RA), netupitant, has been combined with palonosetron in a single oral tablet for treating the effects of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC) and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). Rolapitant, another NK1RA, unlike aprepitant, has a long half-life and does not block CYP-3A4 and therefore has fewer drug interactions. Olanzapine reduces nausea more effectively than aprepitant in patients who are receiving HEC and is a better rescue antiemetic than is metoclopramide. Ginger lacks efficacy as an antiemetic agent for CINV. Although there was some evidence in a pilot study of gabapentin as an antiemetic, it was no better in reducing CINV than was placebo. Compliance to guidelines in multiple settings ranges from 50%-60% but is improved by computerized order entry of antiemetics and recommendations displayed with chemotherapy. ©2016 Frontline Medical Communications.

  9. Pathological response for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the leading cancer in Sudanese females. Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients treated at National Cancer Institute (NCI) and to compare it with the published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in ...

  10. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  11. Haemorheological changes in cancer patients on chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoti, C.E.; Osime, E.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the rheological changes in haematological and non-haematological cancer patients pre and post chemotherapy. It is a prospective study of 50 patients comprising 16(32%) haematological and 34(68%) non-haematological cancers of various types from March to December 2005 at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Rheologic parameters estimated by the various specific diagnostic methods were determined in cancer patient's pre and post chemotherapy. The rheological tests estimated were relative plasma viscosity (RPV) measured by means of a capillary viscometer, whole blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and plasma fibrinogen concentration (PFC) estimated by the Ingram's Clot weight method. The RPV in pre chemotherapy (p=0.006) and WBV in post chemotherapy (p=0.0231) patients measured revealed a significant difference when compared to controls. The fibrinogen concentration (P<0.0001) and ESR values (P<0.0001) were significantly increased in cancer patients when compared to controls. We conclude that total reduction of hyperviscosity and hyperfibrinogenaemia may contribute to effective treatment strategies in cancer patients. (author)

  12. Default from neoadjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventeen (38.6%) patients dropped out of treatment, before, during or after completing NAC. Ten of these defaulted due to inadequate funds to procure chemotherapy, three patients because they insisted on immediate mastectomy, and four of these patients refused surgery when they achieved complete clinical response, ...

  13. Medication safety in the ambulatory chemotherapy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Tejal K; Bartel, Sylvia B; Shulman, Lawrence N; Verrier, Deborah; Burdick, Elisabeth; Cleary, Angela; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Leape, Lucian L; Bates, David W

    2005-12-01

    Little is known concerning the safety of the outpatient chemotherapy process. In the current study, the authors sought to identify medication error and potential adverse drug event (ADE) rates in the outpatient chemotherapy setting. A prospective cohort study of two adult and one pediatric outpatient chemotherapy infusion units at one cancer institute was performed, involving the review of orders for patients receiving medication and/or chemotherapy and chart reviews. The adult infusion units used a computerized order entry writing system, whereas the pediatric infusion unit used handwritten orders. Data were collected between March and December 2000. The authors reviewed 10,112 medication orders (8008 adult unit orders and 2104 pediatric unit orders) from 1606 patients (1380 adults and 226 pediatric patients). The medication error rate was 3% (306 of 10,112 orders). Of these errors, 82% occurring in adults (203 of 249 orders) had the potential for harm and were potential ADEs, compared with 60% of orders occurring in pediatric patients (34 of 57 orders). Among these, approximately one-third were potentially serious. Pharmacists and nurses intercepted 45% of potential ADEs before they reached the patient. Several changes were implemented in the adult and pediatric settings as a result of these findings. In the current study, the authors found an ambulatory medication error rate of 3%, including 2% of orders with the potential to cause harm. Although these rates are relatively low, there is clearly the potential for serious patient harm. The current study identified strategies for prevention.

  14. Comparison of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-19

    Feb 19, 2013 ... protocol was implemented that consisted of restoration of all active carious lesions, treatment of periodontal infections, ... Conclusions: DMFT scores were found to increase after chemotherapy and HSCT, suggesting that the risk of infection ... immune disorders, and myelodysplastic syndromes.[1‑5].

  15. Biochemistry and Chemotherapy of Malaria and Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-06

    Agents and Chemotherapy. 12:1763-68. (13) Focke M. Feld A. Lichtenthaler K. 1989. Allicin, a Naturally Occurring Antibiotic from Garlic , Specifically...ethanol plant extracts including; nutmeg (Myristicaceae sp.), ginger (Zingiber officinale), goldenseal root (Hydrastis canadensis), garlic (Allium...sativum), elephant garlic (Allium scorodoprasum), onion (Allium cepa), and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). Cells of Leish- mania mexicana 227 and

  16. Chemotherapy of radiation injuries: research perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynchev, N.

    1993-01-01

    The therapy of radiation injuries - single and combined with other physical trauma (burn or wound) - are considered. Anti-bacterial therapy of infections in irradiated mice, rats and dogs and in irradiated dogs inflicted with burns has been applied. The results demonstrate that radiation induced exogenous and endogenous infections can be treated successfully with proper antimicrobial agents. Some immunomodulators also are effective in treating endogenous infection. The synergy between antimicrobial and immuno-modulator therapy holds promise for increasing the survival of irradiated victims. The improvement of managing infections in immuno-compromised (irradiated and injured) hosts will require further research using these therapeutic modalities. (author)

  17. In vitro photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in dentine contaminated by cariogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M. A. S.; de-Paula, D. M.; Lima, J. P. M.; Borges, F. M. C.; Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Barros, E. B.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.

    2010-06-01

    The development of a method to ensure bacterial-free substrates without extensive cavity preparation would be highly useful to dentistry, since there is no currently available effective method for killing residual bacteria in dentinal tissue. This randomized in vitro study determined parameters for using toluidine blue O (TBO) with a light-emitting diode (LED) for dentine caries disinfection and monitored intrapulpal/periodontal temperatures during irradiation. Occlusal human dentine slabs were immersed in Streptococcus mutans culture for demineralization induction. Slabs were allocated to 10 groups ( n = 15), which were treated with 0.1 mg ml-1 TBO with 5 min of incubation time or 0.9% NaCl solution for 5, 10 or 15 min, and submitted or not to irradiation for 5, 10 or 15 min (47, 94, and 144 J/cm2). Before and after treatments, dentine samples were analyzed with regard to S. mutans counts. In whole teeth, temperature in pulp and periodontium was measured by thermocouples during irradiation. Kruskal-Wallis/Student-Newman-Keuls, and ANOVA/Tukey test were respectively utilized to compare log reductions and temperature rises between groups. Bacterial reduction was observed when dentine was exposed to both TBO and LED at all irradiation times, as well as to LED alone for 10 and 15 min. Temperature increases lower than 2°C were observed for either pulp or periodontium. Concluding, LED combined with TBO is a safe and effective approach for dentine caries disinfection. Nevertheless, additional studies should be conducted to determine the influence of the irradiation in S. mutans viability in dentinal surface/tubules.

  18. Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of Eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlon, Angela E; Lamson, Davis W

    2010-04-01

    Eucalyptus oil (EO) and its major component, 1,8-cineole, have antimicrobial effects against many bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), viruses, and fungi (including Candida). Surprisingly for an antimicrobial substance, there are also immune-stimulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and spasmolytic effects. Of the white blood cells, monocytes and macrophages are most affected, especially with increased phagocytic activity. Application by either vapor inhalation or oral route provides benefit for both purulent and non-purulent respiratory problems, such as bronchitis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a long history of folk usage with a good safety record. More recently, the biochemical details behind these effects have been clarified. Although other plant oils may be more microbiologically active, the safety of moderate doses of EO and its broad-spectrum antimicrobial action make it an attractive alternative to pharmaceuticals. EO has also been shown to offset the myelotoxicity of one chemotherapy agent. Whether this is a general attribute that does not decrease the benefit of chemotherapy remains to be determined. This article also provides instruction on how to assemble inexpensive devices for vapor inhalation.

  19. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-seminomatous testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemotherapy regimen consisted of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Each cycle of chemotherapy lasted 3 days. There have been no relapses at a median follow-up of 31 months (range 12 - 53 months). Acute and late toxicity have been modest. We have found adjuvant chemotherapy to be effective after ...

  1. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sometimes your eyelash, eyebrow, armpit, pubic and other body hair also falls out. Some chemotherapy drugs are more ... dose of chemotherapy as the rest of your body. People undergoing scalp hypothermia ... a drug approved for hair loss — to your scalp before and during chemotherapy ...

  2. Weight change during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.M.G.A.; Winkels, R.M.; Kruif, J.Th.C.M.; Laarhoven, H.W.M.; Visser, M.; Vries, de Jeanne; Vries, Y.C.; Kampman, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight gain during chemotherapy in women with breast cancer is commonly reported. However, there are important differences between studies that examined weight change during chemotherapy; e.g. type of chemotherapy, menopausal status, time between body weight measurements and sample

  3. A Simple Method to Optimize the Effectiveness of Chemotherapy: Modulation of Glucose Intake During Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icard, Philippe; Teboul, Bernard; El Baze, Philip

    2017-11-01

    Cancer cells consume high amounts of glucose to produce ATP and molecules entering biosynthesis. Numerous experimental studies have demonstrated that glucose deprivation and/or glycolysis inhibition arrest cancer cell growth and may increase the efficiency of cytotoxic drugs. In contrast, increasing glycolysis in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) activates these cells that destroy cancer cells. We propose to increase the efficiency of chemotherapy by modulating glucose intake during the course of chemotherapy. Glucose and caloric intake should be drastically reduced the day before and during chemotherapy administration to deprive cancer cells of ATP and molecules required to repair cytotoxic lesions. Few hours after chemotherapy, glucose and caloric intake should be drastically increased for few days to promote the activation of TILs that reinforce the destruction of cancer cells. This strategy could improve the results of chemotherapy by first enhancing cytotoxic stress against tumor cells and then promoting activation of the anti-cancer immune response. The modulation of glucose intake during chemotherapy should be tested clinically. The proposed scheme is simple, surely easier to follow than a strict chronic diet, and should avoid weight loss. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy on the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy on the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer. Methods: Patients with advanced bladder cancer who were treated in Tongcheng People’s Hospital between April 2015 and July 2016 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into group A who received interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy and the group B who received pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy. The contents of tumor markers and cytokines and the expression of apoptosis molecules in the urine were detected before and after chemotherapy. Results: 8 weeks after chemotherapy, BLCA-1, BLCA-4, CYFRA21-1, TGF-β1, VEGF, EGF, HGF and IGF-2 contents in urine of both groups of patients were significantly lower than those before treatment, Fas, Bad, PTEN and Beclin-1 mRNA expression in urine were significantly higher than those before treatment and BLCA-1, BLCA-4, CYFRA21-1, TGF-β1, VEGF, EGF, HGF and IGF-2 contents in urine of group A were significantly lower than those of group B, Fas, Bad, PTEN and Beclin-1 mRNA expression in urine were significantly higher than those of group B. Conclusion: Interleukin-2 + pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy can be more effective than pirarubicin infusion chemotherapy combined with systemic chemotherapy in inhibiting the malignant biological behavior of advanced bladder cancer.

  5. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Falconi, Francisco; Calva, Juan José; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Galicia-Velazco, Miriam; Jiménez-Martinez, María Elena; Larios-Mondragón, Lina

    2004-05-01

    The susceptibility to 14 beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antimicrobial agents was evaluated for Streptococcus pneumoniae from patients with community-acquired respiratory infections in a Mexican medical center. Three hundred fifteen pneumococcal isolates obtained from patients between 1995 and 2001 were tested by the broth microdilution test. Fifty-two percent of the isolates were nonsusceptible to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration, >0.06 microg/mL). Penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were more likely to exhibit resistance to cephalosporins, macrolides, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline when compared to penicillin-susceptible isolates. Ninety-three percent of the penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were resistant to at least one other class of antimicrobials, in contrast to only 47% of the penicillin-susceptible strains (p amoxicillin/clavulanate, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin was considered to be a reliable marker for the higher probability of multidrug resistance, thus requiring in vitro tests to guide chemotherapy or the choices of parenteral extended spectrum cephalosporins or newer respiratory quinolones.

  7. Behavioral approach to appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals: the Dutch Unique Method for Antimicrobial Stewardship (DUMAS) participatory intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkens, J.J.; Agtmael, M.A. van; Peters, E.J.G.; Lettinga, K.D.; Kuip, M. van der; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Wagner, C.; Kramer, M.H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing leads to antimicrobial resistance and suboptimal clinical outcomes. Changing antimicrobial prescribing is a complex behavioral process that is not often taken into account in antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: To examine whether an

  8. Animal Models of Chemotherapy-induced Mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangild, Per T; Shen, René Liang; Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko

    2018-01-01

    of CIM, and how to prevent it. Animal models allow highly controlled experimental conditions, detailed organ (e.g. GIT) insights, standardized, clinically-relevant treatment regimens and discovery of new biomarkers. Still, surprisingly few results from animal models have been translated into clinical CIM......Chemotherapy for cancer patients induces damaging tissue reactions along the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This chemotherapy-induced mucositis (CIM) is a serious side effect of cytotoxic drugs and several animal models of CIM have been developed to help understand the progression...... mangement and treatments. The results obtained from specific animal models can be difficult to translate to the diverse range of CIM manifestations in patients that vary according to the antineoplastic drugs, dose, underlying (cancer) disease and patient characteristics (e.g. age, genetics, body...

  9. Biomarkers for monitoring chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyun; Zhu, Wuqiang; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Meng, Qing H

    2017-03-01

    Cardiotoxicity, including acute and late-onset cardiotoxicity, is a well-known adverse effect of many types of antitumor agents. Early identification of patients with cardiotoxicity is important to ensure prompt treatment and minimize toxic effects. The etiology of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is multifactorial. Traditional methods for assessment of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity typically involve serial measurements of cardiac function via multi-modality imaging techniques. Typically, however, significant left ventricular dysfunction has already occurred when cardiotoxicity is detected by imaging techniques. Biomarkers, most importantly cardiac natriuretic peptides and troponins, are promising markers for identifying patients potentially at risk for clinical heart failure symptoms. This review summarizes the recent progress in clinical utilization of biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute cardiotoxicity and for prediction of late-onset cardiotoxicity. We also discuss the conflicting results of different studies and the association of results with study design.

  10. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  11. Teratoid Wilms tumour with chemotherapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Gahine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Teratoid Wilms tumour (a rare histologic variant in a 4 year old male who presented with an abdominal lump. Wilms Tumour with paracaval lymphadenopathy and tumour thrombi in right renal vein and inferior vena cava was made radiologically. FNAC report was suggestive of Wilms tumour and patient was subjected to 6 cycles of chemotherapy with not much reduction in size. Post nephrectomy histological diagnosis of Teratoid Wilms tumour was established. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is thought to be due to presence of well differentiated histologic appearance. Teratoid Wilms tumour is usually not an aggressive neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively good if the tumour is excised completely thus surgery being the best treatment.

  12. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  13. PERIOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY IN LOCALLY ADVANCED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Paulo BATISTA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and a main cause of cancer-related death worldwide, since the majority of patients suffering of this malignancy are usually faced with a poor prognosis due to diagnosis at later stages. In order to improve treatment outcomes, the association of surgery with chemo and/or radiotherapy (multimodal therapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced stages. However, despite several treatment options currently available for management of these tumors, perioperative chemotherapy has been mainly accepted for the comprehensive therapeutic strategy including an appropriated D2-gastrectomy. This manuscript presents a (nonsystematic critical review about the use of perioperative chemotherapy, with a special focus on the drugs delivery.

  14. Ruthenium complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfei; Collins, J Grant; Keene, F Richard

    2015-04-21

    One of the major advances in medical science has been the development of antimicrobials; however, a consequence of their widespread use has been the emergence of drug-resistant populations of microorganisms. There is clearly a need for the development of new antimicrobials--but more importantly, there is the need for the development of new classes of antimicrobials, rather than drugs based upon analogues of known scaffolds. Due to the success of the platinum anticancer agents, there has been considerable interest in the development of therapeutic agents based upon other transition metals--and in particular ruthenium(II/III) complexes, due to their well known interaction with DNA. There have been many studies of the anticancer properties and cellular localisation of a range of ruthenium complexes in eukaryotic cells over the last decade. However, only very recently has there been significant interest in their antimicrobial properties. This review highlights the types of ruthenium complexes that have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and discusses the relationship between chemical structure and biological processing--including site(s) of intracellular accumulation--of the ruthenium complexes in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  17. Endocrine consequences of irradiation and cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of endocrine dysfunction as a long-term effect of radiotherapy and cancer chemotherapy, with particular reference to children, and to Hodgkin's disease. The hypothalamus and pituitary, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid and parathyroid, and gonads are discussed. Suggestions are made for long-term measures to be taken, such as measuring growth rates, L-thyroxine replacement, sperm storage, etc. (U.K.)

  18. WGS accurately predicts antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; McDermott, Patrick F; Li, Cong; Chen, Yuansha; Tadesse, Daniel A; Mukherjee, Sampa; Bodeis-Jones, Sonya; Kabera, Claudine; Gaines, Stuart A; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Tom S; Torrence, Mary; Harhay, Dayna M; Zhao, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WGS in identifying resistance genotypes of MDR Escherichia coli and whether these correlate with observed phenotypes. Seventy-six E. coli strains were isolated from farm cattle and measured for phenotypic resistance to 15 antimicrobials with the Sensititre(®) system. Isolates with resistance to at least four antimicrobials in three classes were selected for WGS using an Illumina MiSeq. Genotypic analysis was conducted with in-house Perl scripts using BLAST analysis to identify known genes and mutations associated with clinical resistance. Over 30 resistance genes and a number of resistance mutations were identified among the E. coli isolates. Resistance genotypes correlated with 97.8% specificity and 99.6% sensitivity to the identified phenotypes. The majority of discordant results were attributable to the aminoglycoside streptomycin, whereas there was a perfect genotype-phenotype correlation for most antibiotic classes such as tetracyclines, quinolones and phenicols. WGS also revealed information about rare resistance mechanisms, such as structural mutations in chromosomal copies of ampC conferring third-generation cephalosporin resistance. WGS can provide comprehensive resistance genotypes and is capable of accurately predicting resistance phenotypes, making it a valuable tool for surveillance. Moreover, the data presented here showing the ability to accurately predict resistance suggest that WGS may be used as a screening tool in selecting anti-infective therapy, especially as costs drop and methods improve. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus 4a protein is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that suppresses PACT-induced activation of RIG-I and MDA5 in the innate antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kam-Leung; Yeung, Man Lung; Kok, Kin-Hang; Yuen, Kit-San; Kew, Chun; Lui, Pak-Yin; Chan, Chi-Ping; Tse, Herman; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen that causes severe disease in human. MERS-CoV is closely related to bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Evasion of the innate antiviral response might contribute significantly to MERS-CoV pathogenesis, but the mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized MERS-CoV 4a protein as a novel immunosuppressive factor that antagonizes type I interferon production. MERS-CoV 4a protein contains a double-stranded RNA-binding domain capable of interacting with poly(I · C). Expression of MERS-CoV 4a protein suppressed the interferon production induced by poly(I · C) or Sendai virus. RNA binding of MERS-CoV 4a protein was required for IFN antagonism, a property shared by 4a protein of bat coronavirus HKU5 but not by the counterpart in bat coronavirus HKU4. MERS-CoV 4a protein interacted with PACT in an RNA-dependent manner but not with RIG-I or MDA5. It inhibited PACT-induced activation of RIG-I and MDA5 but did not affect the activity of downstream effectors such as RIG-I, MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, and IRF3. Taken together, our findings suggest a new mechanism through which MERS-CoV employs a viral double-stranded RNA-binding protein to circumvent the innate antiviral response by perturbing the function of cellular double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT. PACT targeting might be a common strategy used by different viruses, including Ebola virus and herpes simplex virus 1, to counteract innate immunity. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging and highly lethal human pathogen. Why MERS-CoV causes severe disease in human is unclear, and one possibility is that MERS-CoV is particularly efficient in counteracting host immunity, including the sensing of virus invasion. It will therefore be critical to clarify how MERS-CoV cripples the host proteins that sense viruses and to compare MERS-CoV with its ancestral viruses in bats in the counteraction of virus sensing

  20. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  1. Management of chemotherapy induced diarrhea (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Diarrhoea is seen with many tumors and following several chemotherapy regimen esp. those containing 5-fluorouracil and high dose folinic acid it causes debility even death, delays cancer treatment, reduces compliance increases cost. It causes dehydration, renal failure volume depletion. Quality of life is worsened and hospitalization may be needed in multifactorial, with secretion; absorption imbalance due to mucosal damage, necrosis or inflammation. Local infection is set up by opportunistic organism and cell necrosis. The large volume of fluid and electrolytes overwhelms colonic absorptive capacity. Agent usually used for treatment is opioids (such as Diphenoxylate / Loperamide]. Bismuth (for inflammatory diarrhea). NSAIDs or alpha 2-agonists. For optimal management, the cause and severity should be assessed and treatment planned. Advice is given about certain dietary restraints and avoidance of some drugs. Fever, infection, dehydration and electrolyte losses are treated, pain relieved. Diphenoxylate / Loperamide (later is more effective; 4 mg, STAT, then 2mg every 4 hours or even 2 hourly) may be used. It is moderately effective in CID. Octreotide is useful in carcinoid. VIPoma, AIDS idiopathic secretary diarrhea, ileostomy, dumping syndrome. It acts directly on epithelial cells to reduce secretin, motilin pancreatic polypeptide. It slows transit time, reduces fluid and electrolyte secretin, increases absorption of electrolytes. It is effective in 5 FU and high dose chemotherapy with a 90% response rates seen after 3 days treatment. High Dose Chemotherapy and total body irradiation - induced diarrhea usually resolves within 72 hours. (author)

  2. Measuring the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Hendrix, Ron; Poelman, Randy; Niesters, Hubert G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are being implemented worldwide to optimize antimicrobial therapy, and thereby improve patient safety and quality of care. Additionally, this should counteract resistance development. It is, however, vital that correct and timely diagnostics are performed in

  3. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... The antioxidant properties and antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants, (Momordica charanta, Senna alata and Nauclea lafifolia) extracted with acetone were investigated. Polyphenols from the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic.

  5. Leading Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supporting research on several organisms that have developed resistance to antimicrobial drug treatment. The institute manages a research portfolio of grants aimed at the problem of antimicrobial resistance and hospital-acquired infections. Here is a list ...

  6. Comparative Studies of Antimicrobial Properties of Cardiospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Cardiospermum gradiflorum and Cardiospermum halicacabumwere screened for antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus viridans using the agar diffusion method. The two plants produced antimicrobial activities against all the ...

  7. Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postoperative Nosocomial Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Isolates among Patients Admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, ... Wound swab and venous blood samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum | Aliero | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum. ... Abstract. Acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves of Solanum tomentosum were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. ... None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae and Penicillium notatum.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  11. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  12. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da

    2014-01-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  13. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  14. [Spanish scientific production in antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures during period 1990-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J M; Gutiérrez, F; Royo, G

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the scientific production of Spanish authors on antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests during the period 1990-2002. Articles from Spanish scientific institutions of microbiology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology published and recorded in the MEDLINE database (WEBSPIRS version 4.2) during the period 1990-2002 were selected. Only articles about antimicrobial agents and susceptibility procedures were reviewed. A total of 5,259 documents were analyzed, of which 1,041 (19.8%) were about antimicrobal agents. The annual number of documents increased by two-fold (from 48 in 1990 to 101 in 2002). The journal that published most documents was Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, with 183 (17.1%). The main field of interest of the documents was antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests (765; 73.5%) and in vitro resistance analyses (265; 25.5%). The highest number of contributions came from hospitals (571; 54.9%), followed by universities (351; 33.7%). The institutions with most documents published were the Ramón y Cajal Hospital (8.6%), and Seville University Faculty of Medicine (6%). The most productive autonomous communities were Madrid (43.4%), Catalonia (16.4%) and Andalusia (4.7%). A total of 787 documents (75.6%) were published in journals with impact factors and the mean expected impact factor was 2.390 +/- 1.546. It was concluded that the scientific production of Spanish researchers in antimicrobial agents had increased during the period 1990-2002, and that hospitals were the most productive institutions in this area of microbiology, with the main areas of interest being antimicrobial agents and susceptibility tests.

  15. Social and professional influences on antimicrobial prescribing for doctors-in-training: a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Mattick, Karen; Pearson, Mark; Brennan, Nicola; Briscoe, Simon; Wong, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    different healthcare settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  16. Sixty years of antimicrobial use in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This, the last in our series of feature articles celebrating 125 years of Veterinary Record, aims to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in animals. Starting with a journey through the history of antimicrobial use in animals, Luca Guardabassi gives his opinion on the current zoonotic risks...... associated with antimicrobial resistance and on how these risks might be tackled in the years to come....

  17. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty, Cliodna A.M.; Boyle, Paul; Nichols, Tom; Clappison, Douglas P.; Davey, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A total of 6% of 6,983 households in the United Kingdom had leftover antimicrobial drugs, and 4% had standby antimicrobial drugs. Respondents with leftover drugs were more educated, more knowledgeable about antimicrobial drugs, younger, and female. Of respondents with leftover drugs, 44% kept them in case of future need, and 18% had taken these drugs without medical advice.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates of Aeromonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 45 Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (from different sources) to 11 commonly used antimicrobial agents was determined by agar diffusion technique. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial drugs were also determined using amylase property of Aeromonas as end-point ...

  19. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  20. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Burkholderia cepacia complex: significance of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Felicity K; Milne, Kathleen E N; Stead, David A; Gould, Ian M

    2016-11-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is notorious for the life-threatening pulmonary infections it causes in patients with cystic fibrosis. The multidrug-resistant nature of Bcc and differing infective Bcc species make the design of appropriate treatment regimens challenging. Previous synergy studies have failed to take account of the species of Bcc isolates. Etest methodology was used to facilitate minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial combination testing on 258 isolates of Bcc, identified to species level by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The most active antimicrobials were trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, doxycycline and minocycline (52.5%, 46.4% and 45.9% of isolates susceptible, respectively). Synergy was observed in 9.2% of the 1799 combinations tested; the most common synergistic combinations were tobramycin + ceftazidime, meropenem + tobramycin and levofloxacin + piperacillin/tazobactam (35.4%, 32.3% and 22.2% synergy, respectively). Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis revealed differences between Burkholderia cenocepacia and Burkholderia multivorans. Disparity in clinical outcome during infection with these two micro-organisms necessitates further investigation into the clinical outcomes of treatment regimens in light of species identification and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Palliative Chemotherapy Affects Aggressiveness of End-of-Life Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chia; Hsu, Ta-Wen; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-06-01

    Although palliative chemotherapy during end-of-life care is used for relief of symptoms in patients with metastatic cancer, chemotherapy may lead to more aggressive end-of-life care and less use of hospice service. This is a population-based study of the association between palliative chemotherapy and aggressiveness of end-of-life care. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified 49,920 patients with metastatic cancer who underwent palliative chemotherapy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. Patients who received chemotherapy 2-6 months before death were included. Aggressiveness of end-of-life care was examined by previously reported indicators. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and endotracheal tube intubation were included as indicators of aggressive end-of-life care. The association between palliative chemotherapy and hospice care was studied. Palliative chemotherapy was associated with more aggressive treatment. After adjustment for patient age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, cancer group, primary physician's specialty, postdiagnosis survival, hospital characteristics, hospital caseload, urbanization, and geographic regions, more than one emergency room visit (p care unit admission (p life care were significantly more common in patients receiving palliative chemotherapy. Patients who did not receive palliative chemotherapy received more hospice care in the last 6 months of life (p life care, including more emergency room visits and intensive care unit admissions, and endotracheal intubation. The patients who received palliative chemotherapy received less hospice service toward the end of life. Palliative chemotherapy is used for patients with incurable cancer toward the end of life (EOL). Aggressiveness of EOL care and hospice care are related to the quality of life of these patients. This study of data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database found that palliative chemotherapy led to more

  2. Topical antimicrobial agents in ophthalmology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Dovgan’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on different antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones, minoglycosides, macrolides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and their activity against various microorganisms are reviewed. The findings from different researchers are analyzed. Considerable attention is devoted to the problem of antimicrobial resistance in ophthalmology. Pharmacokinetics of topical antimicrobial agents applied in ophthalmology, their safety and tolerability are described. The indications for topical antimicrobial agents use in ophthalmology approved in Russian Federation are presented. With regard for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, safety profile and good tolerability, it is concluded that fluoroquinolones are medication of choice for empirical antimicrobial treatment in ophthalmology.

  3. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor priming chemotherapy is more effective than standard chemotherapy as salvage therapy in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; He, Aili; Wang, Fangxia; Bai, Ju; Wang, Jianli; Zhao, Wanhong; Zhang, Wanggang; Cao, Xingmei; Chen, Yinxia; Liu, Jie; Ma, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongli; Feng, Yuandong; Yang, Yun

    2017-12-29

    To improve the complete remission (CR) rate of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and alleviate the severe side effects of double induction chemotherapy, we combined a standard regimen with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) priming chemotherapy to compose a new double induction regimen for AML patients who failed to achieve CR after the first course. Ninety-seven patients with AML who did not achieve CR after the first course of standard chemotherapy were enrolled. Among them, 45 patients received G-CSF priming combined with low-dose chemotherapy during days 20-22 of the first course of chemotherapy, serving as priming group, 52 patients were administered standard chemotherapy again, serving as control group. Between the two groups there were no differences in the French-American-British (FAB) classification, risk status, the first course of chemotherapy, blood cell count or blasts percentage of bone marrow before the second course. But the CR rate was significantly higher and the adverse effect was much lower in the priming group than the control group. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that WBC level before the second course and the selection of the second chemotherapy regimen were two independent factors for long survival of patients. These results elucidate that standard chemotherapy followed by G-CSF priming new double induction chemotherapy is an effective method for AML patients to improve CR rate and reduce adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    isolates against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus in already set blood agar with gentamicin as the reference ... micro-organism (Streptococci) enters the blood stream via small wounds and causes ... fractionation and isolation of antimicrobial constituents of Garcinia kola Heckel seed ...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the bispyrazolines 3a–3h is found to be dependent on the length of internal spacer unit. Keywords. Cyclization reactions; bischalcones; internal spacer; bispyrazolines; alkyl chains and antimicrobial activity. 1. Introduction. The study of heterocyclic systems has attracted the attention of organic chemists in the past decades.

  6. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance and Gonorrhea

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-12-26

    Dr. Robert Kirkcaldy, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on antimicrobial resistance and gonorrhea.  Created: 12/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/26/2017.

  7. Comparative phytochemical evaluation, antimicrobial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... This study scientifically examined the phytochemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial potencies of two organic extracts of Pleurotus ostreatus. Generally, both extracts were effective against 89.8% of the isolates tested with Bacillus subtilis (7.6 – 7.8 mm), Escherichia coli (7.6 – 8.2 mm) and Saccharomycee.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  9. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    fibers (such as cotton) and synthetic fibers (such as polyester, nylon, and polyaramids) are used for military as well as civilian applications. In...and antimicrobial linens for military hospitals. Medetech will consult with experts in the regulatory Medetech Development Corp

  10. Metal‐based antimicrobial strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Metal based‐antimicrobials have potential for profiling sustainability solutions to infection care and health; with biotechnological applications providing novel compounds. Yet they must be used wisely for sustainable use in human and agricultural health with thoughts towards bioremediation for recovery should be considered.

  11. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXYDANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VOUNDI

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... Regarding C. zeylanicum, many species are reported throughout the world, but the most used are those from Sri-Lanka (Richard and Multon,. 1992). Its EO is rich in cinnamaldehyde and eugenol and has shown antimicrobial activities on food borne pathogens (Paranagana et al., 2003; Chang et al., 2001).

  13. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Palza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

  14. Molecular Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluit, Ad C.; Visser, Maarten R.; Schmitz, Franz-Josef

    2001-01-01

    The determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate, especially with increasing resistance, is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients. Nucleic acid-based assays for the detection of resistance may offer advantages over phenotypic assays. Examples are the detection of the methicillin resistance-encoding mecA gene in staphylococci, rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the spread of resistance determinants across the globe. However, molecular assays for the detection of resistance have a number of limitations. New resistance mechanisms may be missed, and in some cases the number of different genes makes generating an assay too costly to compete with phenotypic assays. In addition, proper quality control for molecular assays poses a problem for many laboratories, and this results in questionable results at best. The development of new molecular techniques, e.g., PCR using molecular beacons and DNA chips, expands the possibilities for monitoring resistance. Although molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance clearly are winning a place in routine diagnostics, phenotypic assays are still the method of choice for most resistance determinations. In this review, we describe the applications of molecular techniques for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and the current state of the art. PMID:11585788

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  16. Dual role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in stent struts endothelialisation and neointimal regrowth: A substudy of the IN-PACT CORO trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Porto, Italo, E-mail: italo.porto@gmail.com [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Donato Hospital, Arezzo (Italy); Burzotta, Francesco; Brancati, Marta Francesca; Trani, Carlo; Pirozzolo, Giancarlo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Niccoli, Giampaolo [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Prati, Francesco [Department of Interventional Cardiology, San Giovanni Hospital, Rome (Italy); Crea, Filippo [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Endothelialisation is a crucial event after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow derived elements with reparative properties. We aimed to assess the relationship between circulating EPC levels and stent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Methods: Patients undergoing elective PCI to native vessels and randomised to bare metal stent (BMS) alone versus BMS plus drug coated balloon (DCB) were included. At six months, angiographic follow-up and FD-OCT were performed to measure percentage neointimal hyperplasia volume obstruction (%NIHV), and percentage of uncovered stent struts (%US). Venous blood samples were obtained before the procedure and at six months to detect CD34+CD45dimKDR + EPC levels. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled. A significant relationship was observed between baseline EPC levels and %NIHV (R: 0.63, p: 0.03) and %US (R: − 0.56, p: 0.01) at follow-up. Both EPC levels and DCB use were independently related to %NIHV (β: 0.55; p < 0.001 and β: − 0.51; p: 0.001, respectively), while only EPC levels were independently associated to %US (β: − 0.52; p: 0.01). Higher %NIHV (p: 0.004) and lower %US (p: 0.005) were observed in patients with stable or increasing EPC level. Conclusion: Our study shows a relationship between EPC levels and stent strut coverage, supporting a dual role for these cells in favouring stent endothelialisation but also NIH growth. - Highlights: • Substudy of IN-PACT CORO trial comparing, by adoption of optical coherence tomography, the amount of neointimal growth and stent struts coverage at six months of follow up, in elective patients randomised to conventional PCI with bare metal stent implantation (BMS group) or to stent implantation with pre or postdilation with a drug coated balloon (BMS + DCB group) • Lower neointimal regrowth observed in BMS + DCB group • First in vivo demonstration that

  17. Examining the nature of interprofessional practice: An initial framework validation and creation of the InterProfessional Activity Classification Tool (InterPACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xyrichis, Andreas; Reeves, Scott; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2017-12-13

    sub-categories. We propose a slightly revised typology and a classification tool (InterPACT) for future validation, with four mutually exclusive categories: teamwork, collaboration, coordination and networking. Consistent use, further examination and refinement of the new typology and tool may lead to greater clarity in definition and design of interventions. This should support the development of a reliable and coherent evidence base on interventions to promote interprofessional working in health and social care.

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  19. [Nursing care for ovarian cancer patients with intraperitoneal chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ying; Chou, Ju-Fen; Tsao, Lee-Ing; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian cancer, known as a "silent killer", is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death. Standard treatments for ovarian cancer are debulking surgery combined with platinum chemotherapy drugs to prolong the survival of patients. According to clinical trials run by the American Society of Gynecologic Oncology, patients who received intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy survived longer on average than patients who received intravenous chemotherapy alone. Thus, intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a new potential approach for treating ovarian cancer patients. However, the toxicities and undesirable complications of IP chemotherapy are the major challenges of this treatment approach. This article helps nurses recognize the toxicities and complications of IP chemotherapy and may be used as reference for future revisions to patient care guidelines.

  20. Chemotherapy Use at the End of Life in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel; Merkel, Emily C; Menon, Manoj; Lyman, Gary H; Ddungu, Henry; Namukwaya, Elizabeth; Leng, Mhoira; Casper, Corey

    2017-12-01

    Purpose Avoiding chemotherapy during the last 30 days of life has become a goal of cancer care in the United States and Europe, yet end-of-life chemotherapy administration remains a common practice worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of and factors predicting end-of-life chemotherapy administration in Uganda. Methods Retrospective chart review and surveys and interviews of providers were performed at the Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI), the only comprehensive cancer center in the area, which serves a catchment area of greater than 100 million people. All adult patients at the UCI with reported cancer deaths between January 1, 2014, and August 31, 2015 were included. All UCI physicians were offered a survey, and a subset of physicians were also individually interviewed. Results Three hundred ninety-two patients (65.9%) received chemotherapy. Age less than 55 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.30; P = .004), a cancer diagnosis greater than 60 days before death (OR, 9.13; P < .001), and a presenting Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2 (OR, 2.47; P = .001) were associated with the administration of chemotherapy. More than 45% of patients received chemotherapy in the last 30 days of life. No clinical factors were predictive of chemotherapy use in the last 30 days of life, although doctors reported using performance status, cancer stage, and tumor chemotherapy sensitivity to determine when to administer chemotherapy. Patient expectations and a lack of outcomes data were important nonclinical factors influencing chemotherapy administration. Conclusion Chemotherapy is administered to a high proportion of patients with terminal cancer in Uganda, raising concern about efficacy. Late presentation of cancer in Uganda complicates end-of-life chemotherapy recommendations, necessitating guidelines specific to sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Induction Chemotherapy for p16 Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yuki; Ando, Mizuo; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yoshida, Masafumi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis We aimed to determine the effectiveness of induction chemotherapy for treating p16?positive oropharyngeal cancer in our department. Study Design This was a retrospective case series to assess treatment effectiveness. Methods We administered induction chemotherapy to patients with stage III to IV oropharyngeal p16?positive squamous cell carcinoma between 2008 and 2013. Induction chemotherapy was administered using combinations of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5?fluorouracil. ...

  2. Nursing actions facing reactions to chemotherapy in oncological patients

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Renata Patrícia Fonseca; Lima, Cássio de Almeida; Torres, Marcelo Rocha; Silva, Carla Silvana de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Describing the action of nursing facing the chemotherapy reactions in oncological patients. Method: Integrated review of literature of 14 scientific articles published in the last 10 years. Results: The adverse reactions inherent to the chemotherapy treatment manifested by the patients are frequent. Nausea and vomit were the main reactions described in chemotherapy. The nursing job is developed through the orientation before and during the treatment and has as an primordial objecti...

  3. Pregabalin in chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Atreya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents belonging to vinca alkaloids, taxanes, and antitubulins produce peripheral neuropathy for which there is no validated treatment. Pregabalin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analog, is known to inhibit theα2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. Earlier studies and case reports have shown pregabalin to be effective in treating neuropathic pain. We present a case series of patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy who were successfully treated with pregabalin with reduction in the hyperalgesia, allodynia, and improvement in the quality of life.

  4. Improving documentation of oral chemotherapy at a community cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Katherine; MacMillan, Meghan; Lymburner, Patricia; Sodoski, Catherine; Gollee, Simerjit; Carvalho, Maritza; Van Dorn, Laurie; Fung, Ron; Almeida, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Safe administration of oral chemotherapy is a complex process that represents a potential threat to patient safety. Clear documentation of the plan of care for patients receiving oral chemotherapy can improve patient safety by ensuring complete health information is available to the health care team. We undertook a rapid-cycle improvement project to improve documentation of oral chemotherapy by increasing the number of components of an oral chemotherapy care plan (as outlined by American Society of Clinical Oncology and Oncology Nursing Society) documented in the medical record before starting a new oral chemotherapy drug. Three improvement cycles were implemented, including: introduction of a standardized nursing flow sheet, use of computerized physician order entry for oral chemotherapy prescribing, and a review of computerized physician order entry to ensure all oral chemotherapy regimens were included. Our intervention resulted in a meaningful and sustained improvement in the number of components of oral chemotherapy care plans documented in the medical record, from a mean of 67% (eight of 12 components) to a mean of 92% (11 of 12). We are hopeful that this improvement project will enhance patient safety by improving communication within the health care team regarding the details of the chemotherapy care plan. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Acute constipation in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashankar, Farzana D; Season, J Hale; McNamara, Joseph; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2011-10-01

    Constipation occurs in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer but there are no data about prevalence, risk factors, and severity of constipation in this group of children. We prospectively studied 61 children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. We administered questionnaires to children and parents and collected data on demographics, chemotherapy, and bowel movement pattern during chemotherapy. We used North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition criteria for the diagnosis of constipation. Parental perception of constipation as a problem and impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy were assessed on a 0 to 3 scale with 0 being no problem, 1 minor, 2 significant, and 3 being a major problem. Thirty-five children (57%) had acute constipation lasting for 2 or more weeks during chemotherapy. Several risk factors were analyzed and only combined use of vincristine and opiates emerged as significant risk factor for the development of constipation. In children with constipation, 15 of 35 parents (43%) perceived constipation as a major/significant problem and 8 children and their parents (23%) perceived constipation having a major/significant impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy. Acute constipation was diagnosed in 57% of children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. Combined use of vincristine and opiates was associated with the development of constipation. Constipation can be a significant problem with a negative impact on lifestyle during chemotherapy and needs aggressive management.

  6. The role of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairooz P Manjandavida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy in retinoblastoma (RB is widely accepted as the current management tool with an aim of increasing drug availability at the tumor location. Inevitably the effect is several times higher compared to systemic delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and carries less systemic toxicity. Despite tremendous advancement in saving life, eye salvage in advanced RB especially with active vitreous seeds remains a challenge. The hypoxic environment of the vitreous and reduced vitreous concentration of the drugs delivered makes these tumor seeds resistant to chemotherapy. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into the vitreous cavity aids to overcome these challenges and is progressively being accepted worldwide. However, intraocular procedure in RB was abandoned due to high risk of extraocular tumor dissemination. Recently, the forbidden therapeutic technique was re-explored and modified for safe use. Although eye salvage rate has tremendously improved after intravitreal chemotherapy (IVitC, retinal toxicity, and vision salvage are yet to be validated. In our preliminary report of intravitreal melphalan in 11 eyes, we reported 100% eye salvage and 0% recurrence with an extended 15 months mean follow-up. In this review, we analyzed published reports on IVitC in RB via PubMed, Medline, and conference proceedings citation index, electronic database search, without language restriction that included case series and reports of humans and experimental animal eyes with RB receiving IVitC.

  7. Drug cocktail optimization in chemotherapy of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Preissner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In general, drug metabolism has to be considered to avoid adverse effects and ineffective therapy. In particular, chemotherapeutic drug cocktails strain drug metabolizing enzymes especially the cytochrome P450 family (CYP. Furthermore, a number of important chemotherapeutic drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen or procarbazine are administered as prodrugs and have to be activated by CYP. Therefore, the genetic variability of these enzymes should be taken into account to design appropriate therapeutic regimens to avoid inadequate drug administration, toxicity and inefficiency. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to find drug interactions and to avoid side effects or ineffective therapy in chemotherapy. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: Information on drug administration in the therapy of leukemia and their drug metabolism was collected from scientific literature and various web resources. We carried out an automated textmining approach. Abstracts of PubMed were filtered for relevant articles using specific keywords. Abstracts were automatically screened for antineoplastic drugs and their synonyms in combination with a set of human CYPs in title or abstract. RESULTS: We present a comprehensive analysis of over 100 common cancer treatment regimens regarding drug-drug interactions and present alternatives avoiding CYP overload. Typical concomitant medication, e.g. antiemetics or antibiotics is a preferred subject to improvement. A webtool, which allows drug cocktail optimization was developed and is publicly available on http://bioinformatics.charite.de/chemotherapy.

  8. Incomplete copolymer degradation of in situ chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Boissenot, Tanguy; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Nicolas, Julien; Apra, Caroline; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2018-02-17

    In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery. Eleven months later, a third surgery was performed, revealing unexpected incomplete degradation of the wafer. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was performed to compare this wafer to pure BCNU and to an unused copolymer wafer. In the used wafer, peaks corresponding to hydrophobic units of the excipient were no longer noticeable, whereas peaks of the hydrophilic units and traces of BCNU were still present. These surprising results could be related to the formation of a hydrophobic membrane around the wafer, thus interfering with the expected diffusion and degradation processes. The clinical benefit of carmustine wafers in addition to the standard radio-chemotherapy remains limited, and in vivo behavior of this treatment is not completely elucidated yet. We found that the wafer may remain after several months. Alternative strategies to deal with the blood-brain barrier, such as drug-loaded liposomes or ultrasound-opening, must be explored to offer larger drug diffusion or allow repetitive delivery.

  9. [Cardiologic evaluation of patients undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Barbara; Urbinati, Stefano; Tosoni, Alicia; Labanti, Graziana; Brandes, Alba

    2014-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients affected by cancer has recently increased because of early diagnosis and actual therapies. In recent years, Oncology and Cardiology developed a tight relationship because of common risk factors (i.e., obesity, smoking, alcool intake, etc...), and for preventing the prothrombotic status due to cancer and the potential cardiotoxicity of chemotherapy. Cardiotoxicity incidence is reported from 1% up to 70% in retrospective analyses of drug protocols, mainly representing by left ventricular dysfunction (both reversible or irreversible), but also by arrhythmias, hypertension, atrioventricular block, coronary spasm, and arterial or venous thromboembolism. The early detection of the chemoterapy induced cardiotoxicity is now mandatory and can be obtained through a proper patients selection for different treatments and a strict monitoring during the follow-up period. The role of biomarkers of early cardiac damage, mainly, troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide-BNP, has been recently challenged, and algorithms are currently available. In the present paper, we propose how to perform a cardiological evaluation of patients undergoing chemotherapy tailored by the known adverse effects of the drugs.

  10. Simultaneous radio-chemotherapy in esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Wendt, T.G.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 41 patients with a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus without hematogenic metastases were treated with a combination of radio- and chemotherapy preoperatively. Treatment consisted of mitomycin C (10 mg/sqm/day 1) and continuous infusion of 5 fluorouracil (1000 mg/sqm/day - day 1 to 4) with a maximum of 1500 mg per day. On day 2 radiotherapy was started. After the administration of 36 Gy all patients were restaged. Nine patients were referred to surgery. In 13 cases surgery was refused, because of inoperability, due to local or distant metastases. In these patients radiotherapy was continued up to 50 to 60 Gy for palliation. Although the disease was confined to the esophagus no surgery was performed in 19 patients, because of age, enhanced risk of anaesthesia or refusal by the patient. These patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (60 Gy) with curative intention. 32 patients treated without surgery were followed up. For the patients treated with curative intent, the one year survival rate was 62%, the two year survival rate was 42%. Compared to a group treated in 1970 to 1982 with the same dosage of irradiation without the combination of chemotherapy the median survival could be raized from nine to 24 months, the two year survival rate improved from 18% to 42%. Patients treated for palliation only did not survive the first year after therapy. (orig.) [de

  11. Efficacy of Scalp Cooling in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Docetaxel and Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigler, Tessa; Isseroff, Devora; Fiederlein, Barbara; Schneider, Sarah; Chuang, Ellen; Vahdat, Linda; Moore, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a distressing adverse effect of many chemotherapy agents. The TC (docetaxel [Taxotere] and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen is typically associated with complete alopecia. Scalp cooling with cold caps has been reported to minimize or prevent CIA. We conducted a prospective study to assess efficacy of scalp cooling in preventing CIA among women receiving adjuvant TC chemotherapy for breast cancer. Women at the Weill Cornell Breast Center who independently elected to use scalp cooling with cold caps during adjuvant TC chemotherapy were asked to participate. Degree of hair loss was assessed by a single practitioner using Dean's alopecia scale (grade 1/excellent [ 75% hair loss]), by digital photographs, and by patient self-report of hair thinning or the need to wear a wig/head covering, or both. Assessments were made before each chemotherapy treatment and at follow-up visits between 3 weeks and 3 months after completion of chemotherapy. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10% reported a need to wear a wig/head covering at the follow-up visit. Dean's alopecia score was excellent for 65% of patients, good for 25% of patients, and moderate or poor for 10% of patients. The majority of patients reported hair thinning after every chemotherapy cycle. No patient discontinued therapy because of an intolerance to cold caps. Scalp cooling with cold caps appears to be effective in preventing CIA among the majority of women undergoing treatment with TC chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  14. WE-D-BRE-04: Modeling Optimal Concurrent Chemotherapy Schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J; Deasy, J O

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) has become a more common cancer treatment option with a better tumor control rate for several tumor sites, including head and neck and lung cancer. In this work, possible optimal chemotherapy schedules were investigated by implementing chemotherapy cell-kill into a tumor response model of RT. Methods: The chemotherapy effect has been added into a published model (Jeong et al., PMB (2013) 58:4897), in which the tumor response to RT can be simulated with the effects of hypoxia and proliferation. Based on the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, the temporal concentration of chemotherapy agent was estimated. Log cell-kill was assumed and the cell-kill constant was estimated from the observed increase in local control due to concurrent chemotherapy. For a simplified two cycle CCRT regime, several different starting times and intervals were simulated with conventional RT regime (2Gy/fx, 5fx/wk). The effectiveness of CCRT was evaluated in terms of reduction in radiation dose required for 50% of control to find the optimal chemotherapy schedule. Results: Assuming the typical slope of dose response curve (γ50=2), the observed 10% increase in local control rate was evaluated to be equivalent to an extra RT dose of about 4 Gy, from which the cell-kill rate of chemotherapy was derived to be about 0.35. Best response was obtained when chemotherapy was started at about 3 weeks after RT began. As the interval between two cycles decreases, the efficacy of chemotherapy increases with broader range of optimal starting times. Conclusion: The effect of chemotherapy has been implemented into the resource-conservation tumor response model to investigate CCRT. The results suggest that the concurrent chemotherapy might be more effective when delayed for about 3 weeks, due to lower tumor burden and a larger fraction of proliferating cells after reoxygenation

  15. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Warsaw Pact Baltic Fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Gulf of Finland is Kotlin Island where the Kronstadt Naval Base is located as well as the Naval ship-repair yard and a commercial port. The commander...River, and the island of Kotlin , fifteen miles out in the Gulf of Finland. By the end of 1703 the building of St. Petersburg had begun at Nyenskans and...the fortress of Kronslot (Kronstadt) was being constructed on Kotlin Island. 1 In 1703 the Admiralty Shipyard was founded in Petersburg, and the serious

  17. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Deborah P; Epstein, Joel B; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Rao, Nikhil G; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body of evidence for the use of each agent, in each setting, was assigned a level of evidence. Based on the evidence level, one of the following three guideline determinations was possible: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. A recommendation was developed in favor of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Suggestions were developed in favor of transdermal fentanyl in standard dose chemotherapy and HSCT patients and morphine mouth rinse and doxepin rinse in head and neck radiation therapy (H&N RT) patients. Recommendations were developed against the use of topical antimicrobial agents for the prevention of mucositis. These included recommendations against the use of iseganan for mucositis prevention in HSCT and H&N RT and against the use of antimicrobial lozenges (polymyxin-tobramycin-amphotericin B lozenges/paste and bacitracin-clotrimazole-gentamicin lozenges) for mucositis prevention in H&N RT. Recommendations were developed against the use of the mucosal coating agent sucralfate for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced or radiation-induced OM. No guidelines were possible for any other agent due to insufficient and/or conflicting evidence. Additional well-designed research is needed on prevention and management approaches for OM.

  18. Bacteriophage endolysins as novel antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Donovan, David M; Loessner, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Endolysins are enzymes used by bacteriophages at the end of their replication cycle to degrade the peptidoglycan of the bacterial host from within, resulting in cell lysis and release of progeny virions. Due to the absence of an outer membrane in the Gram-positive bacterial cell wall, endolysins can access the peptidoglycan and destroy these organisms when applied externally, making them interesting antimicrobial candidates, particularly in light of increasing bacterial drug resistance. This article reviews the modular structure of these enzymes, in which cell wall binding and catalytic functions are separated, as well as their mechanism of action, lytic activity and potential as antimicrobials. It particularly focuses on molecular engineering as a means of optimizing endolysins for specific applications, highlights new developments that may render these proteins active against Gram-negative and intracellular pathogens and summarizes the most recent applications of endolysins in the fields of medicine, food safety, agriculture and biotechnology. PMID:23030422

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides interact with peptidoglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelay, Om P.; Peterson, Christian A.; Snavely, Mary E.; Brown, Taylor C.; TecleMariam, Ariam F.; Campbell, Jennifer A.; Blake, Allison M.; Schneider, Sydney C.; Cremeens, Matthew E.

    2017-10-01

    Traditional therapeutics are losing effectiveness as bacterial resistance increases, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can serve as an alternative source for antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is commonly hypothesized to involve pore formation in the lipid membrane, thereby leading to cell death. However, bacterial cell walls are much more complex than just the lipid membrane. A large portion of the wall is comprised of peptidoglycan, yet we did not find any report of AMP-peptidoglycan interactions. Consequently, this work evaluated AMP-peptidoglycan and AMP-phospholipid (multilamellar vesicles) interactions through tryptophan fluorescence. Given that peptidoglycan is insoluble and vesicles are large particles, we took advantage of the unique properties of Trp-fluorescence to use one technique for two very different systems. Interestingly, melittin and cecropin A interacted with peptidoglycan to a degree similar to vancomycin, a positive control. Whether these AMP-peptidoglycan interactions relate to a killing mode of action requires further study.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  2. Effect of obesity on the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobials in critically ill patients: A structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdulaziz S; Hites, Maya; Lipman, Jeffrey; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-04-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity presents challenges for clinicians aiming to provide optimised antimicrobial dosing in the intensive care unit. Obesity is likely to exacerbate the alterations to antimicrobial pharmacokinetics when the chronic diseases associated with obesity exist with the acute pathophysiological changes associated with critical illness. The purpose of this paper is to review the potential pharmacokinetic (PK) changes of antimicrobials in obese critically ill patients and the implications for appropriate dosing. We found that hydrophilic antimicrobials (e.g. β-lactams, vancomycin, daptomycin) were more likely to manifest altered pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients who are obese. In particular for β-lactam antibiotics, obesity is associated with a larger volume of distribution (V(d)). In obese critically ill patients, piperacillin is also associated with a lower drug clearance (CL). For doripenem, these PK changes have been associated with reduced achievement of pharmacodynamic (PD) targets when standard drug doses are used. For vancomycin, increases in Vd are associated with increasing total body weight (TBW), meaning that the loading dose should be based on TBW even in obese patients. For daptomycin, an increased Vd is not considered to be clinically relevant. For antifungals, little data exist in obese critically ill patients; during fluconazole therapy, an obese patient had a lower V(d) and higher CL than non-obese comparators. Overall, most studies suggested that standard dosage regimens of most commonly used antimicrobials are sufficient to achieve PD targets. However, it is likely that larger doses would be required for pathogens with higher minimum inhibitory concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of the permeability of chemotherapy gloves to three cancer chemotherapy drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, L C; Connor, T H

    1999-10-01

    To evaluate the permeability of chemotherapy gloves when using carmustine (BCNU), etoposide, and paclitaxel, which were selected based on their reported toxicity and unique solvent systems. Thirteen brands of chemotherapy gloves and one brand of examination glove. Of the 14 glove types tested, 11 were made of latex, and 3 were made of nitrile. Ten samples of each type of glove were evaluated using rigorous laboratory test conditions usually not encountered in normal usage. The thickness of the gloves was measured using a digital caliper. The glove material was secured over glass vials containing the drug solution and inverted in plastic cell wells containing a filter paper disc. After a two-hour exposure time, the filter paper discs were removed and analyzed for the presence of the drug. Permeability (i.e., greater than or equal to 1% of the total amount of drug passing through the glove material.) All 14 types of gloves tested were impermeable to BCNU at two hours of exposure. Only two gloves, the Ansell Perry EP glove and the U.S. Clinical Chemo Bloc T glove, were impermeable to all three drugs. The remaining 12 gloves all demonstrated some level of permeation with etoposide at two hours, although 9 of the gloves had only 1 of 10 samples that were permeable. In all cases, percent of permeation was less than 2% of the amount of the drug in the test solution. Thirteen gloves tested for paclitaxel permeability were impermeable at the two-hour time period. The results of this study indicate that most of the chemotherapy gloves on the market are either impermeable or minimally permeable to these three chemotherapy drugs. Because gloves are universally recognized as a means of personal protection when handling cancer chemotherapy drugs, selection of a glove that is impermeable would be an obvious choice for healthcare workers. Although the present study was a static, laboratory-based study that did not duplicate actual work practice conditions. It should offer some

  4. Structural, physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Tetraaqua bismaleato iron(II) [Fe(C4H3O4)2(H2O)4], (1) is a new synthetic antimicrobial agent. Thermal analysis shows that the dehydration of the compound occurs in agreement with the structure. The sin- gle crystal salt crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a = 5.171(2) Å, b = 7.309(3) Å, c = 9.731(3).

  5. Structural, physicochemical characterization and antimicrobial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tetraaqua bismaleato iron(II) [Fe(C4H3O4)2 (H2O)4], (1) is a new synthetic antimicrobial agent. Thermal analysis shows that the dehydration of the compound occurs in agreement with the structure. The single crystal salt crystallizes in the triclinic space group -1 with = 5.171(2) Å, = 7.309(3) Å, = 9.731(3) Å, ...

  6. Antimicrobial constituents from buddleja asiatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.; Iqbal, M.; Naz, R.; Ali, I.; Malik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds have been isolated for the first time from the chloroform soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica namely, buddlejone (1), dihydrobuddledin-A (2), buddledone-B (3), ursolic acid (4), 2-phenylethyl-beta-D-glucoside (5), 7-deoxy-8-epiloganic acid (6) and scutellarin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures have been elucidated through spectroscopic studies. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity. (author)

  7. Antimicrobial Wound Dressing. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-11

    remove remaining fur. Animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and the surgical site cleaned with BetadineTM. A full thickness skin flap was...anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital , 30 mg/kg, and the dressings removed. A hydrated antimicrobial wound dressing or control dressing prepared from...1-8, 746-752 (1980). 11. Lim, F. in "Biomedical Applications of Microencapsulation*, Lim, F. ed., pp. 137-154, CRC Press, Boca Raton , FL (1984). 12

  8. Clinical and Experimental Projects on' Chemotherapy of Bladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-30

    Mar 30, 1974 ... In spite of the fact that chemotherapy of bladder tumours was attempted at the beginning of this century in the form of topical treatment with phenol and podophyllin, it can be said that modern chemotherapy started only after the discovery that nitrogen mustard was effective in the treatment of some human ...

  9. Is cytotoxic chemotherapy for lymphoma currently feasible for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is currently no systematic provision for chemotherapy of adult patients with cancer in Malawi. Is the introduction of such a service now feasible in Malawi, and should an individual patient with potentially treatable disease be given chemotherapy in the absence of such a service? The technical, economic and moral ...

  10. Rebound Thymic Hyperplasia after Chemotherapy in Children with Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ho Chen

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: RTH developed in 67.7% of pediatric patients with lymphoma in CR after chemotherapy. The association of RTH development and lowered relapse rates has yet to be determined. Awareness of this phenomenon is important in the prevention of unnecessary surgical intervention or chemotherapy.

  11. Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p....02). No significant difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and thoracotomy was seen regarding chemotherapy compliance (p=0.17), number of chemotherapy cycles (p=0.60), or time from surgery to chemotherapy (p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Complete national data do not support the widespread assumption...

  13. Durable control of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma with metronomic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsiang Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy has shown encouraging efficacy and low toxicity in various tumor types and is one of the best treatment options for heavily pretreated patients or patients with advanced age and/or poor performance status. We demonstrated a patient with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma who experienced durable disease control under etoposide-based combination metronomic chemotherapy.

  14. Coping strategies used by hospitalized children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Amanda Mota Pacciulio; Silva-Rodrigues, Fernanda Machado; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2015-03-01

    To analyze coping strategies used by children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy during hospitalization. This was an exploratory study to analyze qualitative data using an inductive thematic analysis. Semistructured interviews using puppets were conducted with 10 children with cancer, between 7 and 12 years old, who were hospitalized and undergoing chemotherapy. The coping strategies to deal with chemotherapy were: understanding the need for chemotherapy; finding relief for the chemotherapy's side effects and pain; seeking pleasure in nourishment; engaging in entertaining activities and having fun; keeping the hope of cure alive; and finding support in religion. Children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy need to cope with hospitalizations, pain, medication side effects, idle time, and uncertainty regarding the success of treatment. These challenges motivated children to develop their own coping strategies, which were effective while undergoing chemotherapy. By gaining knowledge and further understanding about valid coping strategies during chemotherapy treatment, health professionals can mobilize personal and material resources from the children, health teams, and institutions aiming to potentiate the use of these strategies to make treatments the least traumatic. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. Acute Abdominal Mobile Aortic Thrombus Post Chemotherapy: Two Cases Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu; Jeon, Yong Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    An acute abdominal mobile aortic thrombus is a very unusual finding, and this is a potential source of arterial embolism. Mobile aortic thrombus mostly occurs in a diffuse atherosclerotic and aneurysmal aorta. Chemotherapy agents have been documented as a possible rare cause of acute arterial thrombus. We report acute abdominal mobile aortic thrombus post-chemotherapy for pancreatic and stomach cancer.

  16. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, SLAM; Cars, O; Buchholz, U; Molstad, S; Goettsch, W; Veldhuijzen, IK; Kool, JL; Sprenger, MJW; Degener, JE

    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antibiotic sales. Information was collected

  17. Impact of antimicrobial use during beef production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the impact of typical antimicrobial use during cattle production on fecal occurrence of antimicrobial resistance by culture, quantitative PCR, and metagenomic sequencing. Experimental Design & Analysis: Feces were recovered from colons of 36 lots of "conventional" (CONV) ca...

  18. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  19. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Marjorie Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and “leads” which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations. PMID:10515903

  20. Antimicrobial peptides in the airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, D M; Yim, S; Ryan, L K; Kisich, K O; Diamond, G

    2006-01-01

    The airway provides numerous defense mechanisms to prevent microbial colonization by the large numbers of bacteria and viruses present in ambient air. An important component of this defense is the antimicrobial peptides and proteins present in the airway surface fluid (ASF), the mucin-rich fluid covering the respiratory epithelium. These include larger proteins such as lysozyme and lactoferrin, as well as the cationic defensin and cathelicidin peptides. While some of these peptides, such as human beta-defensin (hBD)-1, are present constitutively, others, including hBD2 and -3 are inducible in response to bacterial recognition by Toll-like receptor-mediated pathways. These peptides can act as microbicides in the ASF, but also exhibit other activities, including potent chemotactic activity for cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, suggesting they play a complex role in the host defense of the airway. Inhibition of antimicrobial peptide activity or gene expression can result in increased susceptibility to infections. This has been observed with cystic fibrosis (CF), where the CF phenotype leads to reduced antimicrobial capacity of peptides in the airway. Pathogenic virulence factors can inhibit defensin gene expression, as can environmental factors such as air pollution. Such an interference can result in infections by airway-specific pathogens including Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and influenza virus. Research into the modulation of peptide gene expression in animal models, as well as the optimization of peptide-based therapeutics shows promise for the treatment and prevention of airway infectious diseases.

  1. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, S F

    2008-10-28

    This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinal plants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations.

  3. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Wu, Hong Gyun; Heo, Dae Seog; Park, Cham II [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    To see the relationship between the response to chemotherapy and the final outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. A retrospective analysis was done for thirty-two patients with locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer treated in the Seoul National University Hospital with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy from August 1979 to July 1997. The patients were treated with Co-60 teletherapy unit or 4MV or 6MV photon beam produced by linear accelerator. Daily fractionation was 1.75 to 2 Gy, delivered five times a week. Total dose ranged from 60.8 Gy to 73.8 Gy. Twenty-nine patients received continuous infusion of cisplatin and 5-FU. Other patients were treated with cisplatin combined with bleomycin or vinblastin. Twenty-four (75%) patients received all three prescribed cycles of chemotherapy delivered three weeks apart. Six patients received two cycles, and two patients received only one cycle. The overall 2-year and 5-year survival rates are 65.6% and 43.0, respectively. 5-year local control rate is 34%. Organ preservation for more than five years is achieved in 12 patients (38%). After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 24 patients achieved more than partial remission (PR); the response rate was 75% (24/32). Five patients had complete remission (CR), 19 patients PR, and 8 patients no response (NR). Among the 19 patients who had PR to chemotherapy, 8 patients achieved CR after radiotherapy. Among the 8 non-responders to chemotherapy, 2 patients achieved CR, and 6 patients achieved PR after radiotherapy, There was no non-responder after radiotherapy. The overall survival rates were 60% for CR to chemotherapy group, 35.1 % for PR to chemotherapy group, and 50% for NR to chemotherapy group. respectively (p=0.93). There were significant difference in five-year overall survival rates between the patients with CR and PR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (73.3% vs. 14.7%, p< 0.01). The prognostic

  4. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...... for establishing stewardship programs at the clinic level. The authors provide suggestions and approaches to overcome constraints and to move from theoretic concepts toward implementation of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs in small animal clinics....

  6. Correlations between Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study's hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus. Further studies are needed to confirm these

  7. Antimicrobial activities of heparin-binding peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emma; Rydengård, Victoria; Sonesson, Andreas; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system. We recently showed that the human antimicrobial peptides alpha-defensin and LL-37 bind to glycosaminoglycans (heparin and dermatan sulphate). Here we demonstrate the obverse, i.e. structural motifs associated with heparin affinity (cationicity, amphipaticity, and consensus regions) may confer antimicrobial properties to a given peptide. Thus, heparin-binding peptides derived from laminin isoforms, von Willebrand factor...

  8. Sarcopenia and chemotherapy-mediated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela; Laviano, Alessandro; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs. RESUMO Esta revisão narrativa descreve o papel da sarcopenia e a toxicidade mediada pela quimioterapia em pacientes com câncer. Diversas evidências consistentes mostram que a sarcopenia em pacientes com câncer induz à menor sobrevida global, por influenciar na interrupção do tratamento e na redução da dose. Portanto, a sarcopenia pode ser considerada um importante fator de prognóstico de desfecho negativo, além de um determinante de maiores custos em saúde.

  9. Cancer chemotherapy: Challenges for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kiyoji (ed.) (National Nagoya Hospital (Japan)); Saito, H. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan)); Carter, S.K. (ed.) (Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New York (United States)); Bast, R.C. Jr (ed.) (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center)

    1992-01-01

    At this symposium the main topics were new strategies for cancer therapy based on biology and pharmacology. Presentations on the biology of tumor progression and regression covered the molecular basis of cancer suppression by human tumor suppressor genes, mutation of the p53 gene and accumulation of the p53 protein, tumor suppressor genes involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and lessons learned from studies on tumor suppression by chromosome transfer. Many new reports on oncogenes provided the highlights for these chemotherapists present. For cancer therapy based on pharmacology, papers were presented on drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (p170) multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter limitations on successful therapy for childhood tumors: possible circumvention of MDR by cyclosporin A, regulation of the MDR gene in response to environmental stimuli, and dose-intensive chemotherapies. On the subject of cancer therapy, lung cancer was the focus of attention, and the efficacy of combined modalities was reported and discussed.

  10. Cancer chemotherapy: Challenges for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kiyoji; Saito, H.; Carter, S.K.; Bast, R.C. Jr

    1992-01-01

    At this symposium the main topics were new strategies for cancer therapy based on biology and pharmacology. Presentations on the biology of tumor progression and regression covered the molecular basis of cancer suppression by human tumor suppressor genes, mutation of the p53 gene and accumulation of the p53 protein, tumor suppressor genes involved in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and lessons learned from studies on tumor suppression by chromosome transfer. Many new reports on oncogenes provided the highlights for these chemotherapists present. For cancer therapy based on pharmacology, papers were presented on drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (p170) multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter limitations on successful therapy for childhood tumors: possible circumvention of MDR by cyclosporin A, regulation of the MDR gene in response to environmental stimuli, and dose-intensive chemotherapies. On the subject of cancer therapy, lung cancer was the focus of attention, and the efficacy of combined modalities was reported and discussed

  11. Chronic Pain and Neuropathy Following Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ventzel, Lise; Madsen, Caspar S; Karlsson, Páll

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine symptoms and characteristics of chronic sensory neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin and docetaxel, including patterns of somatosensory abnormalities, pain descriptors, and psychological functioning. Design: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting......: A chronic pain research center. Subjects: Thirty-eight patients with chronic peripheral pain and/or dysesthesia following chemotherapy. Methods:  Sensory profiles, psychological functioning, and quality of life were assessed using standardized questionnaires. In addition, standardized quantitative sensory...... with decreased mechanical and vibration detection thresholds. A high frequency of abnormalities in thermal sensory limen and the presence of paradoxical heat sensation seem to be sensitive markers of small fiber loss. Both groups had mainly sensory, axonal large fiber or mixed fiber polyneuropathy, which tended...

  12. Management of infection during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan: a nationwide questionnaire-based survey by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Hosono, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Shigeno, Kazuyuki; Hatsumi, Naoko; Minamiguchi, Hitoshi; Miyatake, Junichi; Handa, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Nobu; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Minoru; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The results were compared to those of previous surveys conducted in 2001 and 2007, and also to the recommendations described in the guidelines. Usable responses were received from 141 out of 222 (63.5%) institutions. Chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia was performed in protective environment in 90% of the institutions, which increased compared to previous survey (76%). Fluoroquinolones and fluconazole were the most commonly used antimicrobial agents for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis, followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and itraconazole, respectively. In empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, monotherapy with β-lactum antibiotics was the first-line therapy in most of the institutions. While empirical antifungal therapy was adopted for persistent fever in more than half of the institutions, preemptive/presumptive therapy was also used in approximately 40% of the institutions. Most of the clinicians were reluctant to use granulocyte-colony stimulating factor routinely in chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. This study clarified the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia and would provide important information for the development of a suitable guideline in Japan.

  13. Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine; Mastick, Judy; Paul, Steven M; Topp, Kimberly; Smoot, Betty; Abrams, Gary; Chen, Lee-May; Kober, Kord M; Conley, Yvette P; Chesney, Margaret; Bolla, Kay; Mausisa, Grace; Mazor, Melissa; Wong, Melisa; Schumacher, Mark; Levine, Jon D

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is a significant problem for cancer survivors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of CIN in cancer survivors is not available. To evaluate between-group differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as in measures of sensation, function, and postural control, in a sample of cancer survivors who received a platinum and/or a taxane-based CTX regimen and did (n = 426) and did not (n = 197) develop CIN. Survivors completed self-report questionnaires and underwent objective testing (i.e., light touch, pain sensation, cold sensation, vibration, muscle strength, grip strength, Purdue Pegboard test, Timed Get Up and Go test, Fullerton Advanced Balance test). Parametric and nonparametric statistics were used to compare between-group differences in study outcomes. Of the 426 survivors with CIN, 4.9% had CIN only in their upper extremities, 27.0% only in their lower extremities, and 68.1% in both their upper and lower extremities. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with CIN included the following: older age, lower annual income, higher body mass index, a higher level of comorbidity, being born prematurely, receipt of a higher cumulative dose of chemotherapy, and a poorer functional status. Survivors with CIN had worse outcomes for all of the following objective measures: light touch, pain, temperature, vibration, upper and lower extremity function, and balance. This study is the first to provide a detailed phenotypic characterization of CIN in cancer survivors who received a platinum and/or a taxane compound. These data can serve as a benchmark for future studies of CIN in cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Efficiency of Iodinated Individual Protection Filters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimbuch, B. K; Proudfoot, E; Wander, J; Laventure, G; McDonald, R; Burr, E

    2004-01-01

    .... The overall goal of the project is to replace existing high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) media with the antimicrobial membrane for both individual protection and collective protection devices...

  15. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  16. Thalidomide for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents to maximize the prevention of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting (CINV, however, the control of delayed CINV is still not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of thalidomide in the prevention of CINV. Methods Of 89 patients enrolled, 83 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (cisplatin 70mg/m2 were randomized into two groups: standard therapy group (ondansetron on day 1, metoclopramide and dexamethasone on days one to five and thalidomide group (in addition to standard emesis prevention, patients received oral 100mg thalidomide on days one to five. Patients recorded nausea and vomiting episodes in a diary. The primary end point was the efficacy of thalidomide in controlling vomiting and nausea on days one to five post cisplatin, and the secondary end point was the safety of the thalidomide. Results No significant differences of complete response rates (no emesis, no use of rescue therapy and no nausea were observed between the two groups, while the percentages of patients with complete response of delayed vomiting on day four and day five were higher in the thalidomide group, furthermore, the complete response rate of delayed nausea for thalidomide group and standard therapy group showed significant differences. Thalidomide group showed a similar safety profile as standard emesis prevention group. Conclusion Addition of thalidomide was generally well tolerated and improved prevention of CINV in patients receiving cisplatinbased chemotherapy to some degree, especially for delayed nausea.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus isolates in Turkey: A meta-analysis of current studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbas, Imdat; Ciftci, Ihsan Hakki

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a meta-analysis of Enterococcus isolates collected in 2000-2015 in Turkey and their susceptibility/resistance to antibiotics, clinical indications for initial drug treatment, and identification of alternative treatments was conducted. The meta-analysis examined antibiotic susceptibility/resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolates. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Statements on antimicrobial resistance were grouped according to the antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP). The mean resistance rates of Enterococcus faecalis to vancomycin (VAN) and linezolid (LNZ) were 1.0±2.2% and 1.9±2.6%, respectively, whereas the mean resistance rates of Enterococcus faecium to VAN and LNZ were 10.3±11.3% and 2.4±0%, respectively. This study is the first meta-analysis of the resistance of clinical Enterococcus isolates in Turkey to antimicrobial agents, which is a major problem stemming from the excessive usage of antibiotics. The development of antibiotic resistance in Turkey has changed over time. To support the practice of evidence-based medicine, more notifications about Enterococcus resistance status are needed, especially notifications following ASP rules. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality Function Deployment: Application to Chemotherapy Unit Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Hashemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s healthcare organizations are challenged by pressures to meet growing population demands and enhance community health through improving service quality. Quality function deployment is one of the widely-used customerdriven approaches for health services development. In the current study, quality function deployment is used to improve the quality of chemotherapy unit services. Methods: First, we identified chemotherapy outpatient unit patients as chemotherapy unit customers. Then, the Delphi technique and component factor analysis with orthogonal rotation was employed to determine their expectations. Thereafter, data envelopment analysis was performed to specify user priorities. We determined the relationships between patients’ expectations and service elements through expert group consensus using the Delphi method and the relationships between service elements by Pearson correlation. Finally, simple and compound priorities of the service elements were derived by matrix calculation. Results: Chemotherapy unit patients had four main expectations: access, suitable hotel services, satisfactory and effective relationships, and clinical services. The chemotherapy unit has six key service elements of equipment, materials, human resources, physical space, basic facilities, and communication and training. There were four-level relationships between the patients’ expectations and service elements, with mostly significant correlations between service elements. According to the findings, the functional group of basic facilities was the most critical factor, followed by materials. Conclusion: The findings of the current study can be a general guideline as well as a scientific, structured framework for chemotherapy unit decision makers in order to improve chemotherapy unit services.

  20. Pre-Irradiation Chemotherapy in High Risk Medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El-Aal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: The present study evaluates the effect of pre-irradiation chemotherapy in pediatric patients with high risk medulloblastoma. Twenty-four (24) pediatric patients attended the pediatric unit of Kasr-EI-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) from January 2000 to January 2003. Patients and Methods: Our patients were 13 boys and II girls aged 3-12 years with a median of 6.5 years. According to Chang staging system 6 cases had T2, 14 cases had T3 A and 4 cases had T3 B, 20 cases were M0, 3 cases were M I and I case was M2. All patients were treated by initial surgery, 2 cycles of pre-irradiation chemotherapy followed by craniospinal radiation then by 4 cycles of post-radiation chemotherapy. Results: Fifteen out of the 20 patients with M0 had objective response (10CR + 5PR) and no one had disease progression after pre-irradiation chemotherapy. Among 4 patients with M0 disease, 2 patients had PR and 2 had S.D. There was no disease progression among patients who received pre-irradiation chemotherapy. The 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival; (PFS) were 50% and 51 %, respectively, Myelosuppression was the main toxic effect observed during pre-irradiation chemotherapy; however, there was no delay or interruption of craniospinal irradiation. Conclusion: Pre-irradiation chemotherapy is effective in high risk medulloblastoma and is associated with acceptable side effects. The delay in craniospinal irradiation (CSI) for about 5 weeks to receive 2 courses of chemotherapy will not significantly increase disease progression. Multiple cycles of post-irradiation chemotherapy can be given safely after C51. A larger number of patients and longer follow-up is needed to confirm the results

  1. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Girardinia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Bedi; Neayti Thakur; Balvinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, gram negative bacteria e.g. E. coli and K. pneumonia and antifungal ac...

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Dorema Auchri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Due to emerging of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, investigations for novel antimicrobial agents have always been one of the major preoccupations of the medical society. Traditional medicine systems have played an important role during human evolution and development. Today, a number of medical herbs around the world have been studied for their medicinal activities. Amongst the several herbal medicine used as a medicine, Dorema auchri is yet another potent herbal medicine which has not been extensively studied for the medicinal uses in comparison with other herbal medicine. Dorema auchri has a long history of use as a sore and food additive in Yasuj, Iran. However, not much scientific work has been conducted on Dorema auchri antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to study the antimicrobial properties of Dorema auchri on some pathogen microorganisms. Materials & Methods: In the present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. After collection and preparation of hydro alcoholic extract of Dorena auchri, the extract was used to study its activities against human pathogen microorganisms (overall 10 microorganisms. The determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration were evaluated for this extract. The antimicrobial potent of Dorema auchri extract was compared with commercial antibiotics. Each experiment was done three times and collected data were analyzed by SPSS using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: Findings of this study showed that in 10 mg/ml concentration, all bacteria were resistant to Dorema auchri extract. In 20 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and Staphylococcus epidermis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI 10 mm and 13 mm respectively. In 40 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 15 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus. The acceptable MIC

  4. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Gonçalves Rocha Martin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect in patients undergoing cancer treatment with chemotherapy. This condition can affect patients in several different ways, interfering in their activities of daily living and autonomy. The present study aimed to review the literature on chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and its treatment or other possible interventions. The findings reveal that chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common condition that affects patients undergoing treatment with some specific drugs. Besides, several different substances have been used to treat or control this condition, although no significant evidence could be found in these studies.

  5. Update on Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Zanaty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools for managing retinoblastoma have been increasing in the past decade. While globe-salvage still relies heavily on intravenous chemotherapy, tumors in advanced stage that failed chemotherapy are now referred for intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC to avoid enucleation. However, IAC still has many obstacles to overcome. We present an update on the indications, complications, limitations, success, and technical aspects of IAC. Given its safety and high efficacy, it is expected that IAC will replace conventional strategies and will become a first-line option even for tumors that are amenable for other strategies.

  6. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  7. Antimicrobial stewardship: Strategies for a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grunwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide, combined with dwindling antimicrobial armamentarium, has resulted in a critical threat to the public health and safety of patients. To combat this hazard, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs have emerged. Antimicrobial stewardship programs prevent or slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance by coordinated interventions designed to optimize antimicrobial use to achieve the best clinical outcomes and limiting selective pressures that drive the emergence of resistance. This also reduces excessive costs attributable to suboptimal antimicrobial use. Even though an ideal effective ASP should incorporate more than one element simultaneously, it also requires a multidisciplinary team, which should include an infectious diseases physician, a clinical pharmacist with infectious diseases training, infection control professionals, hospital epidemiologist, a clinical microbiologist and an information specialist. However, for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS programs to be successful, they must address the specific needs of individual institutions, must be built on available resources, the limitations and advantages of each institution, and the available staffing and technological infrastructure.

  8. Structural studies and antimicrobial properties of norcembrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The compounds have shown moderate-to-high antimicrobial activities. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of the metabolite 1 have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Keywords. Diterpene; sinularia; stereochemistry; antimicrobial; crystallography. 1. Introduction. Soft corals have been recognized as a rich ...

  9. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana Maria; de Melo Carrasco, Letícia Dias

    2013-01-01

    Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications. PMID:23665898

  10. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bark and wood parts of the root of Terminalia mollis was investigated for its phytochemical and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins and resins as the major secondary metabolites. Test for antimicrobial activity of the plant crude extracts using the agar diffusion method ...

  11. phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of commiphora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. The extracts from the stem bark of Commiphora pedunculata, a plant used in Northern Nigeria for the treatment of infectious diseases, were subjected to phytochemical as well as antimicrobial screening using standard procedures. The antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, S. typhii ...

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ascorbic acid - nicotinamide metal complexes. ... The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the mixed complexes have higher inhibitory activity than the original ligands against the tested bacteria and fungi species. KEY WORDS: Ascorbic acid, ...

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    body pain, jaundice, yellow fever and as blood tonic and skin cleanser. Because of its wide usage and availability, this study was set out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant and to determine the effect of temperature and. pH on the efficacy of the plant as an antimicrobial agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained from 382 samples.

  15. LAXATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAXATIVE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF CASSIA SPECIES GROWING IN IBADAN. KA Abo, SW Lasaki, AA Adeyemi. Abstract. Colorimetric estimation of anthraquinone content, antimicrobial and laxative effects of leaves and pods of Cassia fistula Linn., C. specatabilis DC and C podocarpa Guill. and Perr. are ...

  16. Microbiological characteristics and antimicrobial potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 19mm and Aspergillus fumigatus was the only fungi recorded to be susceptible from the tested isolates. There is a possibility of harnessing the antimicrobial potency of the infusion for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat resistant pathogenic organisms tested for. Key words: Cola nitida and Cola acuminata, ...

  17. Antimicrobial coatings—obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing ...

  18. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibilty of potentially pathogenic halophilic Vibrio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is indispensable for empirical treatment of infections and in preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. This study is aimed at determining the antibiotic susceptibility of potentially pathogenic halophylic Vibrio species isolated in Lagos, Nigeria. Susceptibility ...

  20. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  1. Identification mission on Antimicrobial resistance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, I.J.T.M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Schreijer, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This report contains the findings and recommendations on antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) practice and policies in Indonesia.
    The observations were made by a team of Dutch and Indonesian experts during an identification mission in August 2015. The mission did address

  2. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijkeren, Engeline; Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Roberts, Marilyn C; Wang, Yang; Schwarz, Stefan

    During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either

  3. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  4. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  5. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Key words: Medicinal plants, plant extracts, antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial activity. INTRODUCTION. Plant-derived .... terpenes are the essential oils of which monoterpenes, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes form ... technology have created the tools to produce botanical mixtures at a level comparable to ...

  6. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Antimicrobials from natural sources such as plants have been used for food safety since antiquity (Alzoreky and. Nakahara 2003). Concerns over the rise of antimicrobial resistance have sparked an interest in investigating the use of natural products to improve health and growth (Cowan. 1999). Plants have an almost ...

  7. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the advent of nanotechnology, it was attempted to replace the biocides from antimicrobial paints with vari- ous nano-sized substances such as: zinc oxide, titanium di- oxide and silver (Niegisch et al 2002). The development of antimicrobial nanocoatings through the green chemistry methods could be a promising way ...

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Various Other Pathogens. ... Results: Among these isolates, 51 (38 %) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more test organisms and six exhibited promising broad-spectrum activity against all the tested organisms.

  9. antimicrobial diterpenoid alkaloids from erythrophleum suaveolens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 13C NMR spectral data. The compounds showed potent antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts. KEY WORDS: Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan, Norcassaide, Diterpenoid alkaloid, Norerythrosuaveolide, Antimicrobial activities, Bacteria, Yeasts Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2005, 19(2), 221-226.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance among commensal Escherichia coli from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... Commensal bacteria contribute to the distribution and persistence of antimicrobial resistance in the environment. This study monitored antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli from the faeces of on-farm and slaughter cattle and beef. A total of 342 (89.5%) E. coli isolates were obtained.

  11. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  12. Antimicrobial Effect of Phyllanthus amarus and Parquetina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phyllanthus amarus and Paraquetina nigrescens are economic plants grown in West Africa for antimicrobial properties. Crude aqueous (hot and cold water) and ethanolic extracts of the plants were investigated for antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi. The organism was collected from the University College ...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmid profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to various antimicrobial agents, and the relationship between antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and carriage of plasmids. Design: A random sampling of milk and meat samples was carried out. Setting: Milk was collected from various dairy ...

  14. Antimicrobial activities of clove and thyme extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-06-01

    It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test.

  15. Medical visits for chemotherapy and chemotherapy-induced neutropenia: a survey of the impact on patient time and activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Kelley

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with cancer must make frequent visits to the clinic not only for chemotherapy but also for the management of treatment-related adverse effects. Neutropenia, the most common dose-limiting toxicity of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, has substantial clinical and economic consequences. Colony-stimulating factors such as filgrastim and pegfilgrastim can reduce the incidence of neutropenia, but the clinic visits for these treatments can disrupt patients' routines and activities. Methods We surveyed patients to assess how clinic visits for treatment with chemotherapy and the management of neutropenia affect their time and activities. Results The mean amounts of time affected by these visits ranged from approximately 109 hours (hospitalization for neutropenia and 8 hours (physician and chemotherapy to less than 3 hours (laboratory and treatment with filgrastim or pegfilgrastim. The visits for filgrastim or pegfilgrastim were comparable in length, but treatment with filgrastim requires several visits per chemotherapy cycle and treatment with pegfilgrastim requires only 1 visit. Conclusions This study provides useful information for future modelling of additional factors such as disease status and chemotherapy schedule and provides information that should be considered in managing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Shin; Hatazaki, Kyoko; Horie, Kengo; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Hanaoka, Nozomu; Shimuta, Ken; Ohnishi, Makoto; Muratani, Tetsuro; Nakano, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 41 antimicrobial agents for 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with acute urethritis and/or epididymitis and examined the strains for the production of β-lactamase. We also compared their antimicrobial susceptibilities with those of H. influenzae strains from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections that were reported in Japan. The proportion of β-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant strains from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis appeared to be lower, but that of β-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant strains appeared to be higher, compared with those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. However, their antimicrobial susceptibilities to a variety of other antimicrobial agents would be similar to those from respiratory tract or otorhinolaryngological infections. Almost all of the strains of H. influenzae from acute urethritis and/or epididymitis were susceptible to the agents, including ceftriaxone, quinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, commonly prescribed for treatment of acute urethritis based on the MIC breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Ceftriaxone and quinolones could be effective on H. influenzae-induced urethritis. However, azithromycin treatment failures were reported in acute urethritis caused by H. influenzae strains considered susceptible to azithromycin. Further studies will be needed to determine MIC breakpoints of antimicrobial agents, which are recommended for treatment of urogenital infections, for H. influenzae strains causing these infections. Nevertheless, this study provides useful data regarding antimicrobial susceptibilities of H. influenzae strains isolated from the urogenital tract, which have rarely been studied. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier

  17. Assigning defined daily doses animal: a European multi-country experience for antimicrobial products authorized for usage in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Merel; Sjölund, Marie; Collineau, Lucie; Lösken, Svenja; Stärk, Katharina D C; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    To establish a consensus defined daily dose animal (DDDA) for each active substance (AS) and administration route for porcine veterinary antimicrobial products authorized in four European countries, thus allowing cross-country quantification and comparison of antimicrobial usage data. All veterinary antimicrobial products authorized for porcine use in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden were listed for each administration route. First, separate DDDAs for each product were defined based on the recommended dosing for the main indication. Second, a consensus DDDA was established by taking the mean of the DDDAs for each product within a certain category of AS plus administration route. One-hundred-and-fifty-nine, 240, 281 and 50 antimicrobial products were licensed in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, respectively, in February 2013. Large variations were observed for dosage and treatment duration recommendations between products and between countries for the same ASs. Only 6.8% of feed/water and 29.4% of parenteral AS groups had the same recommended dosage in the four countries. This study presents a consensus DDDA list for use in the quantification and comparison of antimicrobial consumption. Four major recommendations have been formulated: (i) urgent need for harmonization of authorization and recommended summary of product characteristics (SPC) dosages; (ii) expand the developed preliminary DDDA list to include all authorized veterinary medicinal products in all EU member states and for all (food-producing) animal species; (iii) improved accessibility of country-specific SPC data would be preferable; and (iv) statement of the 'long-acting' duration of a product in the SPC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in bacteria isolated from acute endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pauline M; Jacinto, Rogério C; Dal Pizzol, Tatiane S; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides: Multifunctional Drugs for Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (APs are an important part of the innate immune system in epithelial and non-epithelial surfaces. So far, many different antimicrobial peptides from various families have been discovered in non-vertebrates and vertebrates. They are characterized by antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activities against a variety of microorganisms. In addition to their role as endogenous antimicrobials, APs participate in multiple aspects of immunity. They are involved in septic and non-septic inflammation, wound repair, angiogenesis, regulation of the adaptive immune system and in maintaining homeostasis. Due to those characteristics AP could play an important role in many practical applications. Limited therapeutic efficiency of current antimicrobial agents and the emerging resistance of pathogens require alternate antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent literature on functions and mechanisms of APs. It also shows their current practical applications as peptide therapeutics and bioactive polymers and discusses the possibilities of future clinical developments.

  20. Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigundogdu, Zeynep Ustaoglu; Demir, Okan; Asutay, Ayla Burcin; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2017-03-01

    In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Moreover, modified cotton fabrics were tested against adenovirus type 5 and poliovirus type 1. According to the test results, the modified textile goods attained very good antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan solution-treated textiles can be considered in the development of antimicrobial and antiviral textile finishes.

  1. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  2. Dealing with antimicrobial resistance - the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2000-01-01

    Following the discovery in 1994 and 1995 that use of the glycopeptide antimicrobial avoparcin for growth promotion was associated with the occurrence of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium in food animals and in food, the Danish Minister of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries banned the use...... the availability of tetracycline as non-registered speciality products. The focus on consumption of antimicrobials and on resistance prompted a number of initiatives by Danish authorities to limit the increase in antimicrobial resistance. One such initiative was the implementation of an integrated programme...... on the prudent use of antimicrobials in order to reduce the development of resistance without compromising therapeutic efficacy. Our experience with avoparcin shows that a restrictive policy on the use of antimicrobials can curb the development of resistance. However, the occurrence and persistence of specific...

  3. Characteristic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella from gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunchun; Yi, Wen; Yao, Yuzhou; Zhu, Ni; Qin, Pengfei

    2018-04-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide and may cause to gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, serotypes, virulence genes, molecular subtyping, and antibiotic resistance phenotype of Salmonella from gastroenteritis in Hubei, China. Of 500 patients stools samples collected from January 2015 to January 2016, 52 (10.40%) samples were contaminated by Salmonella. The results showed that most of the isolates were positive for eight virulence genes that appear on pathogenicity islands, prophages, plasmid, and fimbrial. A total of twelve serotypes were found. Antimicrobial susceptibility results indicated that most strains were resistant to ampicillin (57.69%), kanamycin (53.85%), and tetracycline (40.38%). There were 33 STs on MLST types, and were grouped into two clusters. Thus, our findings provided insights into the dissemination of antibiotic resistant strains, genetic diversity, and improved our knowledge of microbiological risk assessment in Salmonella from gastroenteritis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  5. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitrat V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE, Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. Keywords: ICU, antimicrobial therapies, antimicrobial stewardship, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis

  6. Targeting protein biotinylation enhances tuberculosis chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Divya; Park, Sae Woong; Essawy, Maram M; Dawadi, Surendra; Mason, Alan; Nandakumar, Madhumitha; Zimmerman, Matthew; Mina, Marizel; Ho, Hsin Pin; Engelhart, Curtis A; Ioerger, Thomas; Sacchettini, James C; Rhee, Kyu; Ehrt, Sabine; Aldrich, Courtney C; Dartois, Véronique; Schnappinger, Dirk

    2018-04-25

    Successful drug treatment for tuberculosis (TB) depends on the unique contributions of its component drugs. Drug resistance poses a threat to the efficacy of individual drugs and the regimens to which they contribute. Biologically and chemically validated targets capable of replacing individual components of current TB chemotherapy are a major unmet need in TB drug development. We demonstrate that chemical inhibition of the bacterial biotin protein ligase (BPL) with the inhibitor Bio-AMS (5'-[ N -(d-biotinoyl)sulfamoyl]amino-5'-deoxyadenosine) killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), the bacterial pathogen causing TB. We also show that genetic silencing of BPL eliminated the pathogen efficiently from mice during acute and chronic infection with Mtb Partial chemical inactivation of BPL increased the potency of two first-line drugs, rifampicin and ethambutol, and genetic interference with protein biotinylation accelerated clearance of Mtb from mouse lungs and spleens by rifampicin. These studies validate BPL as a potential drug target that could serve as an alternate frontline target in the development of new drugs against Mtb . Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Chemotherapy for small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hajime; Ogawa, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-01

    The cancer in the title (SCLC) is of a very malignant feature in progression and prognosis and is highly sensitive to chemotherapy (CMT) and radiotherapy (RT) relative to non-SCLC. This paper describes the present state of therapy for the cancer essentially according to its stages/progression. Combination of surgery and neo-adjuvant/adjuvant CMT is recommended for the stage I limited disease (LD), where the metastasis is essentially localized in the chest. PE (cisplatin (CDDP)/etoposide)+accelerated hyper-fractionated RT like that by 45 Gy/30 fractions/3 weeks can be a standard regimen for the stage >II LD, and a phase III trial (JCOG 0202) is now in progress. For the extended disease (ED), treatment with 4-6 cycles of PE+IP (CPT-11/CDDP) is a present standard, and a phase III trial (JCOG 0509) is now conducted for IP vs AP (CDDP/amurubicine (AMR)). CE (CBDCA/etoposide) is widely applied in elderly patients because of its low renal toxicity. For cases with recurrence, no standard regimen is established yet, and a randomized comparative phase III trial (JCOG0605) for PEI is currently done. Although progress of various CMT drugs and regimens has brought about an improvement of outcome (MST: for LD, about 20.3 mo and ED, 9.1 mo vs 12 weeks without treatment), development of molecular target medicine suitable for SCLC is awaited for better prognosis. (R.T.)

  8. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  9. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides: Versatile Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuirulan Pushpanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are diverse group of biologically active molecules with multidimensional properties. In recent past, a wide variety of AMPs with diverse structures have been reported from different sources such as plants, animals, mammals, and microorganisms. The presence of unusual amino acids and structural motifs in AMPs confers unique structural properties to the peptide that attribute for their specific mode of action. The ability of these active AMPs to act as multifunctional effector molecules such as signalling molecule, immune modulators, mitogen, antitumor, and contraceptive agent makes it an interesting candidate to study every aspect of their structural and biological properties for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. In addition, easy cloning and recombinant expression of AMPs in heterologous plant host systems provided a pipeline for production of disease resistant transgenic plants. Besides these properties, AMPs were also used as drug delivery vectors to deliver cell impermeable drugs to cell interior. The present review focuses on the diversity and broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of AMPs along with its multidimensional properties that could be exploited for the application of these bioactive peptides as a potential and promising drug candidate in pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Antimicrobial outcomes in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter and is frequently generated in the environment of a strong electric field. The result consists of highly reactive species--ions, electrons, reactive atoms and molecules, and UV radiation. Plasma Medicine unites a number of fields, including Physics, Plasma Chemistry, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. The treatment modality utilizes Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), which is able to sterilize and treat microbes in a nonthermal manner. These gas-based plasma systems operate at close to room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making them very practical for a range of potential treatments and are highly portable for clinical use throughout the health care system. The hypothesis is that gas based plasma kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses but spares mammalian cells. This paper will review systematic work which shows examples of systems and performance in regards to antimicrobial effects and the sparing of mammalian cells. The mechanism of action will be discussed, as well as dosing for the treatment of microbial targets, including sterilization processes, another important healthcare need. In addition, commercial systems will be overviewed and compared, along with evidence-based, patient results. The range of treatments cover wound treatment and biofilms, as well as antimicrobial treatment, with little chance for resistance and tolerance, as in drug regimens. Current clinical studies include applications in dentistry, food treatment, cancer treatment, wound treatment for bacteria and biofilms, and systems to combat health care related infections.

  12. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  13. Combination chemotherapy and immune capacity in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, R. J.; Schellekens, P. T.; Hamerlynck, J. V.; Bruning, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chemotherapy with either Chap-5 (a drug regimen consisting of adriamycin, cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II), hexamethylmelamine and cyclophosphamide) or Hexa CAF (a drug regimen consisting of methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, hexamethylmelamine and cyclophosphamide) on the

  14. Ultrawideband Radio Frequency (RF) Enhanced Electroporation for Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilgenbach, R. M; Lau, Y. Y; Uhler, M. D; Jordan, D

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for a research program in which high voltage, short-pulsed, ultrawideband electric fields have been demonstrated to enhance the effects of chemotherapy upon killing of Jurkat (cancer) cells...

  15. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  16. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth / For Parents / Side ... contact your doctor right away. Duration of Side Effects Most side effects go away gradually once cancer ...

  17. Evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice in malignant gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusheel Munshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas of the brain carry a poor prognosis. This article traces the evolution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy practice including the development of concurrent chemo-radiation schedules in the context of these tumors.

  18. Effects of Yifukang Oral Liquid on Chemotherapy- and Radiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Yifukang oral liquid (YFKOL) on chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Methods: The effects of YFKOL on myelosuppression, leucopenia and gastrointestinal tract disturbances were assessed by ...

  19. Preventing Fatigue in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marrow, Gary

    2001-01-01

    ... or alleviate the development of treatment-induced fatigue. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 124 breast cancer patients who were studied for up to four successive chemotherapy treatments...

  20. Combining Chemotherapy with Bevacizumab Improves Outcomes for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.