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Sample records for antimicrobial chemotherapy pact

  1. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) in osteomyelitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus: Microbiological and histological study.

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    Dos Reis, João Alves; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Barreto, Brunna Santos; de Assis, Patrícia Nascimento; Almeida, Paulo Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Osteomyelitis is an inflammation either of medullar spaces or of the surface of cortical bones, which represents a bacterial infection. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a treatment based on a cytotoxic photochemical reaction that induces a series of metabolic reactions and culminates in bacterial suppression. Such effect led to the idea that it could be used as a treatment of osteomyelitis. Following approval by the Animal Experimentation Committee of the School of Dentistry of the Federal University of Bahia, the present randomized study used eighty Wistar rats with the aim to evaluate, by microbiological and histological analysis, the effects of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - PACT on tibial surgical bone defects in rats infected by Staphylococcus aureus. The animals were divided in groups: Control (non-infected); Control Osteomyelitis Induction; Saline solution; Photosensitizer; Red Laser and PACT - on this group, a diode laser (40mW; λ660nm ∅=0.04cm(2), CW, 10J/cm(2)) was used in combination with 5μg/ml of toluidine blue as the photosensitizer. On the microbiological study, immediately after treatment, the PACT group presented a bacterial reduction of 97.4% (p<0.001). Thirty days after treatment, there was a bacterial reduction of more than 99.9% (p<0.001). In the histological study, it was observed that the PACT group demonstrated an intense presence of osteocytes and absence of bone sequestration and micro-abscesses. The PACT using toluidine blue was effective in reducing the number of S. aureus enabling a better quality bone repair.

  2. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using phenothiazines derivatives associated with the red laser against staphylococcus aureus

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    Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Santos, Gustavo M. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Miranda, Anderson F. S.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Marcos A. V.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using phenothiazinium dye (Toluidine blue O and methylene blue) at a low concentration of 1μg/mL irradiated with the red laser at doses of 2.4 e 4.8 J/cm² on strain of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 23529) in vitro. For this research, tests were performed in triplicate and the samples were distributed into six test groups: (L-P-) Negative control (L1+P-) and (L2+P-) bacterial suspensions were irradiated with laser energy 2.4 and 4.8 J/cm2 respectively in the absence of photosensitizer; (L1+P+) and (L2+P+) bacterial suspensions were irradiated with laser in the presence of 1μg/ml of photosensitizer and finally (L-P+) bacterial suspensions only in the presence of phenothiazinium dye. Therefore, were analyzed the potential bactericidal PACT by counting of colony-forming units and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, pnegative control group when compared with laser group (L2+P-) it was observed a statistically significant increase (p<0.01) which L2+P- showed a higher number of CFU, on the other hand when compared to L1+P- no statistically significant difference was found, relation to the groups submitted to PACT, only showed a statistically significant reduction relative to the group irradiated L2+P+ (p<0.01) that showed a decrease in the number of CFU. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups submitted to PDT (L1+P+ and L2+P+). Although the results of this study have shown a reduction in average number of colony forming units by the appropriate laser-dye treatment combination, it needs further investigation.

  3. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) against oral microorganisms with the use of blue LED associated to curcumin

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    Sampaio, Fernando José P.; Pires-Santos, Gustavo M.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2016-03-01

    The use of curcumin as antimicrobial agent has been suggested and this effect may be potentialized by appropriate light. This study evaluated the effect of PACT using blue LED (λ450ηm +/- 5ηm, 220mW and spot of 0.785 cm2) associated to Curcumin at different concentrations (75, 37.5, 18.75, 9.37 and 4.68 μg /mL). Microorganisms from the oral mucosa and the posterior region of the tongue were collected and inoculated into test tubes containing 8mL of TSB medium. For these assays were performed 16 readings. In the assays were used culture plate of 24 wells. To each well was added 400 μL of the suspension containing the microorganisms. Suspensions without curcumin were placed in eight wells. Elsewhere, curcumin was applied varying concentrations with pre-irradiation time of 5 min. After stirring, 200 μL aliquot was taken from each well and the readings were immediately carried out by a spectrophotometer (SPECTRA MAX). Assessments of turbidity were performed following CLSI standard methods. After 1 hour of incubation in a bacteriological oven, 200 μL aliquot was removed from the remaining wells for a second reading. The results showed a decrease of total microorganisms in the most of test groups. The best result of the PACT was with 75 μg/mL, showing 81% of inhibition. It is concluded that PACT with blue LED associated to Curcumin could be a potential mechanism for controlling microorganism proliferation on the oral cavity.

  4. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using phenothiazines derivatives associated with the red-orange LED against staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Santos, Gustavo M. P.; Miranda, Anderson F. S.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Zainn, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Marcos A. V.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to PDT development by researching alternative light sources using redorange LED light at doses of 2.4 e 4.8 J/cm2 to evaluate the bactericidal effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) using phenothiazinium dye (Toluidine blue O and methylene blue) at a low concentration of 1μg/mL on strain of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 23529) in vitro. For this research, tests were performed in triplicate and the samples were distributed into six test groups: (L-P-) Negative control (L1+ P-) and (L2+ P-) bacterial suspensions were irradiated with laser energy 2.4 and 4.8 J/cm2 respectively in the absence of photosensitizer; (L1 + P+) and (L2 + P+) bacterial suspensions were irradiated with laser in the presence of 1μg/ml of photosensitizer and finally (L-P+) bacterial suspensions only in the presence of phenothiazinium dye. Therefore, were analyzed the potential bactericidal PACT by counting of colony-forming units and analyzed statistically (ANOVA, Tukey test, pnegative control group, LED group (L1+ P-) and photosensitizer group there was a statistically significant (pnegative control group when compared to the groups submitted to PDT only showed a statistically significant reduction (p<0.01) relative to the group (L2+P+) that showed a decrease in the number of CFU. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups submitted to PDT (L1+P+ and L2+P+). Although the results of this study have shown a reduction in average number of colony forming units by the appropriate LED-dye treatment combination, it needs further investigation.

  5. Investigation into the potential of sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to reduce susceptibility of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, C. M.; Donnelly, R. F.; Tunney, M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In PACT, a combination of a sensitising drug and visible light cause the selective destruction of microbial cells via singlet oxygen production. As singlet oxygen is a non-specific oxidizing agent and is only present during illumination, development of resistance to this treatment is thought to be unlikely. However, in response to oxidative stress, bacteria can up-regulate oxidative stress genes and associated antibiotic resistance genes. The up-regulation of these genes and potential transfer of genetic material may result in a resistant bacterial population. This study determined whether treatment of clinically isolated meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with sub-lethal doses of methylene blue (MB) and meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP)-PACT resulted in reduced susceptibility to antibiotics and previously lethal PACT. Exposure of strains to sub-lethal doses of photosensitizer in combination with light had no effect on susceptibility to previously lethal photosensitization. Furthermore, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of both photosensitizers caused no significant changes in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each strain tested. Any differences in susceptibility were not significant as they did not cross breakpoints between resistant and susceptible for any organism or antibiotic tested. Therefore, PACT remains an attractive alternative option for treatment of MRSA infections.

  6. Photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT): the potential of excited-state d-block metals in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Farrer, Nicola J.; Salassa, Luca; Sadler, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    The fields of phototherapy and of inorganic chemotherapy both have long histories. Inorganic photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) offers both temporal and spatial control over drug activation and has remarkable potential for the treatment of cancer. Following photoexcitation, a number of different decay pathways (both photophysical and photochemical) are available to a metal complex. These pathways can result in radiative energy release, loss of ligands or transfer of energy to another species,...

  7. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  8. Diverse outcomes of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on five Enterococcus faecalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, T.C.; Pereira, A.F.F.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Machado, M.A.A.M.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In the present study, the effectiveness of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) was evaluated on planktonic cells and biofilms of five Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates. Methods Planktonic cells and biofilms of E. faecalis E2, E3, ER3/2s, OS16 and AA-OR34 were grown in SDM

  9. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  10. Serratia marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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    Parente, Ticiana Mont Alverne Lopes; Rebouças, Emanuela de Lima; Santos, Vitor Coutinho Vieira Dos; Barbosa, Francisco Cesar Barroso; Zanin, Iriana Carla Junqueira

    2016-06-01

    Some authors have reported the antimicrobial action of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) on bacteria related to nosocomial infections but there are few studies evaluating PACT on Serratia marcescens grown as planktonic cultures or as biofilms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the S. marcescens resistance profile and its susceptibility to PACT. Initially, 55 S. marcescens strains isolated from environmental, oral and extra-oral infections were tested by antimicrobial resistance to cefotaxime (CTX), imipenem (IPM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tobramycin (TOB) and doxycycline (DOX) using E-test(®). Following, isolates grown as planktonic cultures or biofilms were submitted to PACT using the association of a light-emitting diode and toluidine blue (TBO). The E-test(®) results demonstrated intermediated sensitive strains to CTX, IMP, TOB, and DOX; and resistant strains to CTX, TOB, DOX and CIP. Also, CTX and IMP demonstrated variation when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Planktonic cultures and biofilms submitted to PACT demonstrated counts varying from 10(11) to 10(7) for planktonic cultures and 10(10) to 10(7) for biofilms. There were no statistical differences in the results when planktonic cultures and biofilms were compared. Increase in the profile of S. marcescens resistance was observed when CLSI 2007 and CLSI 2015 were compared. Also, IMP remains as the drug with lower rate of resistance. Additionally, both S. marcescens planktonic cultures and early biofilms are susceptible to PACT under tested conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial peptide-modified liposomes for bacteria targeted delivery of temoporfin in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Gitter, Burkhard; Rüger, Ronny; Wieland, Gerhard D; Chen, Ming; Liu, Xiangli; Albrecht, Volker; Fahr, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are two promising strategies to combat the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To take advantage of these two strategies, we integrated a novel antimicrobial peptide (WLBU2) and a potent generation II photosensitizer (temoporfin) into liposomes by preparing WLBU2-modified liposomes, aiming at bacteria targeted delivery of temoporfin for PACT. WLBU2 was successfully coupled to temoporfin-loaded liposomes using a functional phospholipid. The delivery of temoporfin to bacteria was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, thus demonstrating that more temoporfin was delivered to bacteria by WLBU2-modified liposomes than by unmodified liposomes. Consequently, the WLBU2-modified liposomes eradicated all methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and induced a 3.3 log(10) reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the in vitro photodynamic inactivation test. These findings demonstrate that the use of AMP-modified liposomes is promising for bacteria-targeted delivery of photosensitizers and for improving the PACT efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in the local infections.

  12. Photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT): the potential of excited-state d-block metals in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Nicola J; Salassa, Luca; Sadler, Peter J

    2009-12-28

    The fields of phototherapy and of inorganic chemotherapy both have long histories. Inorganic photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) offers both temporal and spatial control over drug activation and has remarkable potential for the treatment of cancer. Following photoexcitation, a number of different decay pathways (both photophysical and photochemical) are available to a metal complex. These pathways can result in radiative energy release, loss of ligands or transfer of energy to another species, such as triplet oxygen. We discuss the features which need to be considered when developing a metal-based anticancer drug, and the common mechanisms by which the current complexes are believed to operate. We then provide a comprehensive overview of PACT developments for complexes of the different d-block metals for the treatment of cancer, detailing the more established areas concerning Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Re, Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Pt, and Cu and also highlighting areas where there is potential for greater exploration. Nanoparticles (Ag, Au) and quantum dots (Cd) are also discussed for their photothermal destructive potential. We also discuss the potential held in particular by mixed-metal systems and Ru complexes.

  13. Antimicrobial action from a novel porphyrin derivative in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in vitro.

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    Latief, Miftahul Akhyar; Chikama, Taiichiro; Shibasaki, Momoko; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ko, Ji-Ae; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Obana, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to identify improved treatments for corneal infection include the development of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). We evaluated the antimicrobial effect of PACT with a novel porphyrin derivative, TONS 504, and a novel light system on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Bacteria were irradiated with a light-emitting diode (LED) at energies of 10, 20, or 30 J/cm(2) in the presence of various concentrations of TONS 504. Bacterial viability was assessed at 30 min and 24 h after irradiation by determination of colony formation on agar plates. PACT inhibited the growth of both MSSA and MRSA as early as 30 min after light exposure. Complete inhibition of bacterial growth was apparent at 24 h after irradiation at a TONS 504 concentration of 1 mg/L and LED energies of ≥10 J/cm(2) or a TONS 504 concentration of 0.5 mg/L and LED energies of ≥20 J/cm(2) for MSSA, and at a TONS 504 concentration of 10 mg/L and LED energies of ≥10 J/cm(2) or of a TONS 504 concentration of 1 mg/L and LED energies of ≥20 J/cm(2) for MRSA. Bacterial growth was unaffected by TONS 504 in the absence of irradiation or by irradiation in the absence of TONS 504. Our results thus demonstrate the antimicrobial efficacy of PACT with TONS 504 and a LED against both MSSA and MRSA in vitro, and they therefore provide a basis for further investigation of this system as a potential treatment for corneal infection.

  14. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in aquaculture: photoinactivation studies of Vibrio fischeri.

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    Eliana Alves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT combines light, a light-absorbing molecule that initiates a photochemical or photophysical reaction, and oxygen. The combined action of these three components originates reactive oxygen species that lead to microorganisms' destruction. The aim was to evaluate the efficiency of PACT on Vibrio fischeri: 1 with buffer solution, varying temperature, pH, salinity and oxygen concentration values; 2 with aquaculture water, to reproduce photoinactivation (PI conditions in situ. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To monitor the PI kinetics, the bioluminescence of V. fischeri was measured during the experiments. A tricationic meso-substituted porphyrin (Tri-Py(+-Me-PF was used as photosensitizer (5 µM in the studies with buffer solution and 10-50 µM in the studies with aquaculture water; artificial white light (4 mW cm(-2 and solar irradiation (40 mW cm(-2 were used as light sources; and the bacterial concentration used for all experiments was ≈10(7 CFU mL(-1 (corresponding to a bioluminescence level of 10(5 relative light units--RLU. The variations in pH (6.5-8.5, temperature (10-25°C, salinity (20-40 g L(-1 and oxygen concentration did not significantly affect the PI of V. fischeri, once in all tested conditions the bioluminescent signal decreased to the detection limit of the method (≈7 log reduction. The assays using aquaculture water showed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the suspended matter. Total PI of V. fischeri in aquaculture water was achieved under solar light in the presence of 20 µM of Tri-Py(+-Me-PF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If PACT is to be used in environmental applications, the matrix containing target microbial communities should be previously characterized in order to establish an efficient protocol having into account the photosensitizer concentration, the light source and the total light dose delivered. The possibility of using solar light in PACT to

  15. Randomized in vivo evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on deciduous carious dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this randomized in vivo study was to compare antimicrobial chemotherapies in primary carious dentin. Thirty-two participants ages 5 to 7 years underwent partial caries removal from deep carious dentin lesions in primary molars and were subsequently divided into three groups: control [chlorhexidine and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC)], LEDTB [photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with light-emitting diode associated with toluidine blue solution and RMGIC], and LMB [PACT with laser associated with methylene blue solution and RMGIC]. The participants were submitted to initial clinical and radiographic examinations. Demographic features and biofilm, gingival, and DMFT/DMFS indexes were evaluated, in addition to clinical and radiographic followups at 6 and 12 months after treatments. Carious dentin was collected before and after each treatment, and the number of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Atopobium rimae, and total bacteria was established by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No signs of pain or restoration failure were observed. All therapies were effective in reducing the number of microorganisms, except for S. sobrinus. No statistical differences were observed among the protocols used. All therapies may be considered as effective modern approaches to minimal intervention for the management of deep primary caries treatment.

  16. Effect of non-homogenous thermal stress during sub-lethal photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

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    Gadura, N.; Kokkinos, D.; Dehipawala, S.; Cheung, E.; Sullivan, R.; Subramaniam, R.; Schneider, P.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2012-03-01

    Pathogens could be inactivated via a light source coupled with a photosensitizing agent in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). This project studied the effect of non-homogenous substrate on cell colony. The non-homogeneity could be controlled by iron oxide nano-particles doping in porous glassy substrates such that each cell would experience tens of hot spots when illuminated with additional light source. The substrate non-homogeneity was characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure at Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Microscopy images of cell motion were used to study the motility. Laboratory cell colonies on non-homogenous substrates exhibit reduced motility similar to those observed with sub-lethal PCAT treatment. Such motility reduction on non-homogenous substrate is interpreted as the presence of thermal stress. The studied pathogens included E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Non-pathogenic microbes Bacillus subtilis was also studied for comparison. The results show that sub-lethal PACT could be effective with additional non-homogenous thermal stress. The use of non-uniform illumination on a homogeneous substrate to create thermal stress in sub-micron length scale is discussed via light correlation in propagation through random medium. Extension to sub-lethal PACT application complemented with thermal stress would be an appropriate application.

  17. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  18. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

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    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  19. Evaluation of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Therapy (PACT) against Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi: In Vitro Study

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    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Soares, Luiz G. P.; Aciole, Jouber M. S.; Aciole, Gilberth T. S.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-08-01

    Policies to combat Chagas disease presents a considerable degree of negligence and is classified at level III by TDR, where the focus of research is based on the improvement and wider dissemination of existing tools and strategies for combating them. The PACT is based on topical or systemic administration of a nontoxic dye sensitive to light, followed by low dose irradiation with visible light of wavelength appropriate. In the presence of oxygen found in the cells, the photosensitizer (FS) enabled may react with molecules in its vicinity by electron transfer or hydrogen, leading to production of free radicals (type I reaction) or by energy transfer to oxygen (type II reaction), leading to production of singlet oxygen. Both paths can lead to cell death and the destruction of diseased tissue. In this work, we verify the effectiveness of PACT associated with a semiconductor laser InGaAlP, a wavelength (λ) equal to 660 nm±10 nm, 30 mW optical power, emitting red light in the visible spectrum, with a dose of 4 J/cm2 in continuous mode, using methylene blue in five differents concentrations on the infective trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. To determine the viability of the parasites, one sample from each treatment group at each concentration was removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer, observing the decrease in the number of live parasites for the solution without treatment. The results demonstrated significant percentage of parasite lysis (up to 86% lethality), what can not be observed in the groups treated with laser or with the FS.

  20. Electrically-responsive anti-adherent hydrogels for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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    Fallows, Steven J; Garland, Martin J; Cassidy, Corona M; Tunney, Michael M; Singh, Thakur Raghu Raj; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2012-09-01

    The loading of the photosensitisers meso-Tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP), methylene blue (MB) and TMP with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) into and release from hydrogels composed of the polyelectrolyte poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) crosslinked in a 2:1 ratio with PEG 10,000 were investigated as a potential rapid photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) treatment for infected wounds using iontophoresis as a novel delivery method. Photosensitiser uptake was very high; (% TMP uptake; 95.53-96.72%) (% MB uptake; 90.58-93.26%) and was PMVE/MA concentration independent, whilst SDS severely limited TMP uptake (5.93-8.75%). Hydrogel hardness, compressibility and adhesiveness on the dermal surface of neonate porcine skin increased with PMVE/MA concentration and were significantly increased with SDS. The ionic conductivities of the hydrogels increased with PMVE/MA concentration. Drug release was PMVE/MA concentration independent, except for drug release under iontophoteric conditions for MB and TMP (without SDS). In just 15 min, the mean% drug concentrations released of TMP, TMP (with SDS) and MB using an electric current ranged from 22.30 to 64.72 μg ml(-1), 6.37-4.59 μg ml(-1) and 11.73-36.57 μg ml(-1) respectively. These concentrations were in excess of those required to induce complete kill of clinical strains of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia. Thus these results support our contention that the iontophoteric delivery of TMP and MB using anti-adherent, electrically-responsive, PEG-crosslinked PMVE/MA hydrogels are a potential option in the rapid PACT treatment of infected wounds.

  1. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT for the treatment of malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Baptista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A photodynamic effect occurs when photosensitiser molecules absorb light and dissipate the absorbed energy by transferring it to biological acceptors (usually oxygen, generating an excess of reactive species that are able to force cells into death pathways. Several tropical diseases present physiopathological aspects that are accessible to the application of a photosensitiser and local illumination. In addition, disease may be transmitted through infected blood donations, and many of the aetiological agents associated with tropical diseases have been shown to be susceptible to the photodynamic approach. However, there has been no systematic investigation of the application of photoantimicrobial agents in the various presentations, whether to human disease or to the disinfection of blood products or even as photo-insecticides. We aim in this review to report the advances in the photoantimicrobial approach that are beneficial to the field of anti-parasite therapy and also have the potential to facilitate the development of low-cost/high-efficiency protocols for underserved populations.

  2. In vitro study of the photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) against promastigotes form of the leishmania (viannia) braziliensis: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries. Treatment of cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) should be decided by the clinical lesions, etiological species and its potential to develop into mucosal Leishmaniasis. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 8.4J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 92%) of the protocol. The 98.33% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of FTZ. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of Leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.

  3. Evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial therapy (PACT) against promastigotes form of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Artur F. S.; Sangiorgi, Bruno B.; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Barral Netto, Manoel; Correia, Neandder A.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

    2012-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects more than 12 million people in 88 countries worldwide. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the most common species in the Americas and the most important causative agent of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. The therapeutic arsenal routinely employed to treat patients with leishmaniasis is limited and unsatisfactory. For cutaneous leishmaniasis, pentavalent antimonials are the first line therapeutic scheme recommended by the WHO. These compounds are highly toxic, poorly tolerated and their effectiveness highly variable. In this work, a technique with, so far, an unknown disadvantage is discussed. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of PACT in vitro, as a new technique for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. For this, semiconductor laser (λ = 660nm, 40mW, 4.2J/cm2, CW) associated to phenothiazine's derivatives (5 and 10 μg/ml, TBO, Methylene Blue or Phenothiazine) on the promastigotes form of Leishmania braziliensis in a single session was used. Viability of the parasites was assessed in quadruplicates of each group. The samples were removed and analyzed in a hemocytometer 72h after PACT. We found an important decrease in the number of viable parasites on all treated groups in comparison to their controls. The results of present study showed significant percentage of lethality (above 95%) of the protocol. The 99.23% of lethality was achieved with 10 μg/ml of TBO. No lethality was seen on groups treated neither with laser nor with each compounds separately. The results are promising and indicative that the use of PACT may be a powerful treatment of leishmaniasis when compared to already available ones.

  4. Behind the scenes of JAC: the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Tracey; Nathwani, Dilip

    2016-06-01

    This brief article describes the relationship between the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) and JAC, and how JAC has directly and indirectly facilitated delivery of the BSAC's charitable objectives over the past 40 years.

  5. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy to treat chemotherapy-induced oral lesions: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Breno Amaral; Melo Filho, Mário Rodrigues; Simões, Alyne

    2016-03-01

    The development of Angular Cheilitis and the reactivation of Herpes Simplex Virus, could be related to a decrease in the resistance of the immune system in the infected host, being common in cancer patients receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy. The objective of the present manuscript is to report Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as a treatment of infected oral lesions of patients submitted to chemotherapy.

  6. 光动力抗菌化学疗法治疗甲氧西林耐药金黄色葡萄球菌感染研究进展%Advances in the research of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永军; 方勇; 姚敏

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the advance in the research of both the mechanism of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) based on the principle of photodynamic therapy and the application of PACT in the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.Nowadays an inexorable prevalence of resistant bacteria observed worldwide,among which MRSA strains typically have a high potential of provoking outbreaks with intractability,makes it a pressing issue to develop new germicidal strategies.FACT is an emerging photochemistry-based technology.In the presence of oxygen,PACT,with the aid of the activation of photosensitizers to generate reactive oxygen species by the wavelength-specific light,destroys the structure of bacteria selectively and efficiently,with much lower bacterial resistance level than that of antibiotics.We expect that further research would elucidate the mechanism and develop clinical applications of PACT,and it may become a novel approach to solve the problem of MRSA infection in the future.

  7. Repetitive methylene blue-mediated photoantimicrobial chemotherapy changes the susceptibility and expression of the outer membrane proteins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Min-Hsiu; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2013-12-01

    Since bacterial multidrug efflux pumps mediate intracellular photosensitizer methylene blue, a change in the expression alters the susceptibility to photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which may occur following repetitive sublethal challenges. We performed 10 consecutive, methylene blue-mediated PACT on one antibiotic-sensitive strain and three antibiotic-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Following each therapy, the surviving bacteria were collected for subsequent PACT. The susceptibility was compared for the pre- and the post-treated strains following repetitive PACT. To explore the existence of efflux pumps, one of the inhibitors, namely Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide dihydrochloride (PAβN 25 μg/ml), was added. Profiles of outer membrane proteins were obtained for the pre-treated and the post-treated strains. The susceptibility of PACT did not correlate with the antibiotic sensitivity. Following ten PACT, there was no significant change in susceptibility for three tested strains, except for one antibiotic-resistant strain, for which the 10th generation became less susceptible than the original one. With 2-D electrophoresis, a change in the expression of outer membrane proteins was observed. PAβN successfully increased the phototoxicity in all tested strains, especially the less PACT-susceptible 10th generation of the antibiotic-resistant strain. Following repetitive challenges, PACT had a consistent antimicrobial effect on three strains; however, one antibiotic-resistant strain, which was the most vulnerable to PACT, became more resistant after consecutive challenges. In addition, the post-PACT strain had different expression of outer membrane proteins, providing further evidence view that repetitive PACT with methylene blue could change the expression of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A.; Brady, Aaron J.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for

  9. The difficulties of polytherapy: examples from antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Teresita

    2011-10-01

    Medical therapy in patients with more than one pathology means using more pharmaceuticals, which results in a higher risk of drug interactions which are modifications in the action of one drug when it is administered in the presence of another. The consequences can be diminished therapeutic effect or increased adverse reactions. The pharmacological interactions can be either physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic, on the basis of their mechanisms. Pharmacokinetic interactions are the most important and can emerge during various phases of absorption, distribution, metabolism and drug elimination. The absorption of many antimicrobial agents can be modified through various mechanisms. Some drugs (for example the anticholinergics and opiates) or food can slow gastric motility, slowing the absorption and reducing maximum concentrations of the antibiotic. Variations in gastric pH can alter the solubility or chemical stability of molecules such as the beta-lactams, the natural macrolides and some azoles. The bioavailability of these drugs can be reduced due to molecules used to raise gastric pH. Antibiotics such as tetracycline or the fluoroquinolones have reduced bioavailability due to chelation from bi- and trivalent cations. The primary number of clinically relevant pharmacological interactions is correlated with modifications of biotransformation of drugs due to Cytochrome P450 (CYP) hepatic enzymes which are involved in oxidative drug processes, including lipophilic antimicrobial drugs such as the macrolides, the fluoroquinolones (to be considered amphoteric) and the antifungal azole derivatives. CYP3A is probably one of the most important isoenzymes since it contributes to at least the partial transformation of 60% of drugs that undergo oxidation: erythromycin and clarithromycin are CYP3A4 substrates. Many isoenzymes can also be inhibited by antimicrobial drugs, including both antibacterials and antifungals (for example the macrolides, fluoroquinolones

  10. New criteria for selecting the proper antimicrobial chemotherapy for severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periti, P; Mazzei, T

    1999-07-01

    The mortality rate resulting from severe bacterial sepsis, particularly that associated with shock, still approaches 50% in spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and optimum supportive care. Bacterial endotoxins that are part of the cell wall are one of the cofactors in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock and are often induced by antimicrobial chemotherapy even if it is administered rationally. Not all antimicrobial agents are equally capable of inducing septic shock; this is dependant on their mechanism of action rather than on the causative pathogen species. The quantity of endotoxin released depends on the drug dose and whether filaments or spheroplast formation predominates. Some antibiotics such as carbapenems, ceftriaxone, cefepime, glycopeptides, aminoglycosides and quinolones do not have the propensity to provoke septic shock because their rapid bactericidal activity induces mainly spheroplast or fragile spheroplast-like bacterial forms.

  11. Risk of infection among patients with non-metastatic solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy and antimicrobial prophylaxis in US clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weycker, Derek; Chandler, David; Barron, Rich; Xu, Hairong; Wu, Hongsheng; Edelsberg, John; Lyman, Gary H

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines generally do not recommend oral antimicrobials for prophylaxis against chemotherapy-related infections in patients with solid tumors. Evidence on antimicrobial prophylaxis use, and associated chemotherapy-related infection risk, in US clinical practice is limited. Methods A retrospective cohort design and data from two US private healthcare claims repositories (2008-2011) were employed. Study population included adults who received myelosuppressive chemotherapy for non-metastatic cancer of the breast, colon/rectum, or lung, or for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For each subject, the first chemotherapy course was characterized, and within the first course, each chemotherapy cycle and chemotherapy-related infection episode was identified. Use of prophylaxis with oral antimicrobials and colony-stimulating factors in each cycle also was identified. Results A total of 7116 (22% of all) non-metastatic breast cancer, 1833 (15%) non-metastatic colorectal cancer, 1999 (15%) non-metastatic lung cancer, and 1949 (21%) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients received antimicrobial prophylaxis in ≥1 cycle. Mean number of antimicrobial prophylaxis cycles during the course among these patients was typically <2, with little difference across cancers and chemotherapy regimens. Fluoroquinolones were the most commonly received class of antimicrobials, accounting for 20%-50% all antimicrobials administered. Among subjects who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis, chemotherapy-related infection risk in that cycle ranged from 3% to 6% across cancer types. Among patients who received first-cycle antimicrobial prophylaxis and developed chemotherapy-related infections, 38%-67% required inpatient care. Chemotherapy-related infection risk in subsequent cycles with antimicrobial prophylaxis was comparable. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that use of antimicrobial prophylaxis during myelosuppressive chemotherapy is far from uncommon in clinical practice. The

  12. The 2016 Garrod Lecture: The role of the healthcare epidemiologist in antimicrobial chemotherapy-a view from the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, John E

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial chemotherapy now spans 80 years and four generations. The healthcare epidemiologist has an important role to play in this field. Efforts focus in three areas: (i) minimizing the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in healthcare settings (infection control); (ii) optimizing use of currently available antibacterial drugs (antibiotic stewardship); and (iii) recognizing and responding to opportunities for new drug development. For each area, the epidemiologist provides data that address four practical questions-'What is the problem?', 'What should be done?', 'Is it being done?' and 'Is it working?'. A team approach is crucial to acting on the epidemiological data. Examples are presented to illustrate different roles of the epidemiologist, and tools and measures that have been developed to address some problems of current importance. Monitoring of quality, integrity and security of data remains a major focus. The epidemiologist will continue to have a key role in antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  13. Clofazimine Contributes Sustained Antimicrobial Activity after Treatment Cessation in a Mouse Model of Tuberculosis Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Rosemary V; Ammerman, Nicole C; Ngcobo, Bongani; Adamson, John; Moodley, Chivonne; Dorasamy, Afton; Moodley, Sashen; Mgaga, Zinhle; Bester, Linda A; Singh, Sanil D; Almeida, Deepak V; Grosset, Jacques H

    2016-05-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have indicated that the antileprosy drug clofazimine may contribute treatment-shortening activity when included in tuberculosis treatment regimens. Clofazimine accumulates to high levels in tissues, has a long half-life, and remains in the body for months after administration is stopped. We hypothesized that in tuberculosis treatment, accumulated clofazimine may contribute sustained antimicrobial activity after treatment cessation, and we used the BALB/c mouse model of chronic tuberculosis chemotherapy to address this hypothesis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mice were treated for 4 weeks or 8 weeks with either isoniazid alone, clofazimine alone, the first-line regimen rifampin-isoniazid-pyrazinamide-ethambutol, or a first-line regimen where clofazimine was administered in place of ethambutol. To evaluate posttreatment antimicrobial activity, bacterial regrowth in the lungs and spleens was assessed at the day of treatment cessation and 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after treatment was stopped. Bacterial regrowth was delayed in all mice receiving clofazimine, either alone or in combination, compared to the mice that did not receive clofazimine. This effect was especially evident in mice receiving multidrug therapy. In mice not receiving clofazimine, bacterial regrowth began almost immediately after treatment was stopped, while in mice receiving clofazimine, bacterial regrowth was delayed for up to 6 weeks, with the duration of sustained antimicrobial activity being positively associated with the time that serum clofazimine levels remained at or above the 0.25-μg/ml MIC for M. tuberculosis Thus, sustained activity of clofazimine may be important in the treatment-shortening effect associated with this drug. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Interference of bacterial cell-to-cell communication: A new concept of antimicrobial chemotherapy breaks antibiotic

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    Hidetada eHirakawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use a cell-to-cell communication activity termed Quorum sensing to coordinate group behaviors in a cell-density dependent manner. Quorum sensing influences the expression profile of diverse genes, including antibiotic tolerance and virulence determinants, via specific chemical compounds called Auto-inducers. During quorum sensing, Gram-negative bacteria typically use an acylated homoserine lactone (AHL called auto-inducer 1 (AI-1. Since the first discovery of quorum sensing in a marine bacterium, it has been recognized that more than 100 species possess this mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. In addition to being of interest from a biological standpoint, quorum sensing is a potential target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. This unique concept of antimicrobial control relies on reducing the burden of virulence rather than killing the bacteria. It is believed that this approach will not only suppress the development of antibiotic resistance, but will also improve the treatment of refractory infections triggered by multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens. In this paper, we review and track recent progress in studies on AHL inhibitors/modulators from a biological standpoint. It has been discovered that both natural and synthetic compounds can disrupt quorum sensing by a variety of means, such as jamming signal transduction, inhibition of signal production and break-down and trapping of signal compounds. We also focus on the regulatory elements that attenuate quorum sensing activities and discuss their unique properties. Understanding the biological roles of regulatory elements might be useful in developing inhibitor applications and understanding how quorum sensing is controlled.

  15. Factors determining Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility to photoantimicrobial chemotherapy: RsbU activity, staphyloxanthin level and membrane fluidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kossakowska-Zwierucho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoantimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT constitutes a particular type of stress condition, in which bacterial cells induce a pleiotropic and as yet unexplored effect. In light of this, the key master regulators are of putative significance to the overall phototoxic outcome. In Staphylococcus aureus, the alternative sigma factor σB controls the expression of genes involved in the response to environmental stress. We show that aberration of any sigB operon genes in S. aureus USA300 isogenic mutants causes a pronounced sensitization (>5 log10 reduction in CFU drop to PACT with selected photosensitizers, namely protoporphyrin diarginate, zinc phthalocyanine and rose bengal. This effect is partly due to aberration-coupled staphyloxanthin synthesis inhibition. We identified frequent mutations in RsbU, a σB activator, in PACT-vulnerable clinical isolates of S. aureus, resulting in σB activity impairment. Locations of significant changes in protein structure (IS256 insertion, early STOP codon occurrence, substitutions A230T and A276D were shown in a theoretical model of S. aureus RsbU. As a phenotypic hallmark of PACT-vulnerable S. aureus strains, we observed an increased fluidity of bacterial cell membrane, which is a result of staphyloxanthin content and other yet unidentified factors. Our research indicates σB as a promising target of adjunctive antimicrobial therapy and suggests that enhanced cell membrane fluidity may be an adjuvant strategy in photoantimicrobial chemotherapy.

  16. Research progress on animal model and therapeutic effect of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in treatment of traumatic infection%光动力抗菌化学疗法治疗创伤感染的动物模型及疗效研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑶; 刘子泉(综述); 丁辉(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Due to the abuse of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has become a more and more serious problem and the treatment of wound infections are suffering more challengs, whereas photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a promising novel strategy for the treatment of resistant bacteria. This paper reviews recent development of different animal models of traumatic infections, its characters and therapeutic efficacy of photosensitizersin vivo, which aims to provide evidence for optimal application of these models, and for parallel comparison of therapeutic efficacy of the same kind of photosensitizers or animal models.%抗生素的滥用致细菌耐药性问题日益严重,创伤感染的治疗也愈具挑战,目前针对耐药菌的治疗中光动力抗菌化学疗法(photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy,PACT)是一种很有发展前景的新策略。笔者就PACT在治疗创伤感染的动物模型、特点及各种光敏剂疗效进行归纳,以利于研究者选择适宜的模型工具、对同类光敏剂或动物模型的治疗疗效进行平行比较。

  17. The Pact of Bogota: Cases and Practice

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    María Teresa Infante Caffi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ under the Pact of Bogota (1948 is part of a system of norms attributing competenceto the referenced tribunal along with other means of settlement. The system sets out principles and general exceptions applicable to all the means of peaceful settlement embodied in the Pact. This study will topic relates to the theory of dispute settlement and treaty interpretation hemispheric politics and diplomacy.

  18. Suicide pacts: six cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Sebastien; Rérolle, Camille; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    A suicide pact is the decision of two or more people to die together. This event is rare. The majority of suicide pacts victims are married, socially isolated, with a serious physical illness in one or both partners. We performed a retrospective study of all cases of suicide pacts leading to death between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010 referred to the Forensic Medicine Department of Tours (France). Six cases were recorded as suicide pacts. Firearms were the preferred means of death. Five suicide notes were discovered. For some cases, it was difficult to establish whether death was the result of a suicide pact or of a homicide-suicide without the consent of the victim. An objective element, such as a suicide note and motive, is required to prove that a suicide pact is involved. The prevalence of mental disorders is hard to assess. In France, psychological autopsies are not performed in such cases, as the investigation is usually very sparse after the death of both individuals.

  19. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients. PMID:26820986

  20. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients.

  1. Reform of the Stability and Growth Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Šabić

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of the single monetary policy and the decentralised fiscal policy in the European Monetary Union (EMU it is necessary for the coordination of macroeconomic policy to be strengthened. The Treaty on European Union imposes conditions that relate to the size of the budgetary deficit and the public debt as criteria for the introduction of the euro in a given country. The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP sets the fiscal framework of the European Monetary Union based on rules underpinned by these criteria. Thus the SGP, as a kind of economic policy-coordination mechanism, has the task of ensuring fiscal discipline among the Member States of the EMU. The objective of this paper is to describe the recent reform of the Stability and Growth Pact that arose as a result of deficiencies observed in the original version of the Pact of 1997.

  2. An Analysis of the Stability Pact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.; Beetsma, R.M.W.J.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the proposed "Stability Pact" for countries joining a European Monetary Union (EMU). In an EMU shortsighted governments fail to fully internalise the inflationary consequences of their debt policies. This results in excessive debt accumulation. Therefore, while in the absence of EMU gover

  3. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy for Root Canal System Asepsis: A Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, P; Gonçalves, T; Palma, P; Santos, J M

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to address the question: Does photodynamic therapy (PDT) improve root canal disinfection through significant bacterial reduction in the root canal system? Methodology. A comprehensive narrative literature review was performed to compare PDT effect with sodium hypochlorite as the comparative classical irrigant. Two reviewers independently conducted literature searches using a combination of medical subject heading terms and key words to identify relevant studies comparing information found in 7 electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015. A manual search was performed on bibliography of articles collected on electronic databases. Authors were contacted to ask for references of more research not detected on the prior electronic and manual searches. Results. The literature search provided 62 titles and abstracts, from which 29 studies were related directly to the search theme. Considering all publications, 14 (48%) showed PDT to be more efficient in antimicrobial outcome than NaOCl (0.5-6% concentration) used alone and 2 (7%) revealed similar effects between them. Toluidine blue and methylene blue are the most used photosensitizers and most commonly laser has 660 nm of wavelength with a 400 nm diameter of intracanal fiber. Conclusions. PDT has been used without a well-defined protocol and still remains at an experimental stage waiting for further optimization. The level of evidence available in clinical studies to answer this question is low and at high risk of bias.

  4. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy for Root Canal System Asepsis: A Narrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to address the question: Does photodynamic therapy (PDT improve root canal disinfection through significant bacterial reduction in the root canal system? Methodology. A comprehensive narrative literature review was performed to compare PDT effect with sodium hypochlorite as the comparative classical irrigant. Two reviewers independently conducted literature searches using a combination of medical subject heading terms and key words to identify relevant studies comparing information found in 7 electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015. A manual search was performed on bibliography of articles collected on electronic databases. Authors were contacted to ask for references of more research not detected on the prior electronic and manual searches. Results. The literature search provided 62 titles and abstracts, from which 29 studies were related directly to the search theme. Considering all publications, 14 (48% showed PDT to be more efficient in antimicrobial outcome than NaOCl (0.5–6% concentration used alone and 2 (7% revealed similar effects between them. Toluidine blue and methylene blue are the most used photosensitizers and most commonly laser has 660 nm of wavelength with a 400 nm diameter of intracanal fiber. Conclusions. PDT has been used without a well-defined protocol and still remains at an experimental stage waiting for further optimization. The level of evidence available in clinical studies to answer this question is low and at high risk of bias.

  5. Applicability of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as an alternative to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojado, Cátia; Pereira, Carla; Tomé, João P C; Faustino, Maria A F; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Calado, Ricardo; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-10-01

    Aquaculture activities are increasing worldwide, stimulated by the progressive reduction of natural fish stocks in the oceans. However, these activities also suffer heavy production and financial losses resulting from fish infections caused by microbial pathogens, including multidrug resistant bacteria. Therefore, strategies to control fish infections are urgently needed, in order to make aquaculture industry more sustainable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has emerged as an alternative to treat diseases and prevent the development of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of aPDT to inactivate pathogenic fish bacteria. To reach this objective a cationic porphyrin Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF was tested against nine pathogenic bacteria isolated from a semi-intensive aquaculture system and against the cultivable bacteria of the aquaculture system. The ecological impact of aPDT in the aquatic environment was also tested on the natural bacterial community, using the overall bacterial community structure and the cultivable bacteria as indicators. Photodynamic inactivation of bacterial isolates and of cultivable bacteria was assessed counting the number of colonies. The impact of aPDT in the overall bacterial community structure of the aquaculture water was evaluated by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, the growth of bacterial isolates was inhibited, resulting in a decrease of ≈7-8 log after 60-270 min of irradiation. Cultivable bacteria were also considerably affected, showing decreases up to the detection limit (≈2 log decrease on cell survival), but the inactivation rate varied significantly with the sampling period. The DGGE fingerprint analyses revealed changes in the bacterial community structure caused by the combination of aPDT and light. The results indicate that aPDT can be regarded as a new approach to control fish

  6. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y; Dodd, Rebecca D; Herndon, James E; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G; Lyerly, H Kim; Dewhirst, Mark W; Fecci, Peter; Walder, Harold; Spector, Neil L

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (pPACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (pPACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which in-turn unleashes both short- and potentially long-term antitumor activity of photo-active therapeutics like psoralen.

  7. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT)

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Wayne F Beyer; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y.; Dodd, Rebecca D.; Herndon, James E.; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G.

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scen...

  8. Evaluation of the importance of employment pacts and the case study - Moravian-Silesian employment pact in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Šárká Prudká

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of a tool that is used in the world and Europe to a comprehensive and systematic solution of the employment at the regional level. These are the so-called employment pacts. The theme is the more up-to-date due to the onset of the global economic crisis since 2008, which brought a deepening of socio-economic problems in the labour market, with negative implications upon an increasing rate of unemployment. The Moravian-Silesian Employment Pact has been chosen for the case study. It was established as the first one of its kind in the Czech Republic, in the structurally affected region of Silesia. The result is the finding that employment pacts are generally a useful tool to resolve problems in regional labor markets.

  9. A model of cooperation: the Pact op Zuid information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Spierings

    2010-06-01

    Welzijnsorganisaties, onderzoekinstellingen, overheidsinstellingen en woningcorporaties zijn alle potentiële partners in stedelijke herstructureringsprogramma’s. Het combineren van de belangen van deze organisaties vormt een interessante managementuitdaging. Ook is het een uitdaging om een informatiesysteem te ontwikkelen dat tegemoet komt aan de informatiebehoefte van alle partners, zowel de afzonderlijke organisaties, als het collectief. Dit artikel zal deze uitdaging van informatiemanagement bespreken, door een case study naar cooperative knowledge production te presenteren. De case study heeft betrekking op het Rotterdamse stedelijk investeringssprogramma “Pact op Zuid”, een programma waarin tussen 2006 en 2016 1.5 miljard euro wordt geïnvesteerd in stedelijk gebied met 190.000 inwoners. Dit artikel geeft allereerst inzicht in literatuur over innovatieconfiguraties en lerende netwerken, concepten die belangrijk zijn om de complexiteit van stedelijke renovatie en cooperative knowledge production te begrijpen. Het bespreekt eveneens hoe cooperative knowledge production binnen Pact op Zuid plaatsvond.

  10. 77 FR 50548 - Agency Information Collection: (PACT Qualitative Evaluation: Patient & Caregiver Interviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... needed to evaluate the universal Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) Systems Redesign, document patients... information on patient characteristics and their experiences with self-managing chronic conditions, using...

  11. Understanding Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Understanding Chemotherapy What is chemotherapy? Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is also called “chemo.” Today, there are ...

  12. Mechanism and in vivo evaluation :photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of lysine-porphyrin conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengping eXu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported lysine-porphyrin conjugate 4i, which had potent photosensitive antibacterial effect on clinical isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa bacterial strains. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the mechanism of photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of 4i (4i-PACT in vitro and the treatment effect in vivo. Atomic force microscopy (AFM revealed 4i-PACT could effectively destroy bacterial membrane and wall, making the bacterial content leakage, which was confirmed by dual fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB and absorbance at 260 nm, agarose gel electrophoresis indicated 4i-PACT could damage genomic DNA. The results combined AFM and DNA electrophoresis revealed why the bacterial strains had no resistance to 4i-PACT. Wound healing in rat model with mixed bacteria infected wounds showed the efficiency of 4i-PACT was light-dose dependent. These results showed 4i-PACT had promising bactericidal effect both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Why perversion?: 'False love' and the perverse pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ruth

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, the author works with the awareness that perversion is a socially, historically and theologically loaded term, at the same time as it may be the latest frontier in psychoanalysis, both clinically, and in relation to contemporary art and culture which emphasize the perverse. Positioning itself against tendencies to deny the existence of a category of 'perversion' or, inversely, to abuse it for the power that accrues from the act of diagnosing, she also points to other liabilities in the history of the treatment of this term, such as the narrowing down of perversion to the exclusively sexual domain, or, alternatively, the overextension of it to polymorphously erotic practices that enhance sexual excitement. The paradoxes of perversion and the difficulties of distinguishing the perverse from the non-perverse are addressed. The case is also made that, in order to understand perversion, one must unlink it from the narrow notion of sexual practice and see what is involved on a deeper level--an approach initiated when psychoanalysis turned to perversion as a defense against psychotic anxieties, and began considering the necessary place of perversion in the transference--countertransference. Two features common to both sexual and non-sexual perverse relations are the seductive and bribing aspects of perversion, and its means-ends reversal. Perversion is a haven for the disguising of hatred and suspicion as excitement and (false) love. Displaced child and beating father, entitled child and seductive mother, are both prototypes of psychoanalytic reflection on parents who excite, deceive and corrupt their children and establish perverse pacts with them. The notion of the perverse pact is foregrounded in Alice's analysis, where first the resurrection and then the dismantling of such a pact were effected through various analytic means.

  14. Louis Aragon: (Re writing the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KIMYONGÜR

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available At the time of the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact of 1939, Louis Aragon was a member of the French Communist Party (PCF, a well known novelist and poet and a journalist. Whilst his writing career had undergone several notable transformations, not least that from surrealist to socialist realist, his political commitment to the left and, from 1927 to the PCF, remained steadfast for much of his life. Indeed, unlike the PCF’s interpretation of the Second World War, which underwent a number of s...

  15. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  16. Novel Formulations for Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides in general hold much promise as a major ingredient in novel supramolecular assemblies. They may become essential in vaccine design, antimicrobial chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy, food preservation, organs transplants, design of novel materials for dentistry, formulations against diabetes and other important strategical applications. This review discusses how novel formulations may improve the therapeutic index of antimicrobial peptides by protecting their activity and improving their bioavailability. The diversity of novel formulations using lipids, liposomes, nanoparticles, polymers, micelles, etc., within the limits of nanotechnology may also provide novel applications going beyond antimicrobial chemotherapy.

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of the ImPACT Test Battery for concussion in athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schatz, Philip; Pardini, Jamie E; Lovell, Mark R; Collins, Michael W; Podell, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ...); univariate ANOVAS revealed all six measures contributed to the between-groups differences. A discriminant function analyses was conducted to measure the ability of the five ImPACT composite scores, as well as the PCSS to classify concussion status...

  18. Tangible Results and Progress in Flood Risks Management with the PACTES Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Murielle; Abadie, Jean-Paul; Ducuing, Jean-Louis; Denier, Jean-Paul; Stéphane

    The PACTES project (Prévention et Anticipation des Crues au moyen des Techniques Spatiales), initiated by CNES and the French Ministry of Research, aims at improving flood risk management, over the following three main phases : - Prevention : support and facilitate the analysis of flood risks and socio-economic impacts (risk - Forecasting and alert : improve the capability to predict and anticipate the flooding event - Crisis management : allow better situation awareness, communication and sharing of In order to achieve its ambitious objectives, PACTES: - integrates state-of-the-art techniques and systems (integration of the overall processing chains, - takes advantage of integrating recent model developments in wheather forecasting, rainfall, In this approach, space technology is thus used in three main ways : - radar and optical earth observation data are used to produce Digital Elevation Maps, land use - earth observation data are also an input to wheather forecasting, together with ground sensors; - satellite-based telecommunication and mobile positioning. Started in December 2000, the approach taken in PACTES is to work closely with users such as civil security and civil protection organisms, fire fighter brigades and city councils for requirements gathering and during the validation phase. It has lead to the development and experimentation of an integrated pre-operational demonstrator, delivered to different types of operational users. Experimentation has taken place in three watersheds representative of different types of floods (flash and plain floods). After a breaf reminder of what the PACTES project organization and aims are, the PACTES integrated pre-operational demonstrator is presented. The main scientific inputs to flood risk management are summarized. Validation studies for the three watersheds covered by PACTES (Moselle, Hérault and Thoré) are detailed. Feedback on the PACTES tangible results on flood risk management from an user point of view

  19. DDX3 functions in antiviral innate immunity through translational control of PACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Chih; Sun, H Sunny; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    It has emerged that DDX3 plays a role in antiviral innate immunity. However, the exact mechanism by which DDX3 functions in antiviral innate immunity remains to be determined. We found that the expression of the protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase (PACT) was regulated by DDX3 in human cells. PACT acts as a cellular activator of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors in the sensing of viral RNAs. DDX3 facilitated the translation of PACT mRNA that may contain a structured 5' UTR. Knockdown of DDX3 decreased the viral RNA detection sensitivity of the cells. PACT partially rescued defects of interferon-β1 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5/RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) induction in DDX3-knockdown HEK293 cells. Therefore, DDX3 may participate in antiviral innate immunity, at least in part, by translational control of PACT. Moreover, we show that overexpression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein inhibited the translation of a reporter mRNA harboring the PACT 5' UTR. The HCV core protein was associated and colocalized with DDX3 in cytoplasmic stress granules, suggesting that the HCV core may abrogate the function of DDX3 by sequestering DDX3 in stress granules. The perturbation of DDX3 by viral proteins delineates a critical role for DDX3 in antiviral host defense.

  20. Thick silicon microstrip detectors simulation for PACT: Pair and Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Tatischeff, V.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Bertoli, W.; Breelle, E.

    2016-11-01

    PACT is a space borne Pair and Compton Telescope that aims to make a sensitive survey of the gamma-ray sky between 100 keV and 100 MeV. It is based upon two main components: a silicon-based gamma-ray tracker and a crystal-based calorimeter. In this paper we will explain the imaging technique of PACT as a Multi-layered Compton telescope (0.1-10 MeV) and its major improvements over its predecessor COMPTEL. Then we will present a simulation study to optimize the silicon tracker of PACT. This tracker is formed of thousands of identical silicon double sided strip detectors (DSSDs). We have developed a simulation model (using SILVACO) to simulate the DSSD performance while varying its thickness, impurity concentration of the bulk material, electrode pitch, and electrode width. We will present a comprehensive overview of the impact of each varied parameter on the DSSD performance, in view of the application to PACT. The considered DSSD parameters are its depletion voltage, capacitance, and leakage current. After the selection of the PACT DSSD, we will present a simulation of the performance of the PACT telescope in the 0.1-10 MeV range.

  1. HESS II Data Analysis with ImPACT

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, R D; Murach, T

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) very high energy gamma-ray telescope array has added a fifth telescope of 600 m$^{2}$ mirror area to the centre of the 4 existing telescopes, lowering its energy threshold to the sub-100 GeV range and becoming the first operational IACT array using multiple telescope designs. In order to properly access this low-energy range however, some adaptation must be made to the existing event analysis. We present an adaptation of the high-performance event reconstruction algorithm, Image Pixelwise fit for Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ImPACT), for performing mono and stereo event reconstruction with the H.E.S.S. II array. The reconstruction algorithm is based around the likelihood fitting of camera pixel amplitudes to an expected image template, directly generated from Monte Carlo simulations. This advanced reconstruction is combined with a multi variate analysis based background rejection scheme to provide a sensitive and stable analysis scheme in the sub-100 GeV gam...

  2. Physiotherapy informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (PACT): protocol for a randomised controlled trial of PACT versus usual physiotherapy care for adults with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emma; Galea Holmes, Melissa; Wileman, Vari; McCracken, Lance; Moss-Morris, Rona; Pallet, John; Sanders, Duncan; Barcellona, Massimo; Critchley, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common condition and source of significant suffering, disability and healthcare costs. Current physiotherapy treatment is moderately effective. Combining theory-based psychological methods with physiotherapy could improve outcomes for people with CLBP. The primary aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of Physiotherapy informed by Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (PACT) on functioning in patients with CLBP. Methods and analysis The PACT trial is a two-armed, parallel-group, multicentre RCT to assess the efficacy of PACT in comparison with usual physiotherapy care (UC). 240 patients referred to physiotherapy with CLBP will be recruited from three National Health Service (NHS) hospitals trusts. Inclusion criteria are: age ≥18 years, CLBP ≥12-week duration, scoring ≥3 points on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and adequate understanding of spoken and written English to participate. Patients will be randomised to PACT or UC (120 per arm stratified by centre) by an independent randomisation service and followed up at 3 and 12 months post randomisation. The sample size of 240 will provide adequate power to detect a standardised mean difference of 0.40 in the primary outcome (RMDQ; 5% significance, 80% power) assuming attrition of 20%. Analysis will be by intention to treat conducted by the trial statistician, blind to treatment group, following a prespecified analysis plan. Estimates of treatment effect at the follow-up assessments will use an intention-to-treat framework, implemented using a linear mixed-effects model. Ethics and dissemination This trial has full ethical approval (14/SC/0277). It will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The results will enable clinicians, patients and health service managers to make informed decisions regarding the efficacy of PACT for patients with CLBP. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  3. Alternative Antimicrobial Approach: Nano-Antimicrobial Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous existing potent antibiotics and other antimicrobial means, bacterial infections are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the need to develop additional bactericidal means has significantly increased due to the growing concern regarding multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm associated infections. Consequently, attention has been especially devoted to new and emerging nanoparticle-based materials in the field of antimicrobial chemotherapy. The present review discusses the activities of nanoparticles as an antimicrobial means, their mode of action, nanoparticle effect on drug-resistant bacteria, and the risks attendant on their use as antibacterial agents. Factors contributing to nanoparticle performance in the clinical setting, their unique properties, and mechanism of action as antibacterial agents are discussed in detail.

  4. Analysis of Internet Suicide Pacts Reported by the Media in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fang-Fan; Xu, Hui-Lan; Liao, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Ting

    2017-01-01

    In mainland China, frequent Internet suicide pacts in recent years have raised strong concerns from several social sectors and the influence of social networks on suicide is constantly growing. To identify the epidemiological characteristics of media-reported Internet suicide pacts in mainland China. Our study comprised 62 Internet suicide pacts involving 159 victims in mainland China before June 1, 2015. Kendall's randomness test, a trend test, and a circular distribution test were applied to identify the rising or concentrated trends in the time of occurrence of Internet suicide pacts. The overall male-to-female ratio was 2.3:1. Suicide victims were mainly people in their 20s to 30s (84.1%). In all, 87.1% suicide victims completed suicide in sealed hotels or rental housing, and charcoal-burning suicide accounted for 80.6% of cases. People who complete suicide as part of an Internet suicide pact are more likely to be males, aged 20-30 years. Charcoal-burning suicide in sealed hotels or rental housing was the commonest way of dying.

  5. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  6. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42–47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility. PMID:28139694

  7. Elevated-temperature-induced acceleration of PACT clearing process of mouse brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Zhu, Jingtan; Xu, Jianyi; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Tissue optical clearing technique shows a great potential for neural imaging with high resolution, especially for connectomics in brain. The passive clarity technique (PACT) is a relative simple clearing method based on incubation, which has a great advantage on tissue transparency, fluorescence preservation and immunostaining compatibility for imaging tissue blocks. However, this method suffers from long processing time. Previous studies indicated that increasing temperature can speed up the clearing. In this work, we aim to systematacially and quantitatively study this influence based on PACT with graded increase of temperatures. We investigated the process of optical clearing of brain tissue block at different temperatures, and found that elevated temperature could accelerate the clearing process and also had influence on the fluorescence intensity. By balancing the advantages with drawbacks, we conclude that 42-47 °C is an alternative temperature range for PACT, which can not only produce faster clearing process, but also retain the original advantages of PACT by preserving endogenous fluorescence well, achieving fine morphology maintenance and immunostaining compatibility.

  8. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems were used as influent water into two aquariums containing freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio of 9-15g weight, 6-9 cm length and with a fish density of 5g/1. Results of fish fatal rates with 125 and 250-mg/l phenol were 16% and 38% for AS system and 5.6% and 8% for PACT system, respectively. Changing the growth inhibitor to furfural, with a concentration of 100 mg/I, led to the fatal rates of 100% and 0% for AS and PACT systems, respectively. Increasing furfural load to 300 mg/I destroyed only 20% of fish in PACT pilot.

  9. One-month test-retest reliability of the ImPACT test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Ferris, Charles S

    2013-08-01

    In order to better understand the test-retest reliability of the ImPACT test battery, 25 undergraduate students completed two ImPACT tests across a time frame of 4 weeks between assessments. Participants had not previously completed ImPACT and had no history of concussion. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were as follows: Verbal Memory = .66/.79 (r/ICC), Visual Memory = .43/.60, Visual Motor Speed = .78/.88, Reaction Time = .63/.77, and Total Symptoms = .75/.81. Dependent sample t-tests revealed significant improvement on only Visual Motor Speed composite scores. Reliable Change Indices showed a significant number of participants fell outside 80% and 95% confidence intervals for only Visual Motor Speed scores (but no other indices), whereas all scores were within 80% and 95% confidence intervals using regression-based measures. Results suggest that repeated exposure to the ImPACT test may result in significant improvements in the physical mechanics of how college students interact with the test (e.g., performance on Visual Motor Speed), but repeated exposure across 1 month does not result in practice effects in memory performance or reaction time.

  10. Paradigm formation and paradigm change in the EU’s Stability and Growth Pact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, Sebastiaan; van Esch, Femke

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses whether the European Union’s (EU) Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) has been underpinned by a policy paradigm. In doing so, it seeks to contribute to the debate on the existence and importance of paradigms in policy-making. It uses a causal mapping technique to reconstruct the be

  11. [Silence pact from the perspective of caretakers of palliative care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo López, Ángela; López López, Begoña; Duarte Rodríguez, Miguel; Crespo Serván, María Pilar; Coronado Illescas, Concepción; de la Fuente Rodríguez, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    To determine why terminally-ill patients, family caregivers and health care providers make a pact of silence about the terminal status of the patient, and to identify the attitudes, experiences and opinions of family caregivers concerning the conspiracy of silence in palliative care. A qualitative phenomenological study based on an interpretive analysis, conducted in Primary Health Care, Seville, Spain. Study dimensions: knowledge of the diagnosis and prognosis of the condition; disclosure of information; reaction to information received, feelings and approach to death; information disclosed to the patient and reasons behind partial disclosure; communication between patients, families, and health care providers. Family caregivers of patients on palliative care suspicious about a pact of silence. Family caregivers hamper professional-patient communication; use of deceit to conceal the truth; suspicion that the patient knows the truth; the clinician conceals the truth; paternalist attitudes; feelings of sadness, grief, resignation, acceptance of the disease. The pact of silence has negative effects on coping with death, quality of life in the last days of life, and mourning. Communication between patients, health care providers, and families should be improved to prevent the pact of silence, and help patients cope with death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The flexibility of conceptual pacts: referring expressions dynamically shift to accommodate new conceptualizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa eIbarra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a classic paper, Brennan and Clark argued that when interlocutors agree on a name for an object, they are forming a temporary agreement on how to conceptualize that object; that is, they are forming a conceptual pact. The literature on conceptual pacts has largely focused on the costs and benefits of breaking and maintaining lexical precedents, and the degree to which they might be partner-specific. The research presented here focuses on a question about conceptual pacts that has been largely neglected in the literature: To what extent are conceptual pacts specific to the local context of the interaction? If conceptual pacts are indeed temporary, then when the local context changes in ways that are accessible to participants, we would expect participants to seamlessly shift to referential expressions that reflect novel conceptualizations. Two experiments examined how referential forms change across context in collaborative, task-oriented dialogue between naïve participants. In Experiment 1, names for parts of an unknown object were established in an item identification stage (e.g., a shape that looked like a wrench was called the wrench. In a second build stage, that name was often supplanted by an object-oriented name, e.g., the leg. These changes happened abruptly and without negotiation. In Experiment 2, interlocutors manipulated clip art and more abstract tangram pictures in a slider puzzle to arrange the objects into a target configuration. On some trials moving an object revealed a picture that could be construed as a contrast competitor, e.g., a clip art picture of a camel after the camel had been negotiated as a name for a tangram shape, or vice versa. As would be expected, modification rates increased when a potential contrast was revealed. More strikingly, the degree to which a name had been negotiated or the frequency with which it had been used did not affect the likelihood that the revealed shape would be considered as a

  13. Scoring and psychometric validation of the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essers B

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Perception of Anti-Coagulant Treatment Questionnaire' (PACT-Q was developed to assess patients' expectations of, and satisfaction with their anticoagulant treatment. This questionnaire needs to be finalised and psychometrically validated. Methods The PACT-Q was included in the United States, the Netherlands and France into three phase III multinational clinical trials conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of a new long-acting anticoagulant drug (idraparinux compared to vitamin K antagonist (VKA. PACT-Q was administered to patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT, atrial fibrillation (AF or pulmonary embolism (PE at Day 1, to assess patients' expectations, and at 3 and 6 months to assess patients' satisfaction and treatment convenience and burden. The final structure of the PACT-Q (Principal Component Analysis – PCA – with Varimax Rotation was first determined and its psychometric properties were then measured with validity of the structure (Multitrait analysis, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients and known-group validity. Results PCA and multitrait analyses showed the multidimensionality of the "Treatment Expectations" dimension, comprising 7 items that had to be scored independently. The "Convenience" and "Burden of Disease and Treatment" dimensions of the hypothesised original structure of the questionnaire were combined, thus resulting in 13 items grouped into the single dimension "Convenience". The "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension remained unchanged and included 7 items. All items of the "Convenience" and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimensions displayed good convergent and discriminant validity. The internal consistency reliability was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.84 for the "Convenience" dimension, and 0.76 for the "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" dimension. Known-group validity was good, especially with regard to occurrence of

  14. Automation of PCXMC and ImPACT for NASA Astronaut Medical Imaging Dose and Risk Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Picco, Charles; Flores-McLaughlin, John; Shavers, Mark; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To automate astronaut organ and effective dose calculations from occupational X-ray and computed tomography (CT) examinations incorporating PCXMC and ImPACT tools and to estimate the associated lifetime cancer risk per the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) using MATLAB(R). Methods: NASA follows guidance from the NCRP on its operational radiation safety program for astronauts. NCRP Report 142 recommends that astronauts be informed of the cancer risks from reported exposures to ionizing radiation from medical imaging. MATLAB(R) code was written to retrieve exam parameters for medical imaging procedures from a NASA database, calculate associated dose and risk, and return results to the database, using the Microsoft .NET Framework. This code interfaces with the PCXMC executable and emulates the ImPACT Excel spreadsheet to calculate organ doses from X-rays and CTs, respectively, eliminating the need to utilize the PCXMC graphical user interface (except for a few special cases) and the ImPACT spreadsheet. Results: Using MATLAB(R) code to interface with PCXMC and replicate ImPACT dose calculation allowed for rapid evaluation of multiple medical imaging exams. The user inputs the exam parameter data into the database and runs the code. Based on the imaging modality and input parameters, the organ doses are calculated. Output files are created for record, and organ doses, effective dose, and cancer risks associated with each exam are written to the database. Annual and post-flight exposure reports, which are used by the flight surgeon to brief the astronaut, are generated from the database. Conclusions: Automating PCXMC and ImPACT for evaluation of NASA astronaut medical imaging radiation procedures allowed for a traceable and rapid method for tracking projected cancer risks associated with over 12,000 exposures. This code will be used to evaluate future medical radiation exposures, and can easily be modified to accommodate changes to the risk

  15. Electrocardiogram-gated coronary CT angiography dose estimates using ImPACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Haba, Tomonobu; Kawaguchi, Ai; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2016-07-08

    The primary study objective was to assess radiation doses using a modified form of the Imaging Performance Assessment of Computed Tomography (CT) scanner (ImPACT) patient dosimetry for cardiac applications on an Aquilion ONE ViSION Edition scanner, including the Ca score, target computed tomography angiography (CTA), prospective CTA, continuous CTA/cardiac function analysis (CFA), and CTA/CFA modulation. Accordingly, we clarified the CT dose index (CTDI) to determine the relationship between heart rate (HR) and X-ray exposure. As a secondary objective, we compared radiation doses using modified ImPACT, a whole-body dosimetry phantom study, and the k-factor method to verify the validity of the dose results obtained with modified ImPACT. The effective dose determined for the reference person (4.66 mSv at 60 beats per minute (bpm) and 33.43 mSv at 90bpm) were approximately 10% less than those determined for the phantom study (5.28 mSv and 36.68 mSv). The effective doses according to the k-factor (0.014 mSv•mGy-1•cm-1; 2.57 mSv and 17.10 mSv) were significantly lower than those obtained with the other two methods. In the present study, we have shown that ImPACT, when modified for cardiac applications, can assess both absorbed and effective doses. The results of our dose comparison indicate that modified ImPACT dose assessment is a promising and practical method for evaluating coronary CTA.

  16. "Sometimes What They Think is Helpful is Not Really Helpful": Understanding Engagement in the Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Miriam; Manuel, Jennifer I; Gandy-Guedes, Megan E; McCray, Shenee; Negatu, Dina

    2016-11-01

    This exploratory study recruited a purposive sample of twelve clinical staff from a Program of Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) team in central Virginia to understand the perceptions and experiences related to assertive engagement. The researchers coded the transcribed data initially as twenty-three sub-themes and further refined the data into four overarching themes: characteristics of assertive engagement, PACT engagement strategies and engagement strategies for difficult to engage clients. Further analysis emphasized that PACT team members emphasized the importance of the therapeutic relationship for engagement, which proves challenging for hard-to-engage clients.

  17. Efflux Pump‑Mediated Resistance in Chemotherapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | July 2012 | Vol 2 | Issue 2 | ... of antimicrobial drug resistance, which contributes to treatment failure, high medical ... websites, as well as standard textbooks on chemotherapy, provided the needed information ..... Most reports on bacterial efflux pump inhibitors are based on.

  18. Dos pactos políticos à política dos pactos na saúde From political pacts to health policy pacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jória Viana Guerreiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objeto a política de pactuação do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os poucos trabalhos na literatura sobre pactos na saúde frequentemente os relacionam à consolidação dos princípios do SUS, especificamente à implantação da descentralização. Aqui são evidenciadas as raízes dessa política, mostrando-se como estão articuladas ao movimento de reestruturação do próprio Estado brasileiro, ocorrido nas últimas décadas do século XX, por meio da reconstrução da democracia, do federalismo e da Reforma do Estado. Neste período, são identificados avanços na democracia política, porém pouca evolução na consolidação da democracia social. Os pactos na saúde articulam-se aos pactos sociais e políticos, estes últimos essenciais para tornar possível a vida em sociedade, garantir a legitimidade dos governos, a governabilidade e a efetividade das políticas públicas. A pactuação é um mecanismo de gestão que compreende negociação permanente, buscando a superação dos conflitos intergovernamentais, pautada pela responsabilização solidária. Por meio da negociação de metas, indicadores e ações, os pactos se constituem numa forma de accountability e transparência, capaz de favorecer o controle social e o do próprio governo.The object of this article is the pact policy of the Unified Health System (SUS. The few works available in the literature about health pacts frequently relates them to the principles of SUS consolidation, specifically to the implantation of decentralization. Here, the roots of this policy are evidenced showing how they are linked with the restructuration movement of the proper Brazilian State in the last decades from the 20th century, by democracy rebuilding, federalism and State Reform. During this period, some advances in politics democracy were identified, however a few results in consolidation of social democracy were identified. Health pacts are articulated with social and

  19. UTILIZATION OF ImPACT TESTING TO MEASURE INJURY RISK IN ALPINE SKI AND SNOWBOARD ATHLETES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntimer, Brittney; Kernozek, Thomas; Cole, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background While studies that have examined the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in alpine skiing and snowboarding exist, there has been no discussion of how neurocognitive deficits may influence such injuries. Recent authors have identified a possible link between Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) testing results and the prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in athletic populations. However, no study has specifically examined this in the alpine skiing and snowboard athletes who sustain injury and those that do not. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose was to review injury data and ImPACT test results within the local ski/snowboard population to determine if there was a difference in components of ImPACT test scores between injured and non-injured athletes. It was hypothesized that differences would exist in component scores on ImPACT testing between injured and non-injured athletes. Study design Retrospective cohort study Methods Injury records and baseline ImPACT testing scores for 93 athletes aged 14-17 participating in a local ski and snowboard club during the 2009-2012 seasons were gathered retrospectively. Injuries documented for the lower and upper extremity included ligament sprains, muscle strains, contusions, dislocation/subluxation, fractures and concussions. Athletes who sustained any of these listed injuries were categorized within the injured athlete group. Each component of ImPACT test scores was compared between gender and for injury status within skiing and snowboarding disciplines using a series of two-way analysis of variance tests. Results There was no difference between non-injured and injured females as well as non-injured and injured males in reaction time and visual motor speed (VMS), however there was an interaction between gender and injury status on composite reaction time and visual motor speed, or VMS. The composite reaction time for females was 4.7% faster with injury while males without injury

  20. Deficit Policy within the Framework of the Stability and Growth Pact: Empirical Results and Lessons for the Fiscal Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    FUNDING NUMBERS D eficit Policy Within the Framework of the Stability and Growth Pact: Empirical Results and Lessons for the Fiscal Compact 6. AUTHOR(S... Fiscal Policy 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19, SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED... POLICY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE STABILITY AND GROWTH PACT EMPIRICAL RESULTS AND LESSONS FOR THE FISCAL COMPACT Nicolas Afftatet Zusammenfassung

  1. Two-year Test–Retest Reliability of ImPACT in High School Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Siu, Andrea M.; Pearce, Annina M.; Zhang, Guangxiang; Oshiro, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the 2-year test–retest reliability of the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neuropsychological battery, and clarified the need for biennial updated baseline testing of high school athletes. This study compared the baseline test scores of 212 non-concussed athletes that were obtained in Grade 9 and again 2 years later when they were in Grade 11. Regression-based methods indicated that 4 of the 5 ImPACT scores were stable over 2 years, as they fell within the 80% and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results suggested that updating baseline testing for high school athletes after 2 years is not necessary. Further research into the consistency of computerized neuropsychological tests over 2 years with high school athletes is recommended. PMID:26572159

  2. The European Court of Justice and the Stability and Growth Pact - Just the Beginning?

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    .The procedures launched against Germany and France due to their excessive deficits, again brought the attention of the media and broader public to the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP). The point of culmination was reached when the European Commission filed a claim against the Council (C-27/04) which in essence concerned the enforceability and, thus, the functioning of the SGP in the context of the required cooperation between the two Community institutions. The ruling of the European Court of...

  3. The Bear and the Foxes Understanding Soviet Policy in the Warsaw Pact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    regards to the Warsaw Pact is thus defined in terms of a socialist utopia which, though not fully operational, will nevertheless be realized. This in...blackmail" or to raise the spectre of "mass destruction" when the Soviet Union had attained a somewhat more substantial nuclear capability. 9 Only in the...ideology. If the Soviets tend to think in terms of a Socialist utopia based on dialectic principles without regard for the stark, often harsh reality of

  4. The Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT): A Social Work-Led Model of Transitional Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Lipani, Maria; Holster, Kathleen; Bussey, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, the Preventable Admissions Care Team (PACT), a social work-led transitional care model, was developed at Mount Sinai to reduce 30-day readmissions among high-risk patients. PACT begins with a comprehensive bedside assessment to identify the psychosocial drivers of readmission. In partnership with the patient and family, a patient-centered action plan is developed and carried out through phone calls, accompaniments, navigations and home visits, as needed, in the first 30 days following discharge. 620 patients were enrolled during the pilot from September 2010-August 2012. Outcomes demonstrated a 43% reduction in inpatient utilization and a 54% reduction in emergency department visits among enrollees. In addition, 93% of patients had a follow-up appointment within 7-10 days of discharge and 90% of patients attended the appointment. The success of PACT has led to additional funding from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services under the Community-based Care Transitions Program and several managed care companies seeking population health management interventions for high risk members.

  5. A two-factor theory for concussion assessment using ImPACT: memory and speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Philip; Maerlender, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    We present the initial validation of a two-factor structure of Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) using ImPACT composite scores and document the reliability and validity of this factor structure. Factor analyses were conducted for baseline (N = 21,537) and post-concussion (N = 560) data, yielding "Memory" (Verbal and Visual) and "Speed" (Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time) Factors; inclusion of Total Symptom Scores resulted in a third discrete factor. Speed and Memory z-scores were calculated, and test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficients) at 1 month (0.88/0.81), 1 year (0.85/0.75), and 2 years (0.76/0.74) were higher than published data using Composite scores. Speed and Memory scores yielded 89% sensitivity and 70% specificity, which was higher than composites (80%/62%) and comparable with subscales (91%/69%). This emergent two-factor structure has improved test-retest reliability with no loss of sensitivity/specificity and may improve understanding and interpretability of ImPACT test results.

  6. Antibioticoterapia oral versus endovenosa em crianças neutropênicas febris recebendo quimioterapia Oral vs. intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenic patients receiving childhood cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rech Cagol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o uso de antibioticoterapia endovenosa versus oral. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas todas as crianças e adolescentes neutropênicos com idade inferior a 18 anos classificados como baixo risco para complicações e recebendo quimioterapia. O estudo ocorreu entre 2002 e 2005 na Unidade de Oncologia Pediátrica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (RS. Os pacientes, divididos em grupo A e grupo B, eram randomizados para receber terapia oral ou endovenosa. O tratamento utilizado para o grupo A foi ciprofloxacina e amoxicilina/clavulanato via oral e placebo endovenoso e, para o grupo B, cefepime e placebo oral. RESULTADOS: Foram selecionados 91 episódios consecutivos de neutropenia febril em 58 crianças. Para os pacientes do grupo A, a taxa de falência foi de 51,2% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 8 dias (variação de 2-10. Para os pacientes tratados com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, a taxa de falência foi de 45,8% e a média de tempo de hospitalização foi de 7 dias (variação de 3-10. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo não houve diferenças entre a antibioticoterapia oral versus a terapia endovenosa. Estudos randomizados com maior número de pacientes são necessários antes de padronizar a terapêutica oral como tratamento para esta população de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of intravenous vs. oral antibiotic therapy. METHODS: All febrile neutropenic patients younger than 18 years old with low risk of complications and receiving chemotherapy were selected. The study was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were divided into group A and group B and were randomly assigned to receive oral or intravenous therapy. The empirical antimicrobial treatment used for group A consisted in oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate and intravenous placebo, and group B received cefepime and oral placebo

  7. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn | Doughari | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... against some common gram negative and gram positive bacteria and fungi. ... of the plant and the effect of temperature and pH on its antimicrobial activity. ... of antibiotics that could be useful for infectious disease chemotherapy and control.

  9. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  10. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  11. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat ... that is only in the testicle. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed ...

  12. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  13. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment and Oral Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy for Cancer? If so, this booklet can help ...

  14. Antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Mittermayer, H

    2008-03-01

    The aim of antimicrobial management or stewardship programmes is to ensure proper use of antimicrobial agents in order to provide the best treatment outcomes, to lessen the risk of adverse effects (including antimicrobial resistance), and to promote cost-effectiveness. Increasingly, long-term sustainability is found to be the major focus of antimicrobial stewardship. Implementing structural measures in healthcare institutions is therefore a major, but not the sole, focus of attention in promoting prudent use of antibiotics. The problem of antimicrobial resistance requires common strategies at all levels--for the prescribers and at ward, departmental, hospital, national and international levels.

  15. chemotherapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Augustyniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practices for cancer have become popular among oncology patients. An increasing interest in alternative medicine can be explained by the inefficiency of conventional treatment, dissatisfaction with treating patients like objects, and the will to use all available treatment methods. Objectives . The authors assessed how often patients use CAM methods, and which of them are most popular. Material and methods . The study was conducted in Military Hospital no. 109 and the Independent Public Clinical Hospital no. 1 in Szczecin among 100 chemotherapy patients. This survey-based study was performed using an original questionnaire. Results. Most respondents (68% did not use alternative methods to fight the disease. The most popular treatment methods were: herbal medicine (50%, alternative medicine preparations (38% and diet (25%, and the least common: hypnosis (3% and aromatherapy (3%. Analyzed sociodemographic factors had no effects on a choice of a CAM method. Patients obtained information about CAM methods mainly from the Internet (40%, medical staff (37% and literature (31%. Conclusions . 1. Using CAM by patients receiving chemotherapy for neoplasms is quite a common phenomenon. 2. CAM were more often chosen by women. Neither the duration of the disease nor sociodemographic data had effects on making the decision to use CAM methods. 3. The most popular CAM were: herbal medicine, alternative medicine preparations, and diet. 4. Cancer patients should receive special support from nurses and doctors as well as other members of the therapeutic team. Oncology patients should never be left on their own so that they were forced to seek help and support in therapies unconfirmed by scientific investigation.

  16. chemotherapy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Augustyniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background . Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practices for cancer have become popular among oncology patients. An increasing interest in alternative medicine can be explained by the inefficiency of conventional treatment, dissatisfaction with treating patients like objects, and the will to use all available treatment methods. Objectives . The authors assessed how often patients use CAM methods, and which of them are most popular. Material and methods . The study was conducted in Military Hospital no. 109 and the Independent Public Clinical Hospital no. 1 in Szczecin among 100 chemotherapy patients. This survey-based study was performed using an original questionnaire. Results. Most respondents (68% did not use alternative methods to fight the disease. The most popular treatment methods were: herbal medicine (50%, alternative medicine preparations (38% and diet (25%, and the least common: hypnosis (3% and aromatherapy (3%. Analyzed sociodemographic factors had no effects on a choice of a CAM method. Patients obtained information about CAM methods mainly from the Internet (40%, medical staff (37% and literature (31%. Conclusions . 1. Using CAM by patients receiving chemotherapy for neoplasms is quite a common phenomenon. 2. CAM were more often chosen by women. Neither the duration of the disease nor sociodemographic data had effects on making the decision to use CAM methods. 3. The most popular CAM were: herbal medicine, alternative medicine preparations, and diet. 4. Cancer patients should receive special support from nurses and doctors as well as other members of the therapeutic team. Oncology patients should never be left on their own so that they were forced to seek help and support in therapies unconfirmed by scientific investigation.

  17. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...... be as narrowly focused, and administered for the shortest duration, as possible. AMS teams should be interdisciplinary, especially including specialists in infection and pharmacy, with input from administrative personnel, the treating clinicians and their patients. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is limited...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  19. What Do We Really Know about the EdTPA? Research, PACT, and Packaging a Local Teacher Performance Assessment for National Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Cristyne

    2017-01-01

    This article calls attention to the overreliance on research about the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT)--often labeled edTPA's predecessor--as justification for the edTPA. The article argues that the distinctions between the assessments are too vast to rely on PACT data to support the edTPA, given the localized nature of PACT…

  20. An academic-VA partnership: Student interprofessional teams integrated with VA PACT teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenty, Constance L; Schaar, Gina L; Butler, Ryan M

    2016-12-01

    Veterans are challenged with multiple unique healthcare issues related to their military service environment. Likewise, health care providers must understand the special concerns associated with military conflict and recognize how the veteran's care can be optimized by interprofessional care delivery. Little is taught didactically or clinically that supports nursing students in addressing the unique issues of the veteran or the student's need to work collaboratively with allied health team members to enhance the veteran's care. Because of limited exposure to the veteran's special conditions, nursing students who may seek a career with the veteran population often face challenges in rendering appropriate care. The VA offers an invaluable opportunity for health profession students to collaborate with VA interprofessional Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACT) ultimately optimizing veteran health outcomes. This academic partnership, that implements an interprofessional model, will prepare students to better embrace the veteran population. This article describes the immersion of health profession students in interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) using PACT team principles which ultimately promotes the students' ability to link theory content to patient care delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Proceedings (Ljubljana, Slovenia, May 2-4, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) 2015, taking place in Ljubljana, Slovenia, from 2 to 4 of May. Psychology, nowadays, offers a large range of scientific fields where it can be applied. The goal of understanding individuals and groups (mental functions and behavioral…

  2. Secondary Students' Understanding of NATO and the Warsaw Pact: The Educational Implications of Research Conducted in Three NATO Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfo, Armand J.

    Three research projects were conducted over a three year period among secondary school students in the United Kingdom, the United States (Virginia), and West Germany in order to determine students' understanding the 40-year confrontation between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact. These studies included 1991 students…

  3. Chemotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Getting Involved Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Chemotherapy KidsHealth ... and Where Chemo Is Given Common Side Effects of Chemotherapy Common Side Effects (continued) Common Side ...

  4. Chemotherapy | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy works by killing cancer cells, but healthy cells get attacked too. Damage to healthy cells can cause uncomfortable side effects. Use this action deck to get information on common chemotherapy side effects and learn how to manage them.

  5. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Gynecologic Cancers Uterine/Endometrial Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for endometrial cancer is usually given intravenously (injected ...

  6. Multinational development of a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment: the 'Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire' (PACT-Q©

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousser Marie-Germaine

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The side effects and burden of anticoagulant treatments may contribute to poor compliance and consequently to treatment failure. A specific questionnaire is necessary to assess patients' needs and their perceptions of anticoagulant treatment. Methods A conceptual model of expectation and satisfaction with anticoagulant treatment was designed by an advisory board and used to guide patient (n = 31 and clinician (n = 17 interviews in French, US English and Dutch. Patients had either atrial fibrillation (AF, deep venous thrombosis (DVT, or pulmonary embolism (PE. Following interviews, three PACT-Q language versions were developed simultaneously and further pilot-tested by 19 patients. Linguistic validations were performed for additional language versions. Results Initial concepts were developed to cover three areas of interest: 'Treatment', 'Disease and Complications' and 'Information about disease and anticoagulant treatment'. After clinician and patient interviews, concepts were further refined into four domains and 17 concepts; test versions of the PACT-Q were then created simultaneously in three languages, each containing 27 items grouped into four domains: "Treatment Expectations" (7 items, "Convenience" (11 items, "Burden of Disease and Treatment" (2 items and "Anticoagulant Treatment Satisfaction" (7 items. No item was deleted or added after pilot testing as patients found the PACT-Q easy to understand and appropriate in length in all languages. The PACT-Q was divided into two parts: the first part to measure the expectations and the second to measure the convenience, burden and treatment satisfaction, for evaluation prior to and after anticoagulant treatment, respectively. Eleven additional language versions were linguistically validated. Conclusion The PACT-Q has been rigorously developed and linguistically validated. It is available in 14 languages for use with thromboembolic patients, including AF, PE and DVT patients

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance, including optimal use of antibiotics in both humans and animals. A global action plan on antimicrobial resistance was adopted by Member States at the ...

  8. Probability and Confidence Trade-space (PACT) Evaluation: Accounting for Uncertainty in Sparing Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif; Box, Neil; Carter, Katrina; DiFilippo, Denise; Harrington, Sean; Jackson, David; Lutomski, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are two general shortcomings to the current annual sparing assessment: 1. The vehicle functions are currently assessed according to confidence targets, which can be misleading- overly conservative or optimistic. 2. The current confidence levels are arbitrarily determined and do not account for epistemic uncertainty (lack of knowledge) in the ORU failure rate. There are two major categories of uncertainty that impact Sparing Assessment: (a) Aleatory Uncertainty: Natural variability in distribution of actual failures around an Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) (b) Epistemic Uncertainty : Lack of knowledge about the true value of an Orbital Replacement Unit's (ORU) MTBF We propose an approach to revise confidence targets and account for both categories of uncertainty, an approach we call Probability and Confidence Trade-space (PACT) evaluation.

  9. RESPONSIBILITIES ABOUT AUDIT: REVIEW OF THE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH PACT BETWEEN BRAZILIAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Solon Tajra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Health Pact presented a new proposal for strategic advancement and formalization in healthcare. In this moment, there was the necessity of signing the commitment management which gathered some of the commitments made by managers as auditing in health. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of management responsibilities about audit in SUS in reference to the document among brazilian states. Documentary research was carried out from the data source available in the site of the Participatory Strategic Support / Ministry of Health. We observed satisfactory levels (80.77% in meeting these responsibilities. However, it is necessary to greater commitment of management, once the audit has taken over the process of health reform, significant policy making in ensuring the principles of effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness and economy.

  10. Meanings of teaching education developed by the National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Klein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the teaching continuing education as a public policy focused on confronting the illiteracy problem in the early years of elementary school, through the perceptions of 1.515 literacy teachers from the northwestern region of São Paulo that participated in the federal program Pacto Nacional pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa (National Pact for Literacy at the Right Age during the year 2013. Teacher education is discussed based on the authors Tardif, Imbernón and Nóvoa. To collect data, a questionnaire with open and closed questions available on an online server for researches was used. The methodology was qualitative and the data shows that the processes involved in conducting training, such as group work and methodology, are as valued as access to new knowledge.

  11. The European Stability Pact and the Effect of Uncertainty on the Debt and Deficit Ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Jonathan

    Proposed regulations aimed at promoting fiscal discipline among states participating in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) employ dept-to-GDP and deficit-to-GDP ratios as criteria for fiscal performance. Countries participating in EMU are expected to maintain these criteria or be subject...... to pecuniary sanctions. To provide a framework for an economic analysis of this proposed "stability and growth pact", this paper examines the dynamics of these interdependent ratios. The model demonstrates that the time path for the debt/GDP ratio is highly sensitive to the assumptions made about economic...... growth and the evolution of the debt/GDP ratio differs markedly from that predicted by a deterministic model. We quantify the effect of stochastic variability and its implications for the kind of regulations now being proposed...

  12. [History of cancer and chemotherapy before chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnichon, Philippe; Berger, J P; Bonni, N; Fontaine, M; Pion-Graff, J

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy stands today for cancer. In 1909, Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) advocates the use of arsphenamine by infusion. So, he is considered as the father of chemotherapy. In fact, the first to have thought through chemotherapy was Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). In 1676, ideas and experiments on animals had sufficiently progressed to allow Michel Ettmuller (1644-1683) to publish the first edition of his book and several others were printed until 1753. In this book, he describes the first intravenous treatment, it sets the first indications, dosages and different products which can be used. However this method has been forgotten until the late 19th century.

  13. Productivity Pacts, the 2000 Volkswagen Strike, and the Trajectory of COSATU in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Desai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing mainly on the 2000 strike at Volkswagen in Uitenhage, Eastern Cape, Ashwin Desai argues that the signing of productivity pacts by the National Union of Metalworkers (NUMSA involved the signing away of many of the shopfloor gains made during the struggles of the 1980s. It also meant that management was able to call upon the union to discipline workers who challenged the pacts. This in turn saw workers come out in a strike that in reality was a strike against their own union. The strike and the changing nature of labor relations in the auto industry prompt some conclusions about the role of the biggest labor federation, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU, in the contested transition in South Africa.

  14. Making and Breaking the Rules: French policy on EU 'gouvernement économique' and the Stability and Growth Pact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howarth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The failure of the Raffarin Government to respect the Stability and Growth Pact (Stability Pact, SP, its call for the Pact's reconceptualisation, reform of the management of the Euro-zone's monetary policy and EU-level reflation should be seen not as a significant change in French policy on 'gouvernement économique' (that is, EU-level economic governance (GE but as a reassertion of long standing but contradictory French preferences. French policy-makers have been caught in a dilemma with regard to the construction of the Economic dimension of EMU between two strong preferences: on the one hand the supranational consequences of a dirigiste approach to macro-economic policy and, on the other hand, a Gaullist reflex to retain sovereignty as much as possible and to insist upon intergovernmentalism in EU-level macroeconomic policy-making. The 'price stability' function of GE as embodied by the Maastricht Treaty rules on convergence and the SP has been consistently marginalized in the discourse of French governments of both the Right and Left. Rather EG has been presented in five overlapping ways which can all be seen in terms of the paradox of the French pursuit of both reinforced macroeconomic policy coordination at the EU level yet also national margin of manoeuvre through intergovernmental policy making. Crucially, this paradox also explains the lack of clarity and inconsistency in French pronouncements on GE. Most elements of the 2002 Commission and Ecofin SP reform proposals and the precise elements of the Pact reform finally agreed in March 2005 met with French approval given that they render the SP more flexible allowing greater margin of manoeuvre in the development and implementation of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPG and the application of the Excessive Deficit Procedure (EDP, thus better meeting French intergovernmentalist preferences on EG but undermining the coordination of national macroeconomic policies that could

  15. DOE NCSP Review of TRUPACT-II/HalfPACT Fissile Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2002-03-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Nuclear Material & Spent Fuel, EM-21, tasked the CSSG to perform a scoping study to determine the feasibility of increasing the fissile mass loading limits for specified TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. The results of the scoping study may provide insights and technical guidance for establishing fissile mass loading limits at waste generator sites and at the waste repository. The goal is to reduce costs of transporting fissile material to the WIPP from EM's various closure sites. This report documents the results of the scoping study and demonstrates that it is feasible to significantly increase the fissile mass loading limits in the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packages and containers. Depending upon the particular payload containers used, the number of shipments to WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as a factor of 16 and the number of total payload containers required ''down-hole'' at WIPP could be reduced by at least a factor of 2 and as much as about 6. These cost savings result simply from applying a more realistic criticality analysis model rather than the very conservative, hypothetical, bounding analysis used to support the existing fissile mass loading limits. However, the applications of existing and developmental computational tools, nuclear data, and experiments from the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program have the potential to further reduce transportation and disposal container costs on the order of 7% to 17%. It is suggested that EM proceed with an effort to do the required formal analyses and pursue SARP supplements to take advantage of these savings. The success of these analyses are dependent upon the availability of the majority of the infrastructure supported by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program as defined in the Five-Year Plan for the program. Finally, it should be noted that these potential cost

  16. The European Court of Justice and the Stability and Growth Pact - Just the Beginning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutzler

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available .The procedures launched against Germany and France due to their excessive deficits, again brought the attention of the media and broader public to the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP. The point of culmination was reached when the European Commission filed a claim against the Council (C-27/04 which in essence concerned the enforceability and, thus, the functioning of the SGP in the context of the required cooperation between the two Community institutions. The ruling of the European Court of Justice (ECJ, however, was comparably more reluctant. While concentrating on the concrete steps taken by the Council in the deficit procedures against Germany and France, it sidestepped key questions on the nature and the sequence of the procedure and the division of power between Council and Commission in the enforcement of national budgetary discipline. As a result, the extent to which the system of fiscal surveillance and economic policy coordination binds the Member States, as well as the institutions, remains unsettled. The same can be said regarding the interplay between the Council and Commission not only in the case at hand, but also in future excessive deficit procedures. Can the procedure be continued against the will of the Council? Can there ever be sanctions against the will of the Council? Does the SGP therefore effectively force the Member States to abide by the principle of fiscal discipline? It is one thing to confirm the Council as the central actor and decision-maker in the deficit procedure; it is, however, another to remain silent on the limits of the Council's discretion. When the ECJ mentions the possibility of an action for failure to act, it acknowledges the shortcomings of the procedure in those cases where the Council is unwilling to decide. Nevertheless, the ruling opens additional loopholes for inaction by the Council. This might be fatal not only for the current decisive phase of the excessive deficit procedure against Germany

  17. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed.

  18. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  19. Extravasation of chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Seppo W

    2010-01-01

    Extravasation of chemotherapy is a feared complication of anticancer therapy. The accidental leakage of cytostatic agents into the perivascular tissues may have devastating short-term and long-term consequences for patients. In recent years, the increased focus on chemotherapy extravasation has led...

  20. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  1. Large-scale tissue clearing (PACT): Technical evaluation and new perspectives in immunofluorescence, histology, and ultrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckel, Peter H.; Mattheus, Ulrich; Hirt, Bernhard; Just, Lothar; Mack, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Novel techniques, like CLARITY and PACT, render large tissue specimens transparent and thereby suitable for microscopic analysis. We used these techniques to evaluate their potential in the intestine as an exemplary organ with a complex tissue composition. Immunohistochemistry, light sheet-, and confocal scanning-microscopy enabled us to follow complex three-dimensional structures, like nerve fibers, vessels, and epithelial barriers throughout the entire organ. Moreover, in a systematic electron microscopic study, we analyzed the morphology and preservation of tissue on ultrastructural level during the clearing process. We also connect tissue clearing with classical histology and demonstrate that cleared tissues can be stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin and Heidenhain’s Azan stain, suggesting potential use in histopathology. These experiments showed that a neutral pH during the clearing process results in much better preservation of tissue ultrastructure and standard stainability. Volume changes of specimens were monitored and quantified during the course of the protocol. Additionally, we employed the technique to visualize the enteric nervous system and the epithelial barrier in post mortem human gut preparations. Our data show the high potential of tissue clearing throughout different tissue types supporting its usefulness in research and diagnosis, and contribute to the technical discussion of ultrastructural tissue-retention. PMID:27680942

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  3. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  4. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  5. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial ...

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) 9: ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  11. Neurotoxicity of cancer chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyoung Yang; Changjong Moon

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating clinical evidence that chemotherapeutic agents induce neurological side effects, including memory deficits and mood disorders, in cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapeutic treatments. This review focuses on chemotherapy-induced neurodegeneration and hippocampal dysfunctions and related mechanisms as measured by in vivo and in vitro approaches. These investigations are helpful in determining how best to further explore the causal mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced neurological side effects and in providing direction for the future development of novel optimized chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Chemotherapy for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa A; Schuchter, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the recent therapeutic advances, chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment options for advanced-stage melanoma. A number of studies have investigated various chemotherapy combinations in order to expand on the clinical responses achieved with single-agent dacarbazine, but these have not demonstrated an improvement in overall survival. Similar objective responses were observed with the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as were seen with single-agent dacarbazine. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, known as biochemo-therapy, has shown high clinical responses; however, biochemo-therapy has not been shown to improve overall survival and resulted in increased toxicities. In contrast, palliation and long-term responses have been observed with localized treatment with isolated limb perfusion or infusion in limb-isolated disease. Although new, improved therapeutic options exist for first-line management of advanced-stage melanoma, chemotherapy may still be important in the palliative treatment of refractory, progressive, and relapsed melanoma. We review the various chemotherapy options available for use in the treatment and palliation of advanced-stage melanoma, discuss the important clinical trials supporting the treatment recommendations, and focus on the clinical circumstances in which treatment with chemotherapy is useful.

  13. Efflux pump-mediated resistance in chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughachukwu, Po; Unekwe, Pc

    2012-07-01

    Efflux pump mechanisms perform important physiological functions such as prevention of toxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, elimination of bile from the hepatocytes, effective functioning of the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier, and renal excretion of drugs. They exist in all living cells, but those in the bacterial and mammalian cells are more important to the clinician and pharmacologist, as they constitute an important cause of antimicrobial drug resistance, which contributes to treatment failure, high medical bills, and increased mortality / morbidity. This review was aimed at highlighting the role of efflux pump mechanisms in microbial resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. It was also aimed to elucidate their structure and mechanisms of action so as to integrate the efflux pump mechanisms in the design and development of novel antimicrobial agents. Findings from previous studies and research on this subject assessed through Google search, Pubmed, Hinari websites, as well as standard textbooks on chemotherapy, provided the needed information in the process of this review. Efflux pump inhibitors are promising strategies for preventing and reverting efflux-mediated resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. They are usually employed as adjuncts in antimicrobial and cancer chemotherapy. Toxicity, more common with the older-generation inhibitors such as verapamil and reserpine, constitutes the greatest impediment to their clinical applications. No efflux pump inhibitor has been approved for routine clinical use, as a result of doubtful clinical efficacy and unacceptably high incidence of adverse effects, particularly inhibition of the P-450 drug metabolizing enzyme. At present, their applications are mainly restricted to epidemiological studies. Nonetheless, the search for efficacious and tolerable efflux pump inhibitors continues because of the potential benefits. There is a need to consider efflux pump substrate selectivity in the design and

  14. Adjunctive chemotherapy of infection-induced staghorn calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D P; Moskowitz, P A; Carlton, C E

    1979-06-01

    Bacteria induce urinary crystallization of struvite and carbonate-apatite as a by-product of ureolysis by urease. Eradication of infection and/or inhibition of urease with acetohydroxamic acid for 5 to 30 months retarded stone growth and brought about partial or comple dissolution of stones in 9 patients. Long-term chemotherapy with antimicrobial agents that achieve steril urine or acetohydroxamic acid in those patients with recalcitrant infection lessens the risk of recurrent calculogenesis.

  15. [Efficacy of Levofloxacin Hydrate in Febrile Neutropenia for Outpatient Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Manato; Sato, Junya; Nihei, Satoru; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-05-01

    Management of febrile neutropenia (FN) is important for the safety of patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. Oral antimicrobials are usually prescribed as the initial treatment for FN, and outpatients are instructed to begin medication prior to chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of the use of these oral antibiotics have not yet been established. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of levofloxacin hydrate (LVFX) for breast cancer patients with FN, and the factors associated with the onset of FN in 134 breast cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy including the anticancer drug anthracycline (total, 513 courses), in an outpatient chemotherapy department. The effectiveness and safety of LVFX were defined respectively as defervescence within 5 days, and the appearance of side effects such as diarrhea and rashes. Fever was observed in 89 (66%) of the 134 patients, and during 164 (32%) of 513 courses. Defervescence was observed with the LVFX medication in 149 (93%) of 160 courses. The primary side effect was the development of rashes, and only 2 (1%) of the 160 courses were discontinued. Onset of stomatitis during chemotherapy was observed as a factor of FN (odds ratio: 1.36, p<0.05). Our results suggest that the use of LVFX according to the patients' discretion might be an effective and safe option for the management of FN during outpatient chemotherapy.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    -the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...... is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general...... practitioners, and respiratory tract infections are the leading reason for prescribing. Multifaceted interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics have been found to be effective and better than single initiatives. Interventions should encompass the enforcement of the policy of prohibiting the over...

  17. CLARITY and PACT-based imaging of adult zebrafish and mouse for whole-animal analysis of infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Cronan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visualization of infection and the associated host response has been challenging in adult vertebrates. Owing to their transparency, zebrafish larvae have been used to directly observe infection in vivo; however, such larvae have not yet developed a functional adaptive immune system. Cells involved in adaptive immunity mature later and have therefore been difficult to access optically in intact animals. Thus, the study of many aspects of vertebrate infection requires dissection of adult organs or ex vivo isolation of immune cells. Recently, CLARITY and PACT (passive clarity technique methodologies have enabled clearing and direct visualization of dissected organs. Here, we show that these techniques can be applied to image host-pathogen interactions directly in whole animals. CLARITY and PACT-based clearing of whole adult zebrafish and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected mouse lungs enables imaging of mycobacterial granulomas deep within tissue to a depth of more than 1 mm. Using established transgenic lines, we were able to image normal and pathogenic structures and their surrounding host context at high resolution. We identified the three-dimensional organization of granuloma-associated angiogenesis, an important feature of mycobacterial infection, and characterized the induction of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF within the granuloma using an established fluorescent reporter line. We observed heterogeneity in TNF induction within granuloma macrophages, consistent with an evolving view of the tuberculous granuloma as a non-uniform, heterogeneous structure. Broad application of this technique will enable new understanding of host-pathogen interactions in situ.

  18. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  19. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Sastre; Jose Angel García-Saenz; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease.Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed.Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase Ⅲ trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116study, postoperative chemoradiation has been Accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase Ⅱstudies are showing promising results. Phase Ⅲ trials are needed.

  20. Chemotherapy of herpesvirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawetz, E

    1975-07-01

    Herpesviruses commonly produce lesions that come to the attention of physicians. Many different chemicals are known to suppress the growth of herpesviruses in vitro, but only a few of these have found application in clinical practice. A critical assessment of the place of some of these forms of chemotherapy was briefly presented.

  1. Integrating a Focus on Academic Language, English Learners, and Mathematics: Teacher Candidates' Responses on the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, George C.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Téllez, Kip

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the United States, teacher educators are developing new strategies to improve the preparation of mainstream teachers for linguistic diversity. In this article, we explore teacher candidates' responses to the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT), a preservice assessment required for credentialing that requires…

  2. Integrating a Focus on Academic Language, English Learners, and Mathematics: Teacher Candidates' Responses on the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, George C.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Téllez, Kip

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the United States, teacher educators are developing new strategies to improve the preparation of mainstream teachers for linguistic diversity. In this article, we explore teacher candidates' responses to the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT), a preservice assessment required for credentialing that requires candidates…

  3. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η(2) = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η(2) = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η(2) = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η(2) = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  4. The Human dsRNA binding protein PACT is unable to functionally substitute for the Drosophila dsRNA binding protein R2D2 [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/201

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin K Dickerman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the dsRNA binding protein (dsRBP PACT/RAX is to activate the dsRNA dependent protein kinase PKR in response to stress signals.  Additionally, it has been identified as a component of the small RNA processing pathway.  A role for PACT/RAX in this pathway represents an important interplay between two modes of post-transcriptional gene regulation.  The function of PACT/RAX in this context is poorly understood.  Thus, additional models are required to clarify the mechanism by which PACT/RAX functions.  In this study, Drosophila melanogaster was employed to identify functionally orthologous dsRNA-binding proteins.  Transgenic Drosophila expressing human PACT were generated to determine whether PACT is capable of functionally substituting for the Drosophila dsRBP R2D2, which has a well-defined role in small RNA biogenesis.  Results presented here indicate that PACT is unable to substitute for R2D2 at the whole organism level.

  5. 白血病化疗后粒细胞缺乏伴真菌感染患者抗菌药物的应用研究%Study on use of antimicrobial drugs by leukemia patients complicated with agranulocytosis and fungal infections after chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古力巴旦木·艾则孜; 袁海龙; 曹海洲; 陈刚; 曲建华

    2016-01-01

    accurate result of etiological culture was obtained .The patients with suspected fungal infections were firstly treated with fluconazole for 5-12 days and then given hierarchical use of antifungal drugs .The use of antimicrobial drugs and improvement of clinical symptoms were investigated ,the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS20 .0 software .RESULTS The Candida albicans was dominant among the fungi isolated from the 120 leukemia agranulocytosis patients complicated with fungal infections ,accounting for 60 .8% .The antifungal drug therapy was effective in 112 cases ,with the effective rate of 93 .3% .The body temperature dropped after the treatment for 24-48 hours ,and the clinical symptoms were improved;the white blood cell counts of the patients with neutrophils counts less than 0 .5 × 109/L rose to more than 1 .0 × 109/L after they were treated with granulo-cyte colony stimulating factors for 3-5 days ,and the neutrophils counts rose to more than 0 .5 × 109/L .Totally 8 patients died of septic shock ,with the mortality rate of 6 .7% ,and 16 cases had adverse reactions ,with the inci-dence rate of 13 .3% .CONCLUSION As for the treatment of the leukemia patients complicated with agranulocytosis and fungal infections after chemotherapy ,it is necessary to reasonably use antibiotics on the basis of the re-sults of identification of pathogens and drug susceptibility testing and conduct the preventive antifungal therapy for the patients with fungal infections .

  6. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past 70 years, antimicrobial drugs, such as antibiotics, have been successfully used to treat patients with bacterial and infectious diseases. Why Is the Study of Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance a Priority for NIAID? Over time, many infectious ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... antimicrobial resistance both emerges and proliferates among bacteria. Over time, the use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development ...

  8. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  9. Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    NOTES 1S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side linscoeawy and identiIIy by block number) LEISHMANIA LEISHMANIASIS CHEMOTHERAPY ANTILEISHMANIAL PENTOSTAM...number of compounds was supplied by WRAIR for testing on four strains of Leishmania in December 1977. Preliminary data were supplied to WRAIR by the...j_ = L. tropica major (Strain LV39 from USSR) and the New World cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. mexicana amazonensis (Strain LV78 from Brazil). The test

  10. Anti-antimicrobial Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J.; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:23737519

  11. [Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Mensa, José; Trilla, Antoni; Cainzos, Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery refers to a very brief course of an antimicrobial agent initiated just before the start of the procedure. The efficacy of antimicrobials to prevent postoperative infection at the site of surgery (incisional superficial, incisional deep, or organ/space infection) has been demonstrated for many surgical procedures. Nevertheless, the majority of studies centering on the quality of preoperative prophylaxis have found that a high percentage of the antimicrobials used are inappropriate for this purpose. This work discusses the scientific basis for antimicrobial prophylaxis, provides general recommendations for its correct use and specific recommendations for various types of surgery. The guidelines for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis are based on results from well-designed studies, whenever possible. These guidelines are focussed on reducing the incidence of infection at the surgical site while minimizing the contribution of preoperative administration of antimicrobials to the development of bacterial resistance.

  12. STUDY ON IDENTIFYING THE CONSULTANCY NEEDS OF THE MEMBERS OF THE TERRITORIAL PACT AND THE COUNTY PARTNERSHIPS IN THE CENTRE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA-TEODORA CIUHUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure some quality consulting services within the activity “Providing consultancy services to develop applications for European funding with focus on the SOP HRD 2007-2013”, in order to identify the organisations’ consultancy needs, the problems they face in elaborating the financing applications and implementing projects, there has been elaborated, within the PTS, the document “Questionnaire on identifying the consultancy needs of the members of the Territorial Pact and the County Partnerships - Centre”. The questionnaire was sent via e-mail to the member organisations of the Pact and the County Partnerships and also, it has been posted on the web site www.stpcentru.ro, so that all members may have access to it. The questionnaires collected until May, 25th, 2010 from 27 organisations were centralised in an excel format Data base.

  13. Post Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the Inpatient Treatment of Military Personnel with Suicidal Behaviors: A Multi-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    booster session delivery  Administration, scoring, and interpretation of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) conducted by Dr. Frank...study PI, Dr. Marjan Holloway, provided training on CBT for suicide and PACT at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences the week of February...and Treatment – much of the information on CBT provided in the Guide is based on our experiences gained during this study along with the previously

  14. Why chemotherapy can fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M; Pawłowski, K M; Majchrzak, K; Szyszko, K; Motyl, T

    2010-01-01

    There are many reasons that lead to failure of cancer chemotherapy. Cancer has the ability to become resistant to many different types of drugs. Increased efflux of drug, enhanced repair/increased tolerance to DNA damage, high antiapoptotic potential, decreased permeability and enzymatic deactivation allow cancer cell survive the chemotherapy. Treatment can lead to the death of most tumor cells (drug-sensitive), but some of them (drug-resistant) survive and grow again. These tumor cells may arise from stem cells. There are many studies describing human experiments with multidrug resistance, especially in breast cancer. Unfortunately, studies of canine or feline ABC super family members are not as extensive as in human or mice and they are limited to several papers describing PGP in mammary cancer, cutaneous mast cell tumors and lymphoma. Multidrug resistance is one of the most significant problems in oncology today. The involvement of many different, not fully recognized, mechanisms in multidrug resistance of cancer cells makes the development of effective methods of therapy very difficult. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer cells may improve the results of treatment. This review article provides a synopsis of all aspects that refer to cancer cell resistance to antitumor drugs.

  15. „STABILITY AND GROWTH PACT, COMMUNITY DOCUMENT „REVIVED” IN THE CURRENT GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-DANIELA PAUN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes to make a reasoned radiography Stability and Growth Pact, EU document revived therefore need to strengthen financial discipline and budget 6 to 7 September 2010 meeting of the Economic and Financial Affairs Council (ECOFIN. He talked about the introduction of the Stability and Growth in a 'European quarter' which will be monitored in structural and fiscal policies of the Member States. He also held a first exchange of views about the possible introduction of a levy on banks and a tax on financial transactions. Thus, the European Union has moved to create the world's first supranational system of control over the financial markets, particularly in order to reduce the risk of global financial crisis. The system will act in early 2011. For the first time in history, European financial control agencies will have more seats than national governments. In addition, the European Central Bank will see a branch that will track the emergence of crisis risk.The financial crisis has diminished the EU's growth potential, and made it clear just how interdependent its members' economies are, particularly inside the eurozone. The most important priority now is to restore growth and create effective mechanisms for regulating financial markets - in Europe and internationally. In strengthening its system of economic governance, Europe must learn from previous shortcomings which have put the financial stability of the whole eurozone at risk:- poor observance of the EU's sound rules and procedures for economic policy coordination- insufficient reduction in public debt during the good times – with peer pressure proving an adequate incentive- failure to deal effectively with the build-up of macroeconomic imbalances - despite the Commission's warnings – resulting in high current account deficits, large external indebtedness and high public debt levels in a number of countries (above the official 60% limit for eurozone countries. Greater economic

  16. Efficacy of low intensity, therapist-implemented Project ImPACT for increasing social communication skills in young children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke R; Wainer, Allison L; Berger, Natalie I; Walton, Katherine M

    2017-02-02

    Project ImPACT is a Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Intervention (NDBI) for young children with ASD. Preliminary research supports its feasibility and efficacy as a parent-mediated intervention; however, its efficacy as a low-intensity, therapist-implemented intervention is unclear. A single-case, multiple-baseline design evaluated the effect of 2 h per week of therapist-implemented Project ImPACT on social engagement, language, and play in nine children with ASD. Language and play skills were targeted separately for five children and together for four children. Children increased their rates of social engagement and language when language or play was the sole target and when language and play were targeted together; however, gains in play skills were evident only when they were targeted separately. This study provides support for the efficacy of the Project ImPACT when implemented by therapists at a low intensity and suggests the way in which skills are targeted can affect child learning.

  17. Photosensitizers mediated photodynamic inactivation against virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Lukasz; Skupin-Mrugalska, Paulina; Mielcarek, Jadwiga; Goslinski, Tomasz; Balzarini, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause many diseases in humans from the rather innocent common cold to more serious or chronic, life-threatening infections. The long-term side effects, sometimes low effectiveness of standard pharmacotherapy and the emergence of drug resistance require a search for new alternative or complementary antiviral therapeutic approaches. One new approach to inactivate microorganisms is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). PACT has evolved as a potential method to inactivate viruses. The great challenge for PACT is to develop a methodology enabling the effective inactivation of viruses while leaving the host cells as untouched as possible. This review aims to provide some main directions of antiviral PACT, taking into account different photosensitizers, which have been widely investigated as potential antiviral agents. In addition, several aspects concerning PACT as a tool to assure viral inactivation in human blood products will be addressed.

  18. Antimicrobials in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, Wim; Daeseleire, Els; De Brabander, Hubert F; Herman, Lieve

    2012-07-06

    The bee diseases American and European foulbrood and nosemosis can be treated with anti-infectious agents. However, in the EU and the USA the use of these agents in beekeeping is strictly regulated due to the lack of tolerance (e.g. Maximum Residue Limit) for residues of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics in honey. This article reviews the literature dealing with antimicrobials of interest in apiculture, stability of these antimicrobials in honey, and disposition of the antimicrobials in honeybee hives.

  19. Palliative chemotherapy: oxymoron or misunderstanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeland, E J; LeBlanc, T W

    2016-03-21

    Oncologists routinely prescribe chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancer. This practice is sometimes misunderstood by palliative care clinicians, yet data clearly show that chemotherapy can be a powerful palliative intervention when applied appropriately. Clarity regarding the term "palliative chemotherapy" is needed: it is chemotherapy given in the non-curative setting to optimize symptom control, improve quality of life, and sometimes to improve survival. Unfortunately, oncologists lack adequate tools to predict which patients will benefit. In a study recently published in BMC Palliative Care, Creutzfeldt et al. presented an innovative approach to advancing the science in this area: using patient reported outcomes to predict responses to palliative chemotherapy. With further research, investigators may be able to develop predictive models for use at the bedside to inform clinical decision-making about the risks and benefits of treatment. In the meantime, oncologists and palliative care clinicians must work together to reduce the use of "end-of-life chemotherapy"-chemotherapy given close to death, which does not improve longevity or symptom control-while optimizing the use of chemotherapy that has true palliative benefits for patients.

  20. Chemotherapy for children with medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, E.M.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Doz, F.; Janssens, G.O.R.J.; Dalen, E.C. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-surgical radiotherapy (RT) in combination with chemotherapy is considered as standard of care for medulloblastoma in children. Chemotherapy has been introduced to improve survival and to reduce RT-induced adverse effects. Reduction of RT-induced adverse effects was achieved by delet

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  2. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System 2014 NARMS ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  3. A history of cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Vincent T; Chu, Edward

    2008-11-01

    The use of chemotherapy to treat cancer began at the start of the 20th century with attempts to narrow the universe of chemicals that might affect the disease by developing methods to screen chemicals using transplantable tumors in rodents. It was, however, four World War II-related programs, and the effects of drugs that evolved from them, that provided the impetus to establish in 1955 the national drug development effort known as the Cancer Chemotherapy National Service Center. The ability of combination chemotherapy to cure acute childhood leukemia and advanced Hodgkin's disease in the 1960s and early 1970s overcame the prevailing pessimism about the ability of drugs to cure advanced cancers, facilitated the study of adjuvant chemotherapy, and helped foster the national cancer program. Today, chemotherapy has changed as important molecular abnormalities are being used to screen for potential new drugs as well as for targeted treatments.

  4. Interstitial pneumonitis following intrapleural chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphries Gary N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucinous neoplasms within the abdomen may disseminate by direct extension through the diaphragm to involve the pleural space. Treatment of this condition is by parietal and visceral pleurectomy followed by hyperthermic intrapleural chemotherapy. Case presentation In this case report a patient developed persistent right upper lobe interstitial pneumonitis and progressive parenchymal fibrosis following intrapleural chemotherapy treatment with mitomycin C and doxrubicin. The condition persisted until death 28 months later. Death was from progressive intraabdominal disease with intestinal obstruction and sepsis associated with progressive pulmonary parenchymal disease. The right pleural space disease did not recur. Conclusion This manuscript is the first case report describing interstitial pneumonitis and lung fibrosis following intrapleural chemotherapy. Since pulmonary toxicity from chemotherapy is a dose-dependent phenomenon, dose reduction of intrapleural as compared to intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy may be necessary.

  5. Governing and Delivering a Biome-Wide Restoration Initiative: The Case of Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino R. Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In many human-modified tropical landscapes, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services require large-scale restoration initiatives. Such initiatives must be able to augment the amount and the quality of remaining natural habitats. There is thus a growing need for long-term, multi-stakeholder and multi-purpose initiatives that result in multiple ecological and socioeconomic benefits at the biome scale. The Atlantic Forest Restoration Pact (AFRP is a coalition of 260+ stakeholders, including governmental agencies, private sector, NGOs and research institutions, aimed at restoring 15 million ha of degraded and deforested lands by 2050. By articulating, and then integrating common interests, this initiative has allowed different sectors of society to implement an ambitious vision and create a forum for public and private concerns regarding forest restoration. The AFRP adopts a set of governance tools so multiple actors can implement key processes to achieve long-term and visionary restoration goals. Having overcome some initial challenges, AFRP now has to incorporate underrepresented stakeholders and enhance its efforts to make forest restoration more economically viable, including cases where restoration could be less expensive and profitable. The AFRP experience has resulted in many lessons learned, which can be shared to foster similar initiatives across tropical regions.

  6. The N-pact factor: evaluating the quality of empirical journals with respect to sample size and statistical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Vazire, Simine

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluate the quality of research reported in major journals in social-personality psychology by ranking those journals with respect to their N-pact Factors (NF)-the statistical power of the empirical studies they publish to detect typical effect sizes. Power is a particularly important attribute for evaluating research quality because, relative to studies that have low power, studies that have high power are more likely to (a) to provide accurate estimates of effects, (b) to produce literatures with low false positive rates, and (c) to lead to replicable findings. The authors show that the average sample size in social-personality research is 104 and that the power to detect the typical effect size in the field is approximately 50%. Moreover, they show that there is considerable variation among journals in sample sizes and power of the studies they publish, with some journals consistently publishing higher power studies than others. The authors hope that these rankings will be of use to authors who are choosing where to submit their best work, provide hiring and promotion committees with a superior way of quantifying journal quality, and encourage competition among journals to improve their NF rankings.

  7. SU-C-204-06: Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Kilovoltage X-Ray-Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts to select the appropriate antimicrobial for treatment. Accordingly, efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance Share Tweet ...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL HERBAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishteswar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-microbial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbiocidal or prevent the growth of microbes (microbiostatic. Sulphonamide drugs were the first antimicrobial drugs, and paved the way for the antibiotic revolution in medicine. The first sulfonamide, trade named Prontosil, was actually a prodrug. However, with the development of antimicrobials, microorganisms have adapted and become resistant to previous antimicrobial agents. In view of certain side effects caused due to usage of modern antimicrobial drugs and antibiotics scientists have made some attempts to screen some of the Ayurvedic herbs, which possess broader spectrum of safety. Some selected herbs which are used by tribal and rural people for curing various infective diseases caused due to bacteria, virus and fungi have been reported to possess anti-microbial properties. In the present paper and attempt is made to review about the indigenous medicinal plant which exhibited antimicrobial properties.

  13. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzler, Mark J; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement, and bite wounds. Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is recommended for various surgical procedures to prevent surgical site infections. Optimal antimicrobial agents for prophylaxis should be bactericidal, nontoxic, inexpensive, and active against the typical pathogens that can cause surgical site infection postoperatively. To maximize its effectiveness, intravenous perioperative prophylaxis should be administered within 30 to 60 minutes before the surgical incision. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be of short duration to decrease toxicity and antimicrobial resistance and to reduce cost.

  14. “Patti di morte”. Internet, suicidi e la spettacolarità del crimine / "Pactes de mort." Internet, suicides et spectacularité du crime / “Pact of death”: Web, Suicides and the Crime Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Web è diventato davvero uno specchio per vanitosi? Giovani e adulti si cimentano in bravate, oscenità, per poi filmarsi e pubblicare il video. Anche il suicidio può venire facilitato dal Web: mentre in Giappone si sottoscrivono patti di morte con sconosciuti, in occidente ci si toglie la vita di fronte la webcam nella solitudine della propria stanza. Se nel paese orientale le persone cercano di fuggire da una società che le rifiuta, che accetta solo la maschera che mostrano in pubblico e non il volto che essa cela, in occidente si scopre la mancanza di valore per la vita. Non essendo capaci di raccontarsi, scelgono di mostrare la propria immagine, l’unica cosa che è permesso loro gestire. Da spettatori, ora pretendono la parte dei protagonisti e la loro è una voglia di urlare parole rimaste soffocate per tanto tempo. Cercano di colpire gli occhi, costringendo il mondo ad assistere alla loro decisione definitiva. Le Web est-il vraiment devenu un miroir pour les vaniteux? Jeunes et adultes se livrent à des bravades, des obscénités, qu’ils filment dans la perspective de publier la vidéo. Ainsi, même le suicide peut être facilité par le Web. Alors qu’au Japon on signe des pactes de mort avec des inconnus, en Occident on s’ôte la vie devant une webcam, dans la solitude de son domicile. Si en Orient il s’agit d’une tentative de fuir une société qui refuse, qui accepte seulement le masque que l’on montre en public et non pas le visage qu’il cache, à l’Ouest nous découvrons le manque de valeur accordée à la vie. N'étant pas capables de se raconter, les gens choisissent de mettre en scène leur propre image, la seule chose qu’il leur est donné de gérer. Hier spectateurs, ils exigent aujourd’hui de devenir des protagonistes, et ainsi de pouvoir hurler des mots qui ont si longtemps été étouffés. Ils essaient de frapper les yeux, en obligeant le monde à assister à leur décision définitive.Is the Web

  15. Metronomic chemotherapy regimens in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metronomic chemotherapy implies the regular use of cytotoxic agents in doses much smaller than the maximum tolerable doses for a long time. Preclinical experiments show that this treatment option has a many-sided (antiangiogenic, immunostimulating, and direct cytotoxic effect on tumor. Moreover, this approach has gained the widest acceptance in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer in clinical practice. By taking into account the high activity of angiogenesis in colon cancer progression, it is interesting to study the impact of metronomic chemotherapy regimens for this nosological entity as well. This literature review considers not only the history of metronomic chemotherapy, the mechanisms of action, and a range of drugs having an antitumor effect in the metronomic regimens, but also analyzes clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapy regimens in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

  16. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy as concluded at the third Perugia Consensus Conference, which took place in June 2009. The review will focus on new studies appearing since the Second consensus conference...... receiving multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy will be reviewed. Consensus statements are given, including optimal dose and schedule of serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. The most significant recommendations (and changes since the 2004...... version of the guidelines) are as follows: the best prophylaxis in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (not including a combination of an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) is the combination of palonosetron and dexamethasone on the day of chemotherapy, followed by dexamethasone...

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  18. Fast disinfecting antimicrobial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Ahmad E; Dabkowski, Jeffery M; Nusslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-01-20

    Silicon wafers and glass surfaces were functionalized with facially amphiphilic antimicrobial copolymers using the "grafting from" technique. Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to grow poly(butylmethacrylate)-co-poly(Boc-aminoethyl methacrylate) from the surfaces. Upon Boc-deprotection, these surfaces became highly antimicrobial and killed S. aureus and E. coli 100% in less than 5 min. The molecular weight and grafting density of the polymer were controlled by varying the polymerization time and initiator surface density. Antimicrobial studies showed that the killing efficiency of these surfaces was independent of polymer layer thickness or grafting density within the range of surfaces studied.

  19. Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity varies between individuals owing to multiple factors. Genetic variants that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby determining efficacy and/or toxicity. In addition, many severe immune-mediated reactions have been associated with HLA class I and class II genes. In the last two decades, understanding of pharmacogenomic factors that influence antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity has rapidly evolved, leading to translational success such as the routine use of HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reactions. This article examines recent advances in the field of antimicrobial pharmacogenomics that potentially affect treatment efficacy and toxicity, and challenges that exist between pharmacogenomic discovery and translation into clinical use.

  20. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

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    Full Text Available ... showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, ... Displays About NARMS Partners in Antibiotic Resistance and Food Safety Bacteria Tested NARMS at Work Meetings and ...

  1. Novel antimicrobial textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Unchin

    2003-10-01

    Many microorganisms can survive, and perhaps proliferate on textiles, generating adverse effects such as: disease transmission, odor generation, pH changes, staining, discoloration and loss of performance. These adverse effects may threaten users' health, deteriorate textile properties and degrade service quality. It may, therefore, be desirable to incorporate antimicrobials on textiles for controlling the growth of microorganisms. This dissertation focuses on the development of antimicrobial fibers and fabrics by integration of antimicrobials with these textiles. The applications of hydantoin-based halamines were mainly investigated in the research. The typical process is that hydantoin containing compounds are grafted onto textiles and transformed to halamine by chlorination. Hydantoin-based halamines are usually chloramines that release chlorine (Cl+) via cleavage of the -NCl functional group which attacks and kills microbes. The antimicrobial behavior is rechargeable many times by rinsing the fiber or fabric with chlorine-containing solution. Some quaternary ammonium type antimicrobials were also investigated in this research. The choice of integrating techniques is dependant on both the textile and antimicrobial compounds. In this dissertation, the nine approaches were studied for incorporating antimicrobial with various textiles: (1) co-extrusion of fibers with halamine precursor additive; (2) grafting of the quaternary ammonium compounds onto ethylene-co-acrylic acid fiber for creating quaternary ammonium type antimicrobial fiber; (3) entrapment of the additives in thermally bonded bicomponent nonwoven fabrics; (4) attaching antimicrobial additives to surfaces with latex adhesive coating; (5) grafting of antimicrobial compounds onto rubber latex via UV exposure; (6) reaction of halamine with needle-punched melamine formaldehyde nonwoven fabric and laminates; (7) coating melamine resin onto tent fabrics and laminates; (8) synthesis of super absorbent polymer

  2. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khanal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns plays important role in the selection of appropriate therapy. Present study was undertaken to analyze the susceptibility patterns of pneumococcal isolates against commonly used antimicrobials with special reference to determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of penicillin in a tertiary care hospital in eastern Nepal. Methods: Twenty-six strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from various clinical specimens submitted to microbiology laboratory were evaluated. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method. MIC of penicillin was tested by broth dilution method. Results: Of the total isolates 19 (73% were from invasive infections. Seven isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. No resistance to penicillin was seen in disk diffusion testing. Less susceptibility to penicillin (MIC 0.1-1.0 mg/L was observed in five (17% isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not detected. One isolate was multidrug resistant. Conclusions: S. pneumoniaeisolates with intermediate resistance to penicillin prevail in Tertiary Care Hospital in eastern Nepal, causing invasive and noninvasive infections. As intermediate resistance is not detected in routine susceptibility testing, determination of MIC is important. It helps not only in the effective management of life threatening infections but is also essential in continuous monitoring and early detection of resistance. In addition, further study on pneumococcal infections, its antimicrobial resistance profile and correlation with clinical and epidemiological features including serotypes and group prevalence is recommended in future. Keywords: antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, penicillin, Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  4. Antimicrobials, stress and mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cationic antimicrobial peptides are ancient and ubiquitous immune effectors that multicellular organisms use to kill and police microbes whereas antibiotics are mostly employed by microorganisms. As antimicrobial peptides (AMPs mostly target the cell wall, a microbial 'Achilles heel', it has been proposed that bacterial resistance evolution is very unlikely and hence AMPs are ancient 'weapons' of multicellular organisms. Here we provide a new hypothesis to explain the widespread distribution of AMPs amongst multicellular organism. Studying five antimicrobial peptides from vertebrates and insects, we show, using a classic Luria-Delbrück fluctuation assay, that cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs do not increase bacterial mutation rates. Moreover, using rtPCR and disc diffusion assays we find that AMPs do not elicit SOS or rpoS bacterial stress pathways. This is in contrast to the main classes of antibiotics that elevate mutagenesis via eliciting the SOS and rpoS pathways. The notion of the 'Achilles heel' has been challenged by experimental selection for AMP-resistance, but our findings offer a new perspective on the evolutionary success of AMPs. Employing AMPs seems advantageous for multicellular organisms, as it does not fuel the adaptation of bacteria to their immune defenses. This has important consequences for our understanding of host-microbe interactions, the evolution of innate immune defenses, and also sheds new light on antimicrobial resistance evolution and the use of AMPs as drugs.

  5. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  6. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  7. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , Sara ... cancer treatments. Breast cancer treatments include the following: Chemotherapy involves drugs that are intended to kill the ...

  8. Fertility preservation after chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma can negatively affect fertility. This review summarizes data on fertility after chemotherapy in adult patients. Alkylating chemotherapy, especially if containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide, is most harmful to gonadal functioning. Alkylating regimens cause pro

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Sadredinamin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are extensive group of molecules that produced by variety tissues of invertebrate, plants, and animal species which play an important role in their immunity response. AMPs have different classifications such as; biosynthetic machines, biological sources, biological functions, molecular properties, covalent bonding patterns, three dimensional structures, and molecular targets.These molecules have multidimensional properties including antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, antifungal activity, anti-parasite activity, biofilm control, antitumor activity, mitogens activity and linking innate to adaptive immunity that making them promising agents for therapeutic drugs. In spite of this advantage of AMPs, their clinical developments have some limitation for commercial development. But some of AMPs are under clinical trials for the therapeutic purpose such as diabetic foot ulcers, different bacterial infections and tissue damage. In this review, we emphasized on the source, structure, multidimensional properties, limitation and therapeutic applications of various antimicrobial peptides.

  10. Congenital sacrococcygeal PNET and chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Patrick Hawkes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a congenital localised sacrococcygeal primitive neuroectodermal tumor treated aggressively with surgical resection and modified age-appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy. The conventional combination chemotherapy of vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and etoposide was modified to a regimen including vincristine, adriamicin, cyclophosphamide and actinomycin in order to minimise the predicted toxicity in this age group. Adjuvant "induction" chemotherapy commenced at 4 weeks of age and consisted of four cycles of vincristine, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide at 50%, 75%, 75% and 100% of recommended doses (vincristine 0.05 mg/kg, adriamycin 0.83 mg/kg daily × 2, cyclophosphamide 40 mg/kg at 3-weekly intervals. This was followed by four cycles of "maintenance" chemotherapy with vincristine (0.025 mg/kg, actinomycin (0.025 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide (36 mg/kg at full recommended doses. Cardioxane at a dose of 16.6 mg/kg was infused immediately prior to the adriamycin. Our patient is thriving at 19 months out from end of treatment.

  11. Chemotherapy of human african trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Cyrus J

    2009-01-01

    Human Africa trypanosomiasis is a centuries-old disease which has disrupted sub-Saharan Africa in both physical suffering and economic loss. This article presents an update of classic chemotherapeutic agents, in use for >50 years and the recent development of promising non-toxic combination chemotherapy suitable for use in rural clinics.

  12. Chemotherapy of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus J. Bacchi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Africa trypanosomiasis is a centuries-old disease which has disrupted sub-Saharan Africa in both physical suffering and economic loss. This article presents an update of classic chemotherapeutic agents, in use for >50 years and the recent development of promising non-toxic combination chemotherapy suitable for use in rural clinics.

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as Pedialyte ® ••Tea (without caffeine) ••Water ••Applesauce ••Bananas ••Crackers ••Cream of wheat or rice cereal ••Eggs •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  14. Chemotherapy-associated recurrent pneumothoraces in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2012-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare cause of pneumothorax in women. We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, who had never had a pneumothorax prior to commencing chemotherapy for breast cancer. During chemotherapy she developed 3 pneumothoraces and 2 episodes of pneumomediastinum. We suggest that the pneumothoraces were caused by the chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of chemotherapy triggering pneumothoraces in a woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

  15. Chemotherapy and You: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Terms Blogs and Newsletters Health Communications Publications Reports Chemotherapy and You: Support for People With Cancer Chemotherapy ... ePub This booklet covers: Questions and answers about chemotherapy. Answers common questions, such as what chemotherapy is ...

  16. Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji eMorita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa often are hard to treat; inappropriate chemotherapy readily selects multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. This organism can be exposed to a wide range of concentrations of antimicrobials during treatment; learning more about the responses of P. aeruginosa to antimicrobials is therefore important. We review here responses of the bacterium P. aeruginosa upon exposure to antimicrobials at levels below the inhibitory concentration.Carbapenems (e.g., imipenem have been shown to induce the formation of thicker and more robust biofilms, while fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin and aminoglycosides (e.g., tobramycin have been shown to induce biofilm formation. Ciprofloxacin also has been demonstrated to enhance the frequency of mutation to carbapenem resistance. Conversely, although macrolides (e.g., azithromycin typically are not effective against P. aeruginosa because of the pseudomonal outer-membrane impermeability and efflux, macrolides do lead to a reduction in virulence factor production. Similarly, tetracycline is not very effective against this organism, but is known to induce the type-III secretion system and consequently enhance cytotoxicity of P. aeruginosa in vivo. Of special note are the effects of antibacterials and disinfectants on pseudomonal efflux systems. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis inhibitors (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc. induce the MexXY multidrug efflux system. This response is known to be mediated by interference with the translation of the leader peptide PA5471.1, with consequent effects on expression of the PA5471 gene product. Additionally, induction of the MexCD-OprJ multidrug efflux system is observed upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine and benzalkonium. This response is known to be dependent upon the AlgU stress response factor.Altogether, these biological responses of P. aeruginosa

  17. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  18. Arterial occlusion precipitated by cisplatinbased chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin-based therapy is curative in testicular cancer. Adverse effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy include dose-dependent myelosuppression, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and ototoxicity. By contrast, chemotherapy-associated vascular complications are unpredictable. Few incidents of digital gangrene with cisplatin have been reported. Here, we present a patient who developed arterial occlusion leading to gangrene of the toe after cisplatinbased chemotherapy.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of HPA Lanolin® in treatment of lip alterations related to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of chemotherapy on the lips may cause esthetic and functional impact and increase the risk of infection. HPA Lanolin® is an option for supportive therapy because it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and moisturizing properties. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of this product in the prevention of lip alterations in a population of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients undergoing chemotherapy (n = 57 were examined and distributed into two groups: study (used HPA Lanolin® and control (without supportive therapy on the lips. We evaluated the patients two weeks after chemotherapy, registering oral alterations, symptoms of pain, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening and dehydration, classified according to a visual analogue scale. Results: Patients who used HPA Lanolin® had lower dehydration and experienced improvement of lip dryness (p<0.001. The main symptoms were dehydration, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening, pain. The main clinical signs were dry lips, mucositis, cheilitis, hematoma, swelling and cracking. We found no difference concerning the variables of pain, discomfort, and limitation of mouth opening between the study and control group. Conclusions: We suggest that HPA Lanolin® is effective in reducing the symptoms of dehydration and the signs of lip dryness resulting from toxicity of chemotherapy, proving to be an interesting alternative supportive therapy for cancer patients.

  1. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    To determine the optimal use of chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic setting in patients with advanced urothelial cell carcinoma, a consensus conference was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) to critically review th...

  2. Assessment of Brain absorbed X-ray dose during CT- Scan using ImPACT software in Tehran Univeristy hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilpour M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CT scan was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and since then has grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In 1998, the UK National Radiological Protection Board reported that 20% of the national collective dose from medical X-ray examinations derived from CT-scans, although it represented only 2% of all X- ray examinations the aim of this study was to determine the X-ray dosage received by patients in brain CT scan."n"n Methods: In this work, we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in five hospitals in Tehran. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 150 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. "ImPACT" version 0.99v was used to estimate organ and effective dose. Brain examinations were performed with fixed Kvp, mAs and T (slice thickness for each scanner. "n"n Results: Patients, who were scanned by CT of emam Khomeini center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner, received maximum organ dose (brain and minimum organ dose was delivered to patients who were scanned by CT of amir alam center (Toshiba Xvision /EX Scanner. Maximum effective dose was 1.7 mSv acquired in this study for emam Khomeini haspital, smaller than

  3. Chemotherapy e-prescribing: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaid KA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Khaled A Elsaid,1,2 Steven Garguilo,1 Christine M Collins2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, MCPHS University, Boston, MA, 2Pharmacy Services, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy drugs are characterized by low therapeutic indices and significant toxicities at clinically prescribed doses, raising serious issues of drug safety. The safety of the chemotherapy medication use process is further challenged by regimen complexity and need to tailor treatment to patient status. Errors that occur during chemotherapy prescribing are associated with serious and life-threatening outcomes. Computerized provider order entry (CPOE systems were shown to reduce overall medication errors in ambulatory and inpatient settings. The adoption of chemotherapy CPOE is lagging due to financial cost and cultural and technological challenges. Institutions that adopted infusional or oral chemotherapy electronic prescribing modified existing CPOE systems to allow chemotherapy prescribing, implemented chemotherapy-specific CPOE systems, or developed home-grown chemotherapy electronic prescribing programs. Implementation of chemotherapy electronic prescribing was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of prescribing errors, most significantly dose calculation and adjustment errors. In certain cases, implementation of chemotherapy CPOE was shown to improve the chemotherapy use process. The implementation of chemotherapy CPOE may increase the risk of new types of errors, especially if processes are not redesigned and adapted to CPOE. Organizations aiming to implement chemotherapy CPOE should pursue a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders to guide system selection and implementation. Following implementation, organizations should develop and use a risk assessment process to identify and evaluate unanticipated consequences and CPOE-generated errors. The results of these analyses should serve to

  4. Antimicrobial resistance: moving from professional engagement to public action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiru-Oredope, D; Hopkins, S

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial-resistant infections claim ≥700 000 lives each year globally. It is therefore important that both healthcare professionals and the public know the threat antimicrobial resistance poses and the individual actions they can take to combat antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic awareness campaigns in England using posters or leaflets have had little or no impact on knowledge, behaviour or prescription rates. Centrally coordinated, multimodal campaigns in two European countries (ongoing for several years and including print and mass media, web site and guidelines, as well as academic detailing and individual feedback to prescribers) have led to reductions in antibiotic use. To change behaviour and reduce antibiotic use in England, a coordinated and comprehensive interdisciplinary and multifaceted (multimodal) approach using behavioural science and targeted at specific groups (both professional and public) is required. Such campaigns should have an integrated evaluation plan using a combination of formative, process and summative measures from the outset to completion of a campaign. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Increasing antimicrobial resistance and narrowing therapeutics in typhoidal salmonellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurthe, Jaspal

    2013-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever (MDRTF) is a major public health problem in developing countries and is an emerging problem in the developed world. Because of the difficulties in preventing typhoid by public health measures or immunization in developing countries, great reliance is placed on antimicrobial chemotherapy. The treatment should commence as soon as the clinical diagnosis is made rather than after the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests but the existence of MDRTF poses a serious clinical dilemma in the selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy. With the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin became the drug of choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. However, of late the efficacy of fluoroquinolones too has been questioned, mainly due to increasing reports of increasing defervescence time and poor patient response. This indicates that the organism has begun to develop resistance to fluoroquinolones, and is corroborated by a steady increase in Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin. However, the emergence of extended-spectrum b-lactamases (ESBLs) in typhoidal Salmonellae poses a new challenge and would greatly limit the therapeutic options leaving only tigecycline and carbepenems as secondary antimicrobial drugs. This increasing resistance is alarming and emphasizes the need of effective preventive measures to control typhoid and to limit the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolated from acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, I; Nishijima, S; Kawabata, S

    1999-01-01

    Systemic and topical antimicrobial treatment for acne vulgaris remains the mainstay method of therapy in Japan. Strains of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) resistant to erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), tetracycline (TC), doxycycline (DOXY) and minocycline (MINO) have been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine the antimicrobial susceptibility to 10 currently used antimicrobial agents of 50 strains of P. acnes isolated from acne lesions and identified using a Rap ID ANA II panel. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the agar dilution method according to the criteria of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. EM, ampicillin (ABPC), and CLDM were the most potent drugs, followed by MINO, nadifloxacin (NDFX), cephalexin (CEX), DOXY, ofloxacin (OFLX), and TC. In terms of the MIC80, EM and ABPC were the most potent, followed by CLDM, NDFX, MINO, CEX, DOXY, OFLX, TC and gentamycin (GM). Although most of the strains used were susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested, strains of P. acnes resistant (MIC 12.5 mug/ml) to EM (4%), CLDM (4%), DOXY (2%) and TC (2%) were observed. In this study, no strains of P. acnes resistant to MINO were seen, suggesting that oral MINO is the most useful treatment for acne vulgaris with minimal risk of bacterial resistance.

  7. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting During Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, Karen M; Devine, Katie; Ryan, Julie L; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; Peppone, Luke J; Candelario, Grace D; Mohile, Supriya G; Morrow, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most troubling side effects patients experience during chemotherapy. While newly available treatments have improved our ability to manage nausea and vomiting, anticipatory and delayed nausea and vomiting are still a major problem for patients receiving chemotherapy. Many cancer patients will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping chemotherapy altogether because of their fear of experiencing further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and the recommended guidelines for treatment.

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Antimicrobial Resistance Animation of ...

  9. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Enzler, Mark J.; Berbari, Elie; Osmon, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial prophylaxis is commonly used by clinicians for the prevention of numerous infectious diseases, including herpes simplex infection, rheumatic fever, recurrent cellulitis, meningococcal disease, recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis, influenza, infective endocarditis, pertussis, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis, as well as infections associated with open fractures, recent prosthetic joint placement...

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of antimicrobial drugs will result in the development of resistant strains of bacteria, complicating clinician's efforts ... Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English FDA Accessibility Careers FDA Basics FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map ...

  11. The nucleocapsid proteins of mouse hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus share the same IFN-β antagonizing mechanism: attenuation of PACT-mediated RIG-I/ MDA5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhen; Fang, Liurong; Yuan, Shuangling; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Xunlei; Long, Siwen; Wang, Mohan; Wang, Dang; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-07-25

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a huge threat to both humans and animals and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to antagonize interferons (IFNs). Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant viral protein in CoV-infected cells, and has been identified as an innate immunity antagonist in several CoVs, including mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remain unclear. In this study, we found that MHV N protein inhibited Sendai virus and poly(I:C)-induced IFN-β production by targeting a molecule upstream of retinoic acid-induced gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation gene 5 (MDA5). Further studies showed that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins directly interacted with protein activator of protein kinase R (PACT), a cellular dsRNA-binding protein that can bind to RIG-I and MDA5 to activate IFN production. The N-PACT interaction sequestered the association of PACT and RIG-I/MDA5, which in turn inhibited IFN-β production. However, the N proteins from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which are also classified in the order Nidovirales, did not interact and counteract with PACT. Taken together, our present study confirms that both MHV and SARS-CoV N proteins can perturb the function of cellular PACT to circumvent the innate antiviral response. However, this strategy does not appear to be used by all CoVs N proteins.

  12. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers

  13. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  14. Impact of ertapenem on antimicrobial resistance in a sentinel group of Gram-negative bacilli: a 6 year antimicrobial resistance surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Osorio, Carlos A; Sanchez-Martinez, Cesar O; Araujo-Melendez, Javier; Criollo, Elia; Macias-Hernandez, Alejandro E; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Ponce-de-Leon, Sergio; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose

    2015-03-01

    To determine the association between ertapenem and resistance of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex to different antimicrobials while adjusting for relevant hospital factors. This was a retrospective time-series study conducted at a tertiary care centre from September 2002 to August 2008. The specific impact of ertapenem on the resistance of these Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for the average length of stay, rate of hospital-acquired infections and use of 10 other antimicrobials, including type 2 carbapenems. Unadjusted analyses revealed significant increases over the duration of the study in the number of GNB resistant to meropenem/imipenem among 1000 isolates each of E. coli (0.46 ± 0.22, P  0.05) with changes in resistance for any pathogen/antimicrobial combination. After controlling for confounders, ertapenem was not associated with changes in resistance in a group of sentinel GNB, although significant variations in resistance to different antimicrobials were observed in the unadjusted analyses. These results emphasize the importance of implementation of local resistance surveillance platforms and stewardship programmes to combat the global emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pulmonary blastoma: remission with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Jacobsen, M; Vindeløv, L

    1984-01-01

    A 59-year-old man with pulmonary blastoma, who had undergone right-sided pneumonectomy, had a relapse of the tumour 7 months later. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural studies were consistent with recurrence from the primary tumour. Cell kinetic studies revealed a high fraction of tumour cells ...... in the S-phase. Complete remission of the recurrence was obtained within 16 days after initiation of combination chemotherapy consisting of CCNU, vincristine, VP-16 and cyclophosphamide....

  16. Symptoms in Children After Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Atay Turan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of symptoms resulted from chemotherapy in children. Materials and Methods: In this study 46 children and adolescents who had chemotherapy in a pediatric oncology clinic of an oncology hospital were included. Sociodemographic questionnaire and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (10-18 years were used as data collection tool. Results: In this survey the mean age of children with cancer was 13.47±2.14 years and the majority of them (41.3% were monitored with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma diagnosis. The most common symptoms in children who had chemotherapy in hospital were fatigue (76.1%, feeling nervous (69.6%, alopecia (65.2%, nausea (60.9% and feeling sad (60.9%, while the least common symptoms were swelling in the arms/legs (8.7% and problems in urination (6.5%. The most troublesome symptoms were dizziness (66.6%, difficulty in swallowing (64.3%, pain (47.8% and hair loss (43.4%. Conclusions: It was seen that the children still experience high prevalence of post-treatment symptoms, they had more intense psychological symptoms and physical symptoms caused more discomfort.

  17. Bacterial antimicrobial metal ion resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobman, Jon L; Crossman, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    Metals such as mercury, arsenic, copper and silver have been used in various forms as antimicrobials for thousands of years with until recently, little understanding of their mode of action. The discovery of antibiotics and new organic antimicrobial compounds during the twentieth century saw a general decline in the clinical use of antimicrobial metal compounds, with the exception of the rediscovery of the use of silver for burns treatments and niche uses for other metal compounds. Antibiotics and new antimicrobials were regarded as being safer for the patient and more effective than the metal-based compounds they supplanted. Bacterial metal ion resistances were first discovered in the second half of the twentieth century. The detailed mechanisms of resistance have now been characterized in a wide range of bacteria. As the use of antimicrobial metals is limited, it is legitimate to ask: are antimicrobial metal resistances in pathogenic and commensal bacteria important now? This review details the new, rediscovered and 'never went away' uses of antimicrobial metals; examines the prevalence and linkage of antimicrobial metal resistance genes to other antimicrobial resistance genes; and examines the evidence for horizontal transfer of these genes between bacteria. Finally, we discuss the possible implications of the widespread dissemination of these resistances on re-emergent uses of antimicrobial metals and how this could impact upon the antibiotic resistance problem. © 2014 The Authors.

  18. Antimicrobial peptides in Echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are important immune effector molecules for invertebrates, including echinoderms, which lack a vertebrate-type adaptive immune system. Here we summarize the knowledge of such peptides in echinoderms. Strongylocins are a novel family of cysteine-rich AMPs, recently identified in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Although these molecules present diverse amino acid sequences, they share an identical cysteine arrangement pattern, dissimilar to other known AMPs. A family of heterodimeric AMPs, named centrocins, are also present in S. droebachiensis. Lysozymes and fragments of larger proteins, such as beta-thymocins, actin, histone 2A and filamin A have also been shown to display antimicrobial activities in echinoderms. Future studies on AMPs should be aimed in revealing how echinoderms use these AMPs in the immune response against microbial pathogens.

  19. Combating antimicrobial resistance: antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shu-Hui; Lee, Chun-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Yen, Che-Chieh; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2012-04-01

    Multi-drug-resistant organisms are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue. Healthcare-associated infection and antimicrobial resistance are also current challenges to the treatment of infectious diseases in Taiwan. Government health policies and the health care systems play a crucial role in determining the efficacy of interventions to contain antimicrobial resistance. National commitment to understand and address the problem is prerequisite. We analyzed and reviewed the antibiotic resistance related policies in Taiwan, USA, WHO and draft antimicrobial stewardship program to control effectively antibiotic resistance and spreading in Taiwan. Antimicrobial stewardship program in Taiwan includes establishment of national inter-sectoral antimicrobial stewardship task force, implementing antimicrobial-resistance management strategies, surveillance of HAI and antimicrobial resistance, conducting hospital infection control, enforcement of appropriate regulations and audit of antimicrobial use through hospital accreditation, inspection and national health insurance payment system. No action today, no cure tomorrow. Taiwan CDC would take a multifaceted, evidence-based approach and make every effort to combat antimicrobial resistance with stakeholders to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reduce the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  20. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are ...

  1. Antimicrobial Peptides in Echinoderms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C; Haug, T; K Stensvåg

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important immune effector molecules for invertebrates, including echinoderms, which lack a vertebrate-type adaptive immune system. Here we summarize the knowledge of such peptides in echinoderms. Strongylocins are a novel family of cysteine-rich AMPs, recently identified in the sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Although these molecules present diverse amino acid sequences, they share an identical cysteine arrangement pattern, d...

  2. Antimicrobial Modifications of Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlarik, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is focused on antimicrobial modifications of polymer materials intended for medical devices production. Firstly, a brief introduction into the field of medical application of polymers is presented. Considering the fact that polymer medical devices are often connected with occurrence of nosocomial infections, the next part refers to this phenomenon and its causes. One of the possibilities of reducing of the infection occurrence is aimed at polymer modification. It is a key topic o...

  3. The Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Compared to Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Healing after Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jordan D; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2017-01-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy is the latest advancement in the treatment of breast cancer. The authors aimed to investigate the effects of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy in nipple-sparing mastectomy. Patients undergoing nipple-sparing mastectomy from 2006 to June of 2015 were identified. Results were stratified by presence of neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 840 nipple-sparing mastectomies were performed. Twenty-eight were in those who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 93 were in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients receiving both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were included in the neoadjuvant group. Nipple-sparing mastectomies that received neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were compared to those in patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have explantation (p = 0.0239) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0021). Those with neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy were more likely to have implant explantation (p = 0.0015) and complete nipple-areola complex necrosis (p = 0.0004) compared to those with no chemotherapy. Compared to nipple-sparing mastectomies in patients with no chemotherapy, those with adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have a hematoma (p = 0.0021). Those that received both neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely to have complete nipple-areola complex necrosis compared with both the neoadjuvant chemotherapy-only and adjuvant chemotherapy-only groups (p < 0.0001). Nipple-sparing mastectomy is safe to perform in the setting of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. As a whole, neoadjuvant (with or without adjuvant) chemotherapy increases risk of complications. Therapeutic, III.

  4. [Antimicrobial mechanisms of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A large number of families and groups of antimicrobial agents are of clinical interest. The mechanisms by which compounds with antibacterial activity inhibit growth or cause bacterial death are varied and depend on the affected targets. The bacterial cell wall-a unique structure in most bacteria that is absent in eukaryotic cells-can be affected in several ways: at different stages of synthesis (fosfomycin, cycloserine) or transport (bacitracin, mureidomycins) of its metabolic precursors, or by a direct action on its structural organization (beta-lactams, glycopeptides). The main drugs affecting the cytoplasmic membrane are polymyxins and daptomycin. Protein synthesis can be blocked by a large variety of compounds that affect any of the phases of this process, including activation (mupirocin), initiation (oxazolidinones, aminoglycosides), binding of the tRNA amino acid complex to ribosomes (tetracyclines, glycylcyclines) and elongation (amphenicols, lincosamides, macrolides, ketolides, streptogramins, fusidic acid). The metabolism of nucleic acids can be altered at the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase or in the process of DNA coiling (quinolones); some compounds affect DNA directly (nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans). Trimethoprim and sulfamides (often used in combination) are examples of antimicrobial agents that block bacterial metabolic pathways. Some compounds are unable to inhibit or kill bacteria in themselves, but can block bacterial mechanisms of resistance, enhancing the activity of other antimicrobials administered in combination. Among this group of agents, only certain beta-lactamase inhibitors are currently in clinical use.

  5. [Neruda and antimicrobial resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotera, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has been a problem in medicine, since their incorporation to clinical practice. Numerous papers have been written on the subject. The analysis of two poems by Pablo Neruda "How much does a man live" and "Larynx", included in the volume "Estravagario" and published for the first time in 1957 and 1958, give us an incredible revelation about the concept of resistance. In these poems aureomycin, the first antimicrobial of the family of tetracyclines, was included as a poetic figure and the therapeutic action of antimicrobials was described. "Never so much bugs died I tons of them fell I but the few that remained olive I manifested their perversity". These writings incorporated novel concepts, even for physicians of that time and described the closeness of death that a patient may perceive during the course of a given disease. The capacity of Pablo Neruda to extract the essence of situations and to anticipate to conditions that only years later became clinically relevant problems, is noteworthy.

  6. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  7. Understanding the culture of antimicrobial prescribing in agriculture: a qualitative study of UK pig veterinary surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L A; Latham, S M; Williams, N J; Dawson, S; Donald, I J; Pearson, R B; Smith, R F; Pinchbeck, G L

    2016-11-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  8. Antimicrobial Drugs in the Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-19

    Survey participants in the United Kingdom admitted keeping leftover antimicrobial drugs for future use and taking them without medical advice. Dr. J. Todd Weber, director of CDC's Office of Antimicrobial Resistance, advises against the practice, which can be dangerous and can promote antimicrobial drug resistance.  Created: 10/19/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 10/26/2006.

  9. Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Merimsky

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and Methods: Seven patients with progressive localized or metastatic chemo-resistant osteosarcoma were treated by gemcitabine.The protocol included gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2/w for 7 consecutive weeks, followed by 1 week rest. If no progression was observed,maintenance by gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2/w for 3 weeks every 28 days was given until failure was clinically or radiologically evident.

  10. Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor cells. Mitotic inhibitors—These agents are usually plant-based, natural substances that interfere with the production ... drugs Infertility Seizures Weakness Balance or coordination problems Memory or cognitive problems Brain swelling Damage to internal ...

  11. Chemotherapie-induzierte Neuropathien (CIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vass A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durch Chemotherapie induzierte Neuropathien manifestieren sich meist als überwiegend sensorische Neuropathien, die zu Koordinationsstörungen und neuropathischen Schmerzen führen. Da es keine kausale Therapie gibt, stellen sie eine dosislimitierende Nebenwirkung der Tumortherapie dar. Hervorgerufen werden sie durch fünf Substanzgruppen: Platinderivate, Taxane, Vinca-Alkaloide sowie Bortezomib und Thalidomid. In dieser Übersicht wird auf die kumulativen Dosen dieser Substanzen und die jeweilige Symptomatik und Häufigkeit der dadurch entstehenden Neuropathien eingegangen.

  12. Immunological aspects of cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Apetoh, Lionel; Ghiringhelli, François; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate and adaptive immune systems make a crucial contribution to the antitumour effects of conventional chemotherapy-based and radiotherapy-based cancer treatments. Moreover, the molecular and cellular bases of the immunogenicity of cell death that is induced by cytotoxic agents are being progressively unravelled, challenging the guidelines that currently govern the development of anticancer drugs. Here, we review the immunological aspects of conventional cancer treatments and propose that future successes in the fight against cancer will rely on the development and clinical application of combined chemo- and immunotherapies.

  13. [Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Mortensen, John Pløen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2013-09-09

    A new Cochrane meta-analysis evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based, not modern combination chemotherapy) in almost 10,000 patients with rectal cancer and showed a 17% reduction in mortality corresponding well to the efficacy observed in recent studies, which reported a reduction in mortality just about 20%. The authors recommend adjuvant chemotherapy which is in accordance with the Danish national guidelines where 5-FU-based chemotherapy is recommended for stage III and high-risk stage II rectal cancer.

  14. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  15. Impact d'Internet sur la suicidalité. À propos d'une " googling study " sur la rétro-information médiatique d'un pacte suicidaire échafaudé sur le Web

    OpenAIRE

    Auxéméry, Y.; Fidelle, G.

    2010-01-01

    Resume La communication via Internet ne cesse de se developper dans une societe de plus en plus mediatisee. A l?occasion d?un pacte suicidaire recemment conclu sur la toile, les medias se sont interroges sur la responsabilite du Web en tant que promoteur du suicide. Apres une revue de la litterature explorant les liens entre Internet et suicidalite, nous evoquerons les determinants epidemiologiques et psychopathologiques du pacte suicidaire elabore sur Internet ou cybersuicide. Nou...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of different tissues of snakehead fish Channa striatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the presence of antimicrobial activity in different organs/tissues (gills, blood, skin, liver, intestine, kidney, tissue and ovary extract of snakehead fish Channa striatus. Methods: A total of 48 fractions from the organs and tissue extracts were obtained by solid-phase extraction and the fractions were assayed for antimicrobial activity. The screening of antimicrobial activity for all the fractions were tested against 8 human pathogens including Gram positive (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Gram negative bacteria (Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Acinetobacter baumanni, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae using the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC standardized disc susceptibility test method. The activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition in mm. Results: The results indicated that, among the 8 organs/tissues tested only blood and gills extract fractions (40 and 60 % ACN fraction showed inhibition against Escherichia coli and 60 % ACN fraction of gill extract showed inhibition against Salmonella enteritidis. Protein profile analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that antimicrobial activity of the partially purified blood and gill tissue extracts might be due to low molecular weight peptides. Conclusions: The present study showed that, gill and blood extracts of Channa striatus can be a potential source of an antimicrobial protein for specific human pathogens.

  17. Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic agents decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer agents being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic agents, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals provides thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2017-05-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates in faecal microbiota exists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Linezolid on Hematologic Recovery in Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Following Induction Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedved, Adrienne N; DeFrates, Sean R; Hladnik, Lindsay M; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E

    2016-10-01

    Assess the effects of linezolid on hematologic outcomes in newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following induction chemotherapy. Single-center, retrospective, observational, cohort study. Large, tertiary care academic medical center. A total of 225 patients ≥ 18 years admitted between December 2010 and 2013 with newly diagnosed AML were assessed for inclusion. Patients were identified through the use of ICD-9 codes and chemotherapy ordered via the computerized physician order entry system. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria and were grouped into two arms based on antimicrobial treatment: LZD group (linezolid plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=21) or control group (vancomycin or daptomycin plus gram-negative antimicrobial, n=47). The LZD group received linezolid ≥ 72 hours. The control group received vancomycin or daptomycin ≥ 72 hours. If patients switched extended gram-positive therapy, they were included in the LZD group as long as they had received ≥ 72 hours of linezolid. The primary end point of time to neutrophil recovery was not statistically different (28 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.675). The preplanned subgroup analysis of patients who received ≥ 14 days of linezolid demonstrated statistically similar median times to neutrophil recovery (29 days for LZD group vs 26 days for control group; p=0.487). Total duration of extended gram-positive antimicrobial therapy was significantly longer in the LZD group (27 days vs 16 days; pchemotherapy. This study provides new insight with a primary focus on the effects of hematologic outcomes when using linezolid in a well-defined acute leukemia population. Further study is warranted with larger populations to assess the potential adverse effects linezolid may have in patients with acute leukemia. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship: philosophy versus practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth S; Kaye, Keith S; DePestel, Daryl D; Hermsen, Elizabeth D

    2014-10-15

    To promote the judicious use of antimicrobials and preserve their usefulness in the setting of growing resistance, a number of policy-making bodies and professional societies have advocated the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Although these programs have been implemented at many institutions in the United States, their impact has been difficult to measure. Current recommendations advocate the use of both outcome and process measures as metrics for antimicrobial stewardship. Although patient outcome metrics have the greatest impact on the quality of care, the literature shows that antimicrobial use and costs are the indicators measured most frequently by institutions to justify the effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The measurement of more meaningful outcomes has been constrained by difficulties inherent to these measures, lack of funding and resources, and inadequate study designs. Antimicrobial stewardship can be made more credible by refocusing the antimicrobial review process to target specific disease states, reassessing the usefulness of current metrics, and integrating antimicrobial stewardship program initiatives into institutional quality and safety efforts.

  1. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  2. Chemotherapy and Sex: Is Sexual Activity OK during Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Procedures Chemotherapy Is it safe to have sex with my husband while undergoing chemotherapy? Answers from ... best to discuss any concerns about chemotherapy and sex with your doctor, who's familiar with your individual ...

  3. Chemotherapy and Hair Loss: What to Expect during Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Chemotherapy Find out what to expect when it comes to chemotherapy and hair loss. Plan to use your energy staying ... you have cancer and are about to undergo chemotherapy, the chance of hair loss is very real. ...

  4. Antimicrobial screening of Mnium stellare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Canli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plants contain active substances that are known to be effective in both enhancing the wound healing process and lowering the incidence of wound infections. Previous studies have shown that bryophytes produce a variety of secondary metabolites that present pharmaceutical activities including antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Mnium stellare against 17 bacterial and 1 fungal strains. Our present study has shown that the ethanol extract of M. stellare has antimicrobial activity against several Gram positive and Gram negative microorganism tested, but its antimicrobial activity is notable especially against B. subtilis, S. typhimirium, S. aureus, S. carnosus, and S. epidermidis. These results are the very first report of the antimicrobial activity of M. stellare.

  5. How to fight antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Antimicrobial misuse results in the development of resistance and superbugs. Over recent decades, resistance has been increasing despite continuing efforts to control it, resulting in increased mortality and cost. Many authorities have proposed local, regional and national guidelines to fight against this phenomenon, and the usefulness of these programmes has been evaluated. Multifaceted intervention seems to be the most efficient method to control antimicrobial resistance. Monitoring of bacterial resistance and antibiotic use is essential, and the methodology has now been homogenized. The implementation of guidelines and infection control measures does not control antimicrobial resistance and needs to be reinforced by associated measures. Educational programmes and rotation policies have not been evaluated sufficiently in the literature. Combination antimicrobial therapy is inefficient in controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  6. [Chemotherapy-induced stomatitis and diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Shigenori; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2011-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a clinically important and sometimes dose-limiting toxicity of cancer treatment, including standard-dose chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Consequently, dose reductions or treatment delays resulting from mucositis may impair treatment effectiveness. Symptoms are oral mucositis, dysphagia, abdominal pain and diarrhea, depending on the affected site. Although the underlying pathobiology of oral mucositis has been considerably elucidated over the past decade, there are few interventions for the prevention or treatment validated by randomized trials. The most commonly accepted intervention is basic oral care. Diarrhea is most common in patients treated with irinotecan and in some cases, life-threatening. No definitive interventions for the prevention of diarrhea exist, but there is evidence that loperamide and octreotide are effective for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. In future, there is a need for well designed trials, preferably including a placebo or no treatment control, validating more effective interventions for managing chemotherapy- induced mucositis.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, John

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in β-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance. PMID:12406948

  8. Chemotherapy of metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. In 2008 inRussian Federation55 719 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed and 37 911 patients died of this disease. A significant progress was achieved in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment during the last decades. A lot of treatment options became available: from 5-fluoruracil monotherapy to combined treatment treatment schemes including surgery. A group of patients with isolated liver metastases was distinguished, who can achieve 5-year survival rate of 40 % after systemic treatment and surgery. Today, based on clinical data and molecular analysis, we come close to individualized treatment of this patient group. In this literature review results of metastatic colorectal cancer chemotherapy are being analyzed and rational treatment tactic is proposed based on therapy goals. 

  9. History of chemotherapy of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordeen, Shaik K

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy of leprosy over the past 70 years has passed through several phases, from sulfones, to clofazimine, and to highly bactericidal drugs like rifampicin. The use particularly of the more potent drugs in effective combinations and the development of standard multidrug therapy regimens have made a huge difference in the successful treatment of leprosy as well as in reducing tremendously the prevalence of leprosy globally. A major contributing factor to development of better drugs and drug combinations has been the introduction of the mouse footpad model to evaluate the in vivo activity of drugs against Mycobacterium leprae. The World Health Organization has recommended multidrug therapy, which has been used to treat more than 15 million patients in the last 30 years and has set an excellent record with regard to its very high rate of cure, very low occurrence of relapse, and very rare occurrence of drug resistance.

  10. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...

  12. Antimicrobial properties of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Preethi; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2012-12-01

    Hemoglobin consists of a heme containing component and a globin unit. It exists as a tetramer with 2 α subunits and 2 β subunits in adults and with 2 α subunits and 2 γ chains in infants. On proteolytic cleavage, hemoglobin breaks down to produce many biologically active compounds, among which are hemocidins, those which exhibit antimicrobial property. The generation of these peptides does not depend on the blood group, Rhesus factor, age and sex of the healthy donors. The microbicidal activity has been observed against a variety of gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and against filamentous fungi, yeast and even certain parasites. The discovery of hemocidins opens a new field for research into the details of the peptides acting as second line of defence in boosting the innate immune system of the organisms.

  13. Safe chemotherapy in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis-Parker, Paula

    2015-05-01

    The Oncology Nursing Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the safe and effective use of chemotherapeutic medications in the acute and outpatient care settings. A review of literature was performed to determine the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy in the home environment. The administration of oral and intravenous chemotherapy in the home has become a common intervention for patients being treated for cancer based on patient preference, cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery, and increasing demand for oncology services. Home healthcare nurses can greatly impact the management of adverse effects of chemotherapy in the home, increasing the quality of life and improving patient outcomes.

  14. Overview, prevention and management of chemotherapy extravasation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidieh, Firas Y; Moukadem, Hiba A; El Saghir, Nagi S

    2016-02-10

    Chemotherapy extravasation remains an accidental complication of chemotherapy administration and may result in serious damage to patients. We review in this article the clinical aspects of chemotherapy extravasation and latest advances in definitions, classification, prevention, management and guidelines. We review the grading of extravasation and tissue damage according to various chemotherapeutic drugs and present an update on treatment and new antidotes including dexrazoxane for anthracyclines extravasation. We highlight the importance of education and training of the oncology team for prevention and prompt pharmacological and non-pharmacological management and stress the availability of new antidotes like dexrazoxane wherever anthracyclines are being infused.

  15. Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, Karen M; Darling, Tom V; Janelsins, Michelle C; Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    Despite treatment advances, nausea and vomiting, especially anticipatory nausea and vomiting, delayed nausea and vomiting and nausea alone, are still the most common, expected and feared side effects among patients receiving chemotherapy. Of the 70 to 80% of cancer patients who experience chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting many will delay or refuse future chemotherapy treatments and contemplate stopping all treatments because of fear of further nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the patho-psychophysiology of CINV, the recommended guidelines for standard treatment, and highlight newer targeted treatment approaches.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Justicia adhatoda L. in comparison with vasicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Pa; Linu Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extracts of Justicia adhatoda and vasicine against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus flavus. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the concentrated leaf extracts of J. adhatoda was evaluated by determination of the diameter of zone of inhibition against bacteria and fungi. 25μg ml-1 concentration was used to check the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and vasicine. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum microbicidal concentrations were determined against all the pathogens. Sensitivity of the pathogens was also checked with four standard antibiotics, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin for bacteria and nystatin and amphotericin B for fungi. Results: The phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids in the extracts were active against both bacteria and fungi. Studies on the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts on the test organisms showed that the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum microbicidal concentrations were demonstrated against Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the highest minimum inhibitory concentration was exhibited against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuspyogenes, Klebsiella pnuemoniae. Among fungi Aspergillus flavus showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration whereas Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans showed highest minimum inhibitory concentration. Conclusion: The present study revealed that J. adhatoda has broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and a potential source of antimicrobial agents that could be useful for chemotherapy and control of infectious diseases.

  17. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Kerantzas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1–126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015. Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs.

  18. Native Brazilian plants against nosocomial infections: a critical review on their potential and the antimicrobial methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H Moreno, Paulo Roberto; da Costa-Issa, Fabiana Inácio; Rajca-Ferreira, Agnieszka K; Pereira, Marcos A A; Kaneko, Telma M

    2013-01-01

    The growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens have increased the attention on several medicinal plants and their metabolites for antimicrobial properties. These pathogens are the main cause of nosocomial infections which led to an increasing mortality among hospitalized patients. Taking into consideration those factors, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the research on antibacterial agents from native Brazilian plant species related to nosocomial infections as well as the current methods used in the investigations of the antimicrobial activity and points out the differences in techniques employed by the authors. The antimicrobial assays most frequently used were broth microdilution, agar diffusion, agar dilution and bioautography. The broth microdilution method should be the method of choice for testing new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts or isolated compounds due to its advantages. At the moment, only a small part of the rich Brazilian flora has been investigated for antimicrobial activity, mostly with unfractionated extracts presenting a weak or moderate antibacterial activity. The combination of crude extract with conventional antibiotics represents a largely unexploited new form of chemotherapy with novel and multiple mechanisms of action that can overcome microbial resistance that needs to be further investigated. The antibacterial activity of essential oil vapours might also be an interesting alternative treatment of hospital environment due to their ability in preventing biofilm formation. However, in both alternatives more studies should be done on their mode of action and toxicological effects in order to optimize their use.

  19. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerantzas, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1–126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015). Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs. PMID:28292983

  20. Origins of Combination Therapy for Tuberculosis: Lessons for Future Antimicrobial Development and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerantzas, Christopher A; Jacobs, William R

    2017-03-14

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1-126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015). Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950. These antimicrobial drugs were the product of many decades of investigation into both organism-derived antibiotics and synthetic chemotherapy and were the first agents in those respective categories to show substantial clinical efficacy and widespread use for tuberculosis. The events leading to the discovery and application of these two agents demonstrate that investments in all aspects of research, from basic science to clinical application, are necessary for the continued success of science in finding treatments for human disease. This observation is especially worth considering given the expanded role that combination therapy may play in combating the current rise in resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Copyright © 2017 Kerantzas and Jacobs.

  1. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article.

  2. Serological Characterization and Antimicrobial Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    300L Coordinator

    identified and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard procedures. The total .... serotypes and their antimicrobial resistivity patterns from patients ..... the best of our knowledge). ... Testing of Bacterial Pathogens of Public.

  3. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, J.W.; Aarnoutse, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dose adjustments of antimicrobials based on measured concentrations in an individual ('therapeutic drug monitoring', TDM) is increasingly recognized. There are several reasons for this. First, there is a better understanding of the relationships between doses administered,

  4. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Christine; Rehan, Fareed Ahmed; Skoetz, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined modality treatment (CMT) consisting of chemotherapy followed by localised radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, due to long term adverse effects such as secondary malignancies, the role of radiotherapy has been...... questioned recently and some clinical study groups advocate chemotherapy only for this indication. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy alone with CMT in patients with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma with respect...

  5. The safety of antimicrobial drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Ćupić Vitomir; Jezdimirović Milanka; Dobrić Silva; Ivanović Saša; Ćupić-Miladinović Dejana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial drugs in clinical practice has been recorded as one of the greatest achievements in the history of medicine. The application of these drugs, made a big, almost revolutionary upheaval in treatment of many infectious diseases. Its significance for the humanity lies in the fact that hundreds of thousands of people, until then condemned to a certain death, has been saved now. However, it was shown that antimicrobi...

  6. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  7. Antimicrobial constituents of Foeniculum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Soo; Choi, Won Gyu; Kim, Won Jun; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Myong Jo; Kang, Won Hee; Kim, Chang Min

    2002-04-01

    A phenyl propanoid derivative, dillapional(1) was found to be a antimicrobial principle of the stems of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) with MIC values of 125, 250 and 125/ against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides, respectively. A coumarin derivative, scopoletin(2) was also isolated as marginally antimicrobial agent along with inactive compounds, dillapiol(3), bergapten(4), imperatorin(5) and psolaren(6) from this plant. The isolates 1-6 were not active against the Escherichia coli.

  8. Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrasegaran, K.; Alazmi, W.M.; Tann, M.; Fogel, E.L.; McHenry, L.; Lehman, G.A

    2006-08-15

    Aim: To review the computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cholangiographic findings of chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis (CISC). Methods: Between January 1995 and December 2004, 11 patients in the endoscopic retrograde cholangiography database were identified with CISC. Twelve CT, four MRI, 69 endoscopic and nine antegrade cholangiographic studies in these patients were reviewed. Serial change in appearance and response to endoscopic treatment were recorded. Results: CISC showed segmental irregular biliary dilatation with strictures of proximal extrahepatic bile ducts. The distal 5 cm of common bile duct was not affected in any patient. CT and MRI findings included altered vascular perfusion of one or more liver segments, liver metastases or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Biliary strictures needed repeated stenting in 10 patients (mean: every 4.7 months). Cirrhosis (n = 1) or confluent fibrosis (n = 0) were uncommon findings. Conclusion: CISC shares similar cholangiographic appearances to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Unlike PSC, biliary disease primarily involved ducts at the hepatic porta rather than intrahepatic ducts. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI may show evidence of perfusion abnormalities, cavitary liver lesions, or metastatic disease.

  9. Patient expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colagiuri, Ben; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    , specifically controlling for a history of nausea, and involving breast cancer patients, none of the moderators assessed were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that patient expectancies may contribute to post-chemotherapy nausea and that expectancy-based manipulations may provide......BACKGROUND: Post-chemotherapy nausea remains a significant burden to cancer patients. While some studies indicate that expecting nausea is predictive of experiencing nausea, there are a number of conflicting findings. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analytic review......, there was a robust positive association between expectancy and post-chemotherapy nausea (ESr = 0.18, equivalent to Cohen's d = 0.35), suggesting that patients with stronger expectancies experience more chemotherapy-induced nausea. Although weaker associations were found in studies employing multivariate analysis...

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  11. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    % of patients aged 40 or younger in 77B had regular menses throughout chemotherapy, the corresponding percentage was 37 in 82B and 47 in 89B. The DBCG in collaboration with a Swedish and a Dutch centre participating in the DBCG trial 89B compared CMF with ovarian ablation in premenopausal high-risk breast...... are not clinically useful by themselves as other chemotherapy regimens have been more efficacious, and knowledge is still lacking regarding the benefits from adding ovarian suppression to chemotherapy plus tamoxifen. The results from the DBCG 77B and 82C are in accordance with other large adjuvant trials...... adjuvant trials demonstrated that patients with either TOP2A or centromere 17 aberrations, but not with HER2 amplification, benefit from anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. Anthracyclins have additional distinct biological mechanisms; and results from the DBCG 89D suggested that tumours...

  13. Adverse Effects of Radiation and Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The long-term consequences of radiation and chemotherapy on intellectual and endocrine function in children with brain tumors is reviewed from the Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY.

  14. Combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives for medulloblastoma. The usefulness as maintenance chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Otani, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Kazunari; Kagami, Hiroshi; Shimazaki, Kenji; Toya, Shigeo; Kawase, Takeshi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    The authors reviewed 24 cerebellar medulloblastoma patients treated at Keio University to determine usefulness of combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives (cisplatin, carboplatin) as the induction and maintenance treatment. All patients underwent radical surgery and craniospinal irradiation. Ten received adjuvant chemotherapy other than platinum derivatives (mainly with nitrosourea compounds), five were treated by induction and maintenance chemotherapy including platinum derivatives, and nine patients did not undergo chemotherapy. The progression-free survival rate of patients treated with platinum derivatives was better than that of patients treated with other modes of chemotherapy and also that of patients who did not receive chemotherapy. The results were especially good in the case of four patients treated with maintenance chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide, two of whom had been free from relapse beyond the risk period of Collins. The occurrences of toxicity in maintenance chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide were limited to transient leucopenia. The present study indicates combined chemotherapy including platinum derivatives benefits patients with medulloblastoma, and could be useful, especially as maintenance treatment. (author)

  15. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Chiu, Gabriel S; Krukowski, Karen; Lacourt, Tamara E; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dantzer, Robert; Heijnen, Cobi J; Walker, Adam K

    2015-01-01

    While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms) of chemotherapy include (i) cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii) fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii) neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence, neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients.

  16. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth G Vichaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms of chemotherapy include (i cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during treatment but can remain even after cessation of chemotherapy, severely impacting long-term quality of life. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of these behavioral toxicities, however, neuroinflammation is widely considered to be one of the major mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced symptoms. Here, we critically assess what is known in regards to the role of neuroinflammation in chemotherapy-induced symptoms. We also argue that, based on the available evidence neuroinflammation is unlikely the only mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. We evaluate two other putative candidate mechanisms. To this end we discuss the mediating role of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs activated in response to chemotherapy-induced cellular damage. We also review the literature with respect to possible alternative mechanisms such as a chemotherapy-induced change in the bioenergetic status of the tissue involving changes in mitochondrial function in relation to chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of fatigue, neuropathy, and cognitive difficulties is vital to better treatment and long-term survival of cancer patients.

  17. [Combined radio- and chemotherapy of anal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, W

    1986-05-30

    The treatment regime in anal carcinoma is changing from being a mainly surgical problem. Combined radio-chemotherapy is of increasing interest as treatment of choice. The new treatment modality, including chemotherapy with Mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil combined with percutaneous and interstitial radiotherapy is presented. The treatment regimes performed at the University Department for Radiotherapy and Radiobiology Vienna is discussed with regard to tolerance, side effects and local control.

  18. Chemotherapy induced nausea AND vomiting (CINV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bannur R. Nandeesh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is the first line treatment in management of many cancers, both for cure and palliation; hence it’s crucial to minimize the unpleasant side effects of chemotherapy to increase tolerability to chemotherapy. Most of the conventional anti cancer drugs are emetogenic. Patients receiving chemotherapy experience different degrees of nausea and vomiting depending on the emetogenic potential of the anti cancer drugs given and the patient characteristics. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology, distinct phases of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV i.e., acute emesis, delayed emesis and anticipatory emesis have been identified. Identification of various mediators has led to the development of different drugs acting through different mechanisms which are useful in the prevention and treatment of CINV. Serotonin receptor three (5-HT3 antagonists, corticosteroids and neurokinin type one receptor (NK-1 antagonists are of proven usefulness and have wide therapeutic indexes in the prevention of CINV. Other drugs like dopamine receptor antagonists & benzodiazepines are not routinely used because of their narrow therapeutic index. Practice guidelines for prevention of CINV will not only improve patient’s tolerability to chemotherapy & wellbeing, but also decrease hospital stay and overall cost of treatment of the patient. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 125-131

  19. Fasting and differential chemotherapy protection in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaghello, Lizzia; Safdie, Fernando; Bianchi, Giovanna; Dorff, Tanya; Fontana, Luigi; Longo, Valter D

    2010-11-15

    Chronic calorie restriction has been known for decades to prevent or retard cancer growth, but its weight-loss effect and the potential problems associated with combining it with chemotherapy have prevented its clinical application. Based on the discovery in model organisms that short term starvation (STS or fasting) causes a rapid switch of cells to a protected mode, we described a fasting-based intervention that causes remarkable changes in the levels of glucose, IGF-I and many other proteins and molecules and is capable of protecting mammalian cells and mice from various toxins, including chemotherapy. Because oncogenes prevent the cellular switch to this stress resistance mode, starvation for 48 hours or longer protects normal yeast and mammalian cells and mice but not cancer cells from chemotherapy, an effect we termed Differential Stress Resistance (DSR). In a recent article, 10 patients who fasted in combination with chemotherapy, reported that fasting was not only feasible and safe but caused a reduction in a wide range of side effects accompanied by an apparently normal and possibly augmented chemotherapy efficacy. Together with the remarkable results observed in animals, these data provide preliminary evidence in support of the human application of this fundamental biogerontology finding, particularly for terminal patients receiving chemotherapy. Here we briefly discuss the basic, pre-clinical, and clinical studies on fasting and cancer therapy.

  20. Antimicrobial stewardship in a Gastroenterology Department: Impact on antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedini, Andrea; De Maria, Nicola; Del Buono, Mariagrazia; Bianchini, Marcello; Mancini, Mauro; Binda, Cecilia; Brasacchio, Andrea; Orlando, Gabriella; Franceschini, Erica; Meschiari, Marianna; Sartini, Alessandro; Zona, Stefano; Paioli, Serena; Villa, Erica; Gyssens, Inge C; Mussini, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    A major cause of the increase in antimicrobial resistance is the inappropriate use of antimicrobials. To evaluate the impact on antimicrobial consumption and clinical outcome of an antimicrobial stewardship program in an Italian Gastroenterology Department. Between October 2014 and September 2015 (period B), a specialist in infectious diseases (ID) controlled all antimicrobial prescriptions and decided about the therapy in agreement with gastroenterologists. The defined daily doses of antimicrobials (DDDs), incidence of MDR-infections, mean length of stay and overall in-hospital mortality rate were compared with those of the same period in the previous 12-months (period A). During period B, the ID specialist performed 304 consultations: antimicrobials were continued in 44.4% of the cases, discontinued in 13.8%, not recommended in 12.1%, de-escalated 9.9%, escalated in 7.9%, and started in 4.0%. Comparing the 2 periods, we observed a decreased of antibiotics consumption (from 109.81 to 78.45 DDDs/100 patient-days, p=0.0005), antifungals (from 41.28 to 24.75 DDDs/100pd, p=0.0004), carbapenems (from 15.99 to 6.80 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0032), quinolones (from 35.79 to 17.82 DDDsx100pd, p=0.0079). No differences were observed in incidence of MDR-infections, length of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rate. ASP program had a positive impact on reducing the consumption of antimicrobials, without an increase in LOS and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A primary health-care intervention on pre- and postnatal risk factor behavior to prevent childhood allergy. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. Methods The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT study invited all pregnant women and parents to children up to 2 years of age in the community to participate in a non-randomized, controlled, multiple life-style intervention study. Interventional topics was increased dietary intake of cod liver oil and oily fish for women during pregnancy and for infants during the first 2 years of life, reduced parental smoking and reduced indoor dampness. A control cohort was established prior to the intervention cohort with "follow up as usual". Questionnaires were completed in pregnancy, 6 weeks after birth and at 1 and 2 years of age. Trends in exposure and behavior are described. Results Intake of oily fish and cod liver oil increased statistically significantly among women and infants in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. There was a low postnatal smoking prevalence in both cohorts, with a trend towards a decreasing smoking prevalence in the control cohort. There was no change in indoor dampness or in behavior related to non- intervened life-style factors. Conclusions The dietary intervention seemed to be successful. The observed reduced smoking behavior could not be attributed to the intervention program, and the latter had no effect on indoor dampness. Trial registrations (Current Controlled Trials registration number: ISRCTN28090297

  2. Antimicrobial peptides in crustaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Rosa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans are a large and diverse invertebrate animal group that mounts a complex and efficient innate immune response against a variety of microorganisms. The crustacean immune system is primarily related to cellular responses and the production and release of important immune effectors into the hemolymph. Antimicrobial proteins and/or peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, 15 distinct AMP families are currently recognized, although the great majority (14 families comes from members of the order Decapoda. Crustacean AMPs are generally cationic, gene-encoded molecules that are mainly produced by circulating immune-competent cells (hemocytes or are derived from unrelated proteins primarily involved in other biological functions. In this review, we tentatively classified the crustacean AMPs into four main groups based on their amino acid composition, structural features and multi-functionality. We also attempted to summarize the current knowledge on their implication both in an efficient response to microbial infections and in crustacean survival.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

  4. Antimicrobial peptides in annelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tasiemski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are widely distributed among living organisms including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. They constitute important effectors of the innate immune response by exerting multiple roles as mediators of inflammation with impact on epithelial and inflammatory cells influencing diverse processes such as cytokine release, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, wound healing, chemotaxis and immune induction. In invertebrates, most of the data describe the characterization and/or the function of AMPs in the numerically and economically most representative group which are arthropods. Annelids are among the first coelomates and are therefore of special phylogenetic interest. Compared to other invertebrate groups, data on annelid’s immunity reveal heavier emphasis on the cellular than on the humoral response suggesting that immune defense of annelids seems to be principally developed as cellular immunity.This paper gives an overview of the variety of AMPs identified in the three classes of annelids, i.e. polychaetes, oligochaetes and achaetes. Their functions, when they have been studied, in the humoral or cellular response of annelids are also mentioned.

  5. Editorial of the Special Issue Antimicrobial Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Francolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The special issue “Antimicrobial Polymers” includes research and review papers concerning the recent advances on preparation of antimicrobial polymers and their relevance to industrial settings and biomedical field. Antimicrobial polymers have recently emerged as promising candidates to fight microbial contamination onto surfaces thanks to their interesting properties. In this special issue, the main strategies pursued for developing antimicrobial polymers, including polymer impregnation with antimicrobial agents or synthesis of polymers bearing antimicrobial moieties, were discussed. The future application of these polymers either in industrial or healthcare settings could result in an extremely positive impact not only at the economic level but also for the improvement of quality of life.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses: Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, T W; Clegg, P D; Williams, N J; Pinchbeck, G L

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to the continued successful use of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bacterial infections. While the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from man has been studied extensively, less work has been undertaken in companion animals, particularly horses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been identified as a cause of infections, with a low prevalence of nasal carriage by horses in the community but higher for hospitalised horses. Molecular characterisation has shown methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains either to be predominantly of types associated with horses or of sequence type ST398. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (including multidrug-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates) have caused infections and been documented in faecal carriage by horses, with many significant resistance mechanisms identified. More sporadic reports and molecular characterisation exist for resistance in other bacteria such as enterococci, Salmonella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas species. Limited work has been undertaken evaluating risk factors and much of the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from horses remains to be determined.

  7. How to educate prescribers in antimicrobial stewardship practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulcini, C.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread antimicrobial use has compromised its value, leading to a crisis of antimicrobial resistance. A major cause of misuse is insufficient knowledge of prescribing of antimicrobials in many categories of professionals. An important principle of antimicrobial stewardship is avoiding selection

  8. Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex component DGCR8 and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) components argonaute-1, argonaute-2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Skrygan, Marina; Georgas, Dimitrios; Arenz, Christoph; Gambichler, Thilo; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-11-01

    The microprocessor complex mediates intranuclear biogenesis of precursor microRNAs from the primary microRNA transcript. Extranuclear, mature microRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) before interaction with complementary target mRNA leads to transcriptional repression or cleavage. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of the microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) and the RISC components argonaute-1 (AGO1), argonaute-2 (AGO2), as well as double-stranded RNA-binding proteins PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer and its premalignant stage. Patients with premalignant actinic keratoses (AK, n = 6), basal cell carcinomas (BCC, n = 15), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, n = 7) were included in the study. Punch biopsies were harvested from the center of the tumors (lesional), from healthy skin sites (intraindividual controls), and from healthy skin sites in a healthy control group (n = 16; interindividual control). The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 mRNA expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, and TARBP1 expression levels were significantly higher in the AK, BCC, and SCC groups than the healthy controls (P  0.05). This study indicates that major components of the miRNA pathway, such as the microprocessor complex and RISC, are dysregulated in epithelial skin cancer.

  9. [Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prada, María; Rodríguez-Martínez, María; García-García, Rebeca; García-Corte, María Dolores; Martínez-Ortega, Carmen

    2016-10-20

    Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children aged from 0 to 14 years, who completed chemotherapy in a tertiary hospital between 2009 and 2015. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Immunisation was administered in accordance with the guidelines of the Vaccine Advisory Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics. Primary Care immunisation and clinical records of the Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department were reviewed. Of the 99 children who had received chemotherapy, 51 (70.6% males) were included in the study. As regards the type of tumour, 54.9% had a solid organ tumour, and 45.1% had a haematological tumour. Post-chemotherapy immunisation was administered to 70.6%. The most common vaccines received were: diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis or diphtheria-tetanus (54.9%), meningococcus C (41.2%), and seasonal influenza (39.2%). The rate of adaptation of the immunisation schedule after chemotherapy was 9.8%. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against 7v or 13v was administered to 21.6% of study subjects. However, only 17.6% received polysaccharide 23v. None received vaccination against hepatitis A. No statistically significant differences were observed between adherence to immunisation schedules and type of tumour (P=.066), gender (P=.304), or age (P=.342). Post-chemotherapy immunisation of children with cancer is poor. The participation of health professionals in training programs and referral of paediatric cancer patients to Vaccine Units could improve the rate of schedule adaptation and proper immunisation of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemotherapy, cognitive impairment and hippocampal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J; Prust, M; Kaiser, J

    2015-11-19

    Cancer therapies can be associated with significant central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. While radiation-induced brain damage has been long recognized both in pediatric and adult cancer patients, CNS toxicity from chemotherapy has only recently been acknowledged. Clinical studies suggest that the most frequent neurotoxic adverse effects associated with chemotherapy include memory and learning deficits, alterations of attention, concentration, processing speed and executive function. Preclinical studies have started to shed light on how chemotherapy targets the CNS both on cellular and molecular levels to disrupt neural function and brain plasticity. Potential mechanisms include direct cellular toxicity, alterations in cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and induction of pro-inflammatory processes with subsequent disruption of normal cellular and neurological function. Damage to neural progenitor cell populations within germinal zones of the adult CNS has been identified as one of the key mechanisms by which chemotherapy might exert long-lasting and progressive neurotoxic effects. Based on the important role of the hippocampus for maintenance of brain plasticity throughout life, several experimental studies have focused on the study of chemotherapy effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and associated learning and memory. An increasing body of literature from both animal studies and neuroimaging studies in cancer patients suggests a possible relationship between chemotherapy induced hippocampal damage and the spectrum of neurocognitive deficits and mood alterations observed in cancer patients. This review aims to briefly summarize current preclinical and neuroimaging studies that are providing a potential link between the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy and hippocampal dysfunction, highlighting challenges and future directions in this field of investigation.

  11. Chemotherapy alone versus chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for adults with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Oliver; von Tresckow, Bastian; Monsef, Ina

    2017-01-01

    in a sensitivity analysis, the results showed that the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improved OS compared to chemotherapy alone (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.52; P evidence). In contrast to chemotherapy alone the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improved PFS (HR 0.42; 95.......94; 95% CI 0.31 to 27.55; P = 0.35;low- quality evidence), there is no evidence for a difference between the use of chemotherapy alone and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. For complete response rate (CRR) (RR 1.08; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.25; P = 0.33; low- quality evidence), there is also no evidence...... improve OS compared to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (HR 2.12; 95% CI 1.03 to 4.37; P = 0.04; low- quality evidence). This trial also had a potential other high risk of bias due to a high number of patients not receiving planned therapy. There is no evidence for a difference between chemotherapy alone...

  12. Novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides use different antimicrobial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, Kathryn E; Spinella, Sara A; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The increase in multidrug resistant bacteria has sparked an interest in the development of novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides that operate by crossing the cell membrane may also have the potential to deliver drugs to intracellular targets. Buforin 2 (BF2) is an antimicrobial peptide that shares sequence identity with a fragment of histone subunit H2A and whose bactericidal mechanism depends on membrane translocation and DNA binding. Previously, novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAPs) were designed based on properties of BF2, and DesHDAP1 and DesHDAP3 showed significant antibacterial activity. In this study, their DNA binding, permeabilization, and translocation abilities were assessed independently and compared to antibacterial activity to determine whether they share a mechanism with BF2. To investigate the importance of proline in determining the peptides' mechanisms of action, proline to alanine mutants of the novel peptides were generated. DesHDAP1, which shows significant similarities to BF2 in terms of secondary structure, translocates effectively across lipid vesicle and bacterial membranes, while the DesHDAP1 proline mutant shows reduced translocation abilities and antimicrobial potency. In contrast, both DesHDAP3 and its proline mutant translocate poorly, though the DesHDAP3 proline mutant is more potent. Our findings suggest that a proline hinge can promote membrane translocation in some peptides, but that the extent of its effect on permeabilization depends on the peptide's amphipathic properties. Our results also highlight the different antimicrobial mechanisms exhibited by histone-derived peptides and suggest that histones may serve as a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with varied properties.

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  14. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Bernard, E M; Sadownik, A; Regen, S L; Armstrong, D

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and fungi. Some had little or no hemolytic activity. The hydrophobicity of the sterol backbone and the length and the cationic charge of the side chains appeared to be critical determinants of activity. One of the squalamine mimics, SM-7, was bactericidal against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and S. aureus; its activity was decreased by divalent or monovalent cations and by bovine serum albumin. Subinhibitory concentrations of SM-7 markedly enhanced the antimicrobial activity of rifampin against gram-negative rods. These results suggest that the compounds may disrupt an outer membrane of gram-negative rods. Squalamine mimics are a new class of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. The antagonism of their activity by serum and albumin and their hemolytic properties may limit their use as systemic agents. The squalamine mimics, because of their potencies, broad spectra of antimicrobial activity, and potential for systemic toxicity, appear to be good candidates for development as topical antimicrobial agents.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  17. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of phenotype Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to have adequate information for treatment of bacterial infections ... Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out using various antimicrobial discs as per ... They consisted of 46 urine, 264 pus (from wound) and 20 blood samples.

  18. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  19. molecular characterisation and antimicrobial resistance patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there is a significant level of antimicrobial ..... prevalence in their report. In this ... use of antimicrobial therapy of infections in man and ... by bacteriophage 933J from Escherichia coli.

  20. Pregnancy outcomes after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILA TREMENTOSA GARCIA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “gestational trophoblastic disease” and “pregnancy outcome”. Results A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. Conclusion The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.

  1. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  2. [Chemotherapy of chiasmal gliomas in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helcl, F

    1995-04-01

    Chiasmal gliomas are rare tumors occurring predominantly in childhood. Their optimal treatment is still controversial. In the past only neurosurgeons (performing partial or subtotal removal of the tumor, biopsy or shunting procedure in hydrocephalus) and radiotherapeutists participated in their treatment. In the middle of the eighties there was only a single article dealing with chemotherapy of these tumors (Rosenstock, 1985). Since that time there was an increased number of articles about harmful effects of radiotherapy on the developing child's brain. Neurosurgeons are aware that they will not solve this problem alone. During the past 7 years we have observed gradual retreat from radiotherapy and an inclination to combined chemotherapy of the chiasmal gliomas in children. The author has been engaged in the research of this clinical entity for more than 10 years and he offers to readers a summary of the contemporary knowledge about chemotherapy of chiasmal gliomas in children. Despite the fact that there is lacking experience with long-term survivors after chemotherapy, which is extremely important especially in this disease, the preliminary short-term results of combined chemotherapy of chiasmal gliomas in children are promising. Rapid development of chemistry and pharmacology in the last few years is promising for the discovery of further, more effective anti-tumor drugs. Their new combinations could improve present non-satisfactory results of treatment of chiasmal gliomas in children. (Ref. 25.)

  3. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Titanium Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdural, B. K.; Yurum, A.; Bakir, U.; Karakas, G.

    In the present study, nanostructured titania particles were synthesized using hydrothermal processing and their photocatalytic antimicrobial activities were characterized. Sol-gel synthesized TiO2 samples were treated with a two step hydrothermal treatment. The first stage treatment was the alkaline treatment with 10 M of NaOH for 48 h at 130°C, followed with the second step which applied with distilled water for 48 h at 200°C. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images showed that alkaline treatment yields lamellar structure particles from the sol-gel synthesized anatase. Further treatment of nanoplates with distilled water results in crystal growth and the formation of nano structured thorn like particles. The photocatalytic antimicrobial activities of samples were determined against Escherichia coli under solar irradiation for 4 h. It was observed that the samples treated under alkaline conditions have higher antimicrobial activity than the untreated samples.

  5. In vitro photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in dentine contaminated by cariogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M. A. S.; de-Paula, D. M.; Lima, J. P. M.; Borges, F. M. C.; Steiner-Oliveira, C.; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M.; Zanin, I. C. J.; Barros, E. B.; Rodrigues, L. K. A.

    2010-06-01

    The development of a method to ensure bacterial-free substrates without extensive cavity preparation would be highly useful to dentistry, since there is no currently available effective method for killing residual bacteria in dentinal tissue. This randomized in vitro study determined parameters for using toluidine blue O (TBO) with a light-emitting diode (LED) for dentine caries disinfection and monitored intrapulpal/periodontal temperatures during irradiation. Occlusal human dentine slabs were immersed in Streptococcus mutans culture for demineralization induction. Slabs were allocated to 10 groups ( n = 15), which were treated with 0.1 mg ml-1 TBO with 5 min of incubation time or 0.9% NaCl solution for 5, 10 or 15 min, and submitted or not to irradiation for 5, 10 or 15 min (47, 94, and 144 J/cm2). Before and after treatments, dentine samples were analyzed with regard to S. mutans counts. In whole teeth, temperature in pulp and periodontium was measured by thermocouples during irradiation. Kruskal-Wallis/Student-Newman-Keuls, and ANOVA/Tukey test were respectively utilized to compare log reductions and temperature rises between groups. Bacterial reduction was observed when dentine was exposed to both TBO and LED at all irradiation times, as well as to LED alone for 10 and 15 min. Temperature increases lower than 2°C were observed for either pulp or periodontium. Concluding, LED combined with TBO is a safe and effective approach for dentine caries disinfection. Nevertheless, additional studies should be conducted to determine the influence of the irradiation in S. mutans viability in dentinal surface/tubules.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses ...

  7. Uses of antimicrobial genes from microbial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorek, Rotem; Rubin, Edward M.

    2013-08-20

    We describe a method for mining microbial genomes to discover antimicrobial genes and proteins having broad spectrum of activity. Also described are antimicrobial genes and their expression products from various microbial genomes that were found using this method. The products of such genes can be used as antimicrobial agents or as tools for molecular biology.

  8. Sixty years of antimicrobial use in animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This, the last in our series of feature articles celebrating 125 years of Veterinary Record, aims to provide an overview of antimicrobial use in animals. Starting with a journey through the history of antimicrobial use in animals, Luca Guardabassi gives his opinion on the current zoonotic risks...... associated with antimicrobial resistance and on how these risks might be tackled in the years to come....

  9. Chemotherapy in Ewing′s sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing′s sarcoma constitutes three per cent of all pediatric malignancies. Ewing′s sarcoma has generally been more responsive to chemotherapy than adult-type sarcomas, and chemotherapy is now recommended for all patients with this disease. It is essential to integrate local control measures in the form of surgery and/or radiotherapy at the appropriate time, along with chemotherapy to eradicate the disease. This approach has improved the survival substantially to the tune of 70% in localized disease, although outcome for metastatic disease remains dismal. Newer therapeutic approaches are required to improve outcome for metastatic and recurrent or refractory Ewing′s sarcoma in organized co-operative group trials.

  10. Role of chemotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seam, Pamela; Janik, John E; Longo, Dan L; Devita, Vincent T

    2009-01-01

    The development of curative chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is one of the true success stories in oncology. Most patients diagnosed with HL today can be cured. The major task remaining before us is curing as many patients as possible with their initial therapeutic approach while minimizing the acute toxicities and limiting the lifetime risks of important secondary events such as cardiovascular complications and secondary malignancies. In the 40 years since DeVita et al. developed the mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone chemotherapy regimen, we have learned a great deal about risk stratification to minimize treatment-related toxicity. Positron emission tomography may further assist us in reducing radiation treatment without compromising cures. This review will discuss the development of the chemotherapy regimens used in the management of early and advanced stage HL and the advantages and disadvantages of their use in combination with radiation therapy.

  11. Reducing psychological distress in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanti, Ariesta; Metsälä, Eija; Hannula, Leena

    Psychological distress is a common problem among patients with cancer, yet it mostly goes unreported and untreated. This study examined the association of a psycho-educational intervention with the psychological distress levels of breast cancer and cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design with a comparison group. One hundred patients at a cancer hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, completed Distress Thermometer screening before and after chemotherapy. Fifty patients in the intervention group were given a psycho-educational video with positive reappraisal, education and relaxation contents, while receiving chemotherapy. Patients who received the psycho-educational intervention had significantly lower distress levels compared with those in the control group. Routine distress screening, followed by distress management and outcome assessment, is needed to improve the wellbeing of cancer patients.

  12. Oculomotor Deficits after Chemotherapy in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar-Jón Einarsson

    Full Text Available Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric malignancies have substantially increased the number of childhood cancer survivors. However, reports suggest that some of the chemotherapy agents used for treatment can cross the blood brain barrier which may lead to a host of neurological symptoms including oculomotor dysfunction. Whether chemotherapy at young age causes oculomotor dysfunction later in life is unknown. Oculomotor performance was assessed with traditional and novel methods in 23 adults (mean age 25.3 years, treatment age 10.2 years treated with chemotherapy for a solid malignant tumor not affecting the central nervous system. Their results were compared to those from 25 healthy, age-matched controls (mean age 25.1 years. Correlation analysis was performed between the subjective symptoms reported by the chemotherapy treated subjects (CTS and oculomotor performance. In CTS, the temporal control of the smooth pursuit velocity (velocity accuracy was markedly poorer (p<0.001 and the saccades had disproportionally shorter amplitude than normal for the associated saccade peak velocity (main sequence (p = 0.004, whereas smooth pursuit and saccade onset times were shorter (p = 0.004 in CTS compared with controls. The CTS treated before 12 years of age manifested more severe oculomotor deficits. CTS frequently reported subjective symptoms of visual disturbances (70%, unsteadiness, light-headedness and that things around them were spinning or moving (87%. Several subjective symptoms were significantly related to deficits in oculomotor performance. To conclude, chemotherapy in childhood or adolescence can result in severe oculomotor dysfunctions in adulthood. The revealed oculomotor dysfunctions were significantly related to the subjects' self-perception of visual disturbances, dizziness, light-headedness and sensing unsteadiness. Assessments of oculomotor function may, thus, offer an objective method to track and rate the level of

  13. Systemic chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yannan Zhao; Biyun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women worldwide and the most common cancer in China. Many factors influence the treatment strategy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Chemotherapy should be administered to patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors, symptomatic visceral metastasis, and a short disease-free interval. Sequential single-agent chemotherapy has similar efficacy as combination agents in terms of overall survival and quality of life. Anthracyclines are the cornerstone of first-line treatment for MBC, and taxanes represent the second treatment option after resistance. When progression or intolerable toxicity occurs after optimal treatment, the alternative treatments include capecitabine, vinorel-bine, and gemcitabine. Ixabepilone and eribulin are relatively new effective single agents. A combination of cytotoxic agents for patients with rapid clinical progression can further improve the overall response rate and time to progression compared to single-agent treatment. For patients with MBC who were pretreated with anthracyclines in the neoadjuvant/adjuvant setting, a taxane-containing regimen such as docetaxel plus capecitabine or gemcitabine plus paclitaxel should be administered. Platinum-based therapies such as cisplatin or carboplatin have a role in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Meanwhile, the efficacy of the addition of targeted drugs such as iniparib, bevacizumab, and cetuximab to chemotherapy remains unproven. Maintenance chemotherapy is routinely recommended in clinical practice at present. Patients who were previously treated with paclitaxel and gemcitabine have better progression-free and overall survival with maintenance chemotherapy according to a Korean phase Ⅲ clinical trial. Sequential maintenance treatment with capecitabine monotherapy after capecitabine-based combination chemotherapy (X-based X) appears favorable based on a series of domestic studies.

  14. Weight changes during chemotherapy for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Megale Costa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer have a tendency to gain weight. This tendency has determining factors not completely defined and an unknown prognostic impact. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate weight change during chemotherapy for breast cancer in a defined population and to identify its predisposing factors and possible prognostic significance. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Private clinical oncology service. PARTICIPANTS: 106 consecutive patients with breast cancer treated between June 1994 and April 2000, who received neoadjuvant (n = 8, adjuvant (n = 74 or palliative (n = 24 chemotherapy. INTERVETION: Review of medical records and gathering of clinical information, including patients’ body weights before treatment and at follow-up reviews. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Body weight change, expressed as percentage of body weight per month in treatment; role of clinical data in weight change; and influence of weight change in overall survival and disease-free survival. RESULTS: There was a mean increase of 0.50 ± 1.42% (p = 0.21 of body weight per month of treatment. We noted a negative correlation between metastatic disease and weight gain (r = -0.447, p < 0.0001. In the adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy groups there was a mean weight gain of 0.91 ± 1.19 % (p < 0.00001 per month, whereas in the metastatic (palliative group, we observed a mean loss of 0.52 ± 1.21% (p = 0.11 of body weight per month during the treatment. We did not observe any statistically significant correlation between weight changes and disease-free survival or overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy gain weight, whereas metastatic cancer patients will probably lose weight during palliative chemotherapy. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate the prognostic significance of weight changes during chemotherapy.

  15. Vesicant chemotherapy extravasation antidotes and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Oncology nurses and pharmacists often are given the responsibility of developing or updating institutional policies to manage vesicant chemotherapy extravasations. Antidote and treatment recommendations of vesicant chemotherapy manufacturers, antidotes and treatments approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and guidelines and recommendations made by professional oncology organizations are useful resources in this process. This article describes manufacturers' recommendations, lists antidotes and treatments approved by the FDA, and reviews published guidelines and recommendations. Available antidote and treatment formulations and their preparation and administration also are discussed.

  16. Optimizing initial chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantripragada, Kalyan C; Safran, Howard

    2016-05-01

    The two combination chemotherapy regimens FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel represent major breakthroughs in the management of metastatic pancreatic cancer. Both regimens showed unprecedented survival advantage in the setting of front-line therapy. However, their application for treatment of patients in the community is challenging because of significant toxicities, thus limiting potential benefits to a narrow population of patients. Modifications to the dose intensity or schedule of those regimens improve their tolerability, while likely retaining survival advantage over single-agent chemotherapy. Newer strategies to optimize these two active regimens in advanced pancreatic cancer are being explored that can help personalize treatment to individual patients.

  17. Intrathecal chemotherapy. Selection of cytostatic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, T; Yamada, R; Kanai, N; Kuroda, R; Ushio, Y; Higashi, H; Mogami, H

    1970-09-01

    Selection of cytostatic agents for intrathecal administration is the subject of this paper.Both the toxic side effects-destruction of blood-brain barrier and change of body weight-and the cytostatic effects on intracranially transplanted Yoshida ascites sarcoma were investigated of intrathecal administration of various cytostatic agents. As a result, it may be concluded that Methotrexate and Endoxan and lower dose of mitomycin C are suitable drugs for intrathecal chemotherapy.Based on these findings, clinical cases of malignant brain tumours were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy.Grateful acknowledgement is made to Professor Dennosuke Jinnai for his constant interest and guidance in this investigation.

  18. Dual role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in stent struts endothelialisation and neointimal regrowth: A substudy of the IN-PACT CORO trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Maria, Giovanni Luigi [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Porto, Italo, E-mail: italo.porto@gmail.com [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Interventional Cardiology Unit, San Donato Hospital, Arezzo (Italy); Burzotta, Francesco; Brancati, Marta Francesca; Trani, Carlo; Pirozzolo, Giancarlo; Leone, Antonio Maria; Niccoli, Giampaolo [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy); Prati, Francesco [Department of Interventional Cardiology, San Giovanni Hospital, Rome (Italy); Crea, Filippo [Institute of Cardiology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Background: Endothelialisation is a crucial event after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow derived elements with reparative properties. We aimed to assess the relationship between circulating EPC levels and stent neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) using frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). Methods: Patients undergoing elective PCI to native vessels and randomised to bare metal stent (BMS) alone versus BMS plus drug coated balloon (DCB) were included. At six months, angiographic follow-up and FD-OCT were performed to measure percentage neointimal hyperplasia volume obstruction (%NIHV), and percentage of uncovered stent struts (%US). Venous blood samples were obtained before the procedure and at six months to detect CD34+CD45dimKDR + EPC levels. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled. A significant relationship was observed between baseline EPC levels and %NIHV (R: 0.63, p: 0.03) and %US (R: − 0.56, p: 0.01) at follow-up. Both EPC levels and DCB use were independently related to %NIHV (β: 0.55; p < 0.001 and β: − 0.51; p: 0.001, respectively), while only EPC levels were independently associated to %US (β: − 0.52; p: 0.01). Higher %NIHV (p: 0.004) and lower %US (p: 0.005) were observed in patients with stable or increasing EPC level. Conclusion: Our study shows a relationship between EPC levels and stent strut coverage, supporting a dual role for these cells in favouring stent endothelialisation but also NIH growth. - Highlights: • Substudy of IN-PACT CORO trial comparing, by adoption of optical coherence tomography, the amount of neointimal growth and stent struts coverage at six months of follow up, in elective patients randomised to conventional PCI with bare metal stent implantation (BMS group) or to stent implantation with pre or postdilation with a drug coated balloon (BMS + DCB group) • Lower neointimal regrowth observed in BMS + DCB group • First in vivo demonstration that

  19. Antimicrobial peptides as parasiticidal against human trypanosomatids: mechanisms of action and current status in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Samperio, P; de-la-Rosa-Arana, J L

    2013-04-01

    Trypanosomes cause a variety of tropical diseases that affect the livelihood of individuals worldwide. The currently used pharmaceutical treatments rely on chemotherapy. However, many of these drugs are very expensive, and highly toxic. In addition, parasite resistance to several of the therapeutic drugs used is increasing. Therefore, there is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases. One new approach is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to disease control, since these peptides can be used as potential anti-parasite effector molecules. This review summarizes and discusses the parasiticidal properties of AMPs for treating trypanosome infections, highlighting their mechanisms of action and current status in development.

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SALMONELLA GALLINARUM ISOLATED FROM FOWL TYPHOID OUTBREAK IN BACKYARD VANARAJA FOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From a disease outbreak among Vanaraja fowl, an indigenous Indian Breed reared by backyard system in Jhargram, West Bengal, Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated and characterised. The outbreak occurred among 6-8 day old chicks. A total of 150 birds died in a span of 5 days. Salmonella Gallinarum were identified and confirmed by standard bacteriological methods and presence of invasion ( invA gene was detected by PCR. The isolates were susceptible to 15 common antimicrobials in vitro. Although chemotherapy may be effective, outbreaks of fowl typhoid in backyard poultry warranted precise control policy

  1. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  2. Change of SPARC expression after chemotherapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Yin Gao; Xin-Yuan Zhang; Yi Ba; Ding-Zhi Huang; Ru-Bing Han; Xia Wang; Shao-Hua Ge; Hong-Li Li; Ting Deng; Rui Liu; Ming Bai; Li-Kun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The expression of tumor biomarkers may change after chemotherapy. However, whether secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) expression changes atfer chemotherapy in gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. hTis study investigated the inlfuence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression in GC. Methods:Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze SPARC expression in 132 GC cases (including 54 cases with preoperative chemotherapy and 78 cases without preoperative chemotherapy). SPARC expression of postoperative specimens with and without preoperative chemotherapy was assessed to analyze the inlfuence of chemotherapy on SPARC expression. Results:SPARC was highly expressed in GC compared with the desmoplastic stroma surrounding tumor cells and noncancerous tissues. High SPARC expression was correlated with invasion depth, lymph node, and TNM stage. After chemotherapy, a lower proportion of high SPARC expression was observed in patients with preoperative chemotherapy than in the controls. For 54 patients with preoperative chemotherapy, gross type, histology, depth of invasion, lymph node, TNM stage, and SPARC expression were related to overall survival. Further multivariate analysis showed that lymph node, histology, and SPARC expression atfer chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion:SPARC expression may change after chemotherapy in GC. SPARC expression should be reassessed for patients with GC atfer chemotherapy.

  3. Metal oxide nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents: a promise for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-01

    Microbial infectious diseases are a global threat to human health. Excess and improper use of antibiotics has created antimicrobial-resistant microbes that can defy clinical treatment. The hunt for safe and alternate antimicrobial agents is on in order to overcome such resistant micro-organisms, and the birth of nanotechnology offers promise to combat infectious organisms. Over the past two decades, metal oxide nanoparticles (MeO-NPs) have become an attractive alternative source to combat microbes that are highly resistant to various classes of antibiotics. Their vast array of physicochemical properties enables MeO-NPs to act as antimicrobial agents through various mechanisms. Apart from exhibiting antimicrobial properties, MeO-NPs also serve as carriers of drugs, thus barely providing a chance for micro-organisms to develop resistance. These immense multiple properties exhibited by MeO-NPs will have an impact on the treatment of deadly infectious diseases. This review discusses the mechanisms of action of MeO-NPs against micro-organisms, safety concerns, challenges and future perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Polymers with Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Palza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals, such as copper and silver, can be extremely toxic to bacteria at exceptionally low concentrations. Because of this biocidal activity, metals have been widely used as antimicrobial agents in a multitude of applications related with agriculture, healthcare, and the industry in general. Unlike other antimicrobial agents, metals are stable under conditions currently found in the industry allowing their use as additives. Today these metal based additives are found as: particles, ions absorbed/exchanged in different carriers, salts, hybrid structures, etc. One recent route to further extend the antimicrobial applications of these metals is by their incorporation as nanoparticles into polymer matrices. These polymer/metal nanocomposites can be prepared by several routes such as in situ synthesis of the nanoparticle within a hydrogel or direct addition of the metal nanofiller into a thermoplastic matrix. The objective of the present review is to show examples of polymer/metal composites designed to have antimicrobial activities, with a special focus on copper and silver metal nanoparticles and their mechanisms.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, J.M.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Saarela, M.; Huys, G.; Tosi, L.; Mayrhofer, S.; Wright, A.

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (n=75) strains, to study their antibiotic resistance genes with microarray, and to assess the microbiological cut-off values of tested antimicrobial agents. L. rhamnosus strains were tested with agar

  6. Helical Antimicrobial Sulfono- {gamma} -AApeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaqiong; Wu, Haifan; Teng, Peng; Bai, Ge; Lin, Xiaoyang; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, Chuanhai; Cai, Jianfeng

    2015-06-11

    Host-defense peptides (HDPs) such as magainin 2 have emerged as potential therapeutic agents combating antibiotic resistance. Inspired by their structures and mechanism of action, herein we report the fi rst example of antimicrobial helical sulfono- γ - AApeptide foldamers. The lead molecule displays broad-spectrum and potent antimicrobial activity against multi-drug-resistant Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Time-kill studies and fl uorescence microscopy suggest that sulfono- γ -AApeptides eradicate bacteria by taking a mode of action analogous to that of HDPs. Clear structure - function relationships exist in the studied sequences. Longer sequences, presumably adopting more-de fi ned helical structures, are more potent than shorter ones. Interestingly, the sequence with less helical propensity in solution could be more selective than the stronger helix-forming sequences. Moreover, this class of antimicrobial agents are resistant to proteolytic degradation. These results may lead to the development of a new class of antimicrobial foldamers combating emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Securidaca longipedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajali, U; Chukwurah, B K C

    2004-11-01

    The folk herbal uses of Securidaca longipedunculata in the treatment of diarrhea, boils, gonorrhea, and cough prompted phytochemical analyses and antimicrobial activity screening of extracts of the root. Some flavonoids isolated showed activity against many micro-organisms. These flavonoids were isolated using chromatographic methods.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  9. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  11. Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zubairi, Ishtiaq H

    2006-08-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting are symptoms that cause major concern to oncology patients. This article explores the types of nausea and vomiting in the context of chemotherapy, and discusses their pathogenesis and management.

  12. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  13. Metallic taste in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, I.; Renken, R. J.; ter Horst, G. J.; Reyners, A. K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallic taste is a taste alteration frequently reported by cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Attention to this side effect of chemotherapy is limited. This review addresses the definition, assessment methods, prevalence, duration, etiology, and management strategies of metallic

  14. Presurgical chemotherapy compared with immediate surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for nonmetastatic osteosarcoma: Pediatric Oncology Group Study POG-8651.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorin, Allen M; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J; Devidas, Meenakshi; Gebhardt, Mark C; Ayala, Alberto G; Harris, Michael B; Helman, Lee J; Grier, Holcombe E; Link, Michael P

    2003-04-15

    Successful therapeutic interventions to prevent disease progression in patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma have included surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. Presurgical chemotherapy has been advocated for these patients because of putative improvement in event-free survival (EFS). The advantages of presurgical chemotherapy include early administration of systemic chemotherapy, shrinkage of primary tumor, and pathologic identification of risk groups. The theoretic disadvantage is that it exposes a large tumor burden to marginally effective chemotherapy. The contribution of chemotherapy and surgery timing has not been tested rigorously. Between 1986 and 1993, we conducted a prospective trial in patients with nonmetastatic osteosarcoma who were assigned randomly to immediate surgery or presurgical chemotherapy. Except for the timing of surgery (week 0 or 10), patients received 44 weeks of identical combination chemotherapy that included high-dose methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, doxorubicin, cisplatin, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, and dactinomycin. One hundred six patients were enrolled onto this study. Six were excluded from analysis. Of the remaining 100 patients, 45 were randomly assigned to immediate chemotherapy, and 55 were randomly assigned to immediate surgery. Sixty-seven patients remain disease-free. At 5 years, the projected EFS +/- SE is 65% +/- 6% (69% +/- 8% for immediate surgery and 61% +/- 8% for presurgical chemotherapy; P =.8). The treatment arms had similar incidence of limb salvage (55% for immediate surgery and 50% for presurgical chemotherapy). Chemotherapy was effective in both treatment groups. There was no advantage in EFS for patients given presurgical chemotherapy.

  15. Combating Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Edward P C; Iqbal, Zafar; Avis, Tyler J

    2016-02-01

    This review addresses an important public health hazard affecting food safety. Antimicrobial agents are used in foods to reduce or eliminate microorganisms that cause disease. Many traditional organic compounds, novel synthetic organic agents, natural products, peptides, and proteins have been extensively studied for their effectiveness as antimicrobial agents against foodborne Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria spp. and Salmonella. However, antimicrobial resistance can develop in microorganisms, enhancing their ability to withstand the inhibiting or killing action of antimicrobial agents. Knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual chemical and microbiological mechanisms that must be identified to facilitate the search for new antimicrobial agents. Technical implementation of antimicrobial active packing films and coatings against target microorganisms must also be improved for extended product shelf life. Recent advances in antimicrobial susceptibility testing can provide researchers with new momentum to pursue their quest for a resistance panacea.

  16. Genetic factors influencing pyrimidine-antagonist chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maring, JG; Groen, HJM; Wachters, FM; Uges, DRA; de Vries, EGE

    2005-01-01

    Pyrimidine antagonists, for example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC), are widely used in chemotherapy regimes for colorectal, breast, head and neck, non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukaemias. Extensive metabolism is a prerequisite for conversion of

  17. Diarree en koorts bij chemotherapie door listeriose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quak, E.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van; Bos, H.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Herpen, C.M.L. van; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2010-01-01

    We present two patients with colorectal carcinoma who were admitted with fever and diarrhoea during treatment with chemotherapy. Blood cultures taken from both patients revealed an infection with Listeria monocytogenes. A contaminated ice cream was probably the source of infection in one patient. Th

  18. Chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma in elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentinck, MEM; Nieboer, P; Sleijfer, DT; Gietema, JA; Van der Graaf, WTA

    2003-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours are rarely diagnosed in the elderly. In view of the high cure rate of these tumours, even in elderly patients treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy should be considered. In this report we describe two older patients with metastatic testicular seminoma. Both

  19. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  20. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients wit

  1. Sarcopenia and chemotherapy-mediated toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela; Laviano, Alessandro; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs. PMID:28076611

  2. Chemotherapy of ovarian cancer in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiffany A. Troso-Sandoval; Stuart M. Lichtman

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is primarily a disease of older women. Advanced age is risk factor for decreased survival. Optimal surgery and the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy are essential for prolonged progression-free and overall survival (OS). In this article, the available regimens in both the primary treatment and relapsed setting are reviewed.

  3. Sarcopenia and chemotherapy-mediated toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Vega,Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela; Laviano, Alessandro; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs.

  4. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boiled, without the skin ••White rice ••White toast ••Bananas ••Canned fruit such as applesauce, peaches, and pears •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  6. STUDIES ON CHEMOTHERAPY AND SERODIAGNOSIS FOR CLONORCHIS SINENSIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, *SERODIAGNOSIS, PARASITIC DISEASES , CHEMOTHERAPY, PARASITIC DISEASES , DOSAGE, TOXICITY, BODY WEIGHT, PATHOLOGY, MORTALITY RATE, HEMATOLOGY, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, BIOASSAY, JAPAN.

  7. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  8. A Primary Hepatic Lymphoma Treated with Liver Resection and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Bouliaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL is a rare malignancy, which is frequently misdiagnosed. Although chemotherapy is the treatment of choice there are reports that a combination of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy can offer better results. Herein we present an interesting case of a large primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma originating from liver was treated with a liver which resection and chemotherapy.

  9. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth > For Parents > Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Print A A A What's in ... and can no longer do their jobs efficiently. Chemotherapy (or "chemo") and radiation , the two most common ...

  10. Baltics join Euro Plus Pact

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    25. märtsil Brüsselis toimunud Euroopa Ülemkogul sõlmiti leping stabiilsusmehhanismi loomiseks. Sellest osavõtnud Eesti peaminister Andrus Ansip on rääkinud Eestis kokku lepitud valitsusprogrammist ja tänanud kõiki neid, kes panustavad Liibanonis kadunud Eesti jalgratturite otsingutesse

  11. NATO AND THE WARSAW PACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wagner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The origins and aims of NATOThe formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation had, as its basic origin, the fear of communist expansion. Ironically, it was Roosevelt and Churchill who were probably indirectly responsible in helping the spread of Soviet power. As a result of their sanctioning the Yalta Agreement and ,heir condonation, without any legal right, of Soviet military control over, inter alia, Manchuria and Korea, the basis was laid for communist expansionism in Eastern Europe.

  12. Maintenance Chemotherapy of Stage Ⅲ Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma-Focusing on Individualized Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Zhao; Yi Zhang; Qiao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of maintenance chemotherapy on stage Ⅲ ovarian carcinoma.METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of 47 stage Ⅲ ovarian carcinoma patients with clinical complete remission after first-line chemotherapy. Among these patients, 21 cases were treated with maintenance chemotherapy, while the other 26 cases were free of treatment until progression. The 2 groups were compared with respect to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival(OS).RESULTS The median PFS and OS were not significantly different between the 2 groups. For those patients, in a subgroup of suboptimal surgery (residual disease >2 cm), the median PFS was 110 weeks and 56 weeks and the median OS was 223 weeks and 157 weeks for the maintenance and non-treated respectively. Both PFS and OS values favoured the maintenance group, P=0.004 and P=0.015 respectively. In a subgroup of optimal surgery (residual disease ≤2 cm), the differences were not significant.CONCLUSION Patients with stage Ⅲ ovarian carcinoma with clinical complete remission may benefit from maintenance chemotherapy, if the residual disease is >2 cm. To those with a residual disease ≤2 cm, the maintenance chemotherapy maybe of no value. So "individualized maintenance chemotherapy" should be conducted in the clinical setting.

  13. Outpatient consolidation chemotherapy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Sameer; Singh, Preetpaul; Swaroop, Chetanya

    2009-10-01

    To assess the outcomes of outpatient high dose cytosine arabinoside consolidation cycles in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in comparison to inpatient treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 90 cycles of AML consolidation given to 30 patients between July 2003 and July 2007. Median age was 8 years (range 1.5-15) and 22/30 (73.3%) were males. Sixty-nine of 90 (76.7%) cycles were given on an ambulatory basis; readmission occurred in 25/69 (36.2%) and there was one death. The outpatient cycles in comparison to the inpatient cycles required significantly fewer invasive blood investigations (pconsolidation therapy is safe and feasible in children. It appears to result in less frequent invasive blood studies; shorter duration of febrile neutropenia and consequently less antimicrobial and antifungal usage as compared to inpatient consolidation cycles. To our knowledge, this report is the first of its kind looking specifically at outpatient consolidation chemotherapy in AML.

  14. [Usefulness of chemotherapy associated with surgery in the management of nontuberculous mycobacterial adenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Santaeufemia, F J; Ramos Amador, J T; Giangaspro, E; Sánchez Granados, J M; Palenque, E; González Tomé, M I

    2005-03-01

    In recent years, lymphadenitis caused by atypical mycobacteria (also called nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTMB] or, more recently, environmental) have played a significant role in the differential diagnosis of adenitis in non-immunocompromised children. To describe the clinical and pathological findings in childhood NTMB adenitis and study the possible usefulness of antimicrobial therapy in addition to surgery. We present eight cases of neck lymphadenitis occurring over a 5-year period. All of the children received combined chemotherapy, and six also underwent surgery. Of the two remaining patients, the parents of one child refused surgery and a watchful approach was adopted in the other. Complete clinical recovery was achieved in all patients except one who did not undergo surgery. Prolonged administration of two antibiotics (of which one must be clarithromycin) in addition to surgery was well-tolerated and could be useful in patients with NTMB neck lymphadenitis.

  15. Analysis of resistance, cross-resistance and antimicrobial combinations for Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from 1997 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Ronald N; Clark, Richard B; Karlowsky, James A; Ramirez, Julio; Bordon, Jose M

    2011-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen associated with considerable patient morbidity and mortality. Multidrug resistance in P. aeruginosa is a concern owing to the limited therapeutic options available to treat infections due to this organism. In this study, rates of antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates collected by The Surveillance Network Database-USA (Eurofins Medinet, Chantilly, VA) from 1997 to 2009 were examined. The patient population and specimens were stratified according to patient setting and age as well as specimen source. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to three or more of the following antimicrobial agents: aztreonam; cefepime; ciprofloxacin; imipenem; gentamicin; and piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP). A total of 924740 P. aeruginosa isolates were examined in this study. Changes in resistance rates to individual antimicrobial agents were resistant P. aeruginosa to four, five and six antimicrobial agents. For isolates resistant to imipenem, aztreonam and gentamicin, ciprofloxacin had the highest cross-resistance rates. The greatest coverage against P. aeruginosa was by the combination of TZP plus amikacin (94%) followed by aztreonam plus amikacin (90%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance rates remained steady or minimally declined to all antimicrobials from 1997 to 2009. Amongst the β-lactams, TZP has the greatest activity against P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaal, Khadra; Al Moundhri, Mansour; Bryant, Andrew; Lopes, Alberto D; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-05-15

    Approximately 13% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer present with advanced stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III/IV). The standard treatment of advanced endometrial cancer consists of cytoreductive surgery followed by radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, or both. There is currently little agreement about which adjuvant treatment is the safest and most effective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and to determine which chemotherapy agents are most effective in women presenting with advanced endometrial cancer (FIGO stage III/IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Collaborative Review Group's Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 10 2013), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to November 2013. Also we searched electronic clinical trial registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation in women with FIGO stage III and IV endometrial cancer. Two review authors selected trials, extracted data, and assessed trials for risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted trial investigators for relevant, unpublished data. We pooled data using the random-effects model in Review Manager (RevMan) software. We included four multicentre RCTs involving 1269 women with primary FIGO stage III/IV endometrial cancer. We considered the trials to be at low to moderate risk of bias. All participants received primary cytoreductive surgery. Two trials, evaluating 620 women (83% stage III, 17% stage IV), compared adjuvant chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy; one trial evaluating 552 women (88% stage III, 12% stage IV) compared two chemotherapy regimens (cisplatin/doxorubicin/paclitaxel (CDP) versus cisplatin/doxorubicin (CD) treatment) in women who had all undergone adjuvant radiotherapy; and one trial contributed no data

  17. Role of chemotherapy in stage llb nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bin Pan; Xiao-Dong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy on stage lib nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) remains unclear.Conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy combined with concurrent chemotherapy can improve the overall survival,progression-free survival,recurrence-free survival,and distant metastasis-free survival of patients with stage lib NPC.Intensity-modulated radiotherapy without concurrent chemotherapy also provides good outcomes for patients with stage lib NPC.This article summarizes the features of stage lib NPC and reviews the role of chemotherapy in this subgroup of NPC.

  18. Intensive serial biomarker profiling for the prediction of neutropenic fever in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenic fever (NF is a life-threatening complication of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies and triggers the administration of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The ability to accurately predict NF would permit initiation of antimicrobials earlier in the course of infection with the goal of decreasing morbid complications and progression to septic shock and death. Changes in the blood level of inflammatory biomarkers may precede the occurrence of NF. To identify potential biomarkers for the prediction of NF, we performed serial meas- urements of nine biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP, protein C, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1] using a multiplex ELISA array platform every 6-8 hours in patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. We found that the blood levels of IL-6 and CRP increased significantly 24 to 48 hours prior to the onset of fever. In addition, we showed that frequent biomarker monitoring is feasible using a bedside micro sample test device. The results of this pilot study suggest that serial monitoring of IL-6 and CRP levels using a bedside device may be useful in the prediction of NF. Prospective studies involving a larger cohort of patients to validate this observation are warranted. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01144793.

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides from Marine Proteobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Fleury

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available After years of inadequate use and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains, the efficiency of “classical” antibiotics has decreased significantly. New drugs to fight MDR strains are urgently needed. Bacteria hold much promise as a source of unusual bioactive metabolites. However, the potential of marine bacteria, except for Actinomycetes and Cyanobacteria, has been largely underexplored. In the past two decades, the structures of several antimicrobial compounds have been elucidated in marine Proteobacteria. Of these compounds, polyketides (PKs, synthesised by condensation of malonyl-coenzyme A and/or acetyl-coenzyme A, and non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs, obtained through the linkage of (unusual amino acids, have recently generated particular interest. NRPs are good examples of naturally modified peptides. Here, we review and compile the data on the antimicrobial peptides isolated from marine Proteobacteria, especially NRPs.

  20. APD: the Antimicrobial Peptide Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Guangshun

    2004-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide database (APD) has been established based on an extensive literature search. It contains detailed information for 525 peptides (498 antibacterial, 155 antifungal, 28 antiviral and 18 antitumor). APD provides interactive interfaces for peptide query, prediction and design. It also provides statistical data for a select group of or all the peptides in the database. Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptide name, ID, length, net charge, hydrophobic percentage, key residue, unique sequence motif, structure and activity. APD is a useful tool for studying the structure-function relationship of antimicrobial peptides. The database can be accessed via a web-based browser at the URL: http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in Rhodococcus equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisek, Agata A; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Witkowski, Lucjan; Binek, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site. This paper contains an overview of antimicrobial susceptibility of R. equi, and explains the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for antimicrobial resistance in this particular microorganism.

  2. Cholic acid derivatives: novel antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P B; Li, C

    2000-02-01

    Mimics of squalamine and polymyxin B (PMB) have been prepared from cholic acid in hope of finding new antimicrobial agents. The squalamine mimics include the polyamine and sulphate functionalities found in the parent antibiotic, however, the positions relative to the steroid nucleus have been exchanged. The PMB mimics include the conservation of functionality among the polymyxin family of antibiotics, the primary amine groups and a hydrophobic chain. Although the squalamine and PMB mimics are morphologically dissimilar, they display similar activities. Both are simple to prepare and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms. Specific examples may be inactive alone, yet effectively permeabilise the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria rendering them sensitive to hydrophobic antibiotics. Problems associated with some of the squalamine and PMB mimics stem from their haemolytic activity and interactions with serum proteins, however, examples exist without these side effects which can sensitise Gram-negative bacteria to hydrophobic antibiotics.

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Murinda, Shelton E

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotics are used extensively in the dairy industry to combat disease and to improve animal performance. Antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporin, streptomycin, and tetracycline are used for the treatment and prevention of diseases affecting dairy cows caused by a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics are often administrated routinely to entire herds to prevent mastitis during the dry period. An increase in the incidence of disease in a herd generally results in increased use of antimicrobials, which in turn increases the potential for antibiotic residues in milk and the potential for increased bacterial resistance to antimicrobials. Continued use of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases of dairy cows will continue to be scrutinized. It is clear that strategies employing the prudent use of antimicrobials are needed. This clearly illustrates the importance of effective herd disease prevention and control programs. Based on studies published to date, scientific evidence does not support widespread, emerging resistance among mastitis pathogens to antibacterial drugs even though many of these antibiotics have been used in the dairy industry for treatment and prevention of disease for several decades. However, it is clear that use of antibiotics in dairy cows can contribute to increased antimicrobial resistance. While antimicrobial resistance does occur, we are of the opinion that the advantages of using antibiotics for the treatment of mastitis far outweigh the disadvantages. The clinical consequences of antimicrobial resistance of dairy pathogens affecting humans appear small. Antimicrobial resistance among dairy pathogens, particularly those found in milk, is likely not a human health concern as long as the milk is pasteurized. However, there are an increasing number of people who choose to consume raw milk. Transmission of an antimicrobial-resistant mastitis pathogen and/or foodborne pathogen to humans could occur

  5. Antimicrobial peptides in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanhua; Zhang, Kai; Schluesener, Hermann J

    2010-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune system of many species. The brain is an immunologically privileged organ but can produce a robust immune response against pathogens and cell debris, promoting rapid and efficient clearance. AMPs may be critically involved in the innate immune system of the brain. Though the mechanisms of AMPs' action in the brain still need further elucidation, many studies have shown that AMPs are multifunctional molecules in the brain. In addition to antimicrobial action, they take part in congenital and adaptive immune reactions (immunoregulation), function as signaling molecules in tissue repair, inflammation and other important processes through different mechanisms, and they might, in addition, become diagnostic markers of brain disease.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, R.; Coast, J.

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibil...

  7. APD: the Antimicrobial Peptide Database

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Guangshun

    2004-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide database (APD) has been established based on an extensive literature search. It contains detailed information for 525 peptides (498 antibacterial, 155 antifungal, 28 antiviral and 18 antitumor). APD provides interactive interfaces for peptide query, prediction and design. It also provides statistical data for a select group of or all the peptides in the database. Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptide name, ID, length, net charge, hydrophob...

  8. Durable and Rechargeable Antimicrobial Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    artificial weathering exposure apparatus employing fluorescent UV lamps as a light source and using water spray for wetting will be used to simulate real in...ammonium and N-halamines. His major research interest is the application of N-halamine technology in textiles, paint, coatings, and water disinfection ...surface coatings, including antimicrobial textile finishing and water disinfection .[10-17] 4. RELATIONSHIP WITH FUTURE RESEARCH OR RESEARCH AND

  9. Antimicrobial activities of squalamine mimics.

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial properties of compounds with structural features that were designed to mimic those of squalamine, an antibiotic isolated from the stomach of the dogfish shark. The mimics, like squalamine, are sterol-polyamine conjugates. Unlike squalamine, the mimics were simple to prepare, at high yield, from readily available starting materials. Several squalamine mimics showed activity against gram-negative rods, gram-positive cocci including methicillin-resistant Staphyl...

  10. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  11. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A European study on the relationship between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronzwaer, SLAM; Cars, O; Buchholz, U; Molstad, S; Goettsch, W; Veldhuijzen, IK; Kool, JL; Sprenger, MJW; Degener, JE

    2002-01-01

    In Europe, antimicrobial resistance has been monitored since 1998 by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). We examined the relationship between penicillin nonsusceptibility of invasive isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and antibiotic sales. Information was collected o

  13. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Kristina; Schwarz, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus delphini together comprise the S. intermedius group (SIG). Within the SIG, S. pseudintermedius represents the major pathogenic species and is involved in a wide variety of infections, mainly in dogs, but to a lesser degree also in other animal species and humans. Antimicrobial agents are commonly applied to control S. pseudintermedius infections; however, during recent years S. pseudintermedius isolates have been identified that are meticillin-resistant and have also proved to be resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents approved for veterinary applications. This review deals with the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance properties in S. pseudintermedius and other SIG members. A summary of the known resistance genes and their association with mobile genetic elements is given, as well as an update of the known resistance-mediating mutations. These data show that, in contrast to other staphylococcal species, S. pseudintermedius seems to prefer transposon-borne resistance genes, which are then incorporated into the chromosomal DNA, over plasmid-located resistance genes.

  14. Antimicrobial hydrogels for the treatment of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Ana Salomé; Schneider, Joel P

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of microbial infections, especially those associated with impaired wound healing and biomedical implant failure has spurred the development of new materials having antimicrobial activity. Hydrogels are a class of highly hydrated material finding use in diverse medical applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, as wound fillers, and as implant coatings, to name a few. The biocompatible nature of many gels make them a convenient starting platform to develop selectively active antimicrobial materials. Hydrogels with antimicrobial properties can be obtained through the encapsulation or covalent immobilization of known antimicrobial agents, or the material itself can be designed to possess inherent antimicrobial activity. In this review we present an overview of antimicrobial hydrogels that have recently been developed and when possible provide a discussion relevant to their mechanism of action.

  15. Progress in Personalizing Chemotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. However, there are currently no methods to predict chemotherapy response in this disease setting. A better understanding of the biology of bladder cancer has led to developments of molecular biomarkers that may help guide clinical decision making. These biomarkers, while promising, have not yet been validated in prospective trials and are not ready for clinical applications. As alkylating agents, platinum drugs kill cancer cells mainly through induction of DNA damage. A microdosing approach is currently being tested to determine if chemoresistance can be identified by measuring platinum-induced DNA damage using highly sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry technology. The hope is that these emerging strategies will help pave the road towards personalized therapy in advanced bladder cancer.

  16. Side effects of chemotherapy in musculoskeletal oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Romantini, Matteo; Angelini, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in medical and orthopedic oncology, radiation therapy and single- or multiple-agent perioperative chemotherapy are currently applied as an essential part of the multidisciplinary treatment to improve disease-free and overall survival of patients with primary and metastatic bone and soft tissue tumors. However, these treatments have led to unwanted complications. A better understanding of the effects of various antineoplastic agents on bone, soft tissue, and organs may provide the basis for the more efficacious use of antiproliferative drugs when fracture healing or allograft incorporation is required. This knowledge may also provide a rationale for concurrent treatment with drugs that protect against or compensate for adverse effects in osseous repair resulting from chemotherapy.

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  18. Intestinal response to myeloablative chemotherapy in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Peter Erik Lotko; Shen, René Liang; Petersen, Bodil L

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced myeloablation prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may be associated with severe toxicity. The current understanding of the pathophysiology of oral and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is largely derived from studies in rodents and very little...... is known from humans, especially children. We hypothesized that milk-fed piglets can be used as a clinically relevant model of GI-toxicity related to a standard conditioning chemotherapy (intravenous busulfan, Bu plus cyclophosphamide, Cy) used prior to HSCT. In study 1, dose-response relationships were....../kg) and bone marrow was collected on day 11. Histology of bone marrow samples showed total aplasia after treatment A. Using this treatment in study 2, Bu-Cy pigs showed lowered spleen and intestinal weights and variable clinical signs of dehydration, sepsis, and pneumonia at tissue collection. Oral mucositis...

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonpavde, Guru; Sternberg, Cora N

    2012-04-01

    Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is an established standard for resectable muscle-invasive bladder cancer, a disease with a pattern of predominantly distant and early recurrences. Pathologic complete remission appears to be an intermediate surrogate for survival when employing combination chemotherapy. Moreover, baseline host and tumor tissue studies may enable the discovery of biomarkers predictive of activity. The neoadjuvant setting also provides a window of opportunity to evaluate novel biologic agents or rational combinations of biologic agents to obtain a signal of biologic activity. The residual tumor after neoadjuvant therapy may be exploited to study the mechanism of action and resistance. Cisplatin-ineligible patients warrant the evaluation of tolerable neoadjuvant regimens. Given that bladder cancer is characterized by initial localized presentation in the vast majority of cases, the paradigm of neoadjuvant therapy may expedite the development of novel systemic agents.

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  1. [Effectiveness of scalp cooling in chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Thomas G; He, Jie; Lemieux, Renald

    2011-10-01

    The main objectives of this literature review are to determine if scalp cooling is efficient and safe, if there are side effects and if the patients' quality of life improves. In terms of effectiveness, scalp cooling seems to get good performance in its aim to prevent hair loss in patients receiving chemotherapy. The weighted average results of all identified studies indicate that this technology allows for 63.5% of patients to have a good preservation of their hair. In studies with a group of control, the weighted rates of good preservation of the hair are 50.6% with scalp cooling and 16.3% without. From the standpoint of safety technology, the main risk is that of scalp metastases. However, no study has successfully demonstrated a statistically significant difference between groups of patients receiving chemotherapy with or without scalp cooling.

  2. Using Epigenetic Therapy to Overcome Chemotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Julius; Figg, William D

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for decades that as cancer progresses, tumors develop genetic alterations, making them highly prone to developing resistance to therapies. Classically, it has been thought that these acquired genetic changes are fixed. This has led to the paradigm of moving from one cancer therapy to the next while avoiding past therapies. However, emerging data on epigenetic changes during tumor progression and use of epigenetic therapies have shown that epigenetic modifications leading to chemotherapy resistance have the potential to be reversible with epigenetic therapy. In fact, promising clinical data exist that treatment with epigenetic agents can diminish chemotherapy resistance in a number of tumor types including chronic myelogenous leukemia, colorectal, ovarian, lung and breast cancer. The potential for epigenetic-modifying drugs to allow for treatment of resistant disease is exciting and clinical trials have just begun to evaluate this area.

  3. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced behavioral toxicities

    OpenAIRE

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Chiu, Gabriel S.; Karen eKrukowski; Lacourt, Tamara E.; Annemieke eKavelaars; Robert eDantzer; Cobi J Heijnen; Adam K. Walker

    2015-01-01

    While chemotherapeutic agents have yielded relative success in the treatment of cancer, patients are often plagued with unwanted and even debilitating side-effects from the treatment which can lead to dose reduction or even cessation of treatment. Common side effects (symptoms) of chemotherapy include (i) cognitive deficiencies such as problems with attention, memory and executive functioning; (ii) fatigue and motivational deficit; and (iii) neuropathy. These symptoms often develop during tre...

  4. Paul Ehrlich: From magic bullets to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Cediel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul Ehrlich is one of the most notable figures in the world of science. Considered by many as the father of chemotherapy, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1908 for his contributions to immunology. This document outlines some of his most important findings, including those who led him to create his famous «magic bullets», precursors of current chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Antimicrobial technology in orthopedic and spinal implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Haglin, Jack; Perera, Sudheesha; Brea, Bielinsky A; Ruttiman, Roy; Garcia, Dioscaris R; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Infections can hinder orthopedic implant function and retention. Current implant-based antimicrobial strategies largely utilize coating-based approaches in order to reduce biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion. Several emerging antimicrobial technologies that integrate a multidisciplinary combination of drug delivery systems, material science, immunology, and polymer chemistry are in development and early clinical use. This review outlines orthopedic implant antimicrobial technology, its current applications and supporting evidence, and clinically promising future directions. PMID:27335811

  6. Antimicrobial polymer films for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concilio, S.; Piotto, S.; Sessa, L.; Iannelli, P.; Porta, A.; Calabrese, E. C.; Galdi, M. R.; Incarnato, L.

    2012-07-01

    New antimicrobial polymeric systems were realized introducing new antimicrobial azo compounds in PP and LDPE matrices. The polymeric materials containing different percentage of azo compounds were mold-casted and the obtained film were tested in vitro against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria and fungi. These results hold promise for the fabrication of bacteria-resistant polymer films by means of simple melt processing with antimicrobial azo-dyes.

  7. Insect inducible antimicrobial peptides and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzati-Tabrizi, Reyhaneh; Farrokhi, Naser; Talaei-Hassanloui, Reza; Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Hosseininaveh, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found as important components of the innate immune system (host defense) of all invertebrates. These peptides can be constitutively expressed or induced in response to microbial infections. Indeed, they vary in their amino acid sequences, potency and antimicrobial activity spectra. The smaller AMPs act greatly by disrupting the structure or function of microbial cell membranes. Here, the insect innate immune system with emphasis on inducible antimicrobial peptide properties against microbial invaders has been discussed.

  8. Recombinant human thrombopoietin in myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadhan-Raj, S

    2001-07-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) is a full-length glycosylated molecule that has been under evaluation in the setting of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. It has been shown to be a potent stimulator of platelet production in cancer patients when administered prior to chemotherapy. The peak platelet response to a single dose of rhTPO is observed around day 12, and is accompanied by a significant increase in the number of mature megakaryocytes in bone marrow. Consistent with this biologic effect, rhTPO administered postchemotherapy has been shown to be effective in attenuating severe thrombocytopenia induced by carboplatin, which produces a late platelet nadir. Early clinical experience with a regimen that produces an early nadir, however, such as AI (doxorubicin [Adriamycin] and ifosfamide [Ifex]), suggests that administration of rhTPO both prior to and following chemotherapy might be important to reduce thrombocytopenia severity. Treatment with rhTPO in these clinical trials has been well tolerated with a favorable safety profile. Randomized clinical trials have been initiated to determine further the importance of schedule in the prevention and treatment of severe thrombocytopenia in cancer patients.

  9. [Buccal manifestations in patients submitted to chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol, Fernando Luiz; Tinoco, Eduardo Muniz Barretto; Teixeira, Henrique Guilherme de Castro; Falabella, Márcio Eduardo Vieira; Assis, Neuza Maria de Souza Picorelli

    2010-06-01

    Several changes in the oral cavity due to chemotherapy can be observed and can lead to important systemic complications, increasing the time of the patient in hospital and the costs of the treatment as well as affect the quality of life of the patients. The aim of this study was to assess the oral manifestation in patients treated with chemotherapy according to sex, age and tumor type. Data was collected in an oncology hospital in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, from patients' records that were submitted to oncologic treatment. It was possible to verify that mucositis, associated or not to other type of lesions, was the most common lesion in both sex of all ages (15.5%). Xerostomia and other lesions, such as Candida infection and aphthous lesions, were also present. It is possible to improve the quality of life of the patient during and after anti-neoplastic therapies through a protocol of odontological assistance that includes changes of the oral environment previous to chemotherapy such as profilaxis, caries removal, treatment of periodontal and periapical lesions, oral hygiene instructions, diet orientation and laser therapy. It is very important the insertion of the dentist in the oncologic medical team for the early diagnosis of the oral manifestation and follow-up during treatment time.

  10. [Experimental study on chemotherapy of acute glanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliukhin, V I; Rotov, K A; Senina, T V; Snatenkov, E A; Tikhonov, S N; Plekhanova, N G; Kulikova, A S; Shubnikova, E V; Korol', E V; Nekhezina, M O

    2012-01-01

    Glanders is a zoonotic infection inducing acute forms of the disease (pneumonia, sepsis) in humans and animals under certain conditions, which even with the use of modern chemotherapy have unfavourable prognosis. Insufficient of efficacy of antibiotics with in vitro low MIC for planktonic bacterial suspension of Burkholderia mallei in chemotherapy of acute forms of glanders was due to the capacity of the pathogen for intracellular survival and formation of biofilms. Under such conditions the susceptibility of B. mallei to antibiotics lowered by several orders of magnitude. Chemotherapy of the glanders acute forms in animals usually provided only an increase of the lifespan, while among the survivors there was recorded a high relapse rate. More favourable outcomes were observed with the use of in vitro effective antibiotics in the form of clathrate compounds or especially liposomal forms. In the experiments with golden hamsters the survival rate reached 100% in 1000 Dlm infection even with the treatment onset by meropenem liposomal form 48 hours after the infection. Chemotherapeutics in the liposomal form significantly lowered resistance of B. mallei in both the experiments with a suspension of planktonic organisms and the use of bacteria interned in eukaryotic cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis).

  11. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have not rece......BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... not received chemotherapy, in whom the disease has progressed despite androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 study, we randomly assigned 1717 patients to receive either enzalutamide (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo once daily. The coprimary end points were radiographic progression...... at the data-cutoff date (29% reduction in the risk of death; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.84; Pchemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.35), the time until the first...

  12. Chemotherapy resistance mechanisms in advanced skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a most dangerous and deadly type of skin cancer, and considered intrinsically resistant to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It has become a major public health concern as the incidence of melanoma has been rising steadily over recent decades with a 5-year survival remaining less than 5%. Detection of the disease in early stage may be curable, but late stage metastatic disease that has spread to other organs has an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than 10 months. Since metastatic melanoma is unresponsive to therapy that is currently available, research is now focused on different treatment strategies such as combinations of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The molecular basis of resistance to chemotherapy seen in melanoma is multifactorial; defective drug transport system, altered apoptotic pathway, deregulation of apoptosis and/or changes in enzymatic systems that mediate cellular metabolic machinery. Understanding of alterations in molecular processes involved in drug resistance may help in developing new therapeutic approaches to treatment of malignant melanoma.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satdive, R K; Abhilash, P; Fulzele, Devanand P

    2003-12-01

    The ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaves demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilis, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and inactivity against Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.

  14. Synthesis of Aminolaurylpyridinium Chloride as Antimicrobial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao; SONG Xin-yuan; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    4-amino-laurylpyridinium chloride (ALPC) was synthesized and employed in antimicrobial finishing of wool fabrics. The structures of the salt was fully characterized by using FTIR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. The effects of pH conditions of finishing baths, finishing time and temperature, and salt concentrations were investigated. ALPC could form ionic interactions with anionic groups on wool, which contribute to durable antimicrobial functions. The finished wool fabrics exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli. The washing durability of antimicrobial functions on the finished wool fabrics was also studied.

  15. Antimicrobial use in food and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F

    2008-12-01

    The vast literature on antimicrobial drug use in animals has expanded considerably recently as the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis in human medicine leads to questions about all usage of antimicrobial drugs, including long-term usage in intensively managed food animals for growth promotion and disease prevention. Attention is also increasingly focusing on antimicrobial use and on bacterial resistance in companion animals, which are in intimate contact with the human population. They may share resistant bacteria with their owners, amplify resistant bacteria acquired from their owners, and act as a reservoir for human infection. Considerable effort is being made to describe the basis of AMR in bacterial pathogens of animals. Documentation of many aspects of use of antimicrobials in animals is, however, generally less developed and only a few countries can describe quantities of drugs used in animals to kg levels annually. In recent years, many national veterinary associations have produced 'prudent use guidelines' to try to improve antimicrobial drug use and decrease resistance, but the impact of guidelines is unknown. Within the evolving global movement for 'antimicrobial stewardship', there is considerable scope to improve many aspects of antimicrobial use in animals, including infection control and reduction of use, with a view to reducing resistance and its spread, and to preserving antimicrobial drugs for the future.

  16. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  17. Presence of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in sows are risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte; Faes, Christel; Maes, Dominiek; Catry, Boudewijn; Boyen, Filip; Francoys, Delphine; de Jong, Ellen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated whether antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in apparently healthy sows and antimicrobial administration to sows and piglets influenced antimicrobial resistance in fecal commensal E. coli from piglets. Sixty sows from three herds and three of their piglets were sampled at several time points. Antimicrobial usage data during parturition and farrowing were collected. Clinical resistance was determined for two isolates per sampling time point for sows and piglets using disk diffusion. Only 27.4% of E. coli isolates from newborn piglets showed no resistance. Resistance to one or two antimicrobial classes equaled 41.2% and 46.8% in isolates from sows and piglets, respectively, for the overall farrowing period. Multiresistance to at least four classes was found as frequently in sows (15.6%) as in piglets (15.2%). Antimicrobial resistance in piglets was influenced by antimicrobial use in sows and piglets and by the sow resistance level (p≤0.05). Using aminopenicillins and third-generation cephalosporins in piglets affected resistance levels in piglets (odds ratios [OR] >1; p≤0.05). Using enrofloxacin in piglets increased the odds for enrofloxacin resistance in piglets (OR=26.78; p≤0.0001) and sows at weaning (OR=4.04; p≤0.05). For sows, antimicrobial exposure to lincomycin-spectinomycin around parturition increased the resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine in sows (OR=21.33, OR=142.74, OR=18.03; p≤0.05) and additionally to enrofloxacin in piglets (OR=7.50; p≤0.05). This study demonstrates that antimicrobial use in sows and piglets is a risk factor for antimicrobial resistance in the respective animals. Moreover, resistance determinants in E. coli from piglets are selected by using antimicrobials in their dam around parturition.

  18. [Influence of cancer chemotherapy on conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Jurowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of different types of chemotherapy schemes administered in lung, breast and bowel cancer on conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells morphology. 36 patients (72 eyes) were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into three groups depending on type of cancer and chemotherapy: group I - patients diagnosed with non- small cells lung cancer treated with PE schema (cisplatin, etoposide), group II - with breast cancer treated with FAC schema (fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), group Ill - bowel cancer treated with FU/LV schema (fluorouracil, leucovorin). Examinations were performed before chemotherapy and after Il'th, IV'th, VI'th chemotherapy cycle. Conjuntival specimen were obtained with exfoliative cytology, stained with PAS and hematoxyline. Statistically significant deterioration of conjunctival epithelium and goblet cells in all the groups in each time of examination (p<0.001) was observed. Alterations were aggravated with duration of chemotherapy. Before chemotherapy all the patients had normal epithelium and goblet cells (grade 0 or 1 according to the Nelson's scale). Conjunctival cells status gradually deteriorated and altered from the normal glandular epithelium to the squamous cells epithelium through the process of squamous metaplasia. In further chemotherapy cycles each patient (1,0 fraction) had abnormal morphology of epithelium and goblet cells (grade 2 or 3 of Nelson's scale). Chemotherapy induces squamous metaplasia of epithelium and the reduction of number of conjunctival goblet cells. This abnormalities were time dependent and increased with duration of chemotherapy and were not depended on type of chemotherapy scheme.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Nicole Nari; Kresken, Michael; Körber-Irrgang, Barbara; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Cornelia; Wichelhaus, Thomas A

    2014-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become an increasing public health problem. Hence, surveillance of resistance development is of crucial importance to implement adequate treatment guidelines. Data on the spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococcal isolates in Germany, however, is scarce. In a resistance surveillance study conducted by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2011, 23 laboratories all over Germany were requested to send N. gonorrhoeae isolates to the study laboratory in Frankfurt am Main. Species verification was performed biochemically using ApiNH and with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method. For molecular epidemiological analysis, N. gonorrhoeae strains were genotyped by means of N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. A total of 213 consecutive gonococcal isolates were analyzed in this nationwide study. Applying EUCAST breakpoints, high resistance rates were found for ciprofloxacin (74%) and tetracycline (41%). Penicillin non-susceptibility was detected in 80% of isolates. The rate of azithromycin resistance was 6%, while all strains were susceptible to spectinomycin, cefixime, and ceftriaxone. Molecular typing of gonococcal isolates revealed a great heterogeneity of 99 different sequence types (ST), but ST1407 predominated (n=39). This is the first comprehensive German multi-centre surveillance study on antibiotic susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae with implications for antibiotic choice for treatment of gonorrhoea. The World Health Organization supports the concept that an efficacious treatment of gonorrhoea results in at least 95% of infections being cured. Accordingly, as spectinomycin is not available on the German market, only the third generation cephalosporins cefixime and ceftriaxone are regarded as valuable drugs

  20. Randomized Trial of Two Dosages of Prophylactic Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor after Induction Chemotherapy in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Cao, Xueyuan; Pounds, Stanley; Pui, Ching-Hon; Rubnit, Jeffrey E.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Razzouk, Bassem I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is effective in accelerating neutrophil recovery after intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the optimal G-CSF dosage for patients with AML has not been determined. To our knowledge, G-CSF dosages have not been compared in a randomized AML study. Methods Patients enrolled on the St. Jude AML97 protocol who remained on study after window therapy were eligible to participate. The effect of the dosage of G-CSF given after induction chemotherapy courses 1 and 2 was analyzed in 46 patients randomly assigned in a double-blinded manner to receive 5 or 10 μg/kg/day of G-CSF. The number of days of G-CSF treatment, neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count < 0.5 × 109/L), and hospitalization; the number of episodes of febrile neutropenia, grade 2-4 infection, and antimicrobial therapy; transfusion requirements; the cost of supportive care; and survival were compared between the two study arms. Results We found no statistically significant difference between the two arms in any of the endpoints measured. Conclusions The higher G-CSF dosage (10 μg/kg/day) offers no greater benefit than the lower dosage (5 μg/kg/day) in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for AML. PMID:21381017

  1. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van Velsen, Lex; van Limburg, Maarten; de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pi, Julia Elisabeth Wilhelmina Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put antimicrobi

  2. Role of Chemotherapy and Mechanisms of Resistance to Chemotherapy in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohiya, Vipin; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B.; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy using the taxanes, docetaxel and cabazitaxel, remains an important therapeutic option in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, despite the survival benefits afforded by these agents, the survival increments are modest and resistance occurs universally. Efforts to overcome resistance to docetaxel by combining with biologic agents have heretofore been unsuccessful. Indeed, resistance to these taxanes is also associated with cross-resistance to the antiandrogen drugs, abiraterone and enzalutamide. Here, we discuss the various mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy in metastatic CRPC and the potential role of emerging regimens and agents in varying clinical phases of development.

  3. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Dschang, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusi-Ngwa Catherine Kesah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated and community infections remain problematic in most of Africa where the increasing incidences of diseases, wars, poverty, malnutrition, and general environmental deterioration have led to the gradual collapse of the health-care system. Detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR remains imperative for the surveillance purposes and optimal management of infectious diseases. This study reports the status of AMR in pathogens in Dschang. Materials and Methods: From May 2009 to March 2010, the clinical specimens collected at two hospitals were processed accorded to the standard procedures. Antibiotic testing was performed by E test, and antimycotics by disc-agar diffusion, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on pathogens comprising Staphylococcus aureus (100 strains, Enterococcus faecalis (35, Klebsiella pneumoniae (75, Escherichia coli (50, Proteus mirabilis (30, Pseudomonas aruginosa (50, Acinetobacter species (20, and Candida albicans (150 against common antimicrobials. Results: There was no vancomycin resistance in the cocci, the minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of these strains MIC 90 was 3 μg/ml, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA was 43%, benzyl penicillin 89% resistance in S. aureus as opposed to 5.7% in E. faecalis. Low resistance (<10% was recorded to cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and nalidixic acid (MIC 90 3-8 μg/ml against the coliforms, and to ticarcillin, aztreonam, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin among the non-enterobacteria; tetracycline, amoxicillin, piperacillin, and chloramphenicol were generally ineffective. Resistance rates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, econazole, and miconazole were <55% against C. albicans. The pathogens tested exhibited multidrug-resistance. Conclusion: The present findings were intended to support antimicrobial stewardship endeavors and empiric therapy. The past, present, and the future investigations in drug efficacy will continue

  5. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  6. Antimicrobial and biofilm inhibiting diketopiperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, M P; Abraham, W-R

    2012-01-01

    Diketopiperazines are the smallest cyclic peptides known. 90% of Gram-negative bacteria produce diketopiperazines and they have also been isolated from Gram-positive bacteria, fungi and higher organisms. Biosynthesis of cyclodipeptides can be achieved by dedicated nonribosomal peptide synthetases or by a novel type of synthetases named cyclopeptide synthases. Since the first report in 1924 a large number of bioactive diketopiperazines was discovered spanning activities as antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, antiprion, antihyperglycemic or glycosidase inhibitor agents. As infections are of increasing concern for human health and resistances against existing antibiotics are growing this review focuses on the antimicrobial activities of diketopiperazines. The antibiotic bicyclomycin is a diketopiperazine and structure activity studies revealed the unique nature of this compound which was finally developed for clinical applications. The antimicrobial activities of a number of other diketopiperazines along with structure activity relationships are discussed. Here a special focus is on the activity-toxicity problem of many compounds setting tight limitations to their application as drugs. Not only these classical antimicrobial activities but also proposed action in modulating bacterial communication as a new target to control biofilms will be evaluated. Pathogens organized in biofilms are difficult to eradicate because of the increase of their tolerance for antibiotics for several orders. Diketopiperazines were reported to modulate LuxR-mediated quorum-sensing systems of bacteria, and they are considered to influence cell-cell signaling offering alternative ways of biofilm control by interfering with microbial communication. Concluding the review we will finally discuss the potential of diketopiperazines in the clinic to erase biofilm infections.

  7. Antimicrobial Activities of Dorema Auchri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Due to emerging of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, investigations for novel antimicrobial agents have always been one of the major preoccupations of the medical society. Traditional medicine systems have played an important role during human evolution and development. Today, a number of medical herbs around the world have been studied for their medicinal activities. Amongst the several herbal medicine used as a medicine, Dorema auchri is yet another potent herbal medicine which has not been extensively studied for the medicinal uses in comparison with other herbal medicine. Dorema auchri has a long history of use as a sore and food additive in Yasuj, Iran. However, not much scientific work has been conducted on Dorema auchri antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to study the antimicrobial properties of Dorema auchri on some pathogen microorganisms. Materials & Methods: In the present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. After collection and preparation of hydro alcoholic extract of Dorena auchri, the extract was used to study its activities against human pathogen microorganisms (overall 10 microorganisms. The determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration were evaluated for this extract. The antimicrobial potent of Dorema auchri extract was compared with commercial antibiotics. Each experiment was done three times and collected data were analyzed by SPSS using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: Findings of this study showed that in 10 mg/ml concentration, all bacteria were resistant to Dorema auchri extract. In 20 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and Staphylococcus epidermis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI 10 mm and 13 mm respectively. In 40 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 15 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus. The acceptable MIC

  8. Antimicrobial evaluation of mangiferin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethylenomangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N,N-diphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and R f value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity.

  9. Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mangiferin Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. K.; Kumar, Y.; Kumar, S. Sadish; Sharma, V. K.; Dua, K.; Samad, A.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally occurring xanthone glycoside mangiferin has been isolated by column chromatography from the ethanol extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica. Mangiferin was further converted to 5-(N-phenylaminomethyleno)mangiferin, 5-(N-p-chlorophenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-2-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N-p-methoxyphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N, N-diphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin, 5-(N--napthylaminomethyleno) mangiferin and 5-(N-4-methylphenylaminomethyleno) mangiferin. Mangiferin and its analogues were characterized by melting point and Rf value determination and through spectral technique like UV, IR, and NMR spectral analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity. PMID:20490307

  10. [Antimicrobial sensitive of Morganella morganii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja; Michalska, Anna; Sielska, Barbara; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial sensitive of Morganella morganii rods isolated from clinical samples. This study included 50 of M. morganii strains isolated in the Clinical Microbiology Department of dr. A. Jurasz University Hospital in 2008-2009. All of strains were sensitive to carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem) and piperacillin/tazobactam and most of them to beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides and fluorochinolons. Resistance to tetracyclines demonstrated 38,0% strains and to doxycycline - 40,0%. One out of 6 strains isolated from urine samples were sensitive to nitrofurantoin. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases were produced by 5 (10,0%) strains.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some Alnus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınyay, Ç; Eryılmaz, M; Yazgan, A N; Sever Yılmaz, B; Altun, M L

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of resistant microorganisms forced scientists to find new antimicrobial substances from different sources like medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of some Alnus sp. against some bacteria and a yeast. Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Broth dilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activities of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species exhibited better antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of tested species possessed activity having MIC values of 0.125-0.250 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. No antibacterial activity was observed against B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa for all the aqueous extracts. Except these aqueous extracts, the others possessed activity having MIC value of 1.000 mg/ml against the tested microorganisms. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the evaluation of antimicrobial activities on aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of these species. This study provides significant information about antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of A. glutinosa subsp. glutinosa, A. orientalis var. orientalis, A. orientalis var. pubescens. It is conceivable that one of the reason for the usage of Alnus glutinosa, in treatment of wound healing in folk medicine, is because of its antimicrobial activity.

  12. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de ...

  13. [Antimicrobial activity of Calendula L. plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioza, S A; Iurchak, L D

    2007-01-01

    The sap of different organs of genus Calendula plant species has been studied for antimicrobial activity. The sap of racemes demonstrated the most expressed antimicrobial effect while that of the roots - the least one. Calendula species inhibited all tested pathogenic microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas syringae, P. fluorescens, Xanthomonas campestris, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Calendula suffruticosa was the most active to all investigated microorganisms.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Choi, B S; Kwon, K C; Lee, S O; Kwak, H J; Lee, C H

    2000-08-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of squalamine analogue 2 are reported. The synthesis of 2 was accomplished from bisnoralcohol 3. The spermidine moiety was introduced via reductive amination of an appropriately functionalized 3beta-aminosterol with spermidinyl aldehyde 17 utilizing sodium triacetoxyborohydride as the reducing agent. Compound 2 shows weaker antimicrobial activity than squalamine.

  15. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  16. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  17. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  18. Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: Current Status and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Jamie R; Morrison, Gladys; Dolan, M Eileen; Gini F Fleming

    2015-01-01

    As there are increasing numbers of cancer survivors, more attention is being paid to the long term unwanted effects patients may experience as a result of their treatment and the impact these side effects can have on their quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most common long-term toxicities from chemotherapy. In this review we will briefly review the clinical presentation, evaluation and management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, wit...

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, B Mark; Thomson, Iain

    2013-11-01

    In patients with operable esophageal cancer, there is evidence supporting the use of preoperative chemotherapy or preoperative chemoradiation. The addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy seems more relevant for the more locally advanced cancers. There is a need to examine in trials more modern chemotherapy combinations with and without concurrent radiation and for research into assessing methods for predicting outcomes from neoadjuvant therapy as part of the paradigm of therapy for this disease.

  20. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  1. Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of coating diverse substrate materials with antimicrobial agents have been developed. Originally intended to reduce health risks to astronauts posed by pathogenic microorganisms that can grow on surfaces in spacecraft, these methods could also be used on Earth for example, to ensure sterility of surgical inserts and other medical equipment. The methods involve, generally, chemical preparation of substrate surfaces to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the substrate surfaces via covalent bonds. Substrate materials that have been treated successfully include aluminum, glass, a corrosion-resistant nickel alloy, stainless steel, titanium, and poly(tetrafluoroethylene). Antimicrobial agents that have been successfully immobilized include antibiotics, enzymes, bacteriocins, bactericides, and fungicides. A variety of linkage chem istries were employed. Activity of antimicrobial coatings against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi was demonstrated. Results of investigations indicate that the most suitable combination of antimicrobial agent, substrate, and coating method depends upon the intended application.

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides: Multifunctional Drugs for Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (APs are an important part of the innate immune system in epithelial and non-epithelial surfaces. So far, many different antimicrobial peptides from various families have been discovered in non-vertebrates and vertebrates. They are characterized by antibiotic, antifungal and antiviral activities against a variety of microorganisms. In addition to their role as endogenous antimicrobials, APs participate in multiple aspects of immunity. They are involved in septic and non-septic inflammation, wound repair, angiogenesis, regulation of the adaptive immune system and in maintaining homeostasis. Due to those characteristics AP could play an important role in many practical applications. Limited therapeutic efficiency of current antimicrobial agents and the emerging resistance of pathogens require alternate antimicrobial drugs. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent literature on functions and mechanisms of APs. It also shows their current practical applications as peptide therapeutics and bioactive polymers and discusses the possibilities of future clinical developments.

  3. Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    Antimicrobials are used for treatment and prevention of disease in food animals and as feed additives for growth promotion. All uses lead to the development of resistant bacteria, some of which are pathogenic to humans. Current main concerns are with resistance in Salmonella and Campylobacter...... to fluoroquinolones, which are used for empirical treatment of diarrhea in humans. Resistance to vancomycin and Synercid((R)) in enterococci is associated with use of similar drugs as growth promoters in food animals. Danish food animal producers have terminated the use of antimicrobial growth promoters. This has...... reduced the total use of antimicrobials by more than 50% and markedly reduced levels of resistance. There is an urgent need to implement globally, WHO principles for prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Use of antimicrobials as growth promoters could and should be terminated completely....

  4. Antimicrobial peptides important in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Andreas; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta

    2011-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are present in all walks of life, from plants to animals, and they are considered to be endogenous antibiotics. In general, antimicrobial peptides are determinants of the composition of the microbiota and they function to fend off microbes and prevent infections. Antimicrobial peptides eliminate micro-organisms through disruption of their cell membranes. Their importance in human immunity, and in health as well as disease, has only recently been appreciated. The present review provides an introduction to the field of antimicrobial peptides in general and discusses two of the major classes of mammalian antimicrobial peptides: the defensins and the cathelicidins. The review focuses on their structures, their main modes of action and their regulation.

  5. Gastric carcinoma: curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Hernández, J F; Ernesto de Obaldía Castillo, G; Ramírez Ortega, C; Frías Mendivil, M; Pardo, M

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study of gastric adenocarcinoma treated with surgery as curative attempt was performed at the Oncology Service, in the Hospital Regional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE. Morbidity and mortality of the surgical procedures were evaluated, the significance of several risk factors and the survival impact of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC). In the period from 1975 to 1991 a total of 483 new cases were seen. In only 54 patients (11.2%) was it possible to undertake a curative resection. The patients were assigned to three groups of treatment: surgery alone (14 cases), surgery + 5-FU (19 cases), and surgery + 5-FU+MMC (21 cases). Three different types of surgical techniques are regularly performed in our service for gastric cancer treatment: Billroth II distal gastrectomy, total gastrectomy with Roux-En-Y reconstruction, and esophagogastrectomy with esophagogastrostomy. Surgical morbidity and mortality was low, with 9% of duodenal stump fistulas and 27% with partial stenosis of esophagojejunostomy; the operative mortality was zero. Chemotherapy toxicity was transient and low, no related deaths were recorded. The prognostic factors associated significantly with survival were lymph node status and tumor penetration. The histologic differentiation as well as the tumor location and type of surgery had no significance. The estimated 5-year survival of the patients treated with surgery alone was 62%, while that of the patients treated with surgery plus chemotherapy was 38%. These groups were not comparable, however, because of important differences in their prognostic factors. The groups treated with 5-FU alone or in combination with MMC had no survival difference between them.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Pain in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmiroli, Paola; Scuteri, Arianna; Cornblath, David R; Cavaletti, Guido

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a potentially dose-limiting side effect of the treatment of several cancers. CIPN is predominantly or exclusively sensory, and it is frequently associated with unpleasant symptoms, overall referred to as "pain." However, given the markedly different clinical presentation and course of CIPN depending on the antineoplastic drug used, the broad term "pain" in the specific context of CIPN needs to be reconsidered and refined. In fact, a precise identification of the features of CIPN has relevant implication in the design of rational-based clinical trials and in the selection of possible active drugs. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  7. Anaphylaxis to chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Mariana C

    2015-05-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions are increasingly prevalent, although underrecognized and underreported. Platins induce immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization; taxenes and some monoclonal antibodies can induce reactions at first exposure. Severe hypersensitivity can preclude first-line therapy. Tryptase level at the time of a reaction is a useful diagnostic tool. Skin testing provides a specific diagnosis. Newer tests are promising diagnostic tools to help identify patients at risk before first exposure. Safe management includes rapid drug desensitization. This review provides information regarding the scope of hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions induced by chemotherapy and biological drugs, as well as diagnosis, management, and treatment options.

  8. Anti-tumor immunity, autophagy and chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gy(o)rgyi Müzes; Ferenc Sipos

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy or self-digestion of cells is activated upon various stressful stimuli and has been found to be a survival and drug resistance pathway in cancer.However,genetic studies support that autophagy can act as a tumor suppressor.Furthermore,defective autophagy is implicated in tumorigenesis,as well.The precise impact of autophagy on malignant transformation has not yet been clarified,but recent data suggest that this complex process is mainly directed by cell types,phases,genetic background and microenvironment.Relation of autophagy to anticancer immune responses may indicate a novel aspect in cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Timing of chemotherapy and surgery in a murine osteosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R S; Roth, Y F; Gebhardt, M C; Bell, D F; Rosenberg, A E; Mankin, H J; Suit, H D

    1988-10-01

    The sequential use of chemotherapy and surgery in the treatment of osteosarcoma developed in an empirical fashion without the benefit of investigations in animal models. The MGH-OGS murine osteosarcoma is a transplantable tumor that resembles the human disease with respect to histology, local invasiveness, metastatic characteristics, tumor ploidy, and its response to chemotherapy. We have used this tumor model to investigate the efficacy of preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative chemotherapy on the development of pulmonary metastases in three different experimental protocols. In each experimental design, perioperative chemotherapy demonstrated a significant advantage in preventing systemic relapse.

  10. Optimizing antimicrobial therapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitrat V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Virginie Vitrat,1 Serge Hautefeuille,2 Cécile Janssen,1 David Bougon,2 Michel Sirodot,2 Leonardo Pagani1,3 1Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, Infectious Diseases Unit, 2Intensive Care Unit, Annecy-Genevois Hospital Center (CHANGE, Annecy, France; 3Infectious Diseases Unit, Bolzano Central Hospital, Bolzano, Italy Abstract: Critically ill patients with infection in the intensive care unit (ICU would certainly benefit from timely bacterial identification and effective antimicrobial treatment. Diagnostic techniques have clearly improved in the last years and allow earlier identification of bacterial strains in some cases, but these techniques are still quite expensive and not readily available in all institutions. Moreover, the ever increasing rates of resistance to antimicrobials, especially in Gram-negative pathogens, are threatening the outcome for such patients because of the lack of effective medical treatment; ICU physicians are therefore resorting to combination therapies to overcome resistance, with the direct consequence of promoting further resistance. A more appropriate use of available antimicrobials in the ICU should be pursued, and adjustments in doses and dosing through pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have recently shown promising results in improving outcomes and reducing antimicrobial resistance. The aim of multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship programs is to improve antimicrobial prescription, and in this review we analyze the available experiences of such programs carried out in ICUs, with emphasis on results, challenges, and pitfalls. Any effective intervention aimed at improving antibiotic usage in ICUs must be brought about at the present time; otherwise, we will face the challenge of intractable infections in critically ill patients in the near future. Keywords: ICU, antimicrobial therapies, antimicrobial stewardship, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial resistance, early diagnosis

  11. Delayed emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (single-day chemotherapy regimens only)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roila, Fausto; Warr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-01-01

    An update of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy discussed during the third Perugia Consensus Conference (June 2009) sponsored by MASCC-ESMO was presented. The review considered new studies published since the second consensus co...

  12. The safety of antimicrobial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćupić Vitomir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and introduction of antimicrobial drugs in clinical practice has been recorded as one of the greatest achievements in the history of medicine. The application of these drugs, made a big, almost revolutionary upheaval in treatment of many infectious diseases. Its significance for the humanity lies in the fact that hundreds of thousands of people, until then condemned to a certain death, has been saved now. However, it was shown that antimicrobial therapy carries some risk of possible occurrence of undesirable and toxic effects, such as direct toxic effects, development of resistance, the impact on the normal microflora or disorder of micropopulation metabolic functions in digestive tract of ruminants, unwanted interactions with other drugs, damage or necrosis of the tissue at the injection site, residues in foodstuff intended for human consumption, suppression of immune system or defense mechanisms of the body, and damage of fetal or neonatal tissue. All mentioned, directly or indirectly, to a greater or lesser degree can reduce the safety of these drugs.

  13. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  14. Antimicrobial outcomes in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.; Woloszko, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter and is frequently generated in the environment of a strong electric field. The result consists of highly reactive species--ions, electrons, reactive atoms and molecules, and UV radiation. Plasma Medicine unites a number of fields, including Physics, Plasma Chemistry, Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine. The treatment modality utilizes Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP), which is able to sterilize and treat microbes in a nonthermal manner. These gas-based plasma systems operate at close to room temperature and atmospheric pressure, making them very practical for a range of potential treatments and are highly portable for clinical use throughout the health care system. The hypothesis is that gas based plasma kills bacteria, fungus, and viruses but spares mammalian cells. This paper will review systematic work which shows examples of systems and performance in regards to antimicrobial effects and the sparing of mammalian cells. The mechanism of action will be discussed, as well as dosing for the treatment of microbial targets, including sterilization processes, another important healthcare need. In addition, commercial systems will be overviewed and compared, along with evidence-based, patient results. The range of treatments cover wound treatment and biofilms, as well as antimicrobial treatment, with little chance for resistance and tolerance, as in drug regimens. Current clinical studies include applications in dentistry, food treatment, cancer treatment, wound treatment for bacteria and biofilms, and systems to combat health care related infections.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance: cost and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Smith, Richard D

    2003-08-01

    There is growing evidence that antimicrobial resistance causes serious consequences for individuals as well as leading to increased healthcare costs. The containment of resistance is therefore a policy problem which will impact on all health systems in the next few years. Unfortunately, there is, as yet, no definitive evidence suggesting that particular control measures are successful in containing either the emergence or transmission of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, few studies contain information about costs and even where there is such information it is generally inadequate because of the narrow perspectives from which analyses are conducted. In part, this is due to methodological problems associated with the inclusion of cost data: measuring and valuing what are often intangible costs; identifying costs associated with organizational change; and accounting for interaction between costs at levels from the individual to the international. Good quality research, including both economic evaluation and comprehensive economic modelling, is required to determine the most cost-effective combination of strategies to pursue in combating resistance, and to find ways around these methodological difficulties.

  16. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bogaerts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most successful model species for experimental research because of its sequenced genome, the versatile genetic toolkit and the straightforward breeding among others. In natural conditions however, this tiny worm is constantly surrounded by micro-organisms, simultaneously a source of indispensable nutrition and inevitable pathogens. Lacking an adaptive immune system, the worm solely relies on its innate immune defence to cope with its challenging life style. Hence C. elegans is an excellent model to gain more insight in innate immunity, which is remarkably preserved between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. The innate defence consists of receptors to detect potential pathogens, a complex network of signalling pathways and last but not least, effector molecules to abolish harmful microbes. In this review, we focus on the antimicrobial peptides, a vital subgroup of effector molecules. We summarise the current knowledge of the different families of C. elegans antimicrobial peptides, comprising NLPs, caenacins, ABFs, caenopores, and a recently discovered group with antifungal activity among which thaumatin-like proteins.

  18. Comparison of antimicrobial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic breakpoints with EUCAST and CLSI clinical breakpoints for Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asín, Eduardo; Isla, Arantxazu; Canut, Andrés; Rodríguez Gascón, Alicia

    2012-10-01

    This study compared the susceptibility breakpoints based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models and Monte Carlo simulation with those defined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) for antibiotics used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A secondary objective was to evaluate the probability of achieving the PK/PD target associated with the success of antimicrobial therapy. A 10,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was executed to evaluate 13 antimicrobials (47 intravenous dosing regimens). Susceptibility data were extracted from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy database for bacteraemia isolates. The probability of target attainment and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated. No antibiotic was predicted to be effective (CFR≥90%) against all microorganisms. The PK/PD susceptibility breakpoints were also estimated and were compared with CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints. The percentages of strains affected by breakpoint discrepancies were calculated. In the case of β-lactams, breakpoint discrepancies affected <15% of strains. However, higher differences were detected for low doses of vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid, with PK/PD breakpoints being lower than those defined by the CLSI and EUCAST. If this occurs, an isolate will be considered susceptible based on CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints although the PK/PD analysis predicts failure, which may explain treatment failures reported in the literature. This study reinforces the idea of considering not only the antimicrobial activity but also the dosing regimen to increase the probability of clinical success of an antimicrobial treatment.

  19. Resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in bacteria isolated from acute endodontic infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pauline M; Jacinto, Rogério C; Dal Pizzol, Tatiane S; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C; Montagner, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed. The outcome was described as the pooled resistance rates for each antimicrobial agent. Heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted based upon report or not of the use of antibiotics prior to sampling as an exclusion factor (subgroups A and B, respectively). Data from seven studies were extracted. Resistance rates for 15 different antimicrobial agents were evaluated (range, 3.5-40.0%). Lower resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and amoxicillin; higher resistance rates were detected for tetracycline. Resistance rates varied according to previous use of an antimicrobial agent as demonstrated by the subgroup analyses. Heterogeneity was observed for the resistance profiles of penicillin G in subgroup A and for amoxicillin, clindamycin, metronidazole and tetracycline in subgroup B. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that resistance rates changed for metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and amoxicillin. These findings suggest that clinical isolates had low resistance to β-lactams. Further well-designed studies are needed to clarify whether the differences in susceptibility among the antimicrobial agents may influence clinical responses to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcal Strains Isolated from Various Pathological Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Mihaela SIMON

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal choice of antimicrobial therapy is an important problem in hospital environment in which the selection of resistant and virulent strains easy occurs. S. aureus and especially MRSA(methicillin-resistant S. aureus creates difficulties in both treatment and prevention of nosocomial infections. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity and the resistance to chemotherapy of staphylococci strains isolated from various pathological products. Material and Method: We identified Staphylococccus species after morphological appearance, culture properties, the production of coagulase, hemolisines and the enzyme activity. The susceptibility tests were performed on Mueller-Hinton medium according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The strains were: MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (74%, MRSA (8%, MLS B (macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramines resistance (12% and MRSA and MLS B (6%. MRSA strains were more frequently isolated from sputum. MRSA associated with the MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from pus. MLS B strains were more frequently isolated from sputum and throat secretions. All S. aureus strains were susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusions: All staphylococcal infections require resistance testing before treatment. MLS B shows a high prevalence among strains of S. aureus. The association between MLS B and MRSA remains a major problem in Romania.

  1. Comparative Study on Rituximab Combined with Chemotherapy and Single Chemotherapy for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-feng FENG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of rituximab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Methods: A total of 97 patients with DLBCL were selected. Patients treated by single chemotherapy were designed as control group, while those by rituximab combined with chemotherapy as observational group. All patients were treated for at least 4 cycles. The short-term and long-term efficacy and related adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed. Results: The rate of complete remission (CR in observational group was significantly higher than in control group (χ2=4.6589, P=0.0309. However, there was no significant difference in objective remission rate (ORR between 2 groups (P=0.3651. The rates of 3-year overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS and disease-free survival (DFS were 80.30% (53/66, 69.70% (46/66 and 59.09% (39/66 in observational group, and 61.29% (19/31, 58.06% (18/31 and 58.06% (18/31 in control group, respectively. The OS in observational group was significantly longer than in control group (P=0.035. However, there was no significant difference in PFS, DFS and rate adverse reactions between 2 groups (P=0.089; P=0.438; χ2=0.1562, P=0.6927. Conclusion: Rituximab combined with chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of DLBCL without increasing the adverse reactions, which can be used as the first-line treatment for DLBCL, thus deserving to be widely applied in clinic.

  2. Comparative Study on Rituximab Combined with Chemotherapy and Single Chemotherapy for Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ji-feng

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efifcacy and safety of rituximab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods:A total of 97 patients with DLBCL were selected. Patients treated by single chemotherapy were designed as control group, while those by rituximab combined with chemotherapy as observational group. All patients were treated for at least 4 cycles. The short-term and long-term efifcacy and related adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed. Results:The rate of complete remission (CR) in observational group was signiifcantly higher than in control group (χ2=4.6589,P=0.0309). However, there was no signiifcant difference in objective remission rate (ORR) between 2 groups (P=0.3651). The rates of 3-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 80.30% (53/66), 69.70% (46/66) and 59.09% (39/66) in observational group, and 61.29% (19/31), 58.06% (18/31) and 58.06% (18/31) in control group, respectively. The OS in observational group was signiifcantly longer than in control group (P=0.035). However, there was no signiifcant difference in PFS, DFS and rate adverse reactions between 2 groups (P=0.089;P=0.438;χ2=0.1562,P=0.6927). Conclusion: Rituximab combined with chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of DLBCL without increasing the adverse reactions, which can be used as the ifrst-line treatment for DLBCL, thus deserving to be widely applied in clinic.

  3. Drug Cocktail Optimization in Chemotherapy of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissner, Saskia; Dunkel, Mathias; Hoffmann, Michael F.; Preissner, Sarah C.; Genov, Nikolai; Rong, Wen Wei; Preissner, Robert; Seeger, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    Background In general, drug metabolism has to be considered to avoid adverse effects and ineffective therapy. In particular, chemotherapeutic drug cocktails strain drug metabolizing enzymes especially the cytochrome P450 family (CYP). Furthermore, a number of important chemotherapeutic drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen or procarbazine are administered as prodrugs and have to be activated by CYP. Therefore, the genetic variability of these enzymes should be taken into account to design appropriate therapeutic regimens to avoid inadequate drug administration, toxicity and inefficiency. Objective The aim of this work was to find drug interactions and to avoid side effects or ineffective therapy in chemotherapy. Data sources and methods Information on drug administration in the therapy of leukemia and their drug metabolism was collected from scientific literature and various web resources. We carried out an automated textmining approach. Abstracts of PubMed were filtered for relevant articles using specific keywords. Abstracts were automatically screened for antineoplastic drugs and their synonyms in combination with a set of human CYPs in title or abstract. Results We present a comprehensive analysis of over 100 common cancer treatment regimens regarding drug-drug interactions and present alternatives avoiding CYP overload. Typical concomitant medication, e.g. antiemetics or antibiotics is a preferred subject to improvement. A webtool, which allows drug cocktail optimization was developed and is publicly available on http://bioinformatics.charite.de/chemotherapy. PMID:23236419

  4. Drug cocktail optimization in chemotherapy of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Preissner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In general, drug metabolism has to be considered to avoid adverse effects and ineffective therapy. In particular, chemotherapeutic drug cocktails strain drug metabolizing enzymes especially the cytochrome P450 family (CYP. Furthermore, a number of important chemotherapeutic drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen or procarbazine are administered as prodrugs and have to be activated by CYP. Therefore, the genetic variability of these enzymes should be taken into account to design appropriate therapeutic regimens to avoid inadequate drug administration, toxicity and inefficiency. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to find drug interactions and to avoid side effects or ineffective therapy in chemotherapy. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: Information on drug administration in the therapy of leukemia and their drug metabolism was collected from scientific literature and various web resources. We carried out an automated textmining approach. Abstracts of PubMed were filtered for relevant articles using specific keywords. Abstracts were automatically screened for antineoplastic drugs and their synonyms in combination with a set of human CYPs in title or abstract. RESULTS: We present a comprehensive analysis of over 100 common cancer treatment regimens regarding drug-drug interactions and present alternatives avoiding CYP overload. Typical concomitant medication, e.g. antiemetics or antibiotics is a preferred subject to improvement. A webtool, which allows drug cocktail optimization was developed and is publicly available on http://bioinformatics.charite.de/chemotherapy.

  5. The role of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairooz P Manjandavida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy in retinoblastoma (RB is widely accepted as the current management tool with an aim of increasing drug availability at the tumor location. Inevitably the effect is several times higher compared to systemic delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and carries less systemic toxicity. Despite tremendous advancement in saving life, eye salvage in advanced RB especially with active vitreous seeds remains a challenge. The hypoxic environment of the vitreous and reduced vitreous concentration of the drugs delivered makes these tumor seeds resistant to chemotherapy. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into the vitreous cavity aids to overcome these challenges and is progressively being accepted worldwide. However, intraocular procedure in RB was abandoned due to high risk of extraocular tumor dissemination. Recently, the forbidden therapeutic technique was re-explored and modified for safe use. Although eye salvage rate has tremendously improved after intravitreal chemotherapy (IVitC, retinal toxicity, and vision salvage are yet to be validated. In our preliminary report of intravitreal melphalan in 11 eyes, we reported 100% eye salvage and 0% recurrence with an extended 15 months mean follow-up. In this review, we analyzed published reports on IVitC in RB via PubMed, Medline, and conference proceedings citation index, electronic database search, without language restriction that included case series and reports of humans and experimental animal eyes with RB receiving IVitC.

  6. Sensitivity of Interstitial combined Chemotherapy against Glioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-sheng; LIN Jian-ying; ZHOU Guo-sheng; ZHANG Xin-zhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of combination chemotherapy of Carboplatin(CBP) ,Teniposide (Vm-26) ,Methasquin(MTX),and Nimodipine(NIM) on glioma,and to explore the sensitivity of glioma cells to different treatment regimens so as to provide some clues for clinical usage of interstitial combination chemotherapy. Methods MTT assay and 3H-TdR incorporation assay were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effects upon the proliferation of glioma cells,and to compare the sensitivity of glioma cells to administration of CBP,Vm-26, MTX, and NIM with that of the administration of CBP + NIM, Vm-26 + NIM, MTX + NIM, CBP + Vm-26 + MTX, or CBP + Vm-26 + MTX + NIM respectively. Results The inhibition rate of CBP + Vm-26 + MTX + NIM combination administration against glioma cells was 96.64%,which was higher than that of CBP + NIM (69.03%), Vm-26 + NIM (71.53%), MTX + NIM (52. 75% ), CBP + Vm-26 + MTX(78.59%)(P<0.01),and the dosage of CBP,Vm-26,and MTX was declined to 1/10 ~ 1/100 that of respective use of CBP,Vm-26,and MTX. Conclusions The curative effects of combination administration of CBP,Vm-26, MTX, and NIM was much better than that of respective administration,suggesting a higher inhibition rate and a lower dosage use.

  7. Induction of cancer cell stemness by chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingwang; Ghisolfi, Laura; Keates, Andrew C; Zhang, Jian; Xiang, Shuanglin; Lee, Dong-ki; Li, Chiang J

    2012-07-15

    Recent studies indicate that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in most hematological and solid tumors. CSCs are characterized by their ability to self-renew and their capacity to differentiate into the multitude of cells that comprise the tumor mass. Moreover, these cells have been shown to be intrinsically resistant to conventional anticancer therapies. Despite their fundamental role in cancer pathogenesis, the cellular origin of CSCs remains highly controversial. The aim of this study was to examine whether heterogeneous cancer cells can acquire stem cell-like properties in response to chemotherapy. We demonstrate that carboplatin can induce the self-renewal (spherogenesis) and pluripotency (Sox2 and Oct3/4 expression) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells grown under stem cell culture conditions. Moreover, we show that non-CSC cells, obtained by side population flow cytometric sorting using Hoechst 33342, can acquire stem-like properties after exposure to carboplatin. Finally, we show that knockdown of Sox2 and Oct3/4 gene expression in HCC cells can reduce carboplatin-mediated increases in sphere formation and increase cellular sensitivity to chemotherapy. Taken together, our data indicate that bulk cancer cells may be an important source of CSCs during tumor development, and that targeting Sox2 and/or Oct3/4 may be a promising approach for targeting CSCs in clinical cancer treatment.

  8. Cancer chemotherapy and cardiac arrhythmias: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Juan; Caballero, Ricardo; Delpón, Eva

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is a potential complication of cancer chemotherapy (CC) that increases the morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported as an adverse effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs, including novel targeted therapies. The relationship between chemotherapy and arrhythmias has not been well-established and the proarrhythmogenic mechanisms remain uncertain as they can be the result of a direct electrophysiological effect or of changes in cardiac structure and function, including myocardial ischaemia and heart failure, which create an arrhythmogenic substrate. In this review we summarise available evidence of proarrhythmia induced by CC, discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this adverse effect and emphasise the importance of cardiac monitoring for the early diagnosis, intervention and surveillance of those patients more susceptible to develop proarrhythmia in an attempt to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Oncologists should be fully aware of proarrhythmia and the close collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists would result in a better cardiovascular assessment, risk stratification, cardiac monitoring and treatment during CC and during the follow-up. The final objective is to understand the mechanisms of proarrhythmia and evaluate its real incidence and clinical relevance so as to select the safest and most effective treatment for cancer patients.

  9. Thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassois, Ludivine; Lepoivre, Philippe; Swennen, Rony; van den Houwe, Ines; Panis, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Bananas that provide a staple food to the millions of people are adversely affected by several viruses such as Banana bunchy Top Virus (BBTV), Banana Streak Virus (BSV), and Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). These viruses are known to have a devastating effect on crop production and constraint to the international exchange and conservation of banana germplasm-a cornerstone for breeding new cultivars. The viruses are particularly problematic in vegetative propagated crops, like bananas, because of their transmission in the planting material. Different virus eradication techniques have been developed, such as thermotherapy, chemotherapy, and meristem culture for providing virus-free planting material. Meristem culture proved to be the most effective procedure to eradicate phloem-associated viruses. This method requires isolation of meristematic dome of plant under the aseptic conditions and culture in an appropriate nutrient medium to develop new virus-free plants. Thermotherapy is another widely used virus eradication technique, which is initially carried out on in vivo or in vitro plants and eventually combined with meristem culture technique. The plantlets are initially grown at 28°C day temperature and increase it by 2°C per day until reaches 40°C and the night temperature at 28°C; maintain plants at 40°C for 4 weeks; excise meristem and culture onto the regeneration medium. In chemotherapy technique, antiviral chemical compound Virazole(®) is applied on meristem culture. Combination of these techniques is also applied to improve the eradication rate.

  10. WE-D-BRE-04: Modeling Optimal Concurrent Chemotherapy Schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J; Deasy, J O [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Concurrent chemo-radiation therapy (CCRT) has become a more common cancer treatment option with a better tumor control rate for several tumor sites, including head and neck and lung cancer. In this work, possible optimal chemotherapy schedules were investigated by implementing chemotherapy cell-kill into a tumor response model of RT. Methods: The chemotherapy effect has been added into a published model (Jeong et al., PMB (2013) 58:4897), in which the tumor response to RT can be simulated with the effects of hypoxia and proliferation. Based on the two-compartment pharmacokinetic model, the temporal concentration of chemotherapy agent was estimated. Log cell-kill was assumed and the cell-kill constant was estimated from the observed increase in local control due to concurrent chemotherapy. For a simplified two cycle CCRT regime, several different starting times and intervals were simulated with conventional RT regime (2Gy/fx, 5fx/wk). The effectiveness of CCRT was evaluated in terms of reduction in radiation dose required for 50% of control to find the optimal chemotherapy schedule. Results: Assuming the typical slope of dose response curve (γ50=2), the observed 10% increase in local control rate was evaluated to be equivalent to an extra RT dose of about 4 Gy, from which the cell-kill rate of chemotherapy was derived to be about 0.35. Best response was obtained when chemotherapy was started at about 3 weeks after RT began. As the interval between two cycles decreases, the efficacy of chemotherapy increases with broader range of optimal starting times. Conclusion: The effect of chemotherapy has been implemented into the resource-conservation tumor response model to investigate CCRT. The results suggest that the concurrent chemotherapy might be more effective when delayed for about 3 weeks, due to lower tumor burden and a larger fraction of proliferating cells after reoxygenation.

  11. Effective chemotherapy induce apoptosis in vivo in patients with leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑溪南; 朱平; 虞积仁; 石永进; 马明信

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate apoptosis in vivo in patients with leukemia at different stages of the first cycle of chemotherapy.Methods We detected apoptosis of HL-60 cells and peripheral blood leukemia cells in 17 patients at different stages, using in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) fluorescence measurement and DNA electrophoresis. Results When HL-60 cells were incubated with 0.02 mg/L harringtonine for 0 to 48 hours, agarose gel electrophoresis showed that DNA ladder patterns became evident only at 12 hour into the treatment. In situ TdT assay showed that apoptotic cells occurred after one hour of the treatment. Apoptotic cells were few (0-3.3%) before chemotherapy, but increased substantially (11.4%-87.5%) during chemotherapy in patients with complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR). Apoptotic cells were few (0-6.1%) during chemotherapy in ten patients with no remission (NR). DNA ladder cannot be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis either before, during or after chemotherapy. Wilcoxon signed rank test shows: P=0.0012<0.01, apoptotic cells during chemotherapy were present in greater quantity than prior to chemotherapy. Wilcoxon rank sum test shows: P=0.0011<0.01, with the median of apoptotic cells during chemotherapy in patients with CR or PR more than with NR.Conclusions TdT assay can be used to detect apoptotic cells earlier and more sensitively than DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. In situ TdT assay is useful to detect apoptosis in vivo in the initial phase of chemotherapy for immediate modification of the chemotherapy regimen, whereas electrophoretic analysis is not sensitive enough to detect apoptotic cell in vivo. Where the median of apoptotic cells during chemotherapy in patients with CR or PR were greater than with NR, only effective drug therapy could induce apoptosis.

  12. The effect on survival of continuing chemotherapy to near death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanian John Z

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overuse of anti-cancer therapy is an important quality-of-care issue. An aggressive approach to treatment can have negative effects on quality of life and cost, but its effect on survival is not well-defined. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, we identified 7,879 Medicare-enrolled patients aged 65 or older who died after having survived at least 3 months after diagnosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC between 1991 and 1999. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, propensity scores, and instrumental variable analysis (IVA to compare survival among patients who never received chemotherapy (n = 4,345, those who received standard chemotherapy but not within two weeks prior to death (n = 3,235, and those who were still receiving chemotherapy within 14 days of death (n = 299. Geographic variation in the application of chemotherapy was used as the instrument for IVA. Results Receipt of chemotherapy was associated with a 2-month improvement in overall survival. However, based on three different statistical approaches, no additional survival benefit was evident from continuing chemotherapy within 14 days of death. Moreover, patients receiving chemotherapy near the end of life were much less likely to enter hospice (81% versus 51% with no chemotherapy and 52% with standard chemotherapy, P Conclusions Continuing chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC until very near death is associated with a decreased likelihood of receiving hospice care but not prolonged survival. Oncologists should strive to discontinue chemotherapy as death approaches and encourage patients to enroll in hospice for better end-of-life palliative care.

  13. Assessment of quality of life during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnars, B; Nygren, P; Glimelius, B

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly more aggressive chemotherapy together with expected small differences between treatments with respect to objective endpoints has heightened awareness about the importance of addressing how patients experience and value the impact that treatment has had on their overall life situation. Assessment of a patient's quality of life (QoL) is now conceptually viewed as an important complement to traditional objective evaluation measures. It was therefore considered important to review the basis for the assessment of this endpoint when The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) performed a systematic overview of chemotherapy effects in several tumour types. The group came to the following conclusions: QoL assessments, mostly by patient self-reporting in questionnaires, have come increasingly into use during the past decade. A number of general, cancer-specific and cancer diagnosis-specific instruments have been developed. There is at present little need for development of new cancer instruments, although specific treatment modalities and tumour types may need new additional modules. A predefined hypothesis should determine the instrument to be used. Since the selection of a QoL instrument in a specific study influences both the results and the conclusions, it is essential to carefully select the instrument or instruments that have the greatest likelihood of identifying relevant differences between treatment alternatives. Interpretation of QoL data is more difficult than interpretation of objective endpoints such as survival time, objective response rates or toxicity. Despite these difficulties, QoL analyses have provided new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various treatments not provided by traditional end-points. Some palliative treatments seemingly increase patients' QoL despite side-effects or the lack of, or marginal, increases in survival. When using potentially curative chemotherapy, it is not a matter of when the

  14. Antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolle, LE; Bentley, DW; Garibaldi, R; Neuhaus, EG; Smith, PW

    2000-01-01

    There is intense antimicrobial use in long-term-care facilities (LTCFs), and studies repeatedly document that much of this use is inappropriate. The current crisis in antimicrobial resistance, which encompasses the LTCF, heightens concerns of antimicrobial use. Attempts to improve antimicrobial use

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in India: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ganesh; Adithan, C; Harish, B N; Sujatha, S; Roy, Gautam; Malini, A

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important concern for the public health authorities at global level. However, in developing countries like India, recent hospital and some community based data showed increase in burden of antimicrobial resistance. Research related to antimicrobial use, determinants and development of antimicrobial resistance, regional variation and interventional strategies according to the existing health care situation in each country is a big challenge. This paper discusses the situational analysis of antimicrobial resistance with respect to its problem, determinants and challenges ahead with strategies required in future to reduce the burden in India. Recent data from Google search, Medline and other sources were collected which was reviewed and analyzed by the authors. Hospital based studies showed higher and varied spectrum of resistance in different regions while there are limited number of community based studies at country level. There exists lacunae in the structure and functioning of public health care delivery system with regard to quantification of the problem and various determining factors related to antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need to develop and strengthen antimicrobial policy, standard treatment guidelines, national plan for containment of AMR and research related to public health aspects of AMR at community and hospital level in India.

  16. The role of poverty in antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planta, Margaret B

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide problem that has deleterious long-term effects as the development of drug resistance outpaces the development of new drugs. Poverty has been cited by the World Health Organization as a major force driving the development of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries, factors such as inadequate access to effective drugs, unregulated dispensing and manufacture of antimicrobials, and truncated antimicrobial therapy because of cost are contributing to the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Within the United States, poverty-driven practices such as medication-sharing, use of "leftover" antibiotics, and the purchase and use of foreign-made drugs of questionable quality are likely contributing to antimicrobial resistance. However, there is currently a dearth of studies in the United States analyzing the socioeconomic and behavioral factors behind antimicrobial resistance in United States communities. Further studies of these factors, with an emphasis on poverty-driven practices, need to be undertaken in order to fully understand the problem of antimicrobial resistance in the United States and to develop effective intervention to combat this problem.

  17. Uses of antimicrobials in plant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaver, Anne K

    2002-06-01

    Bacterial diseases of plants are less prevalent than diseases caused by fungi and viruses. Antimicrobials for prophylactic treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited in availability, use, and efficacy, and therapeutic use is largely ineffective. Most applications are by spray treatments in orchards. Monitoring and surveillance for drug resistance are not routinely done. In the United States, data on use of antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases of plants are limited to streptomycin and oxytetracycline. Resistance to streptomycin has become widespread among bacterial phytopathogens; no resistance among these bacteria has yet been reported for oxytetracycline. No human health effects have been documented since inception of use of antimicrobials in plants in the 1950s. Transfer of antimicrobial resistance from marker genes in transgenic plants to bacteria has not been documented under natural conditions in field-grown plants. However, antimicrobial-resistance genes are being eliminated from use as marker genes because of concerns about possible transfer from plant genomes back to bacteria, with further horizontal transfer to the bacteria in the environment, or from plant genomes to animals by plant consumption. No new antimicrobials are expected to be used in plant agriculture because of high costs of development, regulatory constraints, and environmental and human health concerns. Alternatives to antimicrobials, such as biocontrol agents, transgenic plants, and novel chemicals, are being developed and marketed, although their efficacy remains to be determined.

  18. Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshun Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the key components of innate immunity, human host defense antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs play a critical role in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. This article provides an overview on the identification, activity, 3D structure, and mechanism of action of human AMPs selected from the antimicrobial peptide database. Over 100 such peptides have been identified from a variety of tissues and epithelial surfaces, including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity enables human AMPs to adopt various 3D structures and to attack pathogens by different mechanisms. While α-defensin HD-6 can self-assemble on the bacterial surface into nanonets to entangle bacteria, both HNP-1 and β-defensin hBD-3 are able to block cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. Lysozyme is well-characterized to cleave bacterial cell wall polysaccharides but can also kill bacteria by a non-catalytic mechanism. The two hydrophobic domains in the long amphipathic α-helix of human cathelicidin LL-37 lays the basis for binding and disrupting the curved anionic bacterial membrane surfaces by forming pores or via the carpet model. Furthermore, dermcidin may serve as ion channel by forming a long helix-bundle structure. In addition, the C-type lectin RegIIIα can initially recognize bacterial peptidoglycans followed by pore formation in the membrane. Finally, histatin 5 and GAPDH(2-32 can enter microbial cells to exert their effects. It appears that granulysin enters cells and kills intracellular pathogens with the aid of pore-forming perforin. This arsenal of human defense proteins not only keeps us healthy but also inspires the development of a new generation of personalized

  19. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Shiang Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

  20. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Shiang; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Cheng-You; Lu, Yuan-Yi; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2016-09-20

    Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

  1. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  2. Chemotherapie bij gebruik van clozapine; een verhoogde kans op agranulocytose?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gool, A.R.; Van Der Velden, M.T.; Oosten, A.W.; Van Meerten, E.; Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In a 37-year-old female, a combined treatment consisting of chemotherapy and radiation was considered for cervical cancer. However, she was using clozapine for the treatment of schizophrenia. As both clozapine and chemotherapy can induce decrease of white blood cell counts, we had to decide if cloza

  3. Chemotherapy for resistant or recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alazzam, Mo'iad

    2012-12-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly curable group of pregnancy-related tumours; however, approximately 25% of GTN tumours will be resistant to, or will relapse after, initial chemotherapy. These resistant and relapsed lesions will require salvage chemotherapy with or without surgery. Various salvage regimens are used worldwide. It is unclear which regimens are the most effective and the least toxic.

  4. Salvage PCV chemotherapy for temozolomide-resistant oligodendrogliomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triebels, V H J M; Taphoorn, M J B; Brandes, A A; Menten, J; Frenay, M; Tosoni, A; Kros, J M; Stege, E Biemond-ter; Enting, R H; Allgeier, A; van Heuvel, I; van den Bent, M J

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the results of PCV chemotherapy within a cohort of 24 patients treated within the EORTC study 26971 on temozolomide chemotherapy in recurrent oligodendroglioma. The genotype of the tumors was assessed with fluorescent in situ hybridization with locus specific probes for the

  5. Third-line chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, WK; ten Hacken, NHT; Groen, HJM

    2006-01-01

    Efficacy of third-line chemotherapy treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is unknown. We present our experience with third-tine chemotherapy for recurrent SCLC. Between January 1996 and July 2004 all. consecutive patients treated for SCLC were retrospectively studied. We recorded patient chara

  6. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required.

  7. The effect of chemotherapy on the growing skeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, BL; Kamps, WA; Jansen, HWB; Hoekstra, HJ

    2000-01-01

    With the increasing use of high dose (poly)chemotherapy schedules in the treatment of childhood cancer it is particularly important to know the adverse effects of these treatments. Growth is a complex mechanism affected not only by chemotherapy but also by the malignancy itself as well as nutritiona

  8. Chemotherapy-induced alopecia: advice and support for hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Helen

    This article provides insight into the growth cycle of a hair follicle and the potential impact chemotherapy agents can have on this process, which often results in hair loss (alopecia). It explores the psychological consequences of chemotherapy-induced alopecia for an individual as a result of the perceptions of others as well as an individual's perception of his or her self-image. Despite the development of various forms of scalp cooling, chemotherapy-induced alopecia remains a major side effect for patients receiving chemotherapy; however, there have been improvements in wig provision and changing public opinion relating to baldness. Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia affects both males and females and all age groups, this article focuses on the potential impact for patients receiving chemotherapy as a form of treatment for breast cancer. As professionals we need to understand the social significance of hair in relation to a person's outward presentation and social interactions, along with the possible psychological implications of a person losing his or her bodily hair, and not just the head hair. We must aim to minimize the distress alopecia can cause by: ensuring we provide patients with up-to-date verbal and written information to enable them to prepare for losing their hair; helping them to preserve their self-image and minimize the psychological consequences of hair loss while receiving chemotherapy; and preparing them for their hair re-growth following completion of chemotherapy.

  9. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we

  10. IS CHEMOTHERAPY ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF BARRETT-ESOPHAGUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERS, FTM; SLEIJFER, DT; VANIMHOFF, GW; KLEIBEUKER, JH

    1993-01-01

    Columnar-lined or Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant condition. It is almost unvariably due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux. Since there are some reports that Barrett's esophagus can be induced by chemotherapy, we investigated 20 male patients, treated with chemotherapy for testicular cancer,

  11. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobials for textile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windler, Lena; Height, Murray; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Many antimicrobial technologies are available for textiles. They may be used in many different textile applications to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Due to the biological activity of the antimicrobial compounds, the assessment of the safety of these substances is an ongoing subject of research and regulatory scrutiny. This review aims to give an overview on the main compounds used today for antimicrobial textile functionalization. Based on an evaluation of scientific publications, market data as well as regulatory documents, the potential effects of antimicrobials on the environment and on human health were considered and also life cycle perspectives were taken into account. The characteristics of each compound were summarized according to technical, environmental and human health criteria. Triclosan, silane quaternary ammonium compounds, zinc pyrithione and silver-based compounds are the main antimicrobials used in textiles. The synthetic organic compounds dominate the antimicrobials market on a weight basis. On the technical side the application rates of the antimicrobials used to functionalize a textile product are an important parameter with treatments requiring lower dosage rates offering clear benefits in terms of less active substance required to achieve the functionality. The durability of the antimicrobial treatment has a strong influence on the potential for release and subsequent environmental effects. In terms of environmental criteria, all compounds were rated similarly in effective removal in wastewater treatment processes. The extent of published information about environmental behavior for each compound varies, limiting the possibility for an in-depth comparison of all textile-relevant parameters across the antimicrobials. Nevertheless the comparative evaluation showed that each antimicrobial technology has specific risks and benefits that should be taken into account in evaluating the suitability of different antimicrobial products. The

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of enteric bacteria among ceftiofur treated and non-antimicrobial treated co-mingled pasture beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...

  13. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Multicellular organisms live, by and large, harmoniously with microbes. The cornea of the eye of an animal is almost always free of signs of infection. The insect flourishes without lymphocytes or antibodies. A plant seed germinates successfully in the midst of soil microbes. How is this accomplished? Both animals and plants possess potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, which they use to fend off a wide range of microbes, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. What sorts of molecules are they? How are they employed by animals in their defence? As our need for new antibiotics becomes more pressing, could we design anti-infective drugs based on the design principles these molecules teach us?

  14. [Heterogenous expression of antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Hu, Guobin; Dong, Xianzhi

    2009-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a class of short proteins with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities, are isolated from a wide variety of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, and plants as well as from bacteria and fungi. They are a key component of the innate immune response in most multicellular organisms. Owing to their potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and uneasy developing of drug resistance, these peptides are of great clinical significance. However, preparation of AMPs at a large scale is a severe challenge to the development of the commercial products. Undoubtedly, construction of high-level biological expression systems for the production of AMPs is the key in its clinical application process. Herein, we summarize the progress in researches on heterogenous expression of AMPs in prokaryotic expression systems and eukaryotic expression systems.

  15. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Harish

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella are an important public health problem worldwide. On a global scale, it has been appraised that Salmonella is responsible for an estimated 3 billion human infections each year. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that annually typhoid fever accounts for 21.7 million illnesses (217,000 deaths and paratyphoid fever accounts for 5.4 million of these cases. Infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and South-eastern Asia experience the greatest burden of illness. In cases of enteric fever, including infections with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A and B, it is often necessary to commence treatment before the results of laboratory sensitivity tests are available. Hence, it is important to be aware of options and possible problems before beginning treatment. Ciprofloxacin has become the first-line drug of choice since the widespread emergence and spread of strains resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. There is increase in the occurrence of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin. Reports of typhoidal salmonellae with increasing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and resistance to newer quinolones raise the fear of potential treatment failures and necessitate the need for new, alternative antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins and azithromycin are the options available for the treatment of enteric fever. The emergence of broad spectrum β-lactamases in typhoidal salmonellae constitutes a new challenge. Already there are rare reports of azithromycin resistance in typhoidal salmonellae leading to treatment failure. This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae.

  16. Antimicrobial peptides in human sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eMartin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 100 years ago, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs were identified as an important part of innate immunity. They exist in species from bacteria to mammals and can be isolated in body fluids and on surfaces constitutively or induced by inflammation. Defensins have anti-bacterial effects against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as anti-viral and anti-yeast effects. Human neutrophil peptides (HNP 1-3 and human beta-defensins (HBDs 1-3 are some of the most important defensins in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated higher levels of HNP -1-3 and HBD-2 in sepsis. The bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI attenuates local inflammatory response and decreases systemic toxicity of endotoxins. Moreover, BPI might reflect the severity of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Elevated plasma lactoferrin is detected in patients with organ failure. HNP-1-3, lactoferrin, BPI and heparin-binding protein (HBP are increased in sepsis. Human lactoferrin peptide 1-11 (hLF 1-11 possesses antimicrobial activity and modulates inflammation. The recombinant form of lactoferrin (talactoferrin alpha, TLF has been shown to decrease mortality in critically ill patients. A phase II/III study with TLF in sepsis did not confirm this result. The growing number of multiresistant bacteria is an ongoing problem in sepsis therapy. Furthermore, antibiotics are known to promote the liberation of pro-inflammatory cell components and thus augment the severity of sepsis. Compared to antibiotics, AMPs kill bacteria but also neutralize pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The obstacle to applying naturally occurring AMPs is their high nephro- and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the challenge is to develop peptides to treat septic patients effectively without causing harm. This overview focuses on natural and synthetic AMPs in human and experimental sepsis and their potential to provide significant improvements in the treatment of critically ill with severe

  17. [Intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classe, J-M; Muller, M; Frenel, J-S; Berton Rigaud, D; Ferron, G; Jaffré, I; Gladieff, L

    2010-05-01

    The standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer consist in complete surgical debulking and intravenous platin and taxane based chemotherapy. Despite research efforts, a lot of patients still die from peritoneal carcinomatosis. The aim of our work was to present the state of art about intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC): three multi-institutional randomised trials showed that platin based IPC gave better results in term of overall and disease free survival when compared to standard intravenous treatment. Even so, IPC is not yet becoming a new international standard of treatment because a high rate of morbidity. Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) represents an innovative alternative to IPC. HIPEC is based on a complete surgical debulking without any visible mass and an intraperitoneal chemotherapy with synergy of hyperthermia. Phase II trails have shown its feasibility. Randomised trials are needed to assess its efficiency in improving survival. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver Injury Induced by Anticancer Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Maor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic chemotherapy prolongs survival of patients with advanced and metastatic tumors. This is, however, a double-edged sword with many adverse effects. Since the liver has a rich blood supply and plays an active role in the metabolism of medications, it is not surprising that there can be hepatic injury related to chemotherapy. In addition, radioembolization may affect the parenchyma of normal and cirrhotic livers. We review chemotherapy-associated liver injury in patients with colorectal liver metastases, including downsizing chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We discuss the mechanism of the hepatic injury, secondary to reactive oxygen species, and the spectrum of hepatic injury including, steatosis, steatohepatitis, hepatic sinusoidal injury and highlight the pharmacogenomics of such liver insults. Methods for reducing and treating the hepatotoxicity are discussed for specific agents including tamxifen and the newly introduced targeted antibodies.

  19. Dietetic management in gastrointestinal complications from antimalignant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto-Lima, L; Martins de Andrade, E; Gomes, A P; Geller, M; Siqueira-Batista, R

    2012-01-01

    Antineoplastic chemotherapy (CT) represents the systemic treatment of malignant tumors. It can be used alone or combined with surgery and / or radiotherapy. The cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy work on both cancerous cells and noncancerous cells of the body, generally resulting in high toxicity. The biological aggressiveness of chemotherapy particularly affects rapidly replicating cells, such as those of the digestive tract, resulting in adverse effects that impair food intake, leading to compromised nutritional status and which may lead to cachexia. The main toxic effects of chemotherapy in the gastrointestinal tract include nausea, vomiting -these are the most frequent- constipation, diarrhea, xerostomia, mucositis, dysphagia and anorexia. Given the high frequency of such effects, nutritional intervention should be an integral part of cancer treatment, to maintain and/or improve the patient's nutritional status and reduce or minimize the side effects caused by treatment. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to review dietetic conduct in the process of caring for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Management of HIV Infection in Patients With Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Torres, Harrys A.; Mulanovich, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with cancer remains unknown, as clinical trials are lacking and published data are insufficient to guide recommendations. When concomitant use of chemotherapy and ART is anticipated, overlap of toxic effects and drug–drug interactions between chemotherapy and ART may alter the optimal choice of ART. Prospective studies are urgently needed to further define the toxic effects of combined chemotherapy and ART in HIV-positive cancer patients. Such studies should aid the development of guidelines for treatment of this population. For now, clinicians should individualize decisions regarding treatment of HIV according to clinical and laboratory findings, cancer treatment plan (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery), liver or renal disease, potential adverse drug effects (eg, rash, gastrointestinal intolerance, bone marrow suppression), and patient preference. This review focuses on what infectious disease specialists need to know to select the most appropriate ART regimens for patients receiving chemotherapy. PMID:24642555

  1. Effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Lian Liu; Lei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients.Methods:Advanced ovarian cancer patients who received cytoreductive surgery in our hospital from June 2010 to August 2014 were selected for study. Based on different postoperative chemotherapy schemes, patients undergoing intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in combination chemotherapy group; patients undergoing routine intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in intravenous chemotherapy group. Then contents of serum markers, proliferative genes and signaling pathway molecules of both groups were detected.Results:(1) Cell cycles: G0/G1 and S phase percentages in ovarian cancer biopsy tissues of combination chemotherapy group were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; G2/M phase percentage was higher than that of intravenous chemotherapy group; (2) Tumor markers: after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 chemotherapy cycles, compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, serum HE4 and sTWEAK contents of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (3) Proliferative genes: compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, mRNA contents of mortalin, CIP2A, GILZ and Ki-67 in serum of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (4) Signaling pathway molecules: mRNA contents of Crk, Dock180, Rac1 and YAP in serum of combination chemotherapy group showed a decreasing trend; mRNA contents of C3G, Rap1 and Hippo showed an increasing trend.Conclusion:Intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy is helpful to kill ovarian cancer cells, inhibit expressions of proliferative genes and regulate functions of signaling pathways; it is an ideal chemotherapy scheme for ovarian

  2. Effect of gemcitabine heat perfusion chemotherapy combined with carboplatin chemotherapy embolization on serum indexes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; Xing-Yuan Wang; Kun Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of Gemcitabine heat perfusion chemotherapy combined with carboplatin chemotherapy embolization on serum indexes in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods:90 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma patients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received gemcitabine heat perfusion chemotherapy combined with carboplatin chemotherapy embolization, control group received gemcitabine conventional perfusion chemotherapy combined with carboplatin chemotherapy embolization. Malignant biological indicators of serum and liver tissue apoptosis regulation of gene expression of the two groups were compared.Results: (1) Serum malignant biological indicators: serum DKK1, TK1, HIF-1 alpha mRNA and protein content of the observation group were lower than that of the control group; (2) Promoting apoptosis gene: MTS1 in liver tissue, Caspase 3 and Bax mRNA and protein contents of the observation group was higher than that of the control group; (3) Apoptosis suppressor genes: liver cancer tissues Plk1, Bcl - 2 and Survivn mRNA and protein contents of the observation group was higher than that of the control group.Conclusion:Gemcitabine hot perfusion chemotherapy plus carboplatin chemotherapy embolism helps to inhibit tumor biological behavior, induce liver cancer cells apoptosis, and it is an ideal treatment for primary liver cancer.

  3. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Tejani, Mohamedtaki A; Chandwani, Kavita; Janelsins, Michelle; Peoples, Anita R; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R

    2014-01-05

    As a specific variation of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV) appears particularly linked to psychological processes. The three predominant factors related to ANV are classical conditioning; demographic and treatment-related factors; and anxiety or negative expectancies. Laboratory models have provided some support for these underlying mechanisms for ANV. ANV may be treated with medical or pharmacological interventions, including benzodiazepines and other psychotropic medications. However, behavioral treatments, including systematic desensitization, remain first line options for addressing ANV. Some complementary treatment approaches have shown promise in reducing ANV symptoms. Additional research into these approaches is needed. This review will address the underlying models of ANV and provide a discussion of these various treatment options.

  4. Chemotherapy of prostate cancer: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald; Lau, Yiu-Keung

    2003-06-01

    The role of chemotherapy in prostate cancer continues to evolve. In men with symptomatic androgen-independent prostate cancer, significant reduction in pain and analgesic requirements are achievable with mitoxantrone and glucocorticoid combinations compared with glucocorticoids alone. However, survival rates are not improved. Taxane-based combinations with estramustine phosphate or other new agents show promise. Prostate-specific antigen response rates with these combinations appear to be 1.5 to 2 times more frequent than with mitoxantrone-based combinations. Randomized trials of taxane versus mitoxantrone-based therapies are underway. New agents and applications of current agents in adjuvant settings should be explored if survival in men with prostate cancer is to be improved.

  5. Sarcopenia and chemotherapy-mediated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maria Cecília Monteiro Dela; Laviano, Alessandro; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte

    2016-01-01

    This narrative review focuses on the role of sarcopenia and chemotherapy-induced toxicity in cancer patients. Consistent evidence shows that sarcopenia in cancer patients leads to decreased overall survival by influencing treatment discontinuation and dose reduction. Therefore, sarcopenia should be considered a robust prognostic factor of negative outcome as well as a determinant of increased healthcare costs. RESUMO Esta revisão narrativa descreve o papel da sarcopenia e a toxicidade mediada pela quimioterapia em pacientes com câncer. Diversas evidências consistentes mostram que a sarcopenia em pacientes com câncer induz à menor sobrevida global, por influenciar na interrupção do tratamento e na redução da dose. Portanto, a sarcopenia pode ser considerada um importante fator de prognóstico de desfecho negativo, além de um determinante de maiores custos em saúde.

  6. Blasting neuroblastoma using optimal control of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Craig; Fister, K Renee; Key, Bethany; Williams, Mary

    2009-07-01

    A mathematical model is used to investigate the effectiveness of the chemotherapy drug Topotecan against neuroblastoma. Optimal control theory is applied to minimize the tumor volume and the amount of drug utilized. The model incorporates a state constraint that requires the level of circulating neutrophils (white blood cells that form an integral part of the immune system) to remain above an acceptable value. The treatment schedule is designed to simultaneously satisfy this constraint and achieve the best results in fighting the tumor. Existence and uniqueness of the solution of the optimality system, which is the state system coupled with the adjoint system, is established. Numerical simulations are given to demonstrate the behavior of the tumor and the immune system components represented in the model.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsha S. Shivsharan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Micro-organisms have tendency to produce antimicrobial substances which show biological activity against other kind of micro-organisms. This phenomenon of bacterial antagonism is observed in lactic acid bacteria with competitive advantages. The lactic acid bacteria are commonly present in many fermented products, fruits and milk products. The variety of antimicrobial substances produced by lactic acid bacteria showing good inhibition capacity include production of lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, carbon dioxide, diacetyl and bacteriocin. Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are the subject of intense research because of their antimicrobial activity against food born bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum and several others .Bacteriocins may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal with narrow or broad range of activity. The main of the study was to study the antimicrobial activity of such lactic acid bacterial isolates.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre (Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly C. David

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The dried scale leaves of G. sylvestre might represent a new antimicrobial source with stable, biologically active components that can establish a scientific base for the use in modern medicine.

  9. Effect of Pithecellobium jiringa as antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzilawati Abu Bakar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pithecellobium jiringa is Malay traditional local delicacy. There is no local data on antimicrobial nature of P. jiringa is available. The objective of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of P. jiringa. Leaves, pods and seeds of P. jiringa were extracted using methanol. Ten test microorganisms were used in the study. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, while the liquid dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. Chloramphenicol was used as a reference standard. The results revealed that all extracts of P. jiringa showed the antimicrobial and antifungal activities against the test organisms. Amongst the active extracts, the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC determination showed that the extract of P. jiringa leaf was the most active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and M. gypsum (100 mg/mL. The results provided evidence that the studied plants extract might be potential sources of new antimicrobial drug.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  11. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants play an important role in the field of natural products and human health care system. Chemical constituents present in the various parts of the plants can resist to parasitic attack by using several defense mechanisms. One such mechanism is the synthesis of antimicrobial compound. Cichorium intybus is one of the important medicinal plants which belong to Asteraceae family. In the present work, antimicrobial screening of C. intybus seed extract was studied by agar well diffusion assay by using aqueous and organic extracts. The pathogenic microorganisms tested include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. All the seed extracts showed antimicrobial activity against tested microorganisms whereas S. aureus was found to be most sensitive against aqueous extract and had the widest zone of inhibition. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extract were found to be significant against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. The results obtained from antimicrobial screening scientifically support the effectiveness of the medicinal plant.

  12. Identification of antimicrobial properties of cashew, Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial capabilities of plant extract derived from the leaves of the cashew plant, ... Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health ... Harcourt, Rivers State. .... occidentale should involve refining or purifying and.

  13. The first salamander defensin antimicrobial peptide.

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    Ping Meng

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides have been widely identified from amphibian skins except salamanders. A novel antimicrobial peptide (CFBD was isolated and characterized from skin secretions of the salamander, Cynops fudingensis. The cDNA encoding CFBD precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library of C. fudingensis. The precursor was composed of three domains: signal peptide of 17 residues, mature peptide of 41 residues and intervening propeptide of 3 residues. There are six cysteines in the sequence of mature CFBD peptide, which possibly form three disulfide-bridges. CFBD showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. This peptide could be classified into family of β-defensin based on its sequence similarity with β-defensins from other vertebrates. Evolution analysis indicated that CFBD was close to fish β-defensin. As far as we know, CFBD is the first β-defensin antimicrobial peptide from salamanders.

  14. Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.; Kliestik, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Methods of preparing antimicrobialcoated granules for disinfecting flowing potable water have been developed. Like the methods reported in the immediately preceding article, these methods involve chemical preparation of substrate surfaces (in this case, the surfaces of granules) to enable attachment of antimicrobial molecules to the surfaces via covalent bonds. A variety of granular materials have been coated with a variety of antimicrobial agents that include antibiotics, bacteriocins, enzymes, bactericides, and fungicides. When employed in packed beds in flowing water, these antimicrobial-coated granules have been proven effective against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Composite beds, consisting of multiple layers containing different granular antimicrobial media, have proven particularly effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. These media have also proven effective in enhancing or potentiating the biocidal effects of in-line iodinated resins and of very low levels of dissolved elemental iodine.

  15. Polymyxins resistance: old antimicrobials, last therapeutic options

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    Raquel Girardello

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymyxins are polypeptide antimicrobials that act in the cell membranes and promote decrease of the cell wall integrity. These antimicrobials are used in the clinical practice for treatment of the multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacilli infections as the last therapeutic option. The polymyxin resistance involves lipopolysaccharide modifi cations that decrease the affi nity of the antimicrobial with the cell surface. These modifi cations are regulated by two component systems that are active by environmental infl uences as cation presence, pH or polymyxin exposure. The environmental infl uences initiate the action of the genes that develop the polymyxins resistant phenotype. The polymyxins viability maintenance is essential for the treatment for multi-drug resistant bacilli infections, while new therapeutic options are not available.KEYWORDS polimixins antimicrobial resistance

  16. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... products is an important public health concern throughout the world (FAO ... and to provide current baseline information on the antimicrobial resistance ..... best of our knowledge, reported from China by Jiang et al. (2012) that ...

  17. postoperative nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple drug resistance of isolates to antimicrobials was alarmingly high so that any empirical prophylaxis and treatment needs careful selection of effective drugs. To minimize .... Gynaecology and Obstetrics and Internal.

  18. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... the use of herbal medicinal products and therapy for the treatment of most .... The freeze dried 70% methanol extract was screened for antimicrobial .... leaves suggests it can be used in natural body cosmetic and scents.

  19. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-27

    Aug 27, 2014 ... spoilage bacteria, yeasts and molds, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ... Key words: Bacillus, antimicrobial activities, toxins, antibiotic resistance. .... PCR detection of genes encoding a larvicidal protein (Cry1) in. Bacillus ...