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Sample records for antimicrobial activity studies

  1. Studies on some active components and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research into plant-derived endophytic fungi has grown in recent decades. Endophytic fungi still have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agriculture. In this study, the endophytic fungi DZY16 isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was tested for its bioactive components and antimicrobial activities using ...

  2. Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollens and seeds. Najla Bentrad, Rabéa Gaceb-Terrak, Yamina Benmalek, Fatma Rahmania ...

  3. Study of the nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadi, Muntaha

    In the last decade, the world faced huge problems associated with the spread of antimicrobial resistant infections that are essentially untreatable such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. These infections have begun to occur in both hospital and community environments. Developing new antimicrobial surface coatings can hold a great promise to minimize and control various problems that associated with the spreading of infections and biofilms formation, these coatings can be used in medicine where medical devices associated with severe infections, in construction industry and the in food packaging industry. It has been established that single-walled CNTs exhibit a strong antimicrobial activity and can pierce bacterial cell walls. Recently, nanomaterial structures that made from pure carbon such as CNTs have been seen as promising candidates for many potential applications in Biotechnology and bioscience due to the combination of their extraordinary properties that arise from surface area, light weight, strength, flexibility, unique electrical conductivity and many more novel physical and chemical properties at nanoscale level. CNTs have been used widely in biomedical field including drug delivery, gene therapy and creating new biomedical devices with novel properties. Researchers have now made a first step to add carbon nanotubes to antimicrobial agents list. There are two types of CNTs have been used in biomedical research. The first one is a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and the second is a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT). Recent in vitro studies suggest that carbon nanotubes have antimicrobial activity and coating CNTs with nickel nanoparticle could enhance the antimicrobial activity of cabon nanotubes. In order to test this hypothesis, nickel nanoparticles were deposited on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrochemical deposition. The carbon nanotubes used in this study were XD-CNTs, SWNTs and Ni-coated CNTs. The structure and

  4. A Study on the Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12.63%), isothymol methyl ether (12.57%), p-cymene (10.29%) and thymol methyl ether (6.80%). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the oil as investigated by standard disc diffusion technique indicated that it was active against a broad spectrum of ...

  5. Studies on the Antimicrobial Activities of Aframomum melegueta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The largest zones of inhibition occurred with Staphylococcus species and E. coli, which were more sensitive to the effect of the extract than the other organisms. The aqueous extract was ... The antimicrobial activity of Aframomum melegueta seed extract compared favourably with that of streptomycin on the tested organisms.

  6. A study on antimicrobial, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas, the inhibition zone was not determined by methanol extract against Escherichia coli ATCC 1122 and Candida albicans RSKK 02029. The MIC was evaluated on plant extracts as antimicrobial activity. All of bacterial strains showed the lowest sensitivity to methanol extract of E. angustifolia (3.5 mg/mL), except ...

  7. Photochemically synthesized heparin-based silver nanoparticles: an antimicrobial activity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maria del Pilar; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Díaz-Torres, Luis Armando

    2017-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has been extensively studied in the last years. Such nanoparticles constitute a potential and promising approach for the development of new antimicrobial systems especially due to the fact that several microorganisms are developing resistance to some already existing antimicrobial agents, therefore making antibacterial and antimicrobial studies on alternative materials necessary to overcome this issue. Silver nanoparticle concentration and size are determining factors on the antimicrobial activity of these nano systems. Heparin is a polysaccharide that belongs to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) family, molecules formed by a base disaccharide whose components are joined by a glycosidic linkage that is a repeating unit along their structure. It is highly sulfated making it a negatively charged material that is also widely used as an anticoagulant in Medicine because its biocompatibility besides it is also produced within the human body, specifically in the mast cells. Heparin alone possesses antimicrobial activity although it has not been studied very much in detail, it only has been demonstrated that it inhibits E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis, so taking this into account, this study is dedicated to assess UV photochemically-synthesized (λ=254 nm) heparin-based silver nanoparticles antimicrobial activity using the agar disk diffusion method complemented by the broth microdilution method to estimate de minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), that is the lowest concentration at which an antimicrobial will inhibit visible growth of a microorganism. The strains used were the ones aforementioned to assess the antimicrobial activity degree these heparinbased nanoparticles exhibit.

  8. Studies on antimicrobial activities of solvent extracts of different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Dilek; Toroglu, Sevil

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of 12 plant species were studied. The extract of Capsicum annuum (red pepper) (fruit) Zingiber officinale (ginger) (root), Cuminum cyminum (cumin), Alpinia ficinarum (galingale), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), Cinnamomun zeylanicum Nees (cinnamomun), Origanum onites L. (thyme), Folium sennae (senna), Eugenia caryophyllata (cloves), Flos tiliae (lime), Folium menthae crispae (peppermint) and Piper nigrum (blackpepper) were tested in vitro against 2 fungi and 8 bacterial species by the disc diffusion method. Klebsiella pneumonia 13883, Bacillus megaterium NRS, Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 27859, Staphylococcus aureus 6538 P, Escherichia coil ATCC 8739, Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047, Corynebacterium xerosis UC 9165, Streptococcus faecalis DC 74, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Rhodotorula rubra were used in this investigation. The results indicated that extracts of different spices has shown antibacterial activity in the range of 7-24 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Eugenia caryophyllata (clove), 7-20 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Capsicum annum (red pepper) and Cinnamomun zeylanicum (cinnamon) bark, 7-18 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium sennae (senna) leaves, 7-16 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Zingiber officinale (ginger) root, 7-15 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed, 7-14 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibition zone Folium menthae crispae (peppermint), Origanum onites (thyme) leaves and Alpinia ficinarum (galingale) root, 7-12 mm 30 microl(-1) inhibiton zone Piper nigrum (blackpepper), 7-11 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Flos tiliae (lime) leaves, 7-8 mm 30microl(-1) inhibition zone Coriandrum sativum (coriander) to the microorganisms tested.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Agave sisalana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the leaves and leaf waste discarded in the process of obtaining the hard fibers of Agave sisalana. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the paper disk diffusion method using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (non-.

  10. Studies on Antimicrobial Activity and Kinetics of Inhibition by Plant Products in India (1990-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ramesh Kumar; Rana, Bhupendra Kumar

    2018-04-04

    The antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts or plant isolates has usually been evaluated in India using different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods generally based on diffusion and dilution. There are different analytical approaches for the reliable evaluation of antimicrobial activity ascribed to medicinal plants against selected pathogenic microorganisms. Obtained results may provide scientific bases for the selective use of these natural plants as healing drugs, crop-protecting pesticides, or shelf-life-extending solutions. In general, antimicrobial susceptibility methodologies involve in vivo and in vitro studies; at present, the in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity appears more popular. Diffusion methods have some limitations, although they are extensively used to determine the susceptibility of organisms isolated from specimen samples to applied antimicrobials and vice versa. Dilution methods are preferred in the case of more precise antimicrobial activity estimation, in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration. With regard to the inherent antimicrobial nature of herbal compositions, herbs, and herbal extracts, Indian researchers have evaluated the reliability of these antimicrobial agents against selected pathogens and have shown them to be effective. Researchers have also tried to establish linear regression correlation analyses on the basis of available inhibition results. This research is still evolving, and interesting results may be expected in the future.

  11. Detailed studying of the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of several new condensed polynuclear arens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gumenna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of antimicrobial drugs leads to the selection and spread of resistant strains of microorganisms. Рhosphonium compounds and their derivatives have been chosen as very perspective during searching of new highly active antimicrobial and antiseptic drugs. Objective. To study antimicrobial action of some new condensed polynuclear arens at broad spectrum of reference cultures. Materials and methods. The phosphonium salt and its derivatives from the condensed polynuclear arens were studied. Fourteen reference cultures of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from different taxonomic position and culture of yeast fungi genus Candida were used. Antimicrobial activity of the test substances was studied with micromethod with disposable polystyrene plates and Takachi microtitrator. Results. Phosphonium salt and it derivatives based on the condensed polynuclear arenes have high antimicrobial activity. The derivatives of phosphonium salt based on the condensed polynuclear arens (compound II show the highest antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms (S. aureus 209, M. luteus ATCC 3941, and non-spore forms B. cereus ATCC 10702. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of this compound were 0,48 mcg/ml, 0,03 mcg/ml and 0,24 mcg/ml respectively. Less active antibacterial activity showed compound I. Its’ minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were 1,95 mcg/ml against Gram-positive microorganisms (S. aureus and 209 M. luteus ATCC 3941 and vegetative cells of spore-forming bacillus – B. cereus ATCC 10702. Both compounds have shown moderate antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were in range from 31,2 to 125 mcg/ml. Phosphonium salt and its derivative based on condensed polynuclear arenes, that were studied, exhibit moderate antifungal activity against C. utilis LIA - 01 (MIC of compound I was 31,2 mcg/ml, compound II – 7,8 mcg/ml; MFtC of compound I - 62,5 mcg

  12. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiero, Emilia; Siciliano, Antonietta; Maselli, Valeria; Gesuele, Renato; Guida, Marco; Fulgione, Domenico; Galdiero, Stefania; Lombardi, Lucia; Falanga, Annarita

    This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs) alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025), Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031), and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose-response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity.

  13. STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PERIDERM OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Kulichenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the studies of potato tubers periderm of Nevsky breed for the presence of some classes of biologically active substances, and also its antimicrobial activity of the alcohol extracts obtained from it. 

  14. Initial antimicrobial activity studies of plants of the riverside forests of the southern Uruguay River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertucci

    Full Text Available Development of new antimicrobial compounds against different microorganisms is becoming critically important, as infectious diseases are still one of the leading causes of death in the world. Plants can be a useful source of these lead compounds. In this study, 66 extracts of 25 plants of the riverside forest of southern Uruguay River were studied for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria inocua, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Fifty-three of these extracts showed some kind of antimicrobial activity. Six of these (Eugenia mansoni, Eugenia repanda, Myrcianthes cisplatensis, Paullinia ellegans, Petunia sp and Ruprechtia laxiflora presented activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values as low as 50 μg/mL.

  15. Synthesis, antimicrobial activities and computational studies of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantitative structure-antibacterial activity relationship was studied using some quantum chemical parameters with the aid of Spartan 10 (V1.0.1) and XLSTAT (add-in) software. A good correlation was observed between the antibacterial activity of the compounds and the calculated quantum chemical descriptors.

  16. A Study on Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Different Cultivars of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus

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    Ashish Kumar Gupta, Ritam Muhury, Deepak Ganjewala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cymbopogon flexuosus popularly known as lemongrass provides a lemon scented essential oil which is widely used in flavour and fragrance, perfumery, food and pharmaceuticals. The aim of the present study was to assess antimicrobial activities of essential oils of three lemongrass cultivars viz., Pragati, Praman and Suvarna. Methods: Essential oils were isolated from one month old plants by hydro-distillation in mini Clevenger apparatus for 2 h. Antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method Results: Lemongrass oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against all the microbes except E coli. Mean inhibition zone diameter (mm against bacteria was ranged 27-38 mm. B. Subtilis was the most sensitive bacterium to all essential oils. Essential oils also showed strong antifungal effects against both A. niger and C. albicans with mean inhibition zone diameter (mm values 20-26 and 27-29 mm, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that antimicrobial activity shown by essential oils were significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion: The study revealed strong antimicrobial potential of the essential oil against pathogenic microbial strains which may be of high clinical importance in future.

  17. Study on Antimicrobial Activities and Wound Healing Activities of Some Traditional Medicinal Herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San Win; Mar lar Than; Moe Moe Thwe

    2011-12-01

    Herbs extracts were extracted from the four medicinal herbs, Alternanthera sessili Linn. (pazun-sa) , Heliotropium indicum Linn. (sin-nha-maung-gyi), Plantago asiatica Linn. (se-gyaw gyi) and Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Thagya-pin), by extract with water and soxhlet method with 95% ethonal and petroleum ether.These herbs do not contain cyanogenic glycosides according to the phytochemical tests. Extracts from these foure herbs have various effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The anti-microbial activity of these plant extracts were tested by agar well diffusion method. The six selected microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeurginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candda albicons, Escherichia coli, were assumed. Each medicinal herbs enable us to be applied not only many diseases but to swelling, wounds, skin-inflammation. Cell viability studies showed its degradation. In vivo screenins of antimicrobial activity of four selected medicinal herbs extracts were experimented by evaluation of their healing affects on the wound of mice.

  18. An optical tweezer-based study of antimicrobial activity of silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    traditional cell counting methods. Keywords. Antimicrobial activity; optical tweezer; bacterial suspensions; silver nanoparticles. 1. Introduction. The toxicity of silver ions and silver containing compounds on microbes is well known. Nanoparticles of silver are expected to exhibit enhanced antimicrobial properties when.

  19. Study of antimicrobial activity and root symbionts of Hemionitis arifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Joydip; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti

    2011-04-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extract, alcoholic extract and extracted phenol from various parts of tropical pteridophyta, Hemionitis arifolia were tested by agar diffusion and tube dilution assay. Both the crude and alcoholic extracts of vegetative and reproductive leaves of H. arifolia showed considerable antibacterial activity against Gram negative test strain of Escherichia coli (MTCC-739). Extract from reproductive leaves also showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441) (Gram positive test strain) but didn't show any antifungal activity against Candida albicans (MTCC-7353). Mycorrhizal and other symbiotic association with the root system of H. arifolia was studied and it is revealed that a number of mycorrhizal strains were present in both vegetative and reproductive form. Presence of Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi (DSF) was also detected.

  20. Phytochemical study and screening for antimicrobial activity of flavonoids of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Geeta; Kumar, Padma

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to phytochemical and antimicrobial study of Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae). Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids (free and bound) of Euphorbia hirta L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and four fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract was evaluated through micro broth dilution method, while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was determined by subculturing the relevant samples. Total activity (TA) of extracts against each sensitive pathogen was also evaluated. Out of fungi; A. flavus, A. niger, and T. mentagrophytes were found to be resistant, against which none of the tested extracts showed activity. Bound flavonoids extract of root showed best activity against C. albicans (inhibition zone (IZ) 27.66, MIC 0.039, minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) 0.039). TA of free flavonoid extract of root was found to be the same for P. mirabilis and S. aureus (192.30 ml/g). Two flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were identified in the bound flavonoids of stem extract which showed activity against all the microorganisms. Results of the present investigation indicate that E. hirta has good antimicrobial activity with low range of MIC, hence can be exploited for future plant-based antimicrobial drugs.

  1. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and DNA binding studies of carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhonsi, Mariadoss Asha; Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Nambirajan, Gayathri; Sivasudha, Thilagar; Yamini, Rekha; Bera, Soumen; Kathiravan, Arunkumar

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, quantum dots (QDs) are one of the most promising nanomaterials in life sciences community due to their unexploited potential in biomedical applications; particularly in bio-labeling and sensing. In the advanced nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have shown promise in next generation bioimaging and drug delivery studies. Therefore the knowledge of the exact nature of interaction with biomolecules is of great interest to designing better biosensors. In this study, the interaction between CDs derived from tamarind and calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) has been studied by vital spectroscopic techniques, which revealed that the CDs could interact with DNA via intercalation. The apparent association constant has been deduced from the absorption spectral changes of ct-DNA-CDs using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. From the DNA induced emission quenching experiments the apparent DNA binding constant of the CDs (Kapp) have also been evaluated. Furthermore, we have analyzed the antibacterial and antifungal activity of CDs using disc diffusion assay method which exhibited excellent activity against E. coli and C. albicans with inhibition zone in the range of 7-12 mm. The biocompatible nature of CDs was confirmed by an in vitro cytotoxicity test on L6 normal rat myoblast cells by using MTT assay. The cell viability is not affected till the high dosage of CDs (200 μg/mL) for >48 h. As a consequence of the work, future development of CDs for microbial control and DNA sensing among the various biomolecules is possible in view of emerging biofields.

  2. Comparative study of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin antimicrobial activity against human respiratory tract pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, R H; Norman, J C; Goldmann, D A

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro test system was used to compare the antimicrobial activity of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin against respiratory tract pathogens isolated from man. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fresh clinical isolates of Streptoccus pyogenes, Streptocuccus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae to the macrolide and penicillins ranged between 0.01 and 0.9 microgram/ml. The microbes were exposed to each antibiotic for approximately 3 h at 1x,2x and 5x the relevant MIC. Irreversible surface defects and intracellular lesions were resolved by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in all antibiotic-treated bacterial species, irrespective of the antimicrobial used. In each case, inhibition of growth was recorded by turbometric assay; no significant difference was observed among the declining slopes of post-dosing growth curves for either erythromycin-, amoxicillin- or ampicillin-treated pathogens. The experimental observations show that the onset of antimicrobial activity and the bactericidal effectiveness of equipotent concentrations of erythromycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin were comparable in this study. The results complement previous clinical, bacteriologic and ultrastructure studies in vivo and demonstrate the contribution of the combined in vivo/in vitro study design for better understanding of antimicrobial activity in human respiratory tract infections.

  3. Antimicrobial and conformational studies of the active and inactive analogues of the protegrin-1 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodziewicz-Motowidło, Sylwia; Mickiewicz, Beata; Greber, Katarzyna; Sikorska, Emilia; Szultka, Lukasz; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Kamysz, Wojciech

    2010-02-01

    The natural antimicrobial cationic peptide protegrin-1 displays a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and rapidly kills pathogens by interacting with their cell membrane. We investigated the structure-activity relationships of three protegrin-1 analogues: IB-367 (RGGLCYCRGRFCVCVGR-NH(2)), BM-1 (RGLCYCRGRFCVCVG-NH(2)) and BM-2 (RGLCYRPRFVCVG-NH(2)). Our antimicrobial and antifungal activity studies of these peptides showed that BM-1 was much more active than IB-367 against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas BM-2 was inactive. The BM-1 peptide showed fourfold reduced haemolysis relative to IB-367, an additional advantage of this peptide. In addition, BM-1 was about 15% cheaper than IB-367 to synthesize. The absence of two cysteine residues in the BM-2 sequence could be the main reason for its unstable conformation and antimicrobial inactivity. The solution structures of these peptides were determined in dimethyl sulphoxide using two-dimensional NMR and restrained molecular dynamics calculations. IB-367 and BM-1 formed short, antiparallel, beta-hairpin structures connected by a type II' beta-turn. The shorter, inactive BM-2 analogue exhibited major and minor conformations (predominantly unordered) in the NMR spectra and was much more flexible.

  4. Antimicrobial profile of some novel keto esters: Synthesis, crystal structures and structure-activity relationship studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imtiaz; Saeed, Aamer; Arshad, Mohammad Ifzan; White, Jonathan Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rapid increase in bacterial resistance has become a major public concern by escalating alongside a lack of development of new anti-infective drugs. Novel remedies in the battle against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains are urgently needed. So, in this context, the present work is towards the investigation of antimicrobial efficacy of some novel keto ester derivatives, which are prepared by the condensation of substituted benzoic acids with various substituted phenacyl bromides in dimethylformamide at room temperature using triethylamine as a catalyst. The structural build-up of the target compounds was accomplished by spectroscopic techniques including FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The purity of the synthesized compounds was ascertained by elemental analysis. The molecular structures of compounds (4b) and (4l) were established by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The prepared analogues were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus leuteus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas picketti, Salmonella setuball) bacteria and two fungal pathogenic strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus), respectively. Among the screened derivatives, several compounds were found to possess significant activity but (4b) and (4l) turned out to be lead molecules with remarkable antimicrobial efficacy. The structure-activity relationship analysis of this study also revealed that structural modifications on the basic skeleton affected the antimicrobial activity of the synthesized compounds.

  5. Short Communication: Studies of antimicrobial activity and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical constituents of the extract were also determined. The extract of was active against the test organisms including Escherischia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, anthrax-quinones, starch, general glycosides and bitter principles were found to be present ...

  6. Comparative Study on Antimicrobial Activity of Vitex negundo var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The powdered leaf materials of both varieties were extracted using methanol in soxhlet assembly. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and Aluminium chloride colorimetric estimation method respectively. Antibacterial activity of extracts was determined against five drug ...

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

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    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  8. Synthesis, anti-microbial activity and molecular docking studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    100, where I = Zone of inhibition. 2.6 Docking studies. The protein in complex with simocyclinone (PDB ID: 2Y3P) was used as the template for molecular docking studies. GLIDE 9.5 and IFD script from Schrödinger,. LLC (New York) was employed as our primary docking engine.20 A hierarchical search protocol was utilized ...

  9. Synthesis, anti-microbial activity and molecular docking studies on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamilnadu, India; Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Republic of Korea; Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Fungal Biotechnology, Natural Products and Plant Tissue Culture Lab, ...

  10. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Lean Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens, on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1 in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35% subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65% against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45% against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67% of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.

  11. Anti-microbial Activity of Urine after Ingestion of Cranberry: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Lean; Owens, John; Thrupp, Laurie; Baron, Sheryl; Shanbrom, Edward; Cesario, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900 mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens), on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml−1) in the control specimen was compared with CFU ml−1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing ≥50% reduction in CFU ml−1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35%) subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65%) against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45%) against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67%) of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation. PMID:18955308

  12. An optical tweezer-based study of antimicrobial activity of silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Understanding and characterizing microbial activity reduction in the presence of antimicrobial agents can help in the design and manufacture of antimicrobial drugs. We demonstrate the use of an optical tweezer setup in recording the changes in bacterial activity with time, induced by the presence of foreign bodies in a ...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, S F

    2008-10-28

    This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinal plants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations.

  14. The Study of Antimicrobial Activities of Partially Purified Cyclotide Content and Crude Extracts from Viola tricolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khoshkam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Searching for the potent natural antibiotics will improve the treatment of most infectious diseases. Cyclotides are potent active peptides derived from some plant families like Violaceae. Viola tricolor (the pansy has been found to have numerous cyclotides. Nowadays cyclotides attract more attention for their antibacterial activities.  The current research studied the antimicrobial properties of semi-purified cyclotides from V. tricolor. Methods:   Extraction and purification of cyclotides from Iranian Viola tricolor were performed by fractionation and solid phase extraction methods, and their antimicrobial effects were studied against several bacterial strains using diffusion assays. Also, attendance of cyclotide in the extract was verified by Tricine-SDS page and spectroscopic methods. Results:  Antimicrobial effects of semi-purified cyclotides and crude extracts resulted in the antibacterial activity potential of V. tricolor totally extracted samples against gram negative bacteria, E.coli and P. aeruginosa. However, there is need for optimizing the assay method and the culture media. Conclusion:    Viola tricolor as a remedy represents the antibacterial potential, which may not be unrelated to its cyclotide content although the effectiveness of cyclotides may also differ because of their synergism, natural structure and bioactivities, the amount of purified content, and the way they were assayed. 

  15. The Study of Antimicrobial Activities of Partially Purified Cyclotide Content and Crude Extracts from Viola tricolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khoshkam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Searching for the potent natural antibiotics will improve the treatment of most infectious diseases. Cyclotides are potent active peptides derived from some plant families like Violaceae. Viola tricolor (the pansy has been found to have numerous cyclotides. Nowadays cyclotides attract more attention for their antibacterial activities.  The current research studied the antimicrobial properties of semi-purified cyclotides from V. tricolor. Methods:   Extraction and purification of cyclotides from Iranian Viola tricolor were performed by fractionation and solid phase extraction methods, and their antimicrobial effects were studied against several bacterial strains using diffusion assays. Also, attendance of cyclotide in the extract was verified by Tricine-SDS page and spectroscopic methods. Results:  Antimicrobial effects of semi-purified cyclotides and crude extracts resulted in the antibacterial activity potential of V. tricolor totally extracted samples against gram negative bacteria, E.coli and P. aeruginosa. However, there is need for optimizing the assay method and the culture media. Conclusion:    Viola tricolor as a remedy represents the antibacterial potential, which may not be unrelated to its cyclotide content although the effectiveness of cyclotides may also differ because of their synergism, natural structure and bioactivities, the amount of purified content, and the way they were assayed. 

  16. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of Cuscuta racemosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena O. Ferraz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta racemosa Mart. is a parasitic plant of the Convolvulaceae family, used in popular medicine as an anti-inflammatory and a diuretic, for stomach and hepatic disorders, and for treating fresh wounds. This plant is popularly known as "cipó-chumbo" and "fios-de-ovos". In this study, it was chemically investigated and tested for its antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity. The flavonoid and tannin content of the dried plant were 2.79% and 2.01%, respectively. Furthermore, the 4'-methoxyquercetin flavanoid compound was isolated from the ethanolic fraction. The minimum inhibiting concentration in the antimicrobial test was 2.0 mg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus, and a DL50 of 0.231 mg/mL was obtained in the cytotoxicity experiment. The fraction directed to alkaloids was able to eliminate 100% of the brine shrimp used for the test.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ascorbic acid - nicotinamide metal complexes. ... The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the mixed complexes have higher inhibitory activity than the original ligands against the tested bacteria and fungi species. KEY WORDS: Ascorbic acid, ...

  18. New approach to study the mechanism of antimicrobial protection of an active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Batlle, Ramón; Sánchez, Cristina; Nerín, Cristina

    2010-09-01

    This article reports on the antimicrobial efficiency of a new active packaging concept based on the use of two essential oils (cinnamon and oregano) and their chemical descriptors (cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol) against the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella choleraesuis, the yeast Candida albicans, and the mold Aspergillus flavus. Complete inhibition of these microorganisms with either bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect has been demonstrated. It has been proven that the inhibition provided by these solutions is related not to the total amount of the active chemical released but to the amount of active compounds that reach the agar surface at a critical time. This critical time is notably related with the duration of the lag phase, as demonstrated for the bacteria, and shows that kinetic behavior has a critical role in the antimicrobial properties of the active packaging. Two different active films, polypropylene and the complex polyethylene-ethylenvynil alcohol, have been studied and a higher efficiency was found for polypropylene, mainly because of the mentioned kinetic reasons. These results can be used to understand the mechanism of action of the chemicals and provide valuable data for the development of the active packaging concept.

  19. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; Senatore, Federica; Del Monte, Donato; De Martino, Laura; Grulova, Daniela; Scognamiglio, Mariarosa; Snoussi, Mejdi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-07-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID) and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6-165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.

  20. Studies on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Five Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mancini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at assessing the essential oil composition, total phenolic content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris collected in five different area of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. The chemical composition of the essential oils was studied by GC-flame ionization detector (FID and GC/MS; the biological activities were evaluated through determination of MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and evaluation of antioxidant activity. In total, 134 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of phenolic compounds, and all oils belonged to the chemotype thymol. The antimicrobial activity of the five oils was assayed against ten bacterial strains. The oils showed different inhibitory activity against some Gram-positive pathogens. The total phenol content in the essential oils ranged from 77.6–165.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g. The results reported here may help to shed light on the complex chemotaxonomy of the genus Thymus. These oils could be used in many fields as natural preservatives of food and as nutraceuticals.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  2. Antimicrobial Activities of Clove and Thyme Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. Method: The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. Results: All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Conclusion: Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test. PMID:21748125

  3. Antimicrobial activities of clove and thyme extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B C; Al-Kharousi, Zahra S N; Al-Mahrooqui, Zahra

    2006-06-01

    It has been postulated that geographical locations of the herbs affect the constituents of their essential oils and thus the degree of their antimicrobial action. This study examine two samples of clove obtained from Sri Lanka and Zanzibar and two samples of thyme from Iran and Oman to determine the antimicrobial potential of their extracted oils. The active agents in each plant were extracted by steam distillation and by boiling. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined at neat and by two-fold dilutions in well agar diffusion technique using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium species, Salmonella species, Bacteroides fragilis and Candida albicans. All oil extracts possessed antimicrobial activity against all bacteria and yeast tested. Their water extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, though thyme aqueous extract was active only against S. aureus. The lowest concentration of antimicrobial activity (0.1% i.e., 1:1024) was obtained with thyme oil extract using Candida albicans. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial activity between clove obtained from Sri Lanka or Zanzibar or thyme obtained from Iran or Oman. Our experiment showed that the country of origin of the herbs has no effect on their antimicrobial activity. However, further work is necessary to ascertain why Candida albicans displayed remarkable degree of sensitivity with the extracts than all the other organisms test.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    body pain, jaundice, yellow fever and as blood tonic and skin cleanser. Because of its wide usage and availability, this study was set out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the plant and to determine the effect of temperature and. pH on the efficacy of the plant as an antimicrobial agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  5. [Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Valéria de Siqueira; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Siqueira Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  7. for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... An acetone extract of Loxostylis alata was separated into six fractions based on polarity by a solvent- solvent fractionation procedure and the different fractions were screened for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The number of antimicrobial compounds in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform ...

  8. Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag nanoparticles (NPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Suchomel

    Full Text Available The diverse mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag and AgBr nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and also against several strains of candida was explored in this study. The AgBr nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by simple precipitation of silver nitrate by potassium bromide in the presence of stabilizing polymers. The used polymers (PEG, PVP, PVA, and HEC influence significantly the size of the prepared AgBr NPs dependently on the mode of interaction of polymer with Ag+ ions. Small NPs (diameter of about 60-70 nm were formed in the presence of the polymer with low interaction as are PEG and HEC, the polymers which interact with Ag+ strongly produce nearly two times bigger NPs (120-130 nm. The prepared AgBr NPs were transformed to Ag NPs by the reduction using NaBH4. The sizes of the produced Ag NPs followed the same trends--the smallest NPs were produced in the presence of PEG and HEC polymers. Prepared AgBr and Ag NPs dispersions were tested for their biological activity. The obtained results of antimicrobial activity of AgBr and Ag NPs are discussed in terms of possible mechanism of the action of these NPs against tested microbial strains. The AgBr NPs are more effective against gram-negative bacteria and tested yeast strains while Ag NPs show the best antibacterial action against gram-positive bacteria strains.

  9. Study of the relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity in a series of hydrazine-based coordination compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrova, B N; Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M

    2000-08-01

    The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the structure of compounds is studied in a series of compounds based on hydrazine coordinated with ions of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II). The study has been carried out by means of the original electron-topological method developed earlier. A molecular fragment has been found that is only characteristic of biologically active compounds. Its spatial and electron parameters have been used for the quantitative assessment of the activity in view. The results obtained can be used for the antimicrobial activity prediction in a series of compounds with similar structures.

  10. Spectroscopic studies, antimicrobial activities and crystal structures of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzalidene)1-aminonaphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Hüseyin; Yıldız, Mustafa; Dülger, Başaran; Özgen, Özen; Kendi, Engin; Durlu, Tahsin Nuri

    2005-03-01

    Schiff base N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzalidene)1-aminonaphthalene has been synthesized from the reaction of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1-aminonaphthalene. The compound were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-visible techniques. The UV-visible spectra of the Schiff base were studied in polar and nonpolar solvents in acidic and basic media. The structure of the compound has been examined cyrstallographically. There are two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell parameters: a=14, 602(2), b=5,800(1), c=16, 899(1) Å, V=1394.4(2) Å 3, Dx=1.321 g cm -3 and Z=4. The crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares to a find R=0.041 of for 1179 observed reflections. The title compound's antimicrobial activities also have been studied. The antimicrobial activities of the ligand has been screened in vitro against the organisms Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Micrococcus luteus La 2971, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, the yeast cultures Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii DSM 3432.

  11. Studies on electrochemical glucose sensing, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of fabricated copper nanoparticle immobilized chitin nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solairaj, Dhanasekaran; Rameshthangam, Palanivel; Muthukumaran, Palanisamy; Wilson, Jeyaraj

    2017-08-01

    In this study, copper nanoparticle immobilized chitin nanocomposite (CNP/CuNP) was synthesized and used for the development of non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor. The CNP/CuNP was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. The glucose sensing property of CNP/CuNP was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). As a result of the synergistic effect of CNP and CuNP, the modified electrode displayed effective electro-oxidation of glucose in 0.1M NaOH solution. At 0.45V potential the modified electrode showed response towards glucose in the linear range of 1-1000μM with a lowest detection limit of 0.776μM with better selectivity and stability. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of CNP/CuNP was evaluated against bacterial and fungal strains. CNP/CuNP displayed enhanced antimicrobial activity when compared to CNP and CuNP alone. Similarly, cytotoxicity of CNP/CuNP was tested against Artemia salina, which showed no toxic effect in the tested concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Girardinia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    P. S. Bedi; Neayti Thakur; Balvinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to prepare the crude extracts of leaves and stem of ‘Girardinia heterophylla’ by using various solvents like petroleum ether, ethanol and double distilled water. The samples were given the code NGLS 1, NGLS 2, NGLS 3 and NGSS 1, NGSS 2 and NGSS 3 respectively. All the extracts were used to study their antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria e.g. Bacillus subtilis, gram negative bacteria e.g. E. coli and K. pneumonia and antifungal ac...

  14. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  15. Byrsonima crassa Niedenzu (IK: antimicrobial activity and chemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SANNOMIYA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The methanolic extract of leaves from Byrsonima crassa, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was analyzed by CC and HPLC. Four constituents were isolated and identified as quercetin, methyl gallate, (--epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin-3-O-(2”-galloyl-a-L-arabinopyranoside. The methanolic and hydromethanolic extract, as well as fractions, were evaluated regarding their possible antimicrobial activity using in vitro methods. Results showed that both extracts and fractions exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. Keywords: Byrsonima crassa, antimicrobial activity, Malpighiaceae.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Dracaena cinnabari resin from Soqotra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies showed that Dracaena cinnabari resin, collected from Soqotra Island, Yemen, has antimicrobial activity. This study is the first to investigate antimicrobial activity of the resin on both antibiotic multi-resistant human pathogens and on poly-microbial culture. Material and Methods: Antimicrobial activity ...

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of Dorema Auchri

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    A Sharifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Due to emerging of resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics, investigations for novel antimicrobial agents have always been one of the major preoccupations of the medical society. Traditional medicine systems have played an important role during human evolution and development. Today, a number of medical herbs around the world have been studied for their medicinal activities. Amongst the several herbal medicine used as a medicine, Dorema auchri is yet another potent herbal medicine which has not been extensively studied for the medicinal uses in comparison with other herbal medicine. Dorema auchri has a long history of use as a sore and food additive in Yasuj, Iran. However, not much scientific work has been conducted on Dorema auchri antimicrobial activities. The present study aimed to study the antimicrobial properties of Dorema auchri on some pathogen microorganisms. Materials & Methods: In the present study was conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. After collection and preparation of hydro alcoholic extract of Dorena auchri, the extract was used to study its activities against human pathogen microorganisms (overall 10 microorganisms. The determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration were evaluated for this extract. The antimicrobial potent of Dorema auchri extract was compared with commercial antibiotics. Each experiment was done three times and collected data were analyzed by SPSS using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests. Results: Findings of this study showed that in 10 mg/ml concentration, all bacteria were resistant to Dorema auchri extract. In 20 mg/ml concentration, only Staphylococcus areus and Staphylococcus epidermis showed zone of inhibition (ZOI 10 mm and 13 mm respectively. In 40 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 15 mm in Staphylococcus areus and 80 mg/ml concentration, the maximum ZOI was 20 mm in Staphylococcus areus. The acceptable MIC

  18. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  19. Synthesis, spectral studies and antimicrobial activities of some 2-naphthyl pyrazoline derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthinathan, S. P.; Vanangamudi, G.; Thirunarayanan, G.

    A series of 2-naphthyl pyrazolines were synthesized by the cyclization of 2-naphthyl chalcones and phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in the presence of sodium acetate. The yields of pyrazoline derivatives are more than 80%. The synthesized pyrazolines were characterized by their physical constants, IR, 1H, 13C and MS spectra. From the IR and NMR spectra the Cdbnd N (cm-1) stretches, the pyrazoline ring proton chemical shifts (ppm) of δ, Hb and Hc and also the carbon chemical shifts (ppm) of δCdbnd N are correlated with Hammett substituent constants, F and R, and Swain-Lupton's parameters using single and multi-regression analyses. From the results of linear regression analysis, the effect of substituents on the group frequencies has been predicted. The antimicrobial activities of all synthesized pyrazolines have been studied.

  20. Synthesis, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial studies of some new tri metallic biologically active ceftriaxone complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa E.

    2011-01-01

    Iron, cobalt, nickel and copper complexes of ceftriaxone were prepared in 1:3 ligand:metal ratio to examine the ligating properties of the different moieties of the drug. The complexes were found to have high percentages of coordinated water molecules. The modes of bonding were discussed depending on the infrared spectral absorption peaks of the different allowed vibrations. The Nujol mull electronic absorption spectra and the magnetic moment values indicated the Oh geometry of the metal ions in the complexes. The ESR spectra of the iron, cobalt, and copper complexes were determined and discussed. The thermal behaviors of the complexes were studied by TG and DTA techniques. The antimicrobial activities of the complexes were examined and compared to that of the ceftriaxone itself.

  1. Preliminary Study of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Algae from South Sulawesi Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Zainuddin, Elmi Nurhaidah

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will cover recent progress from our laboratory into South Sulawesi marine algae and their microbial symbionts, as a source of cytotoxic and antimicrobial compounds. Preliminary data on the activities of algae extracts against human, aquaculture organism and plant pathogens will be presented along with the identification and characterization of microbial symbionts and pathogens.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the bispyrazolines 3a–3h is found to be dependent on the length of internal spacer unit. Keywords. Cyclization reactions; bischalcones; internal spacer; bispyrazolines; alkyl chains and antimicrobial activity. 1. Introduction. The study of heterocyclic systems has attracted the attention of organic chemists in the past decades.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DFT study and antimicrobial activity of novel alkylaminopyrazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalaru, Christina; Dumitrascu, Florea; Draghici, Constantin; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Tatia, Rodica; Moldovan, Lucia; Chifiriuc, Mariana-Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Marinescu, Maria; Nitulescu, Mihai George; Ferbinteanu, Marilena

    2018-03-01

    A new series of substituted N,N-bis-[(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]-aminohexadecane Mannich bases were synthesized, characterized by IR, 1H NMR 13C NMR, UV-Vis, MS and elemental analysis, and tested for their biological activity. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against a panel of selected bacterial and fungal strains using erythromycin and clotrimazole as standards. Most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated very good activity at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Compound 3b with an halogen atom into the pharmacophore structure exhibited the most significant activity against Bacillus subtilis (MIC = 0.007 μgmLL-1) versus erythromycin as standard. In vitro cytotoxicity of the new compounds was studied using MTT assay. The analysis of the test cells showed that the newly synthesized alkylaminopyrazoles derivatives were biocompatible until a concentration of 5 μgmL-1; two compounds presented a high degree of biocompatibility on the studied concentration range.

  4. Structure-activity study of macropin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of solitary bee Macropis fulvipes (Hymenoptera: Melittidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monincová, Lenka; Veverka, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Buděšínský, Miloš; Fučík, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie; Straka, Jakub; Ceřovský, Václav

    2014-06-01

    A novel antimicrobial peptide, designated macropin (MAC-1) with sequence Gly-Phe-Gly-Met-Ala-Leu-Lys-Leu-Leu-Lys-Lys-Val-Leu-NH2 , was isolated from the venom of the solitary bee Macropis fulvipes. MAC-1 exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, antifungal activity, and moderate hemolytic activity against human red blood cells. A series of macropin analogs were prepared to further evaluate the effect of structural alterations on antimicrobial and hemolytic activities and stability in human serum. The antimicrobial activities of several analogs against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa were significantly increased while their toxicity against human red blood cells was decreased. The activity enhancement is related to the introduction of either l- or d-lysine in selected positions. Furthermore, all-d analog and analogs with d-amino acid residues introduced at the N-terminal part of the peptide chain exhibited better serum stability than did natural macropin. Data obtained by CD spectroscopy suggest a propensity of the peptide to adopt an amphipathic α-helical secondary structure in the presence of trifluoroethanol or membrane-mimicking sodium dodecyl sulfate. In addition, the study elucidates the structure-activity relationship for the effect of d-amino acid substitutions in MAC-1 using NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Activities Of Some Nigerian Medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian plants suggested from their ethnomedical uses to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were studied for their anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Escherichia coli NCTC 10418, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  6. Report: Antimicrobial activity of Kalanchoe laciniata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Maria; Hussain, Liaqat; Ijaz, Hira; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify antimicrobial potential of Kalanchoe laciniata. The plants were extracted with 30-70% aqueous-methanol and n-hexane. The antimicrobial activities were examined using agar well diffusion method against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli) and fungi (Candidaalbicans). Results showed that E. coli were more sensitive than Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The largest zone of inhibition (52 mm) was recorded against E. coli with the n-hexane extract of Kalanchoe laciniata.

  7. An integrated study on antimicrobial activity and ecotoxicity of quantum dots and quantum dots coated with the antimicrobial peptide indolicidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galdiero E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Emilia Galdiero,1 Antonietta Siciliano,1 Valeria Maselli,1 Renato Gesuele,1 Marco Guida,1 Domenico Fulgione,1 Stefania Galdiero,2 Lucia Lombardi,3 Annarita Falanga2 1Department of Biology, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Pharmacy and Cirpeb, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 3Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Abstract: This study attempts to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the ecotoxicity of quantum dots (QDs alone and coated with indolicidin. To meet this objective, we tested the level of antimicrobial activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and we designed an ecotoxicological battery of test systems and indicators able to detect different effects using a variety of end points. The antibacterial activity was analyzed against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 1025, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 10031, and the results showed an improved germicidal action of QDs-Ind. Toxicity studies on Daphnia magna indicated a decrease in toxicity for QDs-Ind compared to QDs alone, lack of bioluminescence inhibition on Vibrio fisheri, and no mutations in Salmonella typhimurium TA 100. The comet assay and oxidative stress experiments performed on D. magna showed a genotoxic and an oxidative damage with a dose–response trend. Indolicidin retained its activity when bound to QDs. We observed an enhanced activity for QDs-Ind. The presence of indolicidin on the surface of QDs was able to decrease its QDs toxicity. Keywords: peptide, quantum dots, ecotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, oxidative stress, genotoxicity

  8. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaf of Tithonia diversifolia, and one sesquiterpene lactone 1 isolated from the ethyl acetate extract was studied. Of the fourteen strains of bacteria used, the ethyl acetate extract was the most active, showing inhibitory activity against ...

  10. Spectroscopy study of silver nanoparticles fabrication using synthetic humic substances and their antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Valentina A.; Minaev, Boris F.

    2013-05-01

    In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using synthetic humic substances (HSs) as reducing and stabilizing agents. Preference of synthetic HSs over natural humic matter is determined by a standardization problem resolution of the product due to the strict control of conditions of the synthetic HSs formation. It allows to receive the silver nanoparticles with the standardized biologically-active protective shell that is very important for their use, mainly in medicine. The concentration of sodium hydroxide, synthetic HSs, silver nitrate and temperature employed in the synthesis process are optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability by means of UV-visible technique. In the optimal reaction conditions the concentrated silver colloids (55 mM) with 99.99% yield are obtained which were stable for more than 1 year under ambient conditions. The received silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against fungal and bacterial strains is also shown.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of tempeh gembus hydrolyzate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviana, A.; Dieny, F. F.; Rustanti, N.; Anjani, G.; Afifah, D. N.

    2018-02-01

    Tropical disease can be prevented by consumming fermented foods that have antimicrobial activity. One of them is tempeh gembus that has short shelf life. It can be overcome by processing it into hydrolyzate. This study aimed to determine antimicrobial activity of tempeh gembus hydrolyzate. Tempeh gembus was made of local soybean from Grobogan. They were added 5,000 ppm, 8,000 ppm, and 10,000 ppm of bromelain enzyme (TGH BE). Antimicrobial effects of TGH BE were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Steptococcus mutans. Antimicrobial test was carried out using Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffussion method. Soluble protein test used Bradford method. The largest inhibition zone against S. aureus and S. mutans were shown by TGH BE 8,000 ppm, 0.89±0.53 mm and 2.40±0.72 mm. The largest inhibition zone of B. subtilis, 7.33±2,25 mm, was shown by TGH BE 5,000 ppm. There wasn’t antimicrobial effect of TGH BE against E. coli. There weren’t significant differences of soluble protein (P=0.293) and the inhibition zones againt S. aureus (P = 0.967), E. coli (P = 1.000), B. subtilis (P = 0.645), S. mutans (P=0.817) of all treatments. There were antimicrobial activities of TGH BE against S. aureus, B. subtilis, and S. mutans.

  12. Study of the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Joerger, Rolf; Wu, Changqing

    2011-10-26

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG), commonly named Huangqin, showed strong in vitro antimicrobial effects. However, limited research is available to systematically evaluate the effects of extraction methods on the phytochemical composition of SBG and its associated antimicrobial effects. In addition, limited studies have tested SBG as a natural antimicrobial agent on fresh produce such as tomatoes. In the current study, powered roots of SBG were extracted with 60, 80, and 100% ethanol, and their antiviral and antibacterial activities were evaluated. SBG ethanol extracts (SBGEEs) at 6.25 mg/mL showed limited antiviral activities against coliphage MS2 and hepatitis A virus. The SBG 80% ethanol extract (SBG80%EE) exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) against six foodborne pathogens. SBG80%EE had the highest contents of flavonoids and phenolic acids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among these bioactive compounds, ferulic acid had the lowest MIC and MBC values, 0.4 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively, followed by baicalein and baicalin. Washing with SBG80%EE (12.5 mg/mL) resulted in >1 log reduction of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium, Kentucky, Senftenberg, and Enteritidis on surface-inoculated grape tomatoes. None of SBGEE solutions changed the total phenolic content, color, or pH values of grape tomatoes. The quantification of these antimicrobial flavonoids and phenolic acids is important to maintain the quality and antimicrobial efficacy of SBG extracts. In addition, the application of SBG on tomatoes has provided valuable insights on the potential usage of this antimicrobial extract.

  13. An agar diffusion study comparing the antimicrobial activity of Nanoseal with some other endodontic sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aal-Saraj, Ali Burak; Ariffin, Zaihan; Masudi, Sam'an Malik

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new experimental nano-hydroxyapatite epoxy resin-based sealer (Nanoseal) with several other commercially available sealers; AH26, Tubliseal, Sealapex and Roekoseal against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Escherichia coli for up to 7 days. Agar diffusion was used in this study. Fifty Muller-Hinton agar plates were prepared and divided into five experimental groups (n = 10), for each micro-organism. Another 10 agar plates were used as positive and negative controls. Endodontic sealers were tested against each micro-organism. Inhibition zones produced were recorded. The results of this study showed that all test materials exhibited inhibition zones towards the tested micro-organisms for 7 days except for Roekoseal, which showed no inhibition zones. Nanoseal and AH26 exhibited similar zones of inhibition. Significant difference was found between Nanoseal and the other tested sealers (P < 0.001). © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  14. [Study on the chemical components, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Song, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qiong-Yu

    2012-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and antitumor activity of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae. The essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae was extracted by steam distillation. The components of the essential oil were separated and identified by GC-MS. 72 components were identified and accounted for 98.15% of the all peak area. The essential oil exhibited strong antitumor activity against K-562 human tumor cell lines with IC50 of 1.76 microg/mL. It also exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against three bacteria. The essential oil of Zanthoxylum avicennae contains various active constituents. This result provides scientific reference for the pharmacological further research of Zanthoxylum avicennae.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum | Aliero | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Solanum tomentosum. ... Abstract. Acetone, methanol and water extracts from the leaves of Solanum tomentosum were investigated for their antimicrobial activities. ... None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonae and Penicillium notatum.

  16. Comparative Studies on Polyphenolic Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Schisandra chinensis Leaves and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Mocan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and the polyphenolic content of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. leaves and fruits. The leaves are an important source of flavonoids (35.10 ± 1.23 mg RE/g plant material. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the polyphenolic compounds were achieved using a HPLC-UV-MS method. The main flavonoid from the leaves was isoquercitrin (2486.18 ± 5.72 μg/g plant material, followed by quercitrin (1645.14 ± 2.12 μg/g plant material. Regarding the fruit composition, the dominant compound there was rutin (13.02 ± 0.21 μg/g plant material, but comparing with the leaves, fruits can be considered a poor source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, TEAC, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX, inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c and EPR spectroscopic assays, revealing a better antioxidant activity for the S. chinensis leaves extract. In the antimicrobial assay, S. chinensis leaves extract showed efficient activities against the targeted bacteria, being more active than the fruits extract. The results suggest the leaves of S. chinensis as a valuable source of antioxidant compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Heracleum nepalense D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Heracleum nepalense D Don root. S Dash, L K Nath, S Bhise. Abstract. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the methanol extract of Heracleum nepalense D.Don roots. Method: The antimicrobial effect was determined by ...

  18. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Hohmann, Judit

    2006-06-01

    The antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils (orange oil, eucalyptus oil, fennel oil, geranium oil, juniper oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, purified turpentine oil, thyme oil, Australian tea tree oil) and of menthol, the main component of peppermint oil, were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined on the Gram (+) Staphylococcus epidermidis and the Gram (-) Escherichia coli F'lac K12 LE140, and on two yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 0425 delta/1 and 0425 52C strains. The antiplasmid activities were investigated on E. coli F'lac bacterial strain. Each of the oils exhibited antimicrobial activity and three of them antiplasmid action. The interaction of peppermint oil and menthol with the antibiotics was studied on the same bacterial strain with the checkerboard method. Peppermint oil and menthol displayed additive synergy with oxytetracycline. A new mechanism of plasmid curing was established for one of the oil components.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial activity, DFT computation and docking studies of sulfonamide Schiff bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipa; Mandal, Santi M.; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2017-01-01

    Schiff bases synthesised from the condensation of 2-(hydroxy)naphthaldehyde and sulfonamides (sufathiazole (STZ), sulfapyridine (SPY), sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamerazine (SMZ) and sulfaguanidine (SGN)) are characterized by different spectroscopic data (FTIR, UV-Vis, Mass, NMR) and two of them, (E)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)-N-(thiazol-2-yl)benzenesulfonamide (1a) and (E)-N-(diaminomethylene)-4-(((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)amino)benzenesulfonamide (1e) have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray structure determination. Antimicrobial activities of the Schiff bases have been evaluated against certified and resistant Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus facelis) and Gram negative (Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia) pathogens. Performance of Schiff base against the resistant pathogens are better than standard stain and MIC data lie 32-128 μg/ml while parent sulfonamides are effectively inactive (MIC >512 μg/ml). The DFT optimized structures of the Schiff bases have been used to accomplish molecular docking studies with DHPS (dihydropteroate synthase) protein structure (downloaded from Protein Data Bank) to establish the most preferred mode of interaction. ADMET filtration, Cytotoxicity (MTT assay) and haemolysis assay have been examined for evaluation of druglike character.

  20. Studies on antimicrobial and antifungal activities of ziziphus mauritiana human clinical bacterial and fungal pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Shah, S.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of crude extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana leaves were investigated against six selected bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and one fungal pathogen (Aspel-gillus niger). The crude extract was further fractionated in butanol, choloroform, n-hexane and methanol. Agar well diffusion and agar dilution assay were employed for determination of zones of inhibition and MICs, respectively, whereas MBC was determined using broth dilution test. The butanol fraction presented encouraging antimicrobial activity (15.0%0.02), while methanol (7.03:1:0.05) and chloroform (7.0%0,05) fractions emerged with significantly low susceptibility. The n-hexane fraction was recorded as almost inactive (0%0) against all bacterial pathogens. Unlike the antibacterial activities, all fractions possessed momentous antifungal activities except the methanol fraction (0%0). The n-hexane fraction showed widest zone of inhibition (11:1:0.05) followed by butanol (8.0%0.02) and chloroform (7.0%0.02). (author)

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Commercial Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Priyanka; Pettee, Brian; Britt, David W.; Huang, Wenjie; Johnson, William P.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2009-07-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are finding increased use in applications ranging from biosensors to prophylactic antimicrobials embedded in socks. The release of heavy metal-containing nanoparticles (NP) into the environment may be harmful to the efficacy of beneficial microbes that function in element cycling, pollutant degradation, and plant growth. Antimicrobial activity of commercial NP of Ag, CuO, and ZnO is demonstrated here against the beneficial soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which was modified to serve as a bioluminescent sentinel organism. "As manufactured" preparations of nano- Ag, -CuO, and -ZnO caused rapid, dose dependent loss of light output in the biosensor. Bulk equivalents of these products showed no inhibitory activity, indicating that particle size was determinant in activity.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... The antioxidant properties and antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants, (Momordica charanta, Senna alata and Nauclea lafifolia) extracted with acetone were investigated. Polyphenols from the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of widely consumed herbal teas, alone or in combination with antibiotics: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayram Hacioglu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Because of increasing antibiotic resistance, herbal teas are the most popular natural alternatives for the treatment of infectious diseases, and are currently gaining more importance. We examined the antimicrobial activities of 31 herbal teas both alone and in combination with antibiotics or antifungals against some standard and clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible/resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Methods The antimicrobial activities of the teas were determined by using the disk diffusion and microbroth dilution methods, and the combination studies were examined by using the microbroth checkerboard and the time killing curve methods. Results Rosehip, rosehip bag, pomegranate blossom, thyme, wormwood, mint, echinacea bag, cinnamon, black, and green teas were active against most of the studied microorganisms. In the combination studies, we characterized all the expected effects (synergistic, additive, and antagonistic between the teas and the antimicrobials. While synergy was observed more frequently between ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, or nystatine, and the various tea combinations, most of the effects between the ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, cefuroxime, or amikacin and various tea combinations, particularly rosehip, rosehip bag, and pomegranate blossom teas, were antagonistic. The results of the time kill curve analyses showed that none of the herbal teas were bactericidal in their usage concentrations; however, in combination with antibiotics they showed some bactericidal effect. Discussion Some herbal teas, particularly rosehip and pomegranate blossom should be avoided because of their antagonistic interactions with some antibiotics during the course of antibiotic treatment or they should be consumed alone for their antimicrobial activities.

  4. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities and biopreservative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities and preservative potentials of crude extracts of Alstonia boonei stem bark and Euphorbia hirta leaves were studied in minced meat. Soxhlet extraction and cold ethanol extraction methods were used for the extraction of the dried and ground samples. Well-in-Agar diffusion method was used for ...

  5. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking studies of combined pyrazol-barbituric acid pharmacophores. Assem Barakat, Bandar M. Al-Qahtani, Abdullah M. Al-Majid, M. Ali Mohammed Rafi Shaik, Mohamed H.M. Al-Agamy, Abdul Wadood ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Ramalina conduplicans Vain. (Ramalinaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The members of the genus Ramalina (Ramalinaceae) are fruticose lichens growing on various types of substrata. The present study was conducted with an aim of determining antimicrobial activity of Ramalina conduplicans Vain. The powdered lichen material was extracted sequentially using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate ...

  7. Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-27

    Aug 27, 2014 ... 1Department of Food Engineering and Quality Control, University Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 454 Ngaoundere,. Cameroon ... This study was carried out to screen for antimicrobial activities against common pathogenic and food spoilage ...... Antifungal properties of essential oils and some constituents.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) obtained from beehives of honeybee (Apis mellifera) was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were the methods used in this study. The carious ...

  9. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities Of Phytoestrogens In Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of both leaves were studied for their in-vitro synergistic antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative micro-organisms, and Yeast using Agar diffusion method. The GC-MS phytochemical screening of methanolic extract showed that the major compounds in ...

  10. Synthesis of some new thioxoquinazolinone derivatives and a study on their anticonvulsant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, A; Rajamanickam, V; Darlinquine, S

    2013-01-01

    A series of ten novel derivatives of 3-substituted-2-thioxoquinazolin-4(3H)-ones have been synthesized from anthranilic acid via Mannich reaction with various secondary amines in presence of formaldehyde in ice cold condition. The structure of these compounds have been elucidated by spectral (FTIR, 1H-NMR and mass) analysis. The titled compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities. Antimicrobial activities were determined by cup plate method and MIC values using the micro dilution broth method against two Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris and against two fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Amikacin and fluconazole were used as standard antibacterial and antifungal agents in the concentration of 10 µg/disc 20 µg/disc respectively. Amongst the compounds tested, compound 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl) (3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1-2H)-1ylmethyl amino)benzoic acid (PTQ-03) and 2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)((3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)amino)benzoic acid (ETQ-03) showed broad spectrum of activity against all the tested Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and the fungi. Anti-convulsant activity of the compounds was evaluated by maximal electro shock (MES) convulsion method. The compounds sodium 2-(2-((2,6-Dichlorophenyl)(3-(4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)amino) phenyl acetate (PTQ-04) and N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-((3-naphthalen-2-yl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydorquinazolin-1(2H)-ylmethyl)acetamide (NTQ-01) showed potent anticonvulsant activity.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymeric thin films containing flavonoid natural compounds and silver nanoparticles fabricated by MAPLE: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Visan, A.; Socol, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Surdu, A.V.; Oprea, A.E.; Grumezescu, A.M. [Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 1–7 Polizu Street, Bucharest, 011061 Romania (Romania); Chifiriuc, M.C. [Microbiology Immunology Department, Faculty of Biology, Research Institute of the University of Bucharest - ICUB, Bucharest, 77206 (Romania); Boehm, R.D.; Yamaleyeva, D.; Taylor, M.; Narayan, R.J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chrisey, D.B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • We successfully deposited composite quercetin dehydrate-, resveratrol- and silver nanoparticle-polyvinylpyrrolidone thin coatings with chemical structure close to that of the starting materials by MAPLE. • Thin film morphology studies revealed a uniform surface without aggregates or grains on the top of the surface. • MAPLE-deposited thin films exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. • We demonstrated the potential use of these hybrid systems and MAPLE deposition method for the development of new harmless, ecological antimicrobial strategies. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactions between microorganisms, including the planktonic and adherent organisms, and biopolymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone), flavonoid (quercetin dihydrate and resveratrol)-biopolymer, and silver nanoparticles-biopolymer composite thin films that were deposited using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). A pulsed KrF{sup *} excimer laser source was used to deposit the aforementioned composite thin films, which were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), infrared microscopy (IRM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antimicrobial activity of thin films was quantified using an adapted disk diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains. FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirmed that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films with chemical properties corresponding to the input materials as well as surface properties that are appropriate for medical use. The silver nanoparticles and flavonoid-containing films exhibited an antimicrobial activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains demonstrating the potential use of these hybrid systems for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies.

  12. Detection of antimicrobial activity of banana peel (Musa paradisiaca L.) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Suraj Premal; Pudakalkatti, Pushpa S; Shivanaikar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Banana is used widely because of its nutritional values. In past, there are studies that show banana plant parts, and their fruits can be used to treat the human diseases. Banana peel is a part of banana fruit that also has the antibacterial activity against microorganisms but has not been studied extensively. Since, there are no studies that relate the antibacterial activity of banana peel against periodontal pathogens. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of banana peel extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans). Standard strains of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were used in this study which was obtained from the in-house bacterial bank of Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology at Maratha Mandal's Nathajirao G. Halgekar Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre. The banana peel extract was prepared, and the antibacterial activity was assessed using well agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration was assessed using serial broth dilution method. In the current study, both the tested microorganisms showed antibacterial activity. In well diffusion method, P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans showed 15 mm and 12 mm inhibition zone against an alcoholic extract of banana peel, respectively. In serial broth dilution method P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were sensitive until 31.25 μg/ml dilutions. From results of the study, it is suggested that an alcoholic extract of banana peel has antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  13. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag+-ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag+-ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests - Ag+-ions desorbed from the activated surface to the aqueous phase and microbial cell removal caused by the Ag+-ions from the solid phase (activated surface sites). The results indicated that disinfection process significantly depended on the microbial-activated sites interactions on the modified surface. The chemical state of the activating agent had crucial impact to the inhibition rate. The characterization of the native and modified sorbents was performed by X-ray diffraction technique, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The concentration of adsorbed and released ions was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial efficiency of activated sorbents was related not only to the concentration of the activating agent, but moreover on the surface characteristics of the material, which affects the distribution and the accessibility of the activating agent.

  14. Antimicrobial and general toxicity activities of Gymnosperma glutinosum: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, M; Hernández, T; Serrano, R; Hernández, L B; Duran, A; Ríos, V; Sigrist, S; Hernández, H L H; Garcia, A M; Angeles-López, O; Fernández-Araiza, M A; Avila, G

    2007-03-21

    Gymnosperma glutinosum (Spreng.) Less (Asteraceae) is an important, and an effective herbal medicine which is wide used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Mexico. We examined and compared the antibacterial and antifungal activities through the dilution method and for general toxicity activity by the brine shrimp lethality assay of two samples of Gymnosperma glutinosum from two localities of Mexico: San Rafael-Coxcatlan (Puebla State) and Tepeji del Rio (Hidalgo State). In addition, two bioactive compounds (-)-17-hydroxy-neo-clerod-3-en-15-oic acid (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8,2',4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (2) were isolated. From the hexane extract from both places was obtained a MeOH partition M(2). M(2) of Tepeji del Rio showed the least MICs (<125 microg/ml) in the majority of the bacterial strains. Sarcina lutea was the most sensitive bacteria (MIC< 125 microg/ml). The hexane extract of both localities showed antifungal activity against all tested fungi. San Rafael's hexane extract was significant more activity than Tepeji del Rio. Aspergillus niger (IC(50)=23.79 microg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (IC(50)=90.25 microg/ml) were the more sensitive fungus strains. The strongest general toxicity activity was observed with the M(2) partition from Tepeji del Rio (LC(50)=503.7 microg/ml). The results obtained in this investigation, showed differences between the antimicrobial activities of the samples of plants collected in San Rafael (Puebla) and Tepeji del Rio (Hidalgo).

  15. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of various concentrations of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract against Streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pooja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract has an antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and to determine which concentration of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum extract among the 15 concentrations investigated has the maximum antimicrobial activity. Setting and Design: Experimental design, in vitro study, Lab setting. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Tulsi was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was then diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl formamide, to obtain 15 different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, 5%, 6%, 7% 8%, 9%, 10% of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl formamide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 15 different concentrations of the extract gave a wider inhibition zone against Streptococcus mutans. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters using a vernier caliper. Results: At the 4% concentration of Tulsi extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 15 different concentrations of Tulsi that were investigated. Conclusion: Tulsi extract demonstrated an antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS L. MERR EXTRACT AGAINST MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Sayyid Zharfan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of nosocomial infection which is responsible for 10% of hospital-acquired infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tends to mutate and displays potential for development of antibiotic resistance. Approximately, 10% of global bacterial isolates are found as Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a quite tremendous severity index, especially on pneumonia and urinary tract infections, even sepsis, which 50% mortality rate. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial properties. The active antimicrobial compounds in Ananas comosus L. Merr include saponin and bromelain. This research aims to find the potency of antimicrobial effect of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr extract towards Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is obtained from patient’s pus in orthopaedic department, Dr Soetomo Public Hospital, Surabaya. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is resistant to all antibiotic agents except cefoperazone-sulbactam. This research is conducted by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC through dilution test with Mueller-Hinton broth medium. Pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr. is dissolved in aquadest, then poured into test tube at varying concentrations (6 g/ml; 3 g/ml; 1.5 g/ml; 0.75 g/ml, 0.375 g/ml; and 0.1875 g/ml. After 24 hours’ incubation, samples are plated onto nutrient agar plate, to determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. The extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial activities against Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC could not be determined, because turbidity changes were not seen. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr to Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.75 g/ml. Further study of in vivo is needed.

  17. Synthesis of BF₃ catalyzed Mannich derivatives with excellent ee from phenylpropanolamine, study of their antimicrobial activity and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennakesava Rao, K; Easwaramoorthi, K; Arun, Y; Balachandran, C; Muralidhara Rao, K S; Govindhan, M; Emi, Nobuhiko; Prakasam, T; Perumal, P T

    2015-10-01

    Antimicrobial agents 4a-g and 5a-g with very good potency were synthesized with 100% ee from phenylpropanolamine (norephedrine) by BF3 catalyzed three components one pot Mannich reaction in good yields. Obtained compounds were characterized using spectral techniques. Antimicrobial study of these compounds revealed a good to very high potential activity against tested microbes when compared to standard antimicrobial drugs streptomycin and ketoconazole. These synthesized compounds exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Amongst compound 4b, 4c, 4d, 4e, 5a, and 5e exhibited very high potent MIC values against tested twelve bacteria and three fungi when compared to control. When subjected to molecular docking, in silico studies revealed significant binding energies ranging from -7.06 to -8.90 kcal/mol for all obtained compounds towards target receptor DNA topoisomerase IV and amongst compounds 4b and 4d have shown maximum binding energies 8.70 and 8.90 kcal/mol, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of complete denture cleanser solutions based on sodium hypochlorite and Ricinus communis – a randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Moreira SALLES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To preserve oral health and to maintain the prosthetic devices, it is important not only to improve the properties of commonly known hygiene products, but also to investigate new materials with antimicrobial action. Objectives This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (0.25% and 0.50% and 10% Ricinus communis’ solutions against specific microorganisms. Material and Methods Sixty four maxillary complete denture wearers were instructed to brush their dentures three times a day and to soak them (20 min/day in the solutions: SH1: 0.25% sodium hypochlorite; SH2: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite; RC: 10% R. communis oil; and C: 0.85% saline (control. The solutions were used for 7 days in a randomized sequence. Following each period of use, there was a 1-week washout period. Antimicrobial activity was determined by Colony Forming Units (CFU counts of Streptococcus mutans, Candida spp., and gram-negative microorganisms. For collecting biofilm, the internal surface of maxillary dentures was brushed with saline solution, and biofilm suspension obtained. After dilutions (100 - 10-3, aliquots were seeded in Mitis salivarius, CHROMagar Candida®, and MacConkey agar for detecting S. mutans, Candida spp., or gram-negative microorganisms, respectively. After incubation, colonies were counted, and CFU/mL values were calculated. Then, transformation - log10 (CFU+1 - data were analyzed using the Friedman test (α=0.05. Results showed significant differences between the solutions (p<0.001. Results All three solutions showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. Against Candida spp., RC and SH1 solutions showed similar effect while SH2 showed superior activity. SH1 and SH2 solutions showed antimicrobial action against gram-negative microorganisms. The Candida species most frequently isolated was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Conclusions The 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was the most effective and

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 3-aminoquinoline derivatives and studies of photophysicochemical behaviour and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Gulay; Nafea Al Kawaz, Ali Muayad; Zengin, Huseyin; Mert, Adem; Kucuk, Bedia

    2016-01-01

    A series of 3-aminoquinoline derivatives were synthesized, where their chemical structures were confirmed by various analytical techniques, such as, Elemental Analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H and 13C NMR), Liquid Chromatography-Mass-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS-MS), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Photoluminescence (PL). The quinoline ring core, typical of aminoquinolines, and a naphthalene group was combined to devise (4-alkyl-1-naphthyl)-quinolin-3-ylamide derivatives. These derivatives were designed and synthesized in light of the chemical and biological profiles of these important subunits. All the compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities by the paper disc diffusion method with Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative Enterobacter aerogenes, Eschericha coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and yeasts Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrovia lipolytica. These compounds showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and several yeasts, and thus their activity was not restricted to any particular type of microorganism.

  20. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Momordica charantia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, unripe/ripe seed and fruit ethanol extracts of M. charantia from Turkey were screened for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The antimicrobial activities of the extract were determined against four gram positive bacteria, seven gram negative bacteria, and one yeast with disc diffusion ...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Agave sisalana | Santos | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of the leaves and leaf waste discarded in the process of obtaining the hard fibers of Agave sisalana. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the paper disk diffusion method using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (nonresistant and ...

  3. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals of Solanum trilobatum Linn.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, aqueous methanol and n-butanol extracts of aerial parts of Solanum trilobatum L. (Solanaceae) were tested for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. From the results, it was found that extracts from leaves, flowers, stem and fruits revealed antimicrobial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Rhodobryum ontariense

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    Sabovljević Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of moss Rhodobryum ontariense (Kindb. Kindb. was evaluated by microdilution method against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter cloacae, Listeria monocytogens, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus and Staphylococcus aureus and five fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride. The extract was proven to be active against all the bacteria and funghi tested but to varying degrees. It showed better inhibitory activity compared to the known antifungal drug against T. viride (MIC 100 and 200 μg/ml, respectively. This finding implies that R. ontariense could be considered as a promising material for natural antifungal products.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Various Other Pathogens. ... Results: Among these isolates, 51 (38 %) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more test organisms and six exhibited promising broad-spectrum activity against all the tested organisms.

  6. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Chlorophytum borivilianum

    OpenAIRE

    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy; Vidhu Aeri

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of leaves and stems of Chlorophytum borivilianum were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial studies. The results of the preliminary investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroidal nucleus, saponins and tannins in both parts. The methanolic extract of leaf and stems part were investigated for antimicrobial activity using agar disc diffusion method. Six clinical strains of human pathogenic microorganisms, comprising 3 Gram +...

  7. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailaku, SI; Syakir, M.; Mulyawanti, I.; Syah, ANA

    2017-06-01

    Coconut shell liquid smoke is produced from the pyrolysis and condensation of smoke from the burning process of coconut shell. It is known to have considerably high content of polyphenol. Beside acting as antioxidant, polyphenol is also a good antimicrobial. This research was conducted in order to study the antimicrobial activity of coconut shell liquid smoke. Coconut shell liquid smoke used in this study was produced from three different processing stages, which obtained three different grades of liquid smoke (grade 1, 2 and 3). Each sample of coconut shell liquid smoke was extracted using ethyl alcohol and petroleum ether. The extract was then analyzed for its antimicrobial activity against S. aereus, E. coli and C. albicans using well diffusion method. Total phenol and microbial microscopic structure of the liquid smoke were also examined. The results showed that there was influence of coconut shell liquid smoke on the inhibition of S. aureus, E. coli and C. albican growth. This fact was marked by the forming of clear area surrounding the well on the dish agar media. The highest percentage of inhibition showed by the extract of grade 3 coconut shell liquid smoke. This may be explained by the highest total phenol content in grade 3 liquid smoke. Microscopic examination showed that there was a breakage of microbial cell walls caused by the antimicrobial property of the liquid smoke. It was concluded that coconut shell liquid smoke was beneficial as antimicrobial agent, and while all grades of liquid smoke contains polyphenol, the content was influenced by the processing stage and thus influenced its level of microbial growth inhibition.

  9. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Puwaprisirisan, Preecha; Svasti, Jisnuson; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

    2012-11-13

    . The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extracts from S. alba and S. caseolaris against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, respectively. The Thai medicinal plant B. strychnifolia is first reported to exert strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines and warrants further enrichment and characterization. The broad spectrum of the biological activities from the studied plant extracts can be applied as the guideline for the selection of Thai medicinal plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  10. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewpiboon Chutima

    2012-11-01

    lower than Orlistat, a known lipase inhibitor. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extracts from S. alba and S. caseolaris against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, respectively. Conclusion The Thai medicinal plant B. strychnifolia is first reported to exert strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines and warrants further enrichment and characterization. The broad spectrum of the biological activities from the studied plant extracts can be applied as the guideline for the selection of Thai medicinal plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.

  11. DNA intercalation studies and antimicrobial activity of Ag@ZrO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanalekshmi, K.I., E-mail: dhanamveni88@gmail.com; Meena, K.S.

    2016-02-01

    Ag@ZrO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by one pot simultaneous reduction of AgNO{sub 3} and hydrolysis of zirconium (IV) isopropoxide. The formation of core–shell nanoparticles was confirmed by absorption, XRD, and HR-TEM techniques. The antibacterial activity of Ag@ZrO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the antifungal properties against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus were examined by the agar diffusion method. DNA intercalation studies were carried out in CT-DNA. As a result ZrO{sub 2} supported on the surface of AgNPs not only prevented aggregation, but also proved to have enhanced antimicrobial activity and DNA intercalation than the Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag@ZrO{sub 2} core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by one pot synthesis. • The ZrO{sub 2} coated AgNPs prevent aggregation and enhanced stability. • The surfaced modified AgNPs showed higher antimicrobial activity. • DNA intercalation studies show better binding affinity of core–shell NPs.

  12. An in Vitro Experimental Study on the Antimicrobial Activity of Silicone Oil against Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Ceyhun; Aras, Cengiz; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar; Torun, Muzeyyen Mamal

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of silicone oil against anaerobic agents, specifically Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium. A 0.5 McFarland turbidity of Propionibacterium acnes, Peptostreptococcus spp., Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Bacteroides fragilis, Fuobacterium spp., and Clostridium tertium was prepared, and 0.1 mL was inoculated into 0.9 mL of silicone oil. Control inoculations were performed in anaerobic blood agar and fluid thioglycollate medium without silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes retained their viability on the 3rd day in the presence of silicone oil. In total, 9.7 × 10(6) colonies were enumerated from 1 mL of silicone oil. After a prolonged incubation of 7 days, the number of colonies observed was 9.2 × 10(6). The other bacteria disappeared after the 3rd day of incubation in silicone oil. Propionibacterium acnes, which is the most common chronic postoperative endophthalmitis agent, is thought to be resistant to silicone oil.

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies on methanesulfonic acid 1-methylhydrazide: Antimicrobial activities of its sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Karacan, Nurcan

    2009-12-01

    Methanesulfonic acid 1-methylhydrazide ( msmh) and its sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives, salicylaldehyde- N-methylmethanesulfonylhydrazone ( salmsmh) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde- N-methylmethanesulfonylhydrazone ( nafmsmh) were synthesized and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. Conformation analysis of msmh based on DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d) method was performed. 1H and 13C shielding tensors of msmh for the most stable conformer were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) methods in vacuo and various solvents such as DMSO, THF, acetonitrile, methanol and aqueous solution. The harmonic vibrational wavenumbers for the most stable conformer were calculated using at B3LYP/6-311G(d) level. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was also screened against Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus RSKK 863) and Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Salmonella enterititis ATCC 40376, Pseudomonos aeruginosa ATCC 28753) by both disc diffusion and micro dilution methods.

  14. Studies on the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur. (Bignoniaceae extracts and their main constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Eliana MM

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs, the emergence of human pathogenic microorganisms resistant to major classes of antibiotics has been increased and has caused many clinical problems in the treatment of infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of extracts and isolated compounds from Zeyheria tuberculosa (Vell. Bur., a species used in Brazilian folk medicine for treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Methods Using the disc diffusion method, bioautography assay and brine shrimp toxicity test (Artemia salina Leach, we studied the antimicrobial activity and lethality of extracts and isolated compounds against three microorganisms strains, including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and yeasts (Candida albicans. Results In this study, the extracts inhibited S. aureus (8.0 ± 0.0 to 14.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (15.3 ± 0.68 to 25.6 ± 0.4 mm growth. In the brine shrimp test, only two of them showed toxic effects (LC50 29.55 to 398.05 μg/mL and some extracts were non-toxic or showed weak lethality (LC50 705.02 to > 1000 μg/mL. From these extracts, four flavones [5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (1, 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (2, 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone (3, and 4'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone (4] were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified based on the 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. By bioautography assays, compounds 1 [S. aureus (16.0 ± 0.0 mm and C. albicans (20.0 ± 0.0 mm] and 3 [S. aureus (10.3 ± 0.6 mm and C. albicans (19.7 ± 0.6 mm] inhibited both microorganisms while 2 inhibited only S. aureus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm. Compound 4 did not restrain the growth of any tested microorganism. Conclusion Our results showed that extracts and isolated flavones from Z. tuberculosa may be particularly useful against two pathogenic

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Shorea kunstleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Suria Daud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of stembark of Shorea kunstleri (S. kunstleri together with analysis of phytochemical and total phenolic contents. Methods: Extraction was conducted with different solvent polarity of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol by using Soxhlet extraction. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation were evaluated with DPPH radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively. Antimicrobial activities were performed using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, and minimum fungicidal concentration. Results: S. kunstleri stembark extracts revealed presence of steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. Methanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity resulting in phenolic content of (8.340±0.003 g GAE/100 g of extract and (95.90±1.07% DPPH inhibition (IC50 value of 18.6 µg/mL, respectively. Ferric thiocyanate assay of n-hexane, DCM, and methanol extracts indicated lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of (74.20±0.35%, (74.00±0.10%, and (72.80±0.27%, respectively. In antimicrobial and antifungal tests, methanol extract showed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis with inhibition zones of 10-12, 18-22, and 18-19 mm, respectively. The MIC test of methanol extract showed highest inhibition against Candida albicans and S. aureus (0.04 and 0.08 mg/mL, respectively while DCM extract exhibited the highest activity towards Candida tropicalis (MIC value of 0.63 mg/mL. Taken together, MBC test of methanol extract strongly demonstrated bactericidal effect against S. aureus with MBC value of 0.08 mg/mL. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that stembark extracts of S. kunstleri possessed antioxidant

  16. 1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues: Synthesis, MO studies, in silico molecular docking studies, antimalarial as DHFR inhibitor and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sampark S; Thakor, Parth; Doshi, Hiren; Ray, Arabinda

    2017-08-01

    1,2,4-Triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues are of interest due to their potential activity against microbial and malarial infections. In search of suitable antimicrobial and antimalarial compounds, we report here the synthesis, characterization and biological activities of 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues (SS 1-SS 10). The molecules were characterized by IR, mass, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and elemental analysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was investigated against pathogenic strains, the results were explained with the help of DFT and PM6 molecular orbital calculations. In vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the molecules were studied against S. pombe cells. In vitro antimalarial activity was studied. The active compounds were further evaluated for enzyme inhibition efficacy against the receptor Pf-DHFR computationally as well as in vitro to prove their candidature as lead dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Population distribution and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in Toddalia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Benshou; Yang, Benshou; Miao, Cuiping; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Guoyin; Yang, De; Yu, Hong

    2014-03-04

    To study the population composition and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in medicinal plant Toddalia asiatica. Endophytes were isolated from T. asiatica by using an exterior sterilization method, in combination with adding antimicrobial agents. Endophytes were classified and identified by morphological and molecular characters. Antimicrobial activities of endophytes were measured by using paper disc diffusion method. Three strains of endophytic bacteria, one strain of endophytic actinomyces and 82 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from T. asiatica. Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Aspergillus were the dominant populations in T. asiatica. Antimicrobial activities of these endophytes were measured against 30 pathogenic microbes, and 18 strains possess substantial inhibitory activities, of which 16 strains were endophytic fungi belonging to 11 genera. Endophytic strains with antimicrobial activities were obtained to explore the application of endophytic resources from T. asiatica.

  18. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  19. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Đolić, Maja B.; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N.; Štrbac, Svetlana B.; Rakočević, Zlatko Lj.; Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag + -ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag + -ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag + -activated surface and Ag + -ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag + -ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag + -ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag + -ions desorbed from the activated surface to the

  20. The antimicrobial efficiency of silver activated sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Đolić, Maja B., E-mail: mirkovic.maja@gmail.com [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Štrbac, Svetlana B. [ICTM-Institute of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Rakočević, Zlatko Lj. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Veljović, Đorđe N.; Dimitrijević, Suzana I.; Rajaković, Ljubinka V. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Different sorbents were activated by Ag{sup +}-ions and modified sorbents were determined by sorption capacities, in range of values: 42.06–3.28 mg/g. • Granulated activated carbon (GAC), natural zeolit (Z) and titanium dioxide (T) activated by Ag{sup +}-ions were tested against E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans. • The most successful bacteria removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, while the yeast cell reduction reached unsatisfactory effect for all three activated sorbents. • XRD, XPS and FE-SEM analysis showed that the chemical state of the silver activating agent affects the antimicrobial activity, as well as the structural properties of the material. • An overall microbial cell reduction, which is performed by separated antimicrobial tests on the Ag{sup +}-activated surface and Ag{sup +}-ions in aquatic solutions, is a consequence of both mechanisms. - Abstract: This study is focused on the surface modifications of the materials that are used for antimicrobial water treatment. Sorbents of different origin were activated by Ag{sup +}-ions. The selection of the most appropriate materials and the most effective activation agents was done according to the results of the sorption and desorption kinetic studies. Sorption capacities of selected sorbents: granulated activated carbon (GAC), zeolite (Z), and titanium dioxide (T), activated by Ag{sup +}-ions were following: 42.06, 13.51 and 17.53 mg/g, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of Ag/Z, Ag/GAC and Ag/T sorbents were tested against Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and yeast C. albicans. After 15 min of exposure period, the highest cell removal was obtained using Ag/Z against S. aureus and E. coli, 98.8 and 93.5%, respectively. Yeast cell inactivation was unsatisfactory for all three activated sorbents. The antimicrobial pathway of the activated sorbents has been examined by two separate tests – Ag{sup +}-ions desorbed from

  1. Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts as affected by cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Burgos, Ema C; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Kačániová, Miroslava; Hernández-García, Francisca; Cárdenas-López, José L; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-02-01

    Some studies have reported that different parts of the pomegranate fruit, especially the peel, may act as potential antimicrobial agents and thus might be proposed as a safe natural alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. The high tannin content, especially punicalagin, found in pomegranate extracts, has been reported as the main compound responsible for such antimicrobial activity. Because the pomegranate peel chemical composition may vary with the type of cultivar (sweet, sour-sweet and sour), pomegranates may also differ with respect to their antimicrobial capacity. The extract from PTO8 pomegranate cultivar peel had the highest antimicrobial activity, as well as the highest punicalagins (α and β) and ellagic acid concentrations. In the results obtained from both antibacterial and antifungal activity studies, the sour-sweet pomegranate cultivar PTO8 showed the best antimicrobial activity, and the highest ellagic acid concentrations. The results of the present study suggest that ellagic acid content has a significant influence on the antimicrobial activity of the pomegranate extracts investigated. The pomegranate peel of the PTO8 cultivar is a good source of antifungal and antibacterial compounds, and may represent an alternative to antimicrobial agents of synthetic origin. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparative studies on polyphenolic profile and antimicrobial activity of propolis samples selected from distinctive geographical areas of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Szabolcs; Mikuska, Kata; Patonay, Katalin; Sisa, Krisztina; Daood, Hussein G; Némedi, Erzsébet; Kiss, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The present paper reports about a comparative survey on the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected propolis samples collected in Hungary. The total levels of polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids in ethanolic extracts of propolis were assessed. The major constituents of ethanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically using a Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Free radical scavenging activities were evaluated by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. In vitro inhibitory activity was investigated against eight different bacterial strains by agar well diffusion assay. An extensive comparison was carried out regarding general parameters and specific polyphenolic components. The experimental data led to the observation that there is considerable variability in terms of the quality and the biological value of the distinctive propolis samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis of the study; versatile experimental results are required for proper, well-reasoned, balanced and standardised industrial applications. The major flavonoid components were found to be chrysin and pinocembrin; however, versatile minor components were also detected. The total polyphenol content of ethanolic extracts of propolis ranged between 104.6 mg/g and 286.9 mg/g (gallic acid equivalent). The radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis varied between 101.7 mg/g and 286.9 mg/g (ascorbic acid equivalent). As the quality of propolis depends on the season, vegetation and the area of collection, marked differences were found among the different products examined in terms of both composition and general characteristics. The studied samples exhibited significant differences in term of antimicrobial activities.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of herbs against Yersinia enterocolitica and mixed microflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa SHARMA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing herbal medicine against food borne pathogens, therefore the antimicrobial activity of four herbs viz. Arjuna (bark, Ashwagandha (roots, Puthkanda (leaves and Shalampanja (roots was checked. Aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of each herb were extracted and their antimicrobial activity against mixed microflora and against Yersinia enterocolitica was determined. Tetracycline and gentamicin were used as reference antibiotics. Arjuna extracts showed the highest antimicrobial potential against mixed population and Yersinia enterocolitica in comparison to Ashwagandha, Puthkanda and Shalampanja extracts. The antimicrobial activity of Arjuna aqueous extract was lower compared to gentamicin, but comparable to tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of aqueous extract of Arjuna showed the lowest values indicating that it is more effective in lower concentration of use. The antimicrobial activity of herbs showed the following trend Arjuna > Puthkanda > Shalampanja > Ashwagandha.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Mucuna pruriens on selected bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... negative and spore forming microorganisms and fungi. The methanol extract of M. pruriens showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms except Candida albicans. The results obtained in the study shows that M. pruriens extract can be a potential surce of natural antimicrobial agent.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants have been reported to contain important preventative and curative compounds. Studies were conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera extracts using in vitro antimicrobial screening methods. The acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves at a concentration of 5 mg/ml showed antibacterial ...

  6. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2012-08-26

    Aug 26, 2012 ... Essential oil constituent, (E)- and (Z)-3-hexenyl nonanoate, antimicrobial, ester synthesis, acid-induced alkene isomerizations. Numerous studies and reviews on the subject matter of com- pounds isolated from plants have demonstrated that essential oil compounds display antimicrobial activity1–7.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Rauvolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Rauvolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima leaf and callus extracts were studied against ... Key words: Rauvolfia tetraphylla, Physalis minima, leaf, callus, extract, antimicrobial assay. INTRODUCTION ..... between peptides and inhibition of disease progression. Mol. Plant.

  8. Studying the silver nanoparticles influence on thermodynamic behavior and antimicrobial activities of novel amide Gemini cationic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Samy M; Abd-Elaal, Ali A

    2017-07-01

    Three novels amide Gemini cationic surfactants with various alkyl chains and their silver nanohybrid with silver nanoparticles were synthesized and a confirmation study for surfactant and their nanoparticles formation has been established using IR, 1 HNMR, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface-active properties of these surfactants and their nanoform were investigated through surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements and a comparative study has been established. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization and adsorption were assessed at temperatures range from 25 to 65°C. The effect of silver particles on the surface behavior of the synthesized surfactant has been discussed. The aggregation behavior of silver nanoparticles with these synthesized Gemini surfactants in water were investigated using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of these synthesized amide Gemini surfactants and their nanostructure with silver against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were also investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Studies of Antimicrobial Properties of Cardiospermum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of Cardiospermum gradiflorum and Cardiospermum halicacabumwere screened for antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus viridans using the agar diffusion method. The two plants produced antimicrobial activities against all the ...

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia coli and Candida albicans). The medicinal plants displayed different polyphenols contents and antioxidant activities. In addition, varying ...

  11. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameer Azam,1,2 Arham S Ahmed,2 Mohammad Oves,3 Mohammad S Khan,3 Sami S Habib,1 Adnan Memic11Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3

  13. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi from olive tree leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhadas, Cynthia; Malheiro, Ricardo; Pereira, José Alberto; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial potential of three fungal endophytes from leaves of Olea europaea L. was evaluated and the host plant extract effect in the antimicrobial activity was examined. The volatile compounds produced by endophytes were identified by GC/MS and further correlated with the antimicrobial activity. In potato dextrose agar, both Penicillium commune and Penicillium canescens were the most effective inhibiting Gram-positive and -negative bacteria (up to 2.7-fold compared to 30 µg/mL chloramphenicol), whereas Alternaria alternata was most effective inhibiting yeasts (up to 8.0-fold compared to 25 μg/mL fluconazole). The presence of aqueous leaf extract in culture medium showed to induce or repress the antimicrobial activity, depending on the endophytic species. In the next step, various organic extracts from both A. alternata mycelium and cultured broth were prepared; being ethyl acetate extracts displayed the widest spectrum of anti-microorganisms at a minimum inhibitory concentration ≤0.095 mg/mL. The volatile composition of the fungi that displayed the highest (A. alternata) and the lowest (P. canescens) antimicrobial activity against yeasts revealed the presence of six volatiles, being the most abundant components (3-methyl-1-butanol and phenylethyl alcohol) ascribed with antimicrobial potentialities. Overall the results highlighted for the first time the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from O. europaea and the possibility to be exploited for their antimicrobial agents.

  14. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity associated with ionic colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Kira; May, Kathleen; Leek, Daniel; Langland, Nicole; Jeane, La Deana; Ventura, Jose; Skubisz, Corey; Scherer, Sean; Lopez, Eric; Crocker, Ephraim; Peters, Rachel; Oertle, John; Nguyen, Krystine; Just, Scott; Orian, Michael; Humphrey, Meaghan; Payne, David; Jacobs, Bertram; Waters, Robert; Langland, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Silver has historically and extensively been used as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. However, the Food and Drug Administration currently does not recognize colloidal silver as a safe and effective antimicrobial agent. The goal of this study was to further evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of colloidal silver. Several strains of bacteria, fungi, and viruses were grown under multicycle growth conditions in the presence or absence of ionic colloidal silver in order to assess the antimicrobial activity. For bacteria grown under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, significant growth inhibition was observed, although multiple treatments were typically required. For fungal cultures, the effects of ionic colloidal silver varied significantly between different genera. No viral growth inhibition was observed with any strains tested. The study data support ionic colloidal silver as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, while having a more limited and specific spectrum of activity against fungi.

  15. Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of Mentha x villosa Hudson essential oil, rotundifolone and its analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thúlio. A. Arruda

    Full Text Available Essential oils present antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and yeasts, including species resistant to antibiotics and antifungicals. In this context, this work aims at the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa Hudson ("hortelã da folha miúda", its major component (rotundifolone and four similar analogues of rotundifolone (limonene oxide, pulegone oxide, carvone epoxide and (+-pulegone against strain standards of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomona aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 76645 and one strain of meticilin - resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA (171c from human clinic. The method of the diffusion in plates with solid medium was used. The results showed that the oil of Mentha x villosa, rotundifolone, limonene oxide and (+-pulegone, are similar regarding the antimicrobial activity against the tested strains of S. aureus and C. albicans. All of the products present antimocrobial potential with antibacterial activity for S. aureus ATCC 25923 and antifungal activity for C. albicans ATCC 76645. None of the products presented antimicrobial activity for the strains of E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, representatives of the Gram negative bacteria.

  16. Release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from different creams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saene, J.J.M.; Trooster, J.F.G.; Meulenhoff, A.M.C.; Lerk, C.F.; Bult, A.

    The release and antimicrobial activity of silver sulphadiazine from five different creams were studied: unguentum emulsilicans aquosum, unguentum hydrophy. licum non ionogenicum, paraffin cream (15 per cent), a homemade preparation and a commercially available preparation (Flamazine). A diffusion

  17. Screening of some Malay medicated oils for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalisanni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils from six Malay medicated oils, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in humans, were tested for their antimicrobial property. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six Malay medicated oils against certain microbial isolates. Locally available Malay medicated oils were checked for their antimicrobial activities using six species of bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis and 2 fungi with 1 yeast (Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp. and Candida albicans. Clove oil showed the highest antibacterial activity followed, respectively, by 'bunga merah', cajaput, nutmeg, lemon grass and 'gamat' oil. Clove oil and lemon grass showed anticandidal activity. The Malay medicated oil studies did not show any antifungal activity. The study shows that Malay medicated oils, like antibiotics, have antimicrobial activities against some microorganisms.

  18. Synthesis, spectral studies, antimicrobial, antioxidant and insect antifeedant activities of some 9 H-fluorene-2-yl keto-oxiranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, G.; Vanangamudi, G.

    2011-10-01

    Thirteen ee (α S, β R) 9 H-fluorene-2-yl keto-oxiranes (2-(9 H)-fluorene-4-yl[3-(substituted phenyl)oxiran-2-yl]methanones) have been synthesized by phase transfer catalysed epoxidation of 9 H-fluorene-2-yl chalcones. The yields of oxiranes are more than 95%. The synthesized oxiranes have been characterized by IR, 1H, 13C and GC-MS spectral data. The spectral data are correlated with Hammett substituent constants and Swain-Lupton parameters. From the regression analysis, the effect of substituents on the group frequencies has been predicted. The antimicrobial, antioxidant and insect antifeedant activities of all the synthesized oxiranes have been studied.

  19. Cosmeceutical values, antimicrobial activities and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... Key words: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, ethanol extract, water extract, cashew leaves, cosmeceutical. INTRODUCTION ... Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) leaves extract could ..... Antioxidant activity at different contact time for treatment of different concentration CLE in water with different amount of GAC.

  20. Lipid selectivity in novel antimicrobial peptides: Implication on antimicrobial and hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, P; Martinez, M; Noguera, M E; Santos, N C; Disalvo, E A; Semorile, L; Maffia, P C; Hollmann, A

    2017-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small cationic molecules that display antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacteria, fungi and viruses. For an AMP to be considered as a therapeutic option, it must have not only potent antibacterial properties but also low hemolytic and cytotoxic activities [1]. Even though many studies have been conducted in order to correlate the antimicrobial activity with affinity toward model lipid membranes, the use of these membranes to explain cytotoxic effects (especially hemolysis) has been less explored. In this context, we studied lipid selectivity in two related novel AMPs, peptide 6 (P6) and peptide 6.2 (P6.2). Each peptide was designed from a previously reported AMP, and specific amino acid replacements were performed in an attempt to shift their hydrophobic moment or net charge. P6 showed no antimicrobial activity and high hemolytic activity, and P6.2 exhibited good antibacterial and low hemolytic activity. Using both peptides as a model we correlated the affinity toward membranes of different lipid composition and the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. Our results from surface pressure and zeta potential assays showed that P6.2 exhibited a higher affinity and faster binding kinetic toward PG-containing membranes, while P6 showed this behavior for pure PC membranes. The final position and structure of P6.2 into the membrane showed an alpha-helix conversion, resulting in a parallel alignment with the Trps inserted into the membrane. On the other hand, the inability of P6 to adopt an amphipathic structure, plus its lower affinity toward PG-containing membranes seem to explain its poor antimicrobial activity. Regarding erythrocyte interactions, P6 showed the highest affinity toward erythrocyte membranes, resulting in an increased hemolytic activity. Overall, our data led us to conclude that affinity toward negatively charged lipids instead of zwitterionic ones seems to be a key factor that drives from hemolytic to

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Byrsonima species (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele C. Michelin

    Full Text Available Byrsonima species, family Malpighiaceae, is popularly known as "murici". There are several properties attributed to the leaves of Byrsonima species including febrifuge, to treat gastrointestinal dysfunctions and skin diseases. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of Byrsonima fagifolia, B. basiloba and B. intermedia extracts obtained from the leaves were evaluated by using the disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that the methanol extracts of leaves had presented antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms tested.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Collected Pollen against Clostridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium is an anaerobic, endospore forming Gram-positive bacillus genus containing many important pathogenic species. Many naturally occurring compounds present in plants, herbs, and spices have been shown to possess antimicrobial effect against foodborne pathogens. In the present study, the antimicrobial activities of the bee collected pollen samples were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion method against Clostridium genus. Antibacterial activity was assessed on the clostridia: Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. The results of the disk diffusion method showed very different activity against all tested strains of clostridia. The best antimicrobial activity of bee collected pollen against C. butyricum and C. perfringens were found.

  3. Purification and antimicrobial activity studies of the N-terminal fragment of ubiquitin from human amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Shin, Song Yub; Choi, Sang Joon; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2007-09-01

    A 4.3-kDa antimicrobial peptide was isolated from human amniotic fluid by dialysis, ultrafiltration, and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This peptide, which we named Amniotic Fluid Peptide-1 (AFP-1), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. In addition, AFP-1 potently inhibited the growth of a variety of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus), filamentous fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus fumigatus, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium oxysporum) and yeast cells (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Automated Edman degradation showed that the N-terminal sequence of AFP-1 was NH(2)-Met-Gln-Ile-Phe-Val-Lys-Thr-Leu-Thr-Gly-Lys-Thr-Ile-Thr-Leu-Glu-Val-Glu-. The partial sequence had 100% homology to the N-terminal sequence of ubiquitin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that the molecular mass of AFP-1 was 4280.2 Da. Our data show an antimicrobial activity of ubiquitin N-terminal derived peptide that makes it suitable for use as an antimicrobial agent.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of different hydroxyapatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, G.T.; Santos, M.V.B.; Barreto, H.M.; Osorio, L.R.; Osajima, J.A.; Silva Filho, E.C. da

    2014-01-01

    Among the applications of ceramics in the technological context, hydroxyapatite (HAp) stands out in the scientific community due to chemical biocompatibility and molecular similarity to the structures of bone and dental tissues. Such features are added to the antimicrobial properties that this brings. This work aimed at the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by two different routes, hydrothermal (HD HAp) and co-precipitation (CP HAp), as well as verification of the antimicrobial properties of these through direct contact of the powders synthesized tests with Staphylococcus aureus (SA10) and Escherichia coli (EC7) bacteria. The materials was characterized by XRD, Raman and TEM, and Antimicrobial tests showed inhibitory efficacy of 97% and 9.5% of CP HAp for SA10 and EC7, respectively. The HD HAp had inhibitory effect of 95% and 0% for EC7 and SA10, respectively. The inhibitory effect on SA10 is based on the hydrophilicity that the material possesses. (author)

  5. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed

  6. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  7. A study of chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Bulgarian propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardjeva, Petya A; Dimitrova, Stela Z; Kostadinov, Iliya D; Murdjeva, Marianna A; Peyche, Lyudmil P; Lukanov, Lyudmil K; Stanimirova, Irina V; Alexandrov, Alexandar S

    2007-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product which exhibits pronounced antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. To analyze the chemical composition and antimicrobial effect of Bulgarian propolis, p-cumaric acid and ferulic acid on certain Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Ethanol extract of Bulgarian propolis (Propolin) and water extract of Bulgarian propolis (Propolstom), ferulic acid and p-cumaric acid were used. The chemical HPLC-analysis of propolis was performed with Varian Prostar system. Microbiological tests were done on isolates of Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. Non-treated and ethanol-treated cultures of the corresponding strains were used as controls. Minimal bactericidal and bacteriostatic concentration of Propolin were determined by agar method. The concentration of p-cumaric acid and ferulic acid in ethanol extract of propolis is about 1%. The minimal bactericidal concentration of Bulgarian propolis against Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus is 281 +/- 89.3 microg/ml, against Enterococcus faecalis--3490 +/- 633.1 microg/ml, against Candida albicans--1375 +/- 255.2 microg/ml, and against Escherichia coli--24306 +/- 1706.4 microg/ml. The minimal bactericidal concentration of p-cumaric acid and ferulic acid against Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus is 212 +/- 6.5 microg/ml and 208 +/- 7.7 microg/ml, against Enterococcus faecalis--3013 +/- 176.6 and 3032 +/- 203.4 microg/ml, against Candida albicans--157 +/- 15.5 microg/ml and 149 +/- 23.2 microg/ml, and against Escherichia coli--798 +/- 7.7 microg/ml and 801 +/- 22.8 microg/ml, respectively. The phenolic compounds p-cumaric acid and ferulic acid are 10 times less extracted in water extraction than in ethanol extraction. The most susceptible strains to the Bulgarian propolis and phenolic compounds are Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus and Candida albicans and the least affected are Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

  8. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of gallic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of gallic acid derivatives (1–33 was synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial and fungal strains by the tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that compound 6 was the most active antimicrobial agent (pMICam = 1.92 μM/mL. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized gallic acid derivatives were governed by the electronic parameters, cosmic total energy (Cos E. and nuclear energy (Nu. E..

  9. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    isolates against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus viridans and Staphylococcus aureus in already set blood agar with gentamicin as the reference ... micro-organism (Streptococci) enters the blood stream via small wounds and causes ... fractionation and isolation of antimicrobial constituents of Garcinia kola Heckel seed ...

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity and anthelmintic activity. The structural assignments of compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis. Keywords. 10H-phenothiazines; Smiles rearrangement; sulphones; ribofuranosides; antimicrobial activity; anthelmintic activity. 1.

  12. Study of Antimicrobial Activities of Chitinases from a Potato Prototype Cultivated in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Rashel, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases (designated as SPCs were isolated from ‘Shilbilati’ potatoes, a potato prototype cultivated in Bangladesh by affinity chromatography on a chitin column. SPCs agglutinated rat erythrocytes at the minimum concentration of 7 µg/mL and showed toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii with the LC50 value of 20 µg/mL. The chitinases also agglutinated seven bacterial strains among the twelve as studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi were the most sensitive towards the SPCs and were agglutinated at 1.2, 2.5 and 5.0 µg/mL protein concentrations respectively. Antibacterial tests demonstrated that SPCs showed inhibitory activity against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Antifungal activity was investigated by the disc diffusion method. Five fungal species (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium vasinfectum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus and two fungal genus (Penicillium and Mucor sp. were examined in the assay. SPCs showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Fusarium vasinfectum and Penicillium sp.

  13. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Barleria prionitis and Barleria grandiflora: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Arunrao Sawarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf juices as well as leaves of Barleria prionitis and Barleria grandiflora are being used by rural people across various regions of India in the treatment of oral ailments such as dental troubles, gum ailments, pyorrhoea, dental carries and mouth ulcers. Zone of inhibition and MIC values obtained for all the extracts suggest ethanolic extract of the herbs were more antimicrobial when compared to the aqueous extract. Results of biofilm suppression were found statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared to control. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay on human gingival fibroblast and human dermal fibroblast cell lines for ethanolic extract of the herbs. CTC50 value was found to be more than 1,000 µg/mL for ethanolic extracts of both herbs. Chlorhexidine was found to be more cytotoxic with CTC50 value of 12.5–25 µg/mL. Ethanolic extract of B. prionitis and B. grandiflora found significantly cytotoxic (p<0.05 in comparison with control.

  14. [Comparative study of antimicrobial activity of "Biodentin" and "Rootdent" cements and "Futurabond NR" adhesive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamkhalov, G S; Ivanova, E V; Dmitrieva, N A; Akhmedova, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination under fillings proved to be the main reason for pulp inflammation thus emphasizing the importance of antibacterial properties of restorative materials. The aim of the current study was to assess antibacterial properties of "Biodentine" (Septodont), "Rootdent" (TehnoDent) and adhesive "Futurabond НР" (Voco). Two lines of experiments were carried out using cements water solutions and firm tablet-like samples (made by means of special pattern). All the examined materials showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, C. albiсans, Str. faecalis. The results confirm the analyzed materials to be a useful tool for deep caries lesions treatment.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of South African propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, T; van Vuuren, S; Sandasi, M; Viljoen, A M

    2015-10-01

    This study reports on the inhibitory and bactericidal properties of 39 South African (SA) propolis samples and three propolis samples from Brazil. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were prepared and their antimicrobial activities tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Some samples displayed substantial antimicrobial activity with MIC and MBC values as low as 6 μg ml(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus. The correlation between liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) chemical data and the antimicrobial activity of propolis extracts was investigated using multivariate data analysis tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for the two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and S. aureus) and Candida albicans. Using the S-plot function, it was possible to identify the bioactive constituents in propolis as chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin and pinobanksin-3-O-acetate. The SA propolis samples tested displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, favourably comparable to that of the Brazilian comparator and 'gold standard'. The observed antimicrobial activity of SA propolis can possibly be attributed to its flavonoid content. Based on the good antimicrobial activity observed for SA propolis, this natural resource shows promise and should be considered for development which may contribute to growing the bio-economy in the region. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Studies on antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality of crude samples of six different species of puffer fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masilamani Mohan Raj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality activity of six different species of puffer fishes, including Cyclichthys orbicularis, Diodon holocanthus, Canthigaster solandri, Arthron hispidus, A. inermis and Lagocephalua inermis (L. inermis. Methodology: The puffer fishes were collected from Annangkovil Fish Landing Centre (Lattitude 11°30.47' N; Longitude 79°47.02' E, Parangipettai, Southeast Coast of India during summer season because of availability. Fresh tissue samples were collected from the clearly washed specimens, extracted with methanol at 37 °C for 3 days and filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper. The solvents such as methanol and ethanol were concentrated by using rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The dark brown gummy mass was stored at 4 °C for further analysis. Prepared crude samples were analysed with human pathogens to assess the antibacterial activity and this was carried out by using standard disc diffusion method. The brine shrimp lethality was calculated as the percentage of mortality which was firstly calculated by dividing the number of dead larvae by the total number and then multiplied to 100%. Results: The antibacterial activity of crude extract of puffer fishes were exhibited against 10 different human bacterial pathogens. Among the ten human pathogens, Arthron hispidus showed maximum zone of inhibition (8 mm against Staphylococcus aureus while L. inermis showed minimum activity (1 mm against Proteus mirabilis and no zone of inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus. Brine shrimp lethality was examined with six puffer fish extracts. Cyclichthys orbicularis showed maximum mortalities as 100% and L. inermis showed minimum mortalities as 70% at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. Conclusion: In conclusion, the study showed the preliminary investigation of crude extracts of puffer fishes about the prominent activity against human bacterial pathogens. The extracts had

  17. Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savluchinske-Feio, Sonia; Curto, Maria João Marcelo; Gigante, Bárbara; Roseiro, J Carlos

    2006-09-01

    The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans configurations. The resin acid family covers a spectrum of antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi, in which the mode of action was studied by electron microscopy. The morphological alterations are consistent with an unspecific mode of action causing inhibition of the fungal growth or damaging the fungal cells in parallel with a mechanism of resistance based on the retention of the compound by the lipid accumulation. The sterol composition of phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Lophodermium seditiosum treated with methyl cis-7-oxo-deisopropyldehydroabietate revealed the presence of ergosterol (M+ 396) and dihydroergosterol (M+ 398) in both cultures showing that this compound did not interfere with the ergosterol metabolic pathway of both fungi.

  18. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER(II COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Čongrádyová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two novel copper(II 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with either 1,10-phenantroline or its methyl derivative 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine have been prepared and studied. A potential antimicrobial or antifungal activity of both complexes has been tested on prokaryotic Escherichia coli and eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organisms. Crystal structure of [Cu(phen(5-Clsal(5-ClsalH2]2 a dimeric structure, whereas the second complex of formula [Cu(H2O(5-Clsal(Neo] has been shown to be monomeric. Our results confirmed the toxic effect of prepared copper complexes as well as bioactive ligands on the yeast and bacteria growth. The effect of copper complexes was stronger compared to the solutions of free ligands. Our preliminary results showed that the complex [Cu(H2O(5-Clsal(Neo] exhibited higher antimicrobial activity compared to the complex [Cu(phen(5-Clsal(5-ClsalH2]2.

  19. Nicotinamide polymeric nanoemulsified systems: a quality-by-design case study for a sustained antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidan AS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed S Zidan,1,2 Osama AA Ahmed,1,3 Bader M Aljaeid1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt Abstract: Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3, was demonstrated to combat some of the antibiotic-resistant infections that are increasingly common around the world. The objective of this study was to thoroughly understand the formulation and process variabilities affecting the preparation of nicotinamide-loaded polymeric nano­emulsified particles. The quality target product profile and critical quality attributes of the proposed product were presented. Plackett–Burman screening design was employed to screen eight variables for their influences on the formulation’s critical characteristics. The formulations were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsification followed by solvent replacement. The prepared systems were characterized by entrapment capacity (EC, entrapment efficiency (EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, in vitro drug release, and their antibacterial activity against bacterial scrums. EC, EE, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percentage release in 24 hours were found to be in the range of 33.5%–68.8%, 53.1%–67.1%, 43.3–243.3 nm, 0.08–0.28, 9.5–53.3 mV, and 5.8%–22.4%, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Pareto charts revealed that the experimental loadings of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Eudragit® S100 were the most significant for their effects on nicotinamide EC and EE. Moreover, the polymeric nanoemulsified particles

  20. Screening marine organisms for antimicrobial activity against clinical pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Tonima, K.; DeSouza, L.

    extracts of forty marine organisms belonging to different phyla and fractions of active extracts were screened for their antimicrobial effects on human pathogens. A broad panel of microbial pathogens associated with various skin infections, urinary... tract, gastrointestinal infections and waterborne diseases, has been included. The aim of the present study was to identify potential marine sources based on antimicrobial assay. ___________ *Corresponding author Telephone: 91(0)832 2450392 Fax...

  1. Anti-microbial activity of Leucas clarkei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Narayan Das

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial potency of the whole plant of Leucas clarkei have been studied using the soxhlet extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethanol extract against Gram-positive bacteria (two strains, Gram-negative bacteria (two strains and two fungi strains by disc diffusion method. Micro-dilution methods, for the determination of minimal inhibition concentration (MIC and the minimal bactericidal and fungicidal concentration (MBC, MFC. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 µg/disc and chloroform extract at a concentration 60 µg/disc showed significant activity against all the bacteria and fungus. All the extracts of L. clarkei have got moderate action but chloroform and ethanol extracts have got significant activity against Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. This may be due to phytochemicals such as phytosterols, alkaloid, tannins, phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in the extracts.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Against Multidrug Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Among these isolates, 51 (38 %) showed antimicrobial activity against one or more test organisms and six exhibited promising broad-spectrum activity against all the tested organisms. The observed cultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics confirmed that these isolates are species of ...

  3. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activity studies on three Agaricus species with fatty acid compositions and iron contents: a comparative study on the three most edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Kivrak, Seyda; Mercan-Doğan, Nazime; Türkoglu, Aziz; Özler, Mehmet Ali

    2011-06-01

    The fatty acids of Agaricus essettei, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus bisporus were investigated by using GC and GC-MS. The dominant fatty acids were found to be linoleic (61.82-67.29%) and palmitic (12.67-14.71%) acids among the 13 fatty acids detected in the oils. Total unsaturation for the oils was calculated as 77.50%, 77.44%, and 79.72%, respectively. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were also studied. The ethyl acetate extract of Agaricus bitorquis showed the highest activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH(·) and ABTS(·)(+) assays, while the hexane extract of Agaricus bisporus exhibited the best metal chelating activity. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Agaricus bitorquis and the hexane extract of Agaricus essettei showed meaningful butyrylcholinesterase activity being close to that of galantamine. The extracts were found to be effective on Gram (+) bacteria, especially against Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, Agaricus bitorquis and Agaricus essettei demonstrated higher iron content, and better antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities than those of Agaricus bisporus commonly consumed mushroom. Hence, Agaricus species, particularly Agaricus bitorquis might be useful as antioxidant agents and moderate anticholinesterase agents, and their extracts will probably be used for development of dietary foods, food products and additives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An optical tweezer-based study of antimicrobial activity of silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here, we report on the effect of addition of silver nanoparticles on bacterial cultures of Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We observe a decrease in the bacterial activity with time for the investigated bacterial samples. This method in our opinion, enables one to track changes in bacterial activity ...

  5. An optical tweezer-based study of antimicrobial activity of silver ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in bacterial activity levels as a function of time of contact with the antibacterial agent with greater efficacy than traditional cell counting methods. ... In this work, we demonstrate the use of an optical tweezer in monitoring the effect of .... can be used as an effective tool for characterizing real time changes in bacterial activity ...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Senna alata Linn. | Doughari | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of the roots and leaves of Senna alata were studied using the cup plate agar diffusion method. All the extracts demonstrated considerable activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria and some fungi with the organic extracts showing higher activity ...

  7. Designing, synthesis and spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal complexes: DNA cleavage and antimicrobial activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new series of transition metal complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II and Zn(II have been designed and synthesized using a Schiff base (L derived from 4-aminoantipyrine, benzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine. The structural features were derived from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity, as well as from mass, IR, UV–Vis, 1H-NMR and ESR spectral studies. The FAB mass spectral data and elemental analyses showed that the complexes had a composition of the ML type. The UV–Vis and ESR spectral data of the complexes suggested a square-planar geometry around the central metal ion. The magnetic susceptibility values of the complexes indicated that they were monomeric in nature. Antimicrobial screening tests were also performed against four bacteria, viz. Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis and three fungi, viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizoctonia bataicola. These data gave good results in the presence of metal ion in the ligand system. The nuclease activity of the above metal complexes shows that only the copper complex cleaves CT DNA in the presence of an oxidant.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon-Based Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Maleki Dizaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast and inappropriate use of the antibiotics, microorganisms have begun to develop resistance to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. So therefore, development of the new and effective antimicrobial agents seems to be necessary. According to some recent reports, carbon-based nanomaterials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs (especially single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and graphene oxide (GO nanoparticles show potent antimicrobial properties. In present review, we have briefly summarized the antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanoparticles together with their mechanism of action. Reviewed literature show that the size of carbon nanoparticles plays an important role in the inactivation of the microorganisms. As major mechanism, direct contact of microorganisms with carbon nanostructures seriously affects their cellular membrane integrity, metabolic processes and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of carbon-based nanostructures may interestingly be investigated in the near future owing to their high surface/volume ratio, large inner volume and other unique chemical and physical properties. In addition, application of functionalized carbon nanomaterials as carriers for the ordinary antibiotics possibly will decrease the associated resistance, enhance their bioavailability and provide their targeted delivery.

  9. The antimicrobial activity, hydrophobicity and toxicity of sulfonium compounds, and their relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Michiasa

    2011-03-01

    The sulfonium compound is a kind of cationic surfactant as well as a quaternary ammonium which has been used widely around the globe. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity, the hydrophobicity, the toxicity of several sulfoniums and their relationship with the aim of clarifying their antimicrobial activity and toxicity, and, furthermore, of predicting their usefulness availability as antimicrobials. As a result, the antimicrobial activity, expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the sulfoniums examined in this study, tended to decrease with the increase of their hydrophobicity, estimated by ClogP, and their antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacteria was higher than that against the gram-negative bacteria used in this study. The antimicrobial activities of several sulfoniums against the gram-positive bacteria were higher than those of some common cationic antimicrobials including quaternary ammoniums such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). In contrast, the antimicrobial activities of the sulfoniums against the gram-negative bacteria were lower than those of some common cationic antimicrobials. Meanwhile the toxicity, in particular, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion of the sulfoniums, tended to be lower than that of common cationic antimicrobials which were toxic in many cases indices. These results suggest that the sulfoniums might become useful antimicrobials which are less hazardous to human health than common cationic antimicrobials.

  10. An in vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of some endodontic medicaments and their bases using an agar well diffusion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, B; Abbott, P V; George, N; Walsh, L J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of various endodontic medicaments and their bases against selected organisms using an agar diffusion assay. An agar well diffusion assay was used to test the antimicrobial action of some commonly used endodontic medicaments (Ledermix paste, Pulpdent paste, Ultracal paste, and a 50:50 mix of Ledermix and Pulpdent pastes) and their bases. Three bacterial species (E. faecalis, P. micros, P. intermedia) and one yeast (C. albicans) were selected. The diameters of growth inhibition zones and pH were assessed. P. micros demonstrated the highest level of in vitro resistance. Pulpdent and Ultracal pastes had the highest pH (12.64 and 12.53, respectively). The addition of Pulpdent to Ledermix did not increase the zone sizes significantly. All the commercial products showed some in vitro antimicrobial activity. Ledermix paste and the 50:50 Ledermix/Pulpdent mixture being the most effective in this model. The known anti-inflammatory/analgesic properties of Ledermix and the results from this agar model suggest that the 50:50 Ledermix/Pulpdent combination would be the preferred medicament for clinical use in symptomatic cases, even though the addition of calcium hydroxide to Ledermix did not appear to be synergistic in terms of enhancing the antimicrobial action.

  11. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study provides some justifications for the folkloric use of AP seed powder as an antiseptic paste and warrants further studies to determine the structure of the active compound in chromatographic fraction ST 13 -15F. Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Pereira Leite

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 5000 µg ml−1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 µg ml−1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13 and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Iberian macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Salvador

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and antifungal activity of 82 marine macroalgae (18 Chlorophyceae, 25 Phaeophyceae and 39 Rhodophyceae was studied to evaluate their potential for being used as natural preservatives in the cosmetic industry. The bioactivity was analysed from crude extracts of fresh and lyophilised samples against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one yeast using the agar diffusion technique. The samples were collected seasonally from Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. Of the macroalgae analysed, 67% were active against at least one of the six test microorganisms. The highest percentage of active taxa was found in Phaeophyceae (84%, followed by Rhodophyceae (67% and Chlorophyceae (44%. Nevertheless, red algae had both the highest values and the broadest spectrum of bioactivity. In particular, Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, Bonnemaisonia hamifera, Asparagopsis armata and Falkenbergia rufolanosa (Bonnemaisoniales were the most active taxa. Bacillus cereus was the most sensitive test microorganism and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant. The highest percentages of active taxa from Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae were found in autumn, whereas they were found in summer for Chlorophyceae.

  15. Study on the Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils of Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.N.Srujan and M.Sravanthi

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon were estimated by using various bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oil of garlic, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be highly sensitive followed by E.coli. L.monocytogenes and S.pyogenes were found to be less sensitive. The essential oil of clove was found to be most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli. B.cereus and C. jejuni. The essential oil of cinnamon was also most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli and C.jejuni. Essential oil of cinnamon was found to be active against all the bacterial pathogens tested, when compared to garlic and clove oils. However Staph. aureus, E. coli and C.jejuni were found to be most sensitive to the action of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oils of spices to know the MIC by agar diffusion method, C.jejuni was found to be most sensitive to the essential oil of garlic followed by E.coli, S. typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus were found to be comparatively less sensitive. Essential oil of clove was also found to be highly effective against C.jejuni followed by E.coli, S.typhimurium and S.aureus. Again L.monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant S.aureus were comparatively less sensitive to the action of essential oil of clove. All most all the bacterial pathogens tested were found to be sensitive to the essential oil of cinnamon. However C.jejuni and E.coli were found to be most sensitive followed by S.typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus . [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 311-316

  16. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic studies and antimicrobial activity of three new Schiff bases derived from Heterocyclic moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Mounira; Douadi, Tahar; Sahli, Farida; Issaadi, Saifi; Boukazoula, Soraya; Chafaa, Salah

    2018-01-01

    Three new Schiff-bases compounds (I-III) were synthesized by a condensation reaction in 1:2 M ratios of 4,4‧-diaminodiphenyl sulfide and pyrrol/thiophene/furan-2-carboxaldehyde in ethanol. The structural determinations of the Schiff-bases were identified with the help of elemental analysis then confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. The products were obtained in excellent yields. On the other hand, the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated using disc diffusion method. Schiff bases synthesized individually exhibited varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the growth of the tested microbial species.

  17. Antimicrobial activities of some mushrooms in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Hasan Hüseyin; Duman, Rüstem; Özkalp, Birol; Aydin, Sema

    2013-06-01

    Terfezia boudieri Chatin (Pezizaceae), Agaricus brunnescens Peck (Agaricaceae) and Lactarius vellereus (Fr.) Fr. (Russulaceae) are well-known species in Turkey, and are used both for food and traditional medicine. The powdered fruit bodies of T. boudieri, A. brunnescens and L. vellereus were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activities. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of T. boudieri, A. brunnescens and L. vellereus were tested for their antimicrobial activities against four Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria and yeast using a micro-dilution method. The strongest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value observed against the test microorganisms was with the chloroform extract of T. boudieri (MIC 2.4 µg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. Maximum antimicrobial effects were observed with the acetone extracts of T. boudieri and L. vellereus (MIC 4.8 µg/mL) against Bacillus subtilis. The strongest antifungal activity was observed with the acetone extracts of T. boudieri (MIC 2.4 µg/mL) and A. brunnescens (MIC 19.5 µg/mL) against Candida albicans. The strongest MIC values for all fungal extracts were observed between 78 and 2.4 µg/mL. Present results demonstrated that these three mushroom species have excellent antimicrobial and antifungal activities, and thus have great potential as a source for natural health products.

  18. Polyphenols content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 wild plants were collected from the south of Tunisia. The dried aerial parts were extracted under a continuous reflux set-up in a Soxhlet extractor with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The extracts were screened for total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Total phenolic contents were ...

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MeOH extracts of Ixora brachypoda. Polyscies bolfouriana and Scindapsus aureus exhibited significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli and yeast organism Saccharamyces cerevisiae at a concentration of 2.5mg/ml. Key Words: Ornamental plants; Ixora brachypoda, ...

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These compounds were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against ten bacteria and five fungi by serial plate dilution method using standard drugs, namely, ofloxacin and ketoconazole, respectively, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also determined. Results: A total of eighteen new compounds ...

  1. Antimicrobial activities of some selected Nigerian mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of five Nigerian mushrooms – Auricularia polytricha, Corilopsis occidentalis, Daldinia concentrica, Daedalea elegans and Tricholoma lobayensis were investigated for their antimicrobial activities using filter paper disc and hole diffusion methods. Bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, ...

  2. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Newbouldia laevis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Newbouldia laevis were subjected to ethanolic, hot, and cold aqueous extraction. Standard methods were used for both extraction and phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the plant extract was done using the modified agar well diffusion method. The extracts (ethanolic, hot, and cold aqueous) ...

  3. Anticonvulsant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Berberis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anticonvulsant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Berberis calliobotrys. Methods: The powdered plant material (10 kg) was extracted thrice with methanol (3 × 12 L) by dipping for seven days. The methanol extract was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure, and then successively ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) obtained from beehives of honeybee (Apis mellifera) was investigated for its antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries. Agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations were the methods used.

  5. Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to antibiotics of Bacillus strains isolated from Mbuja, an Hibiscus sabdariffa fermented seeds from ... to antibiotics of 26 Bacillus strains (11 Bacillus subtilis, 5 Bacillus megaterium, 4 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, 4 Bacillus pumilus and 2 Bacillus thuringiensis) ...

  6. Phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of Cassia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaves of Cassia occidentalis were extracted with ethanol, methanol and water and the extracts used to carryout antimicrobial screening in vitro on staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, shigella spp. Chromatographic separation was carried out on the active extracts and the ...

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried leaves of Abrus precatorius, Desmodium ramosissimum, Scoparia dulcis and aerial parts of Phyllanthus amarus used in folkloric medicine of Ebiraland were extracted with hexane, methanol and water sequentially using soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, ...

  8. In-vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol Extracts of Zanthoxylum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of two Nigerian medicinal plant commonly used as chewing sticks Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides and Pseudocedrela kotschyi antimicrobial activities were investigated against 7clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and ...

  9. Plant essential oils as active antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Yi Xin; Yeo, Chia Rou; Chung, Hui Ling; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils derived from plants have been recognized for decades to exhibit biological activities, including antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial attributes. Antimicrobial activities of these natural plant materials have been intensively explored in recent years, mainly in response to the overwhelming concern of consumers over the safety of synthetic food additives. Gram-negative organisms are believed to be slightly less sensitive to essential oils than Gram-positive bacteria. Generally, a higher concentration is required to obtain the same efficacy in foods than in synthetic media. The combinations of different types of essential oils or with other food additives have been found to potentially exhibit synergistic if not additive effects. This suggests a cost-efficient and wholesome alternative to both food industry and consumers, at the same time adhering to the hurdle technology in inhibiting proliferation of foodborne pathogens. This review aims to examine the conventional methods commonly used for assessment of antimicrobial activities of essential oils and phytochemicals, the use of these substances as antimicrobials in food products, factors that affect their efficacy, synergism between components or with available food preservatives as well as the challenges and future directions of using essential oils and phytochemicals as natural food preservatives.

  10. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Momordica charantia from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufo

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... In addition, it was reported to exhibit diverse biological activities such as being antimicrobial. However, a few previous studies have evaluated the anti- microbial activity of the plant for a limited number of microorganisms, especially for the treatment of ulcer against Helicobacter pylori in Turkey (Yeşilada et ...

  11. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... some justifications for the folkloric use of AP seed powder as an antiseptic paste and warrants further studies to determine the structure of the active compound in chromatographic fraction ST 13 -15F. Key words: Adenanthera pavonina, antimicrobial activity, chromatographic fractions, methanolic extract.

  12. Antiradical and antimicrobial activity of Atylosia lineata Wt. and Arn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine antimicrobial and radical scavenging activity of Atylosia lineata Wt. & Arn. (Fabaceae). The shade dried and powdered leaves were extracted using methanol. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract was determined by agar well diffusion and poisoned food technique ...

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Crude Extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans has shown highest sensitivity whilst Penicillium spp. was least effective to all three extracts. Conclusion: The study confirms that MEDP, MECG, MESM all possess antimicrobial activity with different potency against variety of selected microorganisms. The differentiating activities of these three extracts ...

  14. Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Sulphate Nanocomposites from Plant Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinak P. N. Choudhury

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium sulphate nanocomposite materials (CB have been synthesised from plant charcoal. Crushed charcoal powder was heated to red hot over a Bunsen burner flame and produced a white material which has been isolated. The surface morphology of the material has been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and the elements were analyzed by Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS. To explore the structural features of the materials X-Ray Diffraction (XRD patterns were recorded. The material showed pronounced inhibitory effects against Streptococcus faecaelis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsilla pneumoni, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanogels for Swelling Studies and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem K. Farag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanogels of a binary system of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh and poly- (vinyl alcohol PVA, were successfully synthesized by a novel in situ process. They were also characterized by various analytical tools like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. They were studied for their unique swelling properties in water and different pH solutions. They were also investigated for their great ability to capture or isolate bacteria and fungi from aquatic environments.

  16. Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Study and Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Sulphate Nanocomposites from Plant Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Chira R.; Paul, Satya B.; Nath, Abhijit; Choudhury, Pinak P. N.; Choudhury, Sudip

    2009-01-01

    Calcium sulphate nanocomposite materials (CB) have been synthesised from plant charcoal. Crushed charcoal powder was heated to red hot over a Bunsen burner flame and produced a white material which has been isolated. The surface morphology of the material has been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the elements were analyzed by Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS). To explore the structural features of the materials X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded. The material showed pronounced inhibitory effects against Streptococcus faecaelis, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsilla pneumoni, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Quantitative study on Vancomycin release from cement in 3 different formulations: preliminary results and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, D; Currò, M; Rosi, M; Ortolà, D J; Cantivalli, A; Ientile, R; Rosa, M A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the best preparation method of the cement powder mixture, solvent and antibiotic in order to obtain the greatest amount of antibiotic in the joint for the longest time as possible. At time T0 the three samples, packed in a sterile environment in different formulations, were placed in sterile tubes, adding to each one 5 ml of saline phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and put in a stove at 37°C for 24 h. A sample of PBS without cement (T control) was also created. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the incubated liquid with cement was performed along with biochemical analysis with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The analysis of the raw data demonstrated that at T1 there was a prevalence of antibiotic release from sample , compared to sample 2 and 3. This difference was maintained until the T20; from T21 the antibiotic release gradually leveled in 3 samples. The elution of the antibiotic remained detectable up to T60. Our work shows that the sample preparation is decisive on the quantity of released antibiotic. These results are confirmed by microbiological tests. It is useful to know the actual kinetics of antibiotics in articulation. Further studies are necessary to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic against micro-organisms and how long it acts.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking study of novel azo-imine functionalized sulphamethoxazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Nilima; Mondal, Sudipa; Naskar, Kaushik; Mahapatra, Ananya Das; Gupta, Suvroma; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Sinha, Chittaranjan

    2018-03-01

    [SMXsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C6H3sbnd (p-OH)(msbnd CHO)] (1) reacts with ArNH2 to synthesize Schiff bases, [SMXsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C6H3sbnd (psbnd OH)(msbnd HCdbnd Nsbnd Ar)] (Ar = sbnd C6H5 (2a), sbnd C6H4sbnd psbnd CH3 (2b), sbnd C6H4sbnd psbnd OCH3 (2c), sbnd C6H4sbnd psbnd Cl (2d), sbnd C6H4sbnd psbnd NO2 (2e), sbnd C10H7 (2f)) and the products have been assessed for antibacterial properties against Gram positive bacteria, B. subtillis: IC50 (μg/ml): 39.2 (1), 60.1 (2a), 64.0 (2b), 85.6 (2c), 55.1 (2d), 88.4 (2e) and 65.1 (2f); and Gram negative bacteria, E. coli: IC50 (μg/ml): 159.0 (1), 151.4 (2a), 155.3 (2b), 140 (2c), 156.0 (2d), 153.5 (2e) and 157 (2f). The cell line toxicity (Vero cells) has also been evaluated with these compounds and EC50 (μg/ml) values are 129.9 (1), 74.2 (2a) and 93.0 (2b), 191.9 (2c), 99.1 (2d), 93.2 (2e) and 62.0 (2f). The anti-viral efficiency against harpies virus (HSVsbnd 1F ATCC-733) infection demonstrates that the compound 1 has highest selectivity index (CC50/EC50), 5.06 than the compounds 2a-f (CC50/EC50: 1.18 (2a), 1.42 (2b), 3.50 (2c), 1.45 (2d), 1.58 (2e), 1.29 (2f)). The compounds have been spectroscopically characterized and the structural confirmation has been established in one case by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 2c. In silico Molecular Docking study has been done using optimized geometries of the compounds to search the most favored binding mode of these drugs and hence useful to explain their competitive drug efficiency.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  20. Germicidal activity of antimicrobials and VIOlight Personal Travel Toothbrush sanitizer: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, C; Baxter, K A; Bowman, J; Haines, M; Andreana, S

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the antibacterial effect of VIOlight (VL) Personal Travel Toothbrush Sanitizer on biofilms after toothbrush exposure to human saliva compared to Listerine Antiseptic (LA), 3% hydrogen peroxide (3%HP) and water. Twenty toothbrush heads (n=5/Gp) were immersed in saliva and to allow for bacterial growth and biofilm formation for 24h. VL sanitizer and antiseptic(s) were used for 7 min; after treatment, brush heads were rinsed and placed into 10 mL of 2x AOAC Letheen Broth, sonicated and vortexed for 10s. Tenfold serial dilutions were prepared and plated and incubated aerobically and anaerobically. Log(10)CFU/mL data were compared utilizing ANOVA (p<0.05). Results showed 3%HP with significantly lower counts than LA, VL and control for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. LA had significantly lower counts than VL and control for both types of bacteria and VIOlight had significantly lower counts than the control for aerobic bacteria. 3%HP and LA were most effective in rapidly killing bacteria when compared to VIOlight. Results showed that 3% hydrogen peroxide was most effective in reducing the numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria present on the toothbrush heads. Under the same test conditions, Listerine Antiseptic was shown to be secondarily effective for the same bacteria while the VIOlight unit was the least effective when compared to the other treatment groups. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and light-activated disinfection on contaminated zirconia implants: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Bleron; Budimir, Ana; Bago, Ivona; Mehmeti, Blerim; Jakovljević, Suzana; Kelmendi, Jeta; Stanko, Aleksandra Presecki; Gabrić, Dragana

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and light-activated disinfection (LAD) on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species and investigate if the PDT and LAD cause implant surface alterations. Seventy-two zirconia dental implants were contaminated with a bacterial suspension of Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The implants were subsequently randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 dental implants/each) according to the decontamination protocol: Group 1 (PDT1) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with toluidine blue; Group 2 (PDT2) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with phenothiazine chloride dye; Group 3 (LAD) - light emitting diode (LED) with toluidine blue; and Group 4 (TB) - toluidine blue without the application of light. Implants in the positive control (PC) group were treated with a 0.2% chlorhexidine-based solution, and implants assigned to the negative control (NC) group did not undergo any treatment. Each implant was then placed in tubes containing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and vortexed for 60 s to remove the remaining bacteria from the implant surface. After 10-fold serial dilutions, 30 μl of the suspension was plated on Brucella agar plates. After 72 h, the colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Distinctive colonies were confirmed with MALDI Biotyper. The implants were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the possible surface alterations due to PDT or LAD. All study groups had significant reductions in the number of CFUs compared with the NC (p implant surface after the treatment procedures. Both PDT protocols and LAD showed high and equal effectiveness in decontamination of zirconia dental implants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Steluta Ciobanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO46(OH2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures.

  4. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Costescu, Adrian; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized particles of Ag-doped hydroxyapatite with antibacterial properties is of great interest for the development of new biomedical applications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of Ca10−xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years and became a major health problem. Here, we report a method for synthesizing Ag doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite. A silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. Also, in this paper Ag:HAp-NPs are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungal strains. The specific antimicrobial activity revealed by the qualitative assay is demonstrating that our compounds are interacting differently with the microbial targets, probably due to the differences in the microbial wall structures. PMID:23509801

  5. Structural studies and antimicrobial properties of norcembrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The compounds have shown moderate-to-high antimicrobial activities. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of the metabolite 1 have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Keywords. Diterpene; sinularia; stereochemistry; antimicrobial; crystallography. 1. Introduction. Soft corals have been recognized as a rich ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of yeasts against some pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Younis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to isolate and identify yeast species from milk and meat products, and to test their antimicrobial activity against some bacterial species. Materials and Methods: A total of 160 milk and meat products samples were collected from random sellers and super markets in New Damietta city, Damietta, Egypt. Samples were subjected to yeast isolation procedures and tested for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. In addition, all yeast species isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of khs (kievitone hydratase and pelA (pectate degrading enzyme genes. Results: The recovery rate of yeasts from sausage was 20% (2/10 followed by kareish cheese, processed cheese, and butter 10% (1/10 each as well as raw milk 9% (9/100, and fruit yoghurt 30% (6/20. Different yeast species were recovered, namely, Candida kefyr (5 isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4 isolates, Candida intermedia (3 isolates, Candida tropicalis (2 isolates, Candida lusitaniae (2 isolates, and Candida krusei (1 isolate. khs gene was detected in all S. cerevisiae isolates, however, pelA gene was not detected in all identified yeast species. Antimicrobial activity of recovered yeasts against the selected bacterial species showed high activity with C. intermedia against S. aureus and E. coli, C. kefyr against E. coli, and C. lusitaniae against S. aureus. Moderate activities were obtained with C. tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, and S. cerevisiae against E. coli; meanwhile, all the tested yeasts revealed a very low antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that some kinds of yeasts have the ability to produce antimicrobial compounds that could inhibit some pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and these antimicrobial activity of yeasts enables them to be one of the novel agents in controlling spoilage of food.

  7. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  8. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of some Turkish pleurocarpic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... antibiotic activity of bryophytes against fungi and proca- ryotic cells. Therefore, in this study, the antimicrobial effects against microorganisms of some pleurocarpic mosses was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant materials of this study were collected from the Zonguldak. Province, at an altitude ...

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity with standard antioxidants, gallic acid and quercetin included in the study. All fractions displayed moderate antimicrobial ..... had reported a similar finding, reporting that fungi are more resistant to plant extracts than ... The study received partial financial support from the Uni- versity of Ibadan Senate research grant ...

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper(II) complexes of some ortho-substituted aniline Schiff bases (L1–L8). The Schiff bases and their respective copper(II) complexes were characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, infrared and UV/Visible studies. The structures of ...

  11. Analysis of the antimicrobial activities of a chemokine-derived peptide (CDAP-4) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Becerra, Francisco; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Soldevila, Gloria; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.

    2007-01-01

    Chemokines are key molecules involved in the control of leukocyte trafficking. Recently, a novel function as antimicrobial proteins has been described. CCL13 is the only member of the MCP chemokine subfamily displaying antimicrobial activity. To determine Key residues involved in its antimicrobial activity, CCL13 derived peptides were synthesized and tested against several bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of these peptides, corresponding to the C-terminal region of CCL13 (CDAP-4) displayed good antimicrobial activity. Electron microscopy studies revealed remarkable morphological changes after CDAP-4 treatment. By computer modeling, CDAP-4 in α helical configuration generated a positive electrostatic potential that extended beyond the surface of the molecule. This feature is similar to other antimicrobial peptides. Altogether, these findings indicate that the antimicrobial activity was displayed by CCL13 resides to some extent at the C-terminal region. Furthermore, CDAP-4 could be considered a good antimicrobial candidate with a potential use against pathogens including P. aeruginosa

  12. Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate Extract: In Vivo Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis in Galleria mellonella Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Aparecida Procópio Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, medicinal alternatives are being explored. Punica granatum L. is an effective herbal extract with broad spectrum of action and bactericidal, antifungal, anthelmintic potential and being able to modulate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate glycolic extract (PGE against the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis by using Galleria mellonella as in vivo model. Fifteen larvae were used per group. Injection of high concentration (200, 100, and 25 mg/mL of PGE showed a toxic effect, leading them to death. A suspension of P. gingivalis (106 cells/mL was inoculated in the left last proleg and PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL were injected into the right proleg. The larvae were then kept at 37°C under the dark. Injection of PGE at any dose statistically improved larvae survival rates. The data were analysed (log-rank test, Mantel-Cox, P<0.05 and showed that all concentrations of PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL presented higher larval survival rates, with significant statistical difference in relation to control group (P. gingivalis. In conclusion, the PGE had antimicrobial action against P. gingivalis in vivo model using G. mellonella.

  13. Study of Phytochemical, Anti-Microbial, Anti-Oxidant, Phytotoxic, and Immunomodulatory Activity Properties of Bauhinia variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Bhandari

    2017-04-01

    In the phytochemical screening, we observed the presence of different phytochemicals like steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides. In case of Antimicrobial assay, the plant was found to be most effective against B.cereus with the highest zone of inhibition (ZOI of 12mm and against Rhizopus with ZOI of 11mm. During the antioxidant assay in comparison to Ascorbic acid; at highest concentration, the scavenging activity shown by the plant Bauhinia variegata are 43.38% as compared to ascorbic acid 89.25%. In the Immunomodulatory assay at the highest concentration i.e. 250 µg/ml, the plant showed 75.1% effect, which showed that the plant has potential anti-inflammatory potential. In phytotoxicity assay, Bauhinia variegata showed 20% phytotoxicity. Bauhinia variegata has thus been proven to be an important candidate to be used as an antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, phytotoxic and anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Bauhinia variegate is highly recommended as crude extract itself showed promising phytotoxicity and other pharmaceutical potential.

  14. Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) Extract: In Vivo Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis in Galleria mellonella Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida Procópio Gomes, Livia; Alves Figueiredo, Lívia Mara; Corrêa Geraldo, Barbara Maria; Isler Castro, Kelly Cristine; Ruano de Oliveira Fugisaki, Luciana; Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Antônio; Dias de Oliveira, Luciane; Campos Junqueira, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increase of bacterial resistance, medicinal alternatives are being explored. Punica granatum L. is an effective herbal extract with broad spectrum of action and bactericidal, antifungal, anthelmintic potential and being able to modulate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pomegranate glycolic extract (PGE) against the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis by using Galleria mellonella as in vivo model. Fifteen larvae were used per group. Injection of high concentration (200, 100, and 25 mg/mL) of PGE showed a toxic effect, leading them to death. A suspension of P. gingivalis (106 cells/mL) was inoculated in the left last proleg and PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) were injected into the right proleg. The larvae were then kept at 37°C under the dark. Injection of PGE at any dose statistically improved larvae survival rates. The data were analysed (log-rank test, Mantel-Cox, P < 0.05) and showed that all concentrations of PGE (12.5, 6.25, 3.1, and 2.5 mg/mL) presented higher larval survival rates, with significant statistical difference in relation to control group (P. gingivalis). In conclusion, the PGE had antimicrobial action against P. gingivalis in vivo model using G. mellonella. PMID:27668280

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  16. Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Romeo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs, the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic. Particular focus will be put on ITCs’ antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action against human pathogens for which the current therapeutic solutions are deficient and therefore of prime importance for public health. Our purpose was the evaluation of the potential use of ITCs to replace or support the common antibiotics. Even though ITCs appear to be effective against the most important human pathogens, including bacteria with resistant phenotypes, the majority of the studies did not show comparable results and thus it is very difficult to compare the antimicrobial activity of the different ITCs. For this reason, a standard method should be used and further studies are needed.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, x-ray structure and antimicrobial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize thiosemicarbazide and determine its antimicrobial properties. Methods: Pyridine-based thiosemicarbazide was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The structure of the synthesized compound was established by spectral analysis, namely, Fourier transform infrared ...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Ficus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prelimlinary phytochemical screening of Ficus exasperata root bark showed that it contains saponin, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside and reducing sugar with no traces of tannin and anthraquinone. The results of the study provide scientific basis for developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal formulation in future.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and agricultural properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) grown in northern parts of Turkey: a case study for adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldız, Gülsüm; Sekeroglu, Nazım; Kulak, Muhittin; Demirkol, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the adaptation capability of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.), which is widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates, in northern parts of Turkey. In this study, plant height, number of fruits, fruit length, fruit width, number of seeds and fruit weight of bitter melon grown in field conditions were determined. The antimicrobial effect of the ethanol extract of fruit and seeds against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans microorganisms was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion method. In conclusion, plant height (260 cm), number of fruits (16 per  plant), number of seeds (30.2  per fruit), fruit width (3.8 cm), fruit length (10.6 cm) and fruit weight (117.28 g fruit(- 1)) were determined; fruits were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger; oil and seeds were found to have antimicrobial activity against A. niger and E. coli.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

    2007-02-16

    The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml.

  1. Determination of antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the phenolic contents were determined as follows: the catechin was 20 mg/g, the ferulic acid was 15 mg/g, the p-coumaric acid was 10 mg/g, and the cinnamic acid was 6 mg/g. The results showed that T. boudieri has antimicrobial activity on the gram negative and positive bacteria as well as yeast, and it also has ...

  2. Evaluation of culture media for Paenibacillus larvae applied to studies of antimicrobial activity Evaluación de medios de cultivo para el crecimiento de Paenibacillus larvae aplicables en estudios de actividad antimicrobiana

    OpenAIRE

    L. B. Gende; M. J. Eguaras; R. Fritz

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare different liquid culture media for Paenibacillus larvae growth in order to find the best one to be used in studies on activity of antimicrobial substances, such as essential oils. P. larvae presented poor growth in usual broths such as Mueller-Hinton, commonly employed in antimicrobial activity assays. Growth in liquid media was evaluated using Paenibacillus larvae strains isolated from hives located in different geographical zones. The MYT medium (Mueller-...

  3. Antimicrobial activities of essential oils from Southern Africa against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, essential oils from four plants including Melissa officinalis, Mentha piperita, Pelargonium graveolens and Leucosidea sericea, traditionally used to treat infectious diseases were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven Gram-positive bacteria, eight Gram-negative bacteria and six yeast species ...

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Parquetina nigrescens on some multidrug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a high prevalence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria from food and companion animals in Nigeria due to abuse and misuse of antibiotics. The current work was carried out to study the antimicrobial activity of the leave extract of Parquetina nigrescens on ten multidrug resistant pathogens including: ...

  5. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  6. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots, stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roots, stem-bark and leaves of Grewia mollis which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of diarrhea and dysentery by natives in northern part of Nigeria were studied. The ethanol and water extracts of roots, stem-bark and leaves of the plant were subjected to phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity against ...

  7. In vitro activity of certain antimicrobial agents in combination with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of methicillin-resistant Staphycoccus aureus to acquire resistance to most antibiotics is a worldwide concern that necessitated the study of the antimicrobial activity of the medicinal plant Augouardia lestestii alone and in combination with existing antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined ...

  8. antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of gongronema latifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of Gongronema latifolia stem extract on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from diarrhoea patients. Twenty five isolates of E. coli were obtained from stool samples of diarrhoea patients within the ages of 1-5 in Nsukka Health Centre, Nsukka.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Different concentrations of the extracts were subjected to these organisms in which Moringa oleifera showed a higher zone of inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus ...

  10. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of brine salting, Chlorinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical preservatives can be used to reduce the overall microbial populations in fish and fish products. This study was set to determine the antimicrobial activities of brine salting, chlorinated solution, and Moringa oleifera plant extracts treatments on enteric bacteria in Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus fish ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males ...

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of solvent fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The ethyl acetate fraction having the IC50 value of 6.50 μg/mL demonstrated comparable DPPH radical-scavenging activity with standard antioxidants, gallic acid and quercetin included in the study. All fractions displayed moderate antimicrobial potential against the tested pathogens with the zone of inhibition that ...

  13. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Clerodendron Polycephalum Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clerodendron polycephalum Baker (known as Ewe Agbosa in Yoruba land) is used by the traditional people in South West Nigeria for arresting bleeding from cuts and treating bacteria infections especially wound infection without scientific proof of its efficacy. This study aimed at investigating the antimicrobial activity of C.

  14. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    benefits were due to its high fiber content [2-. 4]. The purpose of this study was to characterize antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the freeze-dried ethanol extracts of artichoke. Another was to determine its total phenol and flavonoid contents. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material and its extraction. The dried leaves of Cynara ...

  15. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study seeks to validate the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of stem and root barks from Adansonia digitata (Bombacaceae), investigate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts and bioactive constituents present in the barks. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and root barks were ...

  16. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the volatile oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the qualitative methods used for the control of the antimicrobial activity, the method of diffusion on filter paper discs proved to be the most efficient, the results correlating well with the MIC. Our studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the natural compounds' of T. majus L. in anti-inflammatory treatments in animals.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Slump, R.A.; Steging, G.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, toward the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus on rice was studied. Carvacrol showed a dose-related inhibition of growth of the pathogen. Concentrations of 0.15 mg/g and higher inhibited

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of natural honeys of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miartina Fikselová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys, honey samples were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia. For antimicrobial activity determination honey solutions were prepared at three concentrations: 50, 25 and 12.5 % (by mass per volume. The potential antimicrobial activity of  selected samples against four species of bacteria (Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Pseudomonas aeroginosa CCM 1960, Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418, Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 and two species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCM 8191, Candida albicans CCM 8216 was studied using the disc diffusion method. After incubation, the zones of inhibition of the growth of the microorganisms around the disks were measured. The strongest antimicrobial activity was shown at honey samples of 50 % concentration against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Staphylococcus epidermis. Against Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida albicans very low (at 50 %, 25 % concentration or zero antifugal (at 12.5 % concentration activity was determined. From the results obtained it was shown the variable ability of honey samples to scavenge stable free radical DPPH. TEACDPPH values ranged between 0.1-1.0 mmol.kg-1. As the antioxidative best source buckwheat honey was manifested and the lowest antioxidant activity was shown at acacia honey.

  19. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control.

  20. The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Darren; Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chan, Michael; Carson, Dennis; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of lauric acid (LA) and its liposomal derivatives against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), the bacterium that promotes inflammatory acne. First, the antimicrobial study of three free fatty acids (lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid) demonstrated that LA gives the strongest bactericidal activity against P. acnes. However, a setback of using LA as a potential treatment for inflammatory acne is its poor water solubility. Then the LA was incorporated into a liposome formulation to aid its delivery to P. acnes. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of LA was not only well maintained in its liposomal derivatives but also enhanced at low LA concentration. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of LA-loaded liposomes (LipoLA) mainly depended on the LA loading concentration per single liposomes. Further study found that the LipoLA could fuse with the membranes of P. acnes and release the carried LA directly into the bacterial membranes, thereby killing the bacteria effectively. Since LA is a natural compound that is the main acid in coconut oil and also resides in human breast milk and liposomes have been successfully and widely applied as a drug delivery vehicle in the clinic, the LipoLA developed in this work holds great potential of becoming an innate, safe and effective therapeutic medication for acne vulgaris and other P. acnes associated diseases.

  1. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial study of silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the characterization and antimicrobial activity test were very successful and could lead to significant economic viability, as well as being environmentally friendly for treatment of some infectious diseases. Keywords: Syzygium guineenses, Green Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Optoelectronics, Biomedical Sensors ...

  2. Design, synthesis, anticancer, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of theophylline containing acetylenes and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddarraju, Radhakrishnam Raju; Murugulla, Adharvana Chari; Kotla, Ravindar; Chandra Babu Tirumalasetty, Muni; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Donthabakthuni, Shobha; Maroju, Ravichandar; Baburao, K; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy

    2016-11-10

    A new series of theophylline containing acetylene derivatives (6a-6b and 7-13) and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives (20-32) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Further the computational docking and 2D QSAR were performed using MOE software to identify novel scaffolds. The results showed that compound 29 and 30 exhibit significant cytotoxic effect on all four cancer cells such as lung (A549), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and melanoma (A375) with IC50 values of 2.56, 2.19, 1.89, 4.89 μM and 3.57, 2.90, 2.10, 5.81 μM respectively. Whereas quite different results were observed for these compounds in antimicrobial studies. Compounds 11, 21 and 26 have exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The docking studies demonstrate that compound 27, 28, 29 and 30 have good dock score and binding affinities with various therapeutic targets in cancer cell proliferation. In addition these compounds have shown acceptable correlation with bioassay results in the regression plots generated in 2D QSAR models. This is the first report to demonstrate the theophylline containing acetylene derivatives and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazole nucleoside hybrids as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents with comprehensive in silico analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of human islet amyloid polypeptides: an insight into amyloid peptides' connection with antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Jin-Chun; Cui, Yi-Xian; Zhou, Bing; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Li, Yan-Mei

    2012-07-01

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) shows an antimicrobial activity towards two types of clinically relevant bacteria. The potency of hIAPP varies with its aggregation states. Circular dichroism was employed to determine the interaction between hIAPP and bacteria lipid membrane mimic. The antimicrobial activity of each aggregate species is associated with their ability to induce membrane disruption. Our findings provide new evidence revealing the antimicrobial activity of amyloid peptide, which suggest a possible connection between amyloid peptides and antimicrobial peptides.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanolic extracts of Tilia cordata Mill. and Aesculus hippocastanum which had been described in herbal books, were screened for their antimicrobial activity against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The following strains of bacteria for antimicrobial activity were used gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 using disc diffusion method and microbroth dilution technique according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The highest antibacterial activity of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum methanolic extract was measured against gramnegative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa used with disc diffusion method. The strong antimicrobial activity with microbroth dilution method of Tilia cordata and Aesculus hippocastanum were found against Listeria ivanovii.

  5. Antimicrobial spectra and activities of antibiotic substances from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial substances were produced from several Streptomyces species isolated from the soil. The antimicrobial spectra of the antibiotic substances assayed by agar-diffusion technique demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus, ...

  6. The Antimicrobial Activity of Aliquidambar orientalis mill. Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants are an important source of substances which are claimed to induce antimicrobial, antimutagenic and antioxidant effects. Many plants have been used due to their antimicrobial treatments. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of L. orientalis have not been reported to the present day. The aim ...

  7. Study of antimicrobial, analgesic wound healing and antioxidant activities of some newly synthesized oxychinolin derivatives and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmaya Sahoo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of aryl and heteroaryl substituted oxychinolin derivatives have been synthesized and spectral characterizations have been conducted with different modern analytical techniques. The antimicrobial activities of the novel synthesized oxychinolin analogs against different microbial strains have been screened by agar diffusion method. The compounds 4g and 4h were observed with significant antibacterial activity in comparison to reference antibiotic (ampicillin against most of the bacterial pathogens. Compounds 4-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl diazenyl-N-(5-methyl isoxazol-3-yl benzene sulfonamide (4c, 4-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl diazenyl-1, 5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H-one (4g and 2-((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yldiazenyl benzoic acid (4h showed zone of inhibition at MIC level 31.25 µg mL−1 against most of the organisms. The compounds 4g and 4h are observed with significant wound healing, analgesic and potential antioxidant activity.

  8. Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugă, O; Jianu, C; Mişcă, C; Goleţ, I; Gruia, A T; Horhat, F G

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris cultivated in Romania. The essential oil was isolated in a yield of 1.25% by steam distillation from the aerial part of the plant and subsequently analyzed by GC-MS. The major components were p-cymene (8.41%), γ-terpinene (30.90%) and thymol (47.59%). Its antimicrobial activity was evaluated on 7 common food-related bacteria and fungus by using the disk diffusion method. The results demonstrate that the Thymus vulgaris essential oil tested possesses strong antimicrobial properties, and may in the future represent a new source of natural antiseptics with applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  9. Antimicrobial activity and molecular mechanism of the CRES protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic (CRES protein, a member of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors (also known as CST8, exhibits highly specific, age-dependent expression in mouse testis and epididymis. The CRES protein possesses four highly conserved cysteine residues which govern the overall conformation of the cystatins through the formation of two disulfide bonds. Previous studies have revealed that other cystatin family members, such as cystatin 3 and cystatin 11, show antibacterial activity in vitro. This prompted us to investigate the potential antimicrobial activity of the CRES protein. Colony forming assays and spectrophotometry were used to investigate the effects of recombinant CRES protein on Escherichia coli (E. coli and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu, respectively, in vitro. After incubation of E. coli with CRES recombinant protein fused with glutathione-S-transferase (GST, a substantial decrease in colony forming units was observed, and the effect was dose and time dependent. Furthermore, it took longer for Uu to grow to plateau stage when incubated with GST-CRES recombinant protein compared with the control GST. The antibacterial and Anti-Uu activities were not impaired when the cysteine residues of CRES protein were mutated, indicating that the antimicrobial effect was not dependent on its disulfide bonds. Functional analysis of three CRES polypeptides showed that the N-terminal 30 residues (N30 had no antimicrobial activity while N60 showed similar activity as full-length CRES protein. These results suggest that the active center of CRES protein resides between amino acid residues 31 and 60 of its N-terminus. Mechanistically, E. coli membrane permeabilization was increased in a dose-dependent manner, and macromolecular synthesis was inhibited on treatment with GST-CRES. Together, our data on the antimicrobial activities of CRES protein suggest that it is a novel and innate antimicrobial protein which

  10. Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from genipap, baru and taruma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Brandão dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Microbial resistance is a serious public health problem, which has led to the search for alternative treatments to replace antibiotics, including studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of species in Brazil’s Cerrado. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of genipap, baru, and taruma against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion tests and microdilution. Results indicated that all genipap extracts showed inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs ranging between 150μg/mL and 940μg/mL against all microorganisms tested. Baru pulp extracts exhibited larger inhibition zones against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results between 150µg/mL and 1000µg/mL against all microorganisms except P. aeruginosa. The taruma 30% pulp and seed extracts exhibited the largest halos against S. aureus and MIC and MMC results were between 150μg/mL and 1000μg/mL against all microorganisms except C. albicans. All fruits displayed potential for antimicrobial activity, particularly the genipap’s pulp extracts. Further studies should be performed to identify compounds with antimicrobial activity and to test their applicability as preservatives in foods, as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, and as sanitizing agents.

  11. Study of antimicrobial property of some hypoglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Dash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative antimicrobial study of different hypoglycemic drugs (Metformin, Phenformin, and Rosiglitazone was carried out. The main objective was to ascertain the antimicrobial activity by using "non-antibiotics" as the test substances. The antimicrobial activity was carried out against different bacteria and fungi namely Bacillus liceniformis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus subspp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion method and agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin was taken as the standard antibiotic. The entire procedure was carried out in an aseptic area under the laminar flow by inoculating the bacterial strain to the agar media in which the drug solution was added. Different concentrations (300 and 400 μg/ml of the standard antibiotic and selected drugs were subjected for minimum inhibitory concentration, and zone of inhibition tests and the antimicrobial activity of the selected drugs were determined.

  12. Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity Characterization and Toxicity Studies of Flowers of "Jarilla", a Medicinal Shrub from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Alejandra; Nuño, Gabriela; Cuello, Soledad; Sayago, Jorge E; Alberto, María Rosa; Zampini, Catiana; Isla, María Inés

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) is an Argentine medicinal aromatic shrub (jarilla pispito, puspus, lata and jarilla macho). The chalcones were identified as pigments responsible for the yellow color of the flowers. Hydroethanolic extracts were obtained both from fresh flowers and from flowers dried by lyophilization. The extracts were standardized by their phenolic and flavonoids content. Their fingerprints by HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of two chalcones as major compounds (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone). Both extracts showed the same total phenolic, non-flavonoid phenolic and flavonoid phenolic content and their phenolic profiles were similar. The polyphenolic extracts exhibited antioxidant (free radical scavenging and inhibitory activity on lipoperoxidation) and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase enzymes) activities. The flower extracts were active against six Candida species with MIC values between 60 and 120 μg GAE x mL(-1) and were also active on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 250 μg GAE x mL(-1)) and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC: 500 μg GAE x mL(-1)). The extracts were neither toxic (Artemia salina test) nor mutagenic (Ames test). Jarilla flowers could be considered as a new dietary supplement that could help to prevent pathologies associated with oxidative stress and the polyphenolic extract obtained from them could be considered as a standardized phytotherapeutic product with antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this work was to determine the pigments responsible for the yellow color of the flowers of Z. punctata and to evaluate the functional properties of the polyphenolic extract of the flowers. The toxicity (Artemia salina) and mutagenic activity (Ames test) of the extract were also evaluated.

  13. Antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey of Queensland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hall, Lisa; Davis, Louise; Allen, Michelle; Roberts, Jason A; Unwin, Sean; McIntosh, Kylie A; Thursky, Karin; Buising, Kirsty; Paterson, David L

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) recommended that all hospitals in Australia must have an Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) program by 2013. Nevertheless, little is known about current AMS activities. This study aimed to determine the AMS activities currently undertaken, and to identify gaps, barriers to implementation and opportunities for improvement in Queensland hospitals. The AMS activities of 26 facilities from 15 hospital and health services in Queensland were surveyed during June 2012 to address strategies for effective AMS: implementing clinical guidelines, formulary restriction, reviewing antimicrobial prescribing, auditing antimicrobial use and selective reporting of susceptibility results. The response rate was 62%. Nineteen percent had an AMS team (a dedicated multidisciplinary team consisting of a medically trained staff member and a pharmacist). All facilities had access to an electronic version of Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, with a further 50% developing local guidelines for antimicrobials. One-third of facilities had additional restrictions. Eighty-eight percent had advice for restricted antimicrobials from in-house infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists. Antimicrobials were monitored with feedback given to prescribers at point of care by 76% of facilities. Deficiencies reported as barriers to establishing AMS programs included: pharmacy resources, financial support by hospital management, and training and education in antimicrobial use. Several areas for improvement were identified: reviewing antimicrobial prescribing with feedback to the prescriber, auditing, and training and education in antimicrobial use. There also appears to be a lack of resources to support AMS programs in some facilities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The ACSQHC has recommended that all hospitals implement an AMS program by 2013 as a requirement of Standard 3 (Preventing and Controlling Healthcare

  14. Antimicrobial activity of jasmine oil against oral microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweboon, S.; Thaweboon, B.; Kaypetch, R.

    2018-02-01

    Jasmine sambac is a species of jasmine indigenous to the tropical and warm temperature regions in particular West and Southeast Asia. Essential oil extracted from the flowers of J. sambac has been shown to have anti-oxidant activity. However, very little information regarding antimicrobial activity especially oral microorganisms exists. Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effect of essential oil extracted from flowers of J. sambac against various oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Oral microbial strains used in the study were Streptococcus mutans KPSK2, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 5638, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 6363, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis (clinical isolate), Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida pseudotropicalis (clinical isolate) and Candida stellatoidia (clinical isolate). The potential of microbial growth inhibition of the oil was firstly screened by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. Results: Jasmine oil showed antimicrobial activities against S. mutans, L. casei, E. coli and all strains of Candida species with the zones of inhibition ranging from 9 to 26 mm and MIC values of 0.19-1.56 %v/v. Conclusion: Results from the present study are scientific evidence to demonstrate that jasmine oil could be employed as a natural antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of some potential active compounds against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities of six potential active compounds (acetic acid, chitosan, catechin, gallic acid, lysozyme, and nisin) at the concentration of 500 g/ml against the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined. Lysozyme showed the highest ...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain pathogenic bacterial strains. Ravi Kant Upadhyay, Pratibha Dwivedi and Shoeb Ahmad. Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, U.P. India- ...

  17. Study on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of extracts from Chinese pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Junying; Gao, Wenyuan; Wang, Haiyang

    2012-10-01

    Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. belongs to the genus Pyrus, a member of Rosaceae family. It is a routine edible fruit, and also used as a folk medicine to treat cough, eliminate constipation, and relieve alcoholism. In order to clarify the active compounds of P. bretschneideri, the phytochemical study were performed. Five compounds were isolated and identified as 2β,19α-dihydroxy ursolic acid, quercitrin, dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and α-amyrin. Additionally, we investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of the fractions of P. bretschneideri partitioned with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. In the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema test, the EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibition of edema formation 0.5-5 h after edema induction, followed by n-butanol. EtOAc also displayed potent anti-inflammatory activity against xylene-induced ear edema (22.03% and 43.69%, respectively) and acetic acid-induced extravasation of Evan's blue dye (39.58% and 49.92%, respectively) at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg. While, the anti-microbial results showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions exhibited strong activity against the bacteria strains. Moreover, 2β,19α-dihydroxy ursolic acid, α-amyrin and quercitrin could significantly inhibit the ear edema induced by xylene at the dose of 20 mg/kg, and exhibited moderate anti-microbial activities against the bacteria strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sonochemical synthesis of pyrido[2,3-d:6,5-d']-dipyrimidines catalyzed by [HNMP]+[HSO4]-and their antimicrobial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Didar, Asieh; Rashid, Zahra; Zahraie, Zohreh

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the one-pot four-component reaction of aromatic aldehyde, 2-thiobarbituric acid, ammonium acetate in the presence of a catalytic amount of [H-NMP] + [HSO 4 ] - under ultrasonic irradiation in water is reported. In the present procedure, the pyrido[2,3-d:6,5-d']dipyrimidine derivatives were purely produced as valuable products. The process proved to be simple, environmentally friendly, efficient and high to excellent yielding. Moreover, some of the synthetic compounds were investigated and revealed important antimicrobial activity of prepared products.

  19. Antioxidant, Antigenotoxic, Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Dianthus carmelitarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Aliyazicioglu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the phytochemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic properties of the aqueous extract of Dianthus carmelitarum for the first time. The phenolic and volatile compounds, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities of the extract were determined by HPLC and SPME-GC-FID/MS, spectrophotometric, agar well diffusion methods and comet assay, respectively. The polyphenolic content and ferric reducing power values of the extract were found 12.6 ± 0.27 mg gallic acid and 238 ± 2.89 μM trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Syringaldehyde and chlorogenic acid were detected as major phenolic compounds, while terpenes were determined as major volatile compound. Dianthus carmelitarum extract especially exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Extract reduced H 2O 2-induced DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner in fibroblast cells compared to positive control (only 20 μM H 2O 2 treatment. Dianthus carmelitarum can be considered in the food, cosmetic, and drug industries due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic activities.

  20. SCREENING OF PLANT EXTRACTS FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vatľák

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was antimicrobial action of the methanolic extracts of Equisetum arvense L. and Urtica dioica L. against gramnegative and grampositive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against gramnegative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Listeria ivanovii CCM 5884, Listeria innocua CCM 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960, Serratia rubidaea CCM 4684 and grampositive bacteria: Brochothrix thermosphacta CCM 4769, Enterococcus raffinosus CCM 4216, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CCM 1828, Paenobacillus larvae CCM 4483 and Staphylococcus epidermis CCM 4418 were determined by the disc diffusion method and the microbroth dilution method according to CLSI. Probit analysis was used in this experiment. Of the 2 plant extracts tested, all extracts showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most antimicrobial activity showed methanolic plant extract of E. arvense against S. epidermis with disc diffusion method and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and plant extract Urtica dioica with disc diffusion method against P. aeruginosa and with microbroth dilution method against S. rubidaea and E. coli.

  1. Genotoxic and antimicrobial studies of the leaves of Psidium guajava

    OpenAIRE

    Nwannemka Lauretta Ofodile; Ndubuisi Moses Chikere Nwakanma; Michael Mordi; Oluwakemi Ademolu; Isabella Ezimoke; Jokotade Owoso

    2013-01-01

    Background: The guava, Psidium guajava is one of the most gregarious of fruit trees, of the Myrtaceae family. The leaf of P. guajava is a common herb used in the treatment of diarrhea in Nigeria and this has generated special interest in the probable antimicrobial and genotoxic effects of the leaf. However the mode of action of the leaf extracts has not been reported, hence the genotoxicity study. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the le...

  2. Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu-Kung, Alexander F; Bozzelli, Kristen N; Nguyen, Rose; Tirrell, Matthew V

    2004-01-01

    ... or the conjugate of the nonamphipathic peptide, KAK. The induction of helicity corresponds to a significant improvement in antimicrobial activity as measured by a minimum bactericidal concentration test...

  3. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Cunha Marcos Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus against microbial flora of cervicovaginal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyam Dasari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the probiotic nature of Lactobacillus in preventing cervical pathogens by studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against vaginal pathogens. Methods: Lactobacilli were isolated from healthy vaginal swabs on selective media and different pathogenic bacteria were isolated by using different selective media. The Lactobacillus strains were tested for the production of hydrogen peroxide and antimicrobial compounds along with probiotic properties. Results: Of the 10 isolated Lactobacillus strains, strain 1, 3 and 6 are high hydrogen peroxide producers and the rest were low producers. Results of pH and amines tests indicated that pH increased with fishy odour in the vaginal fluids of cervicovaginal infection patients when compared with vaginal fluids of healthy persons. The isolates were found to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-capsule forming and catalase-negative bacilli. The results of antimicrobial activity of compounds indicated that 280 and 140 µg/mL was the minimum concentration to inhibit the growth of both pathogens and test organisms respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that Lactobacillus producing antimicrobial compounds inhibits the growth of cervical pathogens, revealing that the hypothesis of preventing vaginal infection by administering probiotic organisms has a great appeal to patients, which colonize the vagina to help, restore and maintain healthy vagina.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid-base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-Nitroimidazole Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.M.; Salar, U.; Yousuf, S.; Naz, F.

    2016-01-01

    5-Nitroimidazole derivatives 2-8 were synthesized from secnidazole. The syntheses were accomplished in two steps which start from the oxidation of secnidazole to the secnidazolone 1. Secnidazolone 1 was converted into its hydrazone derivative 2-8 by treating with different substituted acid hydrazide. Compounds 2-8 were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, compounds 3 and 4 showed the significant activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, compound 2 showed good inhibitions against Corynebacterium diphtheria when compared with the standard. Compound 3 showed good inhibitory potential against tested Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Enterobacter aerogene, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella flexeneri and Vibrio choleriae. All synthetic derivatives were also tested against eight fungal stains, however, they were weekly active against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albican. The synthesized compounds were characterized by different spectroscopy techniques. (author)

  7. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of native Rosa sp. from British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ocksook; Jovel, Eduardo M; Towers, G H Neil; Wahbe, Tanya R; Cho, Dongwuk

    2007-05-01

    Indigenous traditional knowledge and western science have revealed the potential for significant nutritional and therapeutic benefits among natural antioxidants. We investigated antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rose hip extracts (Rosa nutkana, Rosa pisocarpa and Rosa woodsii) from wild British Columbia populations using liposome oxidation and disc diffusion assays. All extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity. R. nutkana pericarp extracts contained high phenolic concentrations and showed greater antioxidant and antimicrobial activity than seed extracts. R. woodsii seed extracts had a higher phenolic concentration and greater antioxidant activity than pericarp extracts. Antioxidant activity was correlated with antimicrobial activity, and both extracts showed antimicrobial activity against yeast and Gram-positive bacteria. Our study is the first to demonstrate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of wild British Columbia roses. The effectiveness of selected species compared with standards demonstrates the significance of this natural resource to the continued health of human populations, and the need for conservation practices.

  8. Peptides with Dual Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felício, Mário R.; Silva, Osmar N.; Gonçalves, Sônia; Santos, Nuno C.; Franco, Octávio L.

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the number of people suffering from cancer and multi-resistant infections has increased, such that both diseases are already seen as current and future major causes of death. Moreover, chronic infections are one of the main causes of cancer, due to the instability in the immune system that allows cancer cells to proliferate. Likewise, the physical debility associated with cancer or with anticancer therapy itself often paves the way for opportunistic infections. It is urgent to develop new therapeutic methods, with higher efficiency and lower side effects. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in the innate immune system of a wide range of organisms. Identified as the most promising alternative to conventional molecules used nowadays against infections, some of them have been shown to have dual activity, both as antimicrobial and anticancer peptides (ACPs). Highly cationic and amphipathic, they have demonstrated efficacy against both conditions, with the number of nature-driven or synthetically designed peptides increasing year by year. With similar properties, AMPs that can also act as ACPs are viewed as future chemotherapeutic drugs, with the advantage of low propensity to resistance, which started this paradigm in the pharmaceutical market. These peptides have already been described as molecules presenting killing mechanisms at the membrane level, but also acting towards intracellular targets, which increases their success comparatively to specific one-target drugs. This review will approach the desirable characteristics of small peptides that demonstrated dual activity against microbial infections and cancer, as well as the peptides engaged in clinical trials.

  9. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of New a-Aminophosphonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of these compounds were evaluated and they exhibited significant activity. KEYWORDS. Phenyl glycine ethyl ester, aryl aldehydes, diethyl/dimethylphosphite, antimicrobial activity. 1. Introduction ... biologically attractive peptide mimics which have been employed, for example, as ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of lysozyme with special relevance to milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review discusses the antimicrobial activity of lysozyme with special emphasis on milk's lysozyme, and attempts to shed some light on the recent advances elucidating the mechanism of its antimicrobial activity against sensitive microorganisms as well as the means used by some bacteria to resist such an activity.

  11. Phytochemical investigation GC-MS analysis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Rajkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Coleus forskohlii. The different solvents such as ethanol, chloroform, acetone and aqueous extracts were identified pharmacologically as important bioactive compounds and their antimicrobial properties were studied. In the phytochemical investigation almost all the ethanol extract of leaf, stem and root having secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and steroids. The active constituents of the ethanol extract of C. forskohlii root was studied by GC-MS analysis. According to the antimicrobial results ethanol extract of C. froshkolii root showed highest antibacterial activity compared with stem and leaf. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed against Klebsiella pneumonia (19 mm and Candida albicans (16 mm in ethanol extract of root. Among the above extracts of leaf, stem and root, ethanol extract of root having antimicrobial activities due to the presence of phytoconstituents.

  12. [Antimicrobial activity of stable silver nanoparticles of a certain size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukha, Iu P; Eremenko, A M; Smirnova, N P; Mikhienkova, A I; Korchak, G I; Gorchev, V F; Chunikhin, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining stable silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were developed using a binary stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone/sodium dodecylsulphate in optimal ratio. Optical spectra, morphology and dependence of size of the nanoparticles on the amount of reducing agent were studied. Colloidal solutions of nanosilver showed a high bactericidal activity against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans. The mechanism of action of nanosized silver on microbial cell was examined by laser scanning confocal microscope using fluorescent label. First step of antimicrobial effect on microorganisms was membrane damage and penetration of silver nanoparticles into the cell. Prolonged stability of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity over the past two years were showed.

  13. Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation and QSAR studies of propionic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of Schiff bases (1–17 and esters (18–24 of propionic acid was synthesized in appreciable yield and characterized by physicochemical as well as spectral means. The synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and fungal strains Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by tube dilution method. Results of antimicrobial screening indicated that besides having good antibacterial activity, the synthesized compounds also displayed appreciable antifungal activity and compound 10 emerged as the most active antifungal agent (pMICca and pMICan = 1.93. The results of QSAR studies demonstrated that antibacterial, antifungal and overall antimicrobial activities of synthesized propionic acid derivatives were governed by the topological parameters, Kier’s alpha first order shape index (κα1 and valence first order molecular connectivity index (1χv.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  15. Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath N Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained from each subject enrolled in the study. The Institutional Ethics Committee granted the ethical clearance for the study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected using sterile curettes from the deepest sites of periodontal pockets. The collected samples were then transported in 1 mL of reduced transport fluid. The organisms were cultured and confirmed. These organisms were then used for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC procedure. Statistical Analysis: Mean of the MIC value obtained was calculated. Results: Thirteen out of the 20 clinical samples were tested that showed sensitivity at various concentrations. Five samples showed sensitivity at all concentrations. Twelve samples showed sensitivity at 8 mcg/ml. Eleven samples showed sensitivity at 4 mcg/ml, 8 samples showed sensitivity at 2 mcg/ml, and 5 samples showed sensitivity even at 1 mcg/ml. Mean MIC value of G. lucidum spore powder for P. intermedia obtained was 3.62 mcg/ml. Conclusion: G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.

  16. Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ranganath N; Dixitraj, P T; Nayak, Aarati; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject enrolled in the study. The Institutional Ethics Committee granted the ethical clearance for the study. This study included 20 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected using sterile curettes from the deepest sites of periodontal pockets. The collected samples were then transported in 1 mL of reduced transport fluid. The organisms were cultured and confirmed. These organisms were then used for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) procedure. Mean of the MIC value obtained was calculated. Thirteen out of the 20 clinical samples were tested that showed sensitivity at various concentrations. Five samples showed sensitivity at all concentrations. Twelve samples showed sensitivity at 8 mcg/ml. Eleven samples showed sensitivity at 4 mcg/ml, 8 samples showed sensitivity at 2 mcg/ml, and 5 samples showed sensitivity even at 1 mcg/ml. Mean MIC value of G. lucidum spore powder for P. intermedia obtained was 3.62 mcg/ml. G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray studies on three new mononuclear Ni(II) pincer type complexes: DFT calculations and their antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samaresh; Agrahari, Bhumika; Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Kumari, Chanda; Anuradha; Ganguly, Rakesh; Pathak, Devendra D.

    2017-08-01

    Three new mononuclear square planar Ni(II) complexes, containing pincer type tridentate Schiff base ligands, having general formula [(NiL1(4-MePy)] (1), [(NiL1(2-AzNp)] (2), and [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) [where L1 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzoylhydrazide (HL1), L2 = anion of N-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) thiosemicarbazide (HL2), 4-MePy = 4-Methylpyridine and 2-AzNp = 2-Azanapthalene] have been synthesized and fully characterized by FT-IR, UV-visible, NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and elemental analysis. All the three complexes show square planar geometry around the nickel atom. The pincer type ligand occupies three coordination sites, while the fourth site is occupied by the monodentate nitrogen containing ligand. The Quantum chemical DFT calculations have also been carried out using DFT/B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The synthesized nickel complexes were screened for antimicrobial activities by agar well diffusion method against E. coli bacteria. Out of three complexes, [(NiL2(4-MePy)] (3) only showed the antimicrobial activity against E. coli bacteria.

  18. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Matouskova, Petra; Marova, Ivana; Bokrova, Jitka; Benesova, Pavla

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin) on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch). Antimicrobia...

  19. Antimicrobial Studies On Nicandra physaloides | Mann | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... against gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains. Both methanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and roots was active against fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. Keywords: Nicandra physaloides, Solanaceae, Antimicrobial activity, Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine Vol. 11 2007 pp.

  20. Synthesis, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of sulfonamidomethane linked heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, Mukkara; Premakumari, Chokkappagari; Reddy, Sanapalli Nagi; Padmaja, Adivireddy; Padmavathi, Venkatapuram; Kondaiah, Paturu; Krishna, Narra Siva

    2013-01-01

    A new class of sulfonamidomethane pyrrolyl-oxadiazoles/thiadiazoles and pyrazolyl-oxadiazoles/thiadiazoles was prepared from arylsulfonylaminoacetic acid hydrazides and E-cinnamic acid. The lead compounds were tested for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. The thiadiazole compounds having chloro substituent on the aromatic ring 4c, 8c and 10c exhibited comparable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and also antifungal activity against Penicillium chrysogenum. The styryl oxadiazole compound 3c showed appreciable cytotoxic activity on A549 lung carcinoma cells which can be used as a lead compound in the future studies.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gende, L.B.; Pires, Sância; Fernandez, N.J.; Damiani, M.; Churio, M.S.; Fritz, R.; Eguaras, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    American foulbrood is a serious bacterial disease that affects Apis mellifera colonies; the causative agent is Paenibacillus larvae [1 ]. The aim of the study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of 32 essential oils against P. larvae. Oils from 21 botanical species were analyzed by gas chromatography (CG and CG/EM). All essential oils were classified according to the composition of their main components in two groups: benzene ring compounds (BRC) and terpene com...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Ferreira dos Santos, Silvana Soléo; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi [UNESP; Cardoso Jorge, Antonio Olavo

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria t...

  3. Exploring antimicrobial activity of horehound, Marrubium peregrinum L. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Radojević, Ivana; Stanković, Milan; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Topuzović, Marina; Vasić, Sava; Nikolić, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts from whole herb of Marrubium peregrinum L. (Lamiaceae) were investigated in this study. Horehound, a perennial plant, was collected from the region of Suva Planina Mt. in eastern Serbia. Testing was preformed by microdilution method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) have been determined. Testing was conducted against 22 microorganisms, of which 15 strains of bacteria an...

  4. A study of long-term stability and antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and silver nanoparticle incorporated in sericin-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampawong, Sumate; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-09-01

    In this study, three kinds of antiseptics which were 0.05% chlorhexidine, 0.2% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), or 200 ppm silver nanoparticle was introduced to incorporate in the sericin-based scaffold to produce the antimicrobial dressing for the treatment of infected chronic wound. The effects of antiseptic incorporation on the stability, release of sericin, and short-term and long-term (6 months) antimicrobial activity of the sericin dressing against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were investigated. We showed that the incorporation of each antiseptic did not have significant effect on the internal morphology (pore size ~ 73-105 μm), elasticity (Young's modulus ~ 200-500 kPa), and the sericin release behavior of the sericin-based dressing. The release of sericin from the dressing was prolonged over 120 h and thereafter. Comparing among three antiseptics, 0.05% chlorhexidine incorporated in the sericin dressing showed the highest immediate and long-term (6 months) antimicrobial effect (largest inhibition zone) against most bacteria either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. The in vivo safety test following ISO10993 standard (Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 6: Tests for local effects after implantation) confirmed that the sericin dressing incorporating 0.05% chlorhexidine did not irritate to tissue, comparing with the commercial material used generally in clinic (Allevyn®, Smith & Nephew). We suggested the sericin dressing incorporating 0.05% chlorhexidine for the treatment of infected chronic wound. Chlorhexidine would reduce the risk of infection while the sericin may promote wound healing.

  5. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity of Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity of various solvent extract of Cassia auriculata flowers were assessed. Among the different extracts tested, methanol and petroleum ether extracts showed significant antimicrobial and radical scavenging activities. The most susceptible microorganisms were found to be ...

  6. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of apiary honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera) which is used in herbal medicine was examined for its chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity. The phytochemical analysis of honey showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, reducing sugar and glycosides. Antimicrobial activity of honey on fresh ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Euphorbia hirta and Asystasia gangeticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, M; Rao, Ch V; Rao, P M; Raju, D B; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2006-07-01

    The ethanolic extracts of the dry fruits of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, aerial parts of Euphorbia hirta and flowers of Asystasia gangeticum were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three plants exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, particularly against Escherichia coli (enteropathogen), Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms used in folklore medicine in order to authenticate some of its therapeutic claims. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of ...

  10. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Cylicodiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater and remarkable antimicrobial activity of the (EA) extract of CG was recorded with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus T. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of infections diseases. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Cylicodiscus ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of. Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of the Methanol and Aqueous Leaf Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Sensitivity tests for antimicrobial properties/activities of the leaf extracts were determined using Agar well ... Penicillium notatum and Candida albicans) were found to be sensitive to both extracts. Methanol extract ... microbial diseases is justified. Keywords: E. coccinea, Aqueous and Methanol extracts, Antimicrobial activity.

  13. Antimicrobial activities and toxicity of crude extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of the Psophocarpus tetragonolobus pods has been tested for antimicrobial activity in a disk diffusion assay on eight human pathogenic bacteria and two human pathogenic yeasts. The extracts of P. tetragonolobus possessed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. The ethanolic extract of P.

  14. Structure-activity study of macropin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the venom of solitary bee Macropis fulvipes (Hymenoptera: Melittidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monincová, Lenka; Veverka, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Buděšínský, Miloš; Fučík, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie; Straka, J.; Čeřovský, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2014), s. 375-384 ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * analog * wild bee venom * NMR spectroscopy * CD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2014

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oils against different kinds of microorganisms in vitro. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by micro broth dilution assay and the chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and carvacrol were the main components of S. hortensis oil while thymol, γ-terpinene, and o-cymene were the major components of T. copticum oil. Two essential oils exhibited strong antimicrobial activity but the antimicrobial activity of T. copticum oil was higher than that of S. hortensis oil. Thymol as a main component of oils plays an important role in antimicrobial activity.

  16. Multicenter Study in Taiwan of the In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin, Tigecycline, Doripenem, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Clinical Isolates of Various Nocardia Species▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n = 60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 24; 16%), N. farcinica (n = 12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n = 9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 8), N. nova (n = 8), N. asiatica (n = 7), N. puris (n = 6), N. flavorosea (n = 5), N. abscessus (n = 3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin = gemifloxacin Nocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted. PMID:21343461

  17. Multicenter study in Taiwan of the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin, tigecycline, doripenem, and other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of various Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n=60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n=24; 16%), N. farcinica (n=12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n=9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n=8), N. nova (n=8), N. asiatica (n=7), N. puris (n=6), N. flavorosea (n=5), N. abscessus (n=3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin=gemifloxacinNocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted.

  18. Antimicrobial properties and membrane-active mechanism of a potential α-helical antimicrobial derived from cathelicidin PMAP-36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfeng Lv

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, which present in the non-specific immune system of organism, are amongst the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. The modification of naturally occurring AMPs based on their residue composition and distribution is a simple and effective strategy for optimization of known AMPs. In this study, a series of truncated and residue-substituted derivatives of antimicrobial peptide PMAP-36 were designed and synthesized. The 24-residue truncated peptide, GI24, displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to the mother peptide PMAP-36 with MICs ranging from 1 to 4 µM, which is lower than the MICs of bee venom melittin. Although GI24 displayed high antimicrobial activity, its hemolytic activity was much lower than melittin, suggesting that GI24 have optimal cell selectivity. In addition, the crucial site of GI24 was identified through single site-mutation. An amino acid with high hydrophobicity at position 23 played an important role in guaranteeing the high antimicrobial activity of GI24. Then, lipid vesicles and whole bacteria were employed to investigate the membrane-active mechanisms. Membrane-simulating experiments showed that GI24 interacted strongly with negatively charged phospholipids and weakly with zwitterionic phospholipids, which corresponded well with the data of its biological activities. Membrane permeabilization and flow cytometry provide the evidence that GI24 killed microbial cells by permeabilizing the cell membrane and damaging membrane integrity. GI24 resulted in greater cell morphological changes and visible pores on cell membrane as determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Taken together, the peptide GI24 may provide a promising antimicrobial agent for therapeutic applications against the frequently-encountered bacteria.

  19. Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, EunKyung; Kim, YoungJun; Joo, Nami

    2013-12-01

    The therapeutic action of a plant depends on its chemical constituents. In this study, experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on the antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Roselle was found to be rich in malic acid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and minerals, especially Ca and Fe, but low in glucose. More than 18 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This herb, which is rich in phenolic compounds and displays DPPH radical scavenging activity, could be a good source of natural antioxidants. The antimicrobial activity of the Roselle water and ethanol extracts was tested with Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). The inhibition of the Roselle ethanol extract against B. subtilis and S. aureus was slightly higher than that of water extract but this difference was not significant. However, E. coli was strongly inhibited by the Roselle water extract at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg mL(-1) as determined by a paper disc method. The obtained results indicated that antioxidant and antimicrobial activity was related to different methods of extraction and Roselle extracts could be a source of therapeutically useful products. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Extracts from Laurus nobilis Leaves

    KAUST Repository

    Felemban, Shaza

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial properties of crude extracts from Laurus nobilis were investigated. With the use of the organic solvents, methanol and ethanol, crude extracts were obtained. To determine the availability of active bio‐compounds, an analysis using liquid chromatography was conducted. The crude extract was also tested for antimicrobial activity. The disc diffusion method was used against the bacterium Escherichia coli. The results showed a weak antimicrobial activity against E. coli. For cytotoxicity testing, the crude extract was studied on four cell-­lines: human breast adenocarcinoma, human embryonic kidney, HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), and human lung fibroblast. From the alamarBlue® assay results, the extracts most potently affected the cell-­lines of human breast adenocarcinoma and human embryonic kidney. Using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, an effect on human embryonic kidney was most prominent. With these findings, a suggestion that the crude extract of Laurus nobilis may have antiproliferative properties is put forth, with the possibility of this mechanism being induction of apoptosis with the involvement of Nuclear Factor Kappa κB (NF κB).

  1. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Puji Astuti; Sudarsono Sudarsono; Khoirun Nisak; Giri Wisnu Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatograp...

  2. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Salas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application.

  3. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bauhinia racemosa L. stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR (Caesalpiniaceae stem bark in various systems. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg MEBR inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 62.43, 67.21, 71.04, and 76.83%, respectively. Similarly, the effect of MEBR on reducing power increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assays the IC50 value of the extract was 152.29 µg/ml. MEBR inhibited the nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside with an IC50 of 78.34 µg/ml, as opposed to 20.4 µg/ml for curcumin. Moreover, MEBR scavenged the superoxide generated by the PMS/NADH-NBT system. MEBR also inhibited the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton's reaction, with an IC50 value of more than 1000 µg/ml, as compared to 5 µg/ml for catechin. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined and 64.7 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in MEBR (1 mg. The antimicrobial activities of MEBR were determined by disc diffusion with five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative and four fungal species. MEBR showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The results obtained in the present study indicate that MEBR can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of heparin-binding peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Emma; Rydengård, Victoria; Sonesson, Andreas; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system. We recently showed that the human antimicrobial peptides alpha-defensin and LL-37 bind to glycosaminoglycans (heparin and dermatan sulphate). Here we demonstrate the obverse, i.e. structural motifs associated with heparin affinity (cationicity, amphipaticity, and consensus regions) may confer antimicrobial properties to a given peptide. Thus, heparin-binding peptides derived from laminin isoforms, von Willebrand factor...

  5. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Modarresi-Chahardehi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I, which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II with a five solvent system (butanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30µg/mL as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC. The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC. MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17, and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11; besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342 which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  6. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  7. Co(II), Ce(III) and UO 2(VI) bis-salicylatothiosemicarbazide complexes . Binary and ternary complexes, thermal studies and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Salman, A. A.; El-Shetary, B. A.; Faheim, A. A.

    2004-10-01

    A series of new metal complexes of Co(II), Ce(III) and UO 2(VI), with the Schiff base ligand, H 2L, bis-salicylatothiosemicarbazide have been prepared in presence of different molar ratios of LiOH·H 2O as a deprotonating agent. Also, the ternary complexes were prepared by using 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) or oxalic acid (Ox) as a secondary ligand. All synthesized compounds were identified and confirmed by elemental analyses, molar conductivities, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR, mass) and magnetic moment measurements as well as TG-DSC technique. The changes in the selected vibrational absorption bands in IR and NMR spectra of the Schiff base ligand upon coordination indicate that, the ligand behaves as a neutral, monoanionic and/or dianionic tetradentate manner with ONNO donor sites. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic and 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. Thermal studies suggest a mechanism for degradation of the metal complexes as function of temperature supporting the chelation modes, moreover, show the possibility of obtaining new complexes pyrolytically in the solid state which cannot be synthesized from solution. Antimicrobial screening of the free ligand and its binary complexes showed that, the free ligand and some metal complexes possess antimicrobial activities towards four type of bacteria and five types of fungi and these results were compared with eleven type of known antibiotics.

  8. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, Swati Ramesh; Ahire, Nivedita Pramod; Khedkar, Smita Uday

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1) hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  9. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Ramesh Karkare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis are the most resistant and predominant microorganisms recovered from root canals of teeth where previous treatment has failed. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. In dentistry, phytomedicines has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, sedative, and also as an endodontic irrigant. In endodontics, because of the cytotoxic reactions of most of the commercial intracanal medicaments and their inability to eliminate bacteria completely from dentinal tubules, the trend is shifting toward use of biologic medication extracted from natural plants. Aim: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of newer irrigating agents which would probably be as effective or more and at the same time less irritating to the tissues than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of saturated and diluted (1:1 hydroalcoholic extract of Aloe vera, garlic, and 5% NaOCl against E. faecalis using the commonly used agar diffusion method. Results: Saturated hydroalcoholic extract of A. vera showed the highest zone of inhibition against E. faecalis. NaOCl, which is considered as gold standard, also showed higher zones of inhibition.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles impregnated wound dressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, V. V.; Jadhav, P. R.; Patil, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by simple wet chemical reduction method. The silver nitrate was reduced by Sodium borohydride used as reducing agent and Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Absorption spectrum consist two plasmon peaks at 410 and 668 nm revels the formation of anisotropic nanoparticles confirmed by TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was also evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) study. DLS showed polydisperse silver nanoparticles with hydrodynamic size 32 nm. Protecting mechanism of PVP was manifested by FT-Raman study. Silver nanoparticles were impregnated into wound dressing by sonochemical method. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial activity of the samples has been tested against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  11. The effect of nasal irrigation formulation on the antimicrobial activity of nasal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charmaine M; Tan, Sophia; Ullah, Shahid; Frauenfelder, Claire; Ooi, Eng H; Carney, A Simon

    2015-12-01

    Saline-based irrigation solutions are evidence-based rhinological treatments; however, the formulation of these solutions could theoretically alter the function of innate antimicrobial peptides. The aim of this study was to determine if the antimicrobial activity of normal human nasal secretions in vivo is altered by commercially available large volume irrigation solutions. Minimally manipulated sinonasal secretions were collected from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS; n = 10) and normal healthy volunteers (n = 20). In a subset of control patients (n = 10) secretions were collected prior to, and at 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after nasal irrigation with 4 commercial irrigation solutions. Lysozyme and lactoferrin levels were analyzed and the antimicrobial activity of secretions determined using a radial diffusion assay. The antimicrobial activity of nasal secretions was reduced in CRS patients compared to healthy volunteers (p irrigation reduced lysozyme and lactoferrin levels, which returned to baseline levels by 6 hours; in addition to a sustained decrease in antimicrobial activity before returning to baseline at 24 hours. Low-salt solution stimulated peptide secretion by approximately 40% at 6 hours and 24 hours, but produced a transient decrease in antimicrobial activity, returning to baseline levels by 6 hours. Hypertonic solution initially decreased lysozyme and lactoferrin levels but maintained baseline levels of antimicrobial activity and increased peptide secretion by approximately 30% at 24 hours. The formulation of nasal irrigation solutions significantly affects the measured levels and functionality of sinonasal antimicrobial peptides. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Pavel; Davidova, Hana; Serrano-Rojero, Cecilia Suqued; Rondevaldova, Johana; Pulkrabek, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae), is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47%) as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%), myristic acid (4.71%), linalool (4.65%), and anethole (4.09%). The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26000025

  13. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Novy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyebright, Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Scrophulariaceae, is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Europe for the treatment of various health disorders, especially as eyewash to treat eye ailments such as conjunctivitis and blepharitis that can be associated with bacterial infections. Some Euphrasia species have been previously reported to contain essential oil. However, the composition and bioactivity of E. rostkoviana oil are unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the eyebright essential oil against some organisms associated with eye infections: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. GC-MS analysis revealed more than 70 constituents, with n-hexadecanoic acid (18.47% as the main constituent followed by thymol (7.97%, myristic acid (4.71%, linalool (4.65%, and anethole (4.09%. The essential oil showed antimicrobial effect against all organisms tested with the exception of P. aeruginosa. The best activity was observed against all Gram-positive bacteria tested with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 512 µg/mL. This is the first report on the chemical composition of E. rostkoviana essential oil and its antimicrobial activity.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia macroptera root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O; Duarte, A; Pimentel, M; Viegas, S; Barroso, H; Machado, J; Pires, I; Cabrita, J; Gomes, E

    1997-08-01

    Terminalia macroptera Guill et Perr. (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Guinea-Bissau and other West African countries to treat infectious diseases. The ethanol extract from T. macroptera decorticated root and their liquid-liquid partition fractions, were screened for antimicrobial activity, by the twofold serial microdilution assay against seven reference bacterial strains and against Candida albicans. The extract and fractions showed some activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. The best results were obtained against Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of T. macroptera ethanol extract were also determined for about 100 clinical strains of Campylobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and Vibrio cholerae. The ethanol extract activity against Campylobacter strains is similar to co-trimoxazole, higher than sulfamethoxazole but lower than tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and streptomycin. Ellagitannins are the major compounds in the extract and active fractions. The obtained results suggest a potential importance of this medicinal plant in the treatment of enteric diseases, particularly in Campylobacter infections.

  15. Isolation of Corynebacterium Xerosis from Jordanian Soil and a Study on its Antimicrobial Activity against a Range of Bacteria and Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, Nasser

    2004-01-01

    A bacterial strain which has been identified as Corneybacterium Xerosis NB-2 was isolated from a soil sample from Jerash Private University, Jerash, Jordan. This isolate was found to produce an antimicrobial substance active only against filamentous fungi and yeasts (Aspergillus niger SQ 40, Fusarium oxysporium SQ11, Verticillium dahliae SQ 42, Saccharomyces SQ 46 and Candida albicans SQ 47). However, all tested gram-positive bacteria and gram negative bacteria (Bacillus megaterium SQ5, Bacillus cereus SQ6, Staphylococcus aureus SQ9, Streptococcus pyogens SQ10, Eschericshia coli SQ 22, Klepsiella spp SQ33 and SQ33 and Pseudonomas mallei SQ 34) were found to be resistant. In batch culture, the isolated NB-2 produced the antimicrobial substance late in the growth phase and antimicrobial activity of Corynebacterium Xerosis against filamentous fungi and yeasts which was not previously described. (author)

  16. Structural studies and antimicrobial properties of norcembrane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... have been isolated from chloroform extract of soft coral of the genus sinularia, which was collected from the southern coast of India. The structures of the metabolites were determined by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and HRESIMS data analysis. The compounds have shown moderate-to-high antimicrobial activities.

  17. Functional Divergence among Silkworm Antimicrobial Peptide Paralogs by the Activities of Recombinant Proteins and the Induced Expression Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mingqiang; Deng, Xiaojuan; Yi, Huiyu; Huang, Yadong; Tan, Xiang; Han, Dong; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cao, Yang; Xia, Qingyou

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection. PMID:21479226

  18. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus Essential Oil from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada V. Petrović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wild growing Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus were studied. trans-Nerolidol (19.79%, germacrene D (18.48% and thymol (9.62% were the main components in essential oil. This study is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil obtained from the T. praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil was investigated on Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium strains. In the antimicrobial assays, essential oil showed high antimicrobial potential (MIC 19–150 m g/mL, MBC 39–300 m g/mL for bacteria; and MIC 19.5–39 m g/mL, MFC 39–78 m g/mL for fungi.

  19. Composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , transpiperitol (68.5%), respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against 9 bacteria by agar diffusion method. The leaves of both plants showed higher activity than their flowers. The leaves of L. chevalieri ...

  20. Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heincke, Diana; Martínez, Inmaculada; Partal, Pedro; Guerrero, Antonio; Gallegos, Críspulo

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of natural biocide agents into protein-based bioplastics, a source of biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by a thermo-mechanical method is a way to contribute to a sustainable food packaging industry. This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of 10 different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten-based bioplastics. The effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is also studied. Bioplastics containing six of the 10 examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37 °C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within a Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo-mechanical behaviours. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of a pharmaceutical microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Cui, Yinan; Zhu, Songming; Feng, Fengqin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2010-08-16

    The characterization of a pharmaceutical microemulsion system with glycerol monolaurate as oil, ethanol as cosurfactant, Tween 40 as surfactant, sodium diacetate and water, and the antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum have been studied. The influence of ethanol and sodium diacetate on oil solubilization capability was clearly reflected in the phase behavior of these systems. One microemulsion formulation was obtained and remained stable by physical stability studies. The antimicrobial assay using solid medium diffusion method showed that the prepared microemulsion was comparable to the commonly used antimicrobials as positive controls. The kinetics of killing experiments demonstrated that the microemulsion caused a complete loss of viability of bacterial cells (E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis) in 1 min, killed over 99% A. niger and P. expansum spores and 99.9% C. albicans cells rapidly within 2 min and resulted in a complete loss of fungal viability in 5 min. The fast killing kinetics of the microemulsion was in good agreement with the transmission electron microscopy observations, indicating the antimembrane activity of the microemulsion on bacterial and fungal cells due to the disruption and dysfunction of biological membranes and cell walls. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large-Scale Analysis of Antimicrobial Activities in Relation to Amphipathicity and Charge Reveals Novel Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Kuo; Shih, Ling-Yi; Chang, Kuan Y

    2017-11-22

    It has been unclear to which antimicrobial activities (e.g., anti-gram-positive bacterial, anti-gram-negative bacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral activities) of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) a given physiochemical property matters most. This is the first computational study using large-scale AMPs to examine the relationships between antimicrobial activities and two major physiochemical properties of AMPs-amphipathicity and net charge. The results showed that among all kinds of antimicrobial activities, amphipathicity and net charge best differentiated between AMPs with and without anti-gram-negative bacterial activities. In terms of amphipathicity and charge, all the AMPs whose activities were significantly associated with amphipathicity and net charge were alike except those with anti-gram-positive bacterial activities. Furthermore, the higher the amphipathic value, the greater the proportion of AMPs possessing both antibacterial and antifungal activities. This dose-response-like pattern suggests a possible causal relationship-dual antibacterial and antifungal activities of AMPs may be attributable to amphipathicity. These novel findings could be useful for identifying potent AMPs computationally.

  3. Large-Scale Analysis of Antimicrobial Activities in Relation to Amphipathicity and Charge Reveals Novel Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kuo Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been unclear to which antimicrobial activities (e.g., anti-gram-positive bacterial, anti-gram-negative bacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and antiviral activities of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs a given physiochemical property matters most. This is the first computational study using large-scale AMPs to examine the relationships between antimicrobial activities and two major physiochemical properties of AMPs—amphipathicity and net charge. The results showed that among all kinds of antimicrobial activities, amphipathicity and net charge best differentiated between AMPs with and without anti-gram-negative bacterial activities. In terms of amphipathicity and charge, all the AMPs whose activities were significantly associated with amphipathicity and net charge were alike except those with anti-gram-positive bacterial activities. Furthermore, the higher the amphipathic value, the greater the proportion of AMPs possessing both antibacterial and antifungal activities. This dose–response-like pattern suggests a possible causal relationship—dual antibacterial and antifungal activities of AMPs may be attributable to amphipathicity. These novel findings could be useful for identifying potent AMPs computationally.

  4. Comparative antimicrobial activities of aloe vera gel and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative antimicrobial activities of the gel and leaf of Aloe vera were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Trichophyton mentagraphytes, T. schoeleinii, Microsporium canis and Candida albicans. Ethanol was used for the extraction of the leaf after obtaining the gel from it. Antimicrobial ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Monodora myristica seed oil | Odoh | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil is colourless, bitter with nice smell and the density is 0.789 g/ml. The oil had antimicrobial activity of the oil against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among the tested organism and can be incorporated into cream as antimicrobial agent and as a perfume. Key words: Monodora ...

  6. Antimicrobial and anticancer activities of extracts from Urginea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increasing antibiotic resistance among human pathogenic microorganisms and the failure of conventional cancer therapies attracting great attention among scientists in the field of herbal medicine to develop natural antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Thus, the antimicrobial and anticancer activities from fruits ...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of synthetic salivary peptides against voice prosthetic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, GJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AV; Veerman, ECI; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ

    Objectives: To investigate whether synthetic salivary antimicrobial peptides have an inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria and yeasts isolated from used silicone rubber voice prostheses. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of six synthetic salivary peptides (histatin 5, dhvar1, dhvar4,

  8. Preliminary Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Aloe Vera Leaf, Citrus Hystrix Leaf, Zingiber Officinale and Sabah Snake Grass Against Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uda M.N.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal plants have several potential antimicrobial activities either as antifungal or antibacterial to fight against the disease and pathogen that attack the plants. The extractions of the Aloe vera leaf, Citrus hystrix leaf, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sabah snake grass were selected in this study to fight against Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis is a Gram-positive bacterium, rodshaped and catalase-positive that lives on decayed organic material. It is known as Gram-positive bacteria because of its thick peptidoglycan and would appear purple when subjected to Gram test. This species is commonly found in the upper layers of the soil, in meat or vegetables, in pastry, cooked meat, in bread or poultry products. The extracts of Sabah Snake Grass found to be most effective than A.vera leaf, Z. officinale, and C. hystrix against the B. subtilis.

  9. Structure-activity relationships of the antimicrobial peptide arasin 1 - and mode of action studies of the N-terminal, proline-rich region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria S Paulsen

    Full Text Available Arasin 1 is a 37 amino acid long proline-rich antimicrobial peptide isolated from the spider crab, Hyas araneus. In this work the active region of arasin 1 was identified through structure-activity studies using different peptide fragments derived from the arasin 1 sequence. The pharmacophore was found to be located in the proline/arginine-rich NH(2 terminus of the peptide and the fragment arasin 1(1-23 was almost equally active to the full length peptide. Arasin 1 and its active fragment arasin 1(1-23 were shown to be non-toxic to human red blood cells and arasin 1(1-23 was able to bind chitin, a component of fungal cell walls and the crustacean shell. The mode of action of the fully active N-terminal arasin 1(1-23 was explored through killing kinetic and membrane permeabilization studies. At the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, arasin 1(1-23 was not bactericidal and had no membrane disruptive effect. In contrast, at concentrations of 5×MIC and above it was bactericidal and interfered with membrane integrity. We conclude that arasin 1(1-23 has a different mode of action than lytic peptides, like cecropin P1. Thus, we suggest a dual mode of action for arasin 1(1-23 involving membrane disruption at peptide concentrations above MIC, and an alternative mechanism of action, possibly involving intracellular targets, at MIC.

  10. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of Colombian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    2001-10-01

    Strong antiviral and antimicrobial activities were detected in methanolic extracts of 24 plants used medicinally in the treatment of skin infections in four different regions of Colombia. Thirteen extracts displayed activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) whereas none was active against poliovirus. The antiviral activity was indicated by a total inhibition of viral cytopathic effects (CPE) at a non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract. The most potent extract was obtained from Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) HBK. which showed anti-HSV activity at a concentration as low as 2.5 microg/ml. Antimicrobial screening was conducted using the disc diffusion assay against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and the human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. Anti-Candida activity was observed for Piper lanceaefolium HBK. and Juglans neotropica Diels. Twenty-two extracts displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria whereas none was active against the Gram-negative species. We concluded that these Colombian medicinal plants represent an untapped source of potentially useful antivirals and are worthy of further study.

  11. Spectroscopic study, antimicrobial activity and crystal structures of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzalidene)4-aminomorpholine and N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)4-aminomorpholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Ünver, Hüseyin; Dülger, Başaran; Erdener, Diğdem; Ocak, Nazan; Erdönmez, Ahmet; Durlu, Tahsin Nuri

    2005-03-01

    Schiff bases N-(2-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzalidene)4-aminomorpholine ( 1) and N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)4-aminomorpholine ( 2) were synthesized from the reaction of 4-aminomorpholine with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. Compounds 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Visible techniques. The UV-Visible spectra of the Schiff bases with OH group in ortho position to the imino group were studied in polar and nonpolar solvents in acidic and basic media. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been examined cyrstallographically, for two compounds exist as dominant form of enol-imines in both the solutions and solid state. The title compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c and P2 1/ n with unit cell parameters: a=8.410(1) and 11.911(3), b=6.350(9) and 4.860(9), c=21.728(3) and 22.381(6) Å, β=90.190(1) and 95.6(2)°, V=1160.6(3) and 1289.5(5) Å 3, Dx=1.438 and 1.320 g cm -3, respectively. The crystal structures were solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares. The antimicrobial activities of compounds 1 and 2 have also been studied. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands have been screened in vitro against the organisms Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Micrococcus luteus La 2971, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL 2415, Rhodotorula rubra DSM 70403, Debaryomyces hansenii DSM 70238 and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii DSM 3432.

  12. Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhining; Yuan, Penghui; Xing, Meng; He, Zhumei; Dong, Chuanfu; Cao, Yongchang; Liu, Qiuyun

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

  13. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI) was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF) presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p HF demonstrated selectivity at low concentrations. The chemical analyses performed suggest the absence of flavonoids and the presence of benzophenones as geopropolis major compounds. Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties. PMID:23356696

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF Shorea foxworthyi Sym STEAM BARK METHANOL EXTRACT

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    Andi Hairil Alimuddin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening of antimicrobial activity compound from steam bark of Shorea foxworthyi Sym by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography method have been conducted. The result of this research can be base in elucidation of antimicrobial activity compounds from S. foxworthyi Sym. The first step was done in this research that is maceration of S. foxworthyi steam bark using methanol solvent. Fractination to methanol extract was done using n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate solvent, respectively. Phytochemical screening were done to methanol, chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions. Screening of antimicrobial activity compound were done to polar fraction such as methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fraction. The bacteria were used in this screening such as E. coli, S. aureus, S. thypii, and B. Subtilis. The extract was highest antimicrobial activity choosed to test by Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography. The result was showed that chloroform extract was had highest antimicrobial activity and the flavonoide of compaund was considered having antimicrobial activity.   Keywords: antimicrobial, TLC-Bioautography, and Shorea foxworthyi Sym

  15. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Terminalia catappa root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, S P; Pal, S C

    2002-06-01

    The effect against bacteria of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), chloroform and methanolic extract of dried root of Terminalia catappa Linn. (combrataceae) was employed by cup plate agar diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as compared to other tested microorganisms, while petroleum ether extract was devoid of antimicrobial activity. The methanolic: extract exhibited MIC of 0.065 mg/ml against E. coli. and chloroform extract exhibited MIC of 0.4 mg/ml against S. aureus The chloroform has well as methanolic extracts showed good antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.

  16. Testing methods for antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Siniša L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of commercial TiO2 photocatalyst products have been developed and extensively studied for prospective and safe antimicrobial application in daily life, medicine, laboratories, food and pharmaceutical industry, waste water treatments and in development of new self-cleaning and antimicrobial materials, surfaces and paints. This paper reviews the studies published worldwide on killing microorganisms, methods for testing the antimicrobial activity, light sources and intensities, as well as calculation methods usually used when evaluating the antimicrobial properties of the TiO2-based products. Additionally, some strengths and weaknesses of the available methods for testing the antimicrobial activity of TiO2 photocatalyst products have been pointed out.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  17. Comparative analysis of selected methods for the assessment of antimicrobial and membrane-permeabilizing activity: a case study for lactoferricin derived peptides

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    Lohner Karl

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing concerns about bacterial resistance to antibiotics have prompted the development of alternative therapies like those based on cationic antimicrobial peptides (APs. These compounds not only are bactericidal by themselves but also enhance the activity of antibiotics. Studies focused on the systematic characterization of APs are hampered by the lack of standard guidelines for testing these compounds. We investigated whether the information provided by methods commonly used for the biological characterization of APs is comparable, as it is often assumed. For this purpose, we determined the bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and permeability-increasing activity of synthetic peptides (n = 57; 9–13 amino acid residues in length analogous to the lipopolysaccharide-binding region of human lactoferricin by a number of the most frequently used methods and carried out a comparative analysis. Results While the minimum inhibitory concentration determined by an automated turbidimetry-based system (Bioscreen or by conventional broth microdilution methods did not differ significantly, bactericidal activity measured under static conditions in a low-ionic strength solvent resulted in a vast overestimation of antimicrobial activity. Under these conditions the degree of antagonism between the peptides and the divalent cations differed greatly depending on the bacterial strain tested. In contrast, the bioactivity of peptides was not affected by the type of plasticware (polypropylene vs. polystyrene. Susceptibility testing of APs using cation adjusted Mueller-Hinton was the most stringent screening method, although it may overlook potentially interesting peptides. Permeability assays based on sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics provided overall information analogous – though not quantitatively comparable- to that of tests based on the uptake of hydrophobic fluorescent probes. Conclusion We demonstrate that subtle changes in methods for

  18. Antimicrobial activity of seven essential oils from Iranian aromatic plants against common causes of oral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens.

  19. Studies on the Synthesis and Reactivity of Novel Benzofuran-2-yl-[3-Methyl-3-Phenylcyclobutyl] Methanones and their Antimicrobial Activity

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    Cavit Kazaz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Preparation in excellent yields of cyclobutyl benzofuran-2-yl- and naphthofuran- 2-yl-ketones, the corresponding ketoximes and thiosemicarbazones, ether derivatives of the ketoximes and thiazoles derived from the thiosemicarbazones are described. Two of the synthesized compounds have been tested against eight different microorganisms and found to be active against some of the species studied.

  20. Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of Goniothalamus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    resistance Staphylococcus aureus (VISA 24), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans. α-pinene meanwhile inhibited the bacteria and fungal growth at 0.3 and 2.5 mg/ml. With regards to antimicrobial potential, α-pinene.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Sambucus ebulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Increase in the emergence of drug - resistant pathogens led to the development of natural antimicrobials. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic extracts of Sambucus ebulus and Urtica dioica on 16 skin and wound infections isolates of methicillin resistant. S. aureus have been studied. Material and ...

  2. Activity of Antimicrobial Silver Polystyrene Nanocomposites

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    M. Palomba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple technique based on doping polymers with in situ generated silver nanoparticles (Ag/PS films has been developed. In particular, an antiseptic material has been prepared by dissolving silver 1,5-cyclooctadiene-hexafluoroacetylacetonate in amorphous polystyrene, and the obtained solid solution has been heated for ca. 10 s at a convenient temperature (180°C. Under such conditions the metal precursor decomposes producing silver atoms that diffuse into the polymer and clusterize. The antimicrobial characteristics of the resulting polystyrene-based material have been accurately evaluated toward Escherichia coli (E. coli comparing the cytotoxicity effect of 10 wt.% and 30 wt.% (drastic and mild annealing silver-doped polystyrene to the corresponding pure micrometric silver powder. Two different bacterial viability assays were performed in order to demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of Ag/PS films on cultured E. coli: (1 turbidimetric determination of optical density; (2 BacLight fluorescence-based test. Both methods have shown that silver-doped polystyrene (30 wt.% provides higher antibacterial activity than pure Ag powder, under similar concentration and incubation conditions.

  3. Phytochemical Studies And Antimicrobial Properties Of Methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical studies were carried out on aqueous and methanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass). Agar well diffusion method was employed to assess the antimicrobial potency of the extracts against selected microbial pathogens. The mean zone of inhibition (mm) produced by methanolic extract at four ...

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute. Toxicity Studies of the Stem, bark and the Leaves of a cultivated Syzygium cumini Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) in. Nigeria. *Ugbabe, G.E1, *Ezeunala, M.N2, Edmond, I.N3, Apev, J1 and Salawu, O.A3. 1Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum l. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) of 13 populations of different silvicultural zones were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aereus, Bacillus spp.) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Samonella typhi, ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of three medicinal plants used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . wilkesiana traditionally used in South-West Nigerian communities for the treatment of gastroenteritis were investigated for antibacterial activity against strains of three food borne pathogens that resisted conventional orthodox antimicrobials.

  7. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Salvia officinalis L. flowers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia mascences, Clostridium ... This work has revealed further potentials of S. officinalis L flowers as an antimicrobial agent, especially against P. aeruginosa which is resistant to some antibiotics.

  8. Antimicrobial And Anti-Inflammatory Activities Of Pleurostylia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium smegmatis), Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella ...

  9. Short Communication: An investigation on antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity was determined Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Stapylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P, Klebsiella pneumoniae UC57, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 8427, Bacillus cereus ATCC 7064, Mycobacterium smegmatis CCM 2067, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, ...

  10. Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of in vitro antitumoral and antimicrobial activities of marine algae harvested from the eastern Mediterranean sea. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... algal extracts obtained from the marine algae Scytosiphon lomentaria, Padina pavonica, Cystoseira mediterranea (Phaeophyceae), Hypnea musciformis and ...

  11. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms ...

  12. Antimicrobial Activities against Periodontopathic Bacteria of Pittosporum tobira and Its Active Compound

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    Jung-Hyun Oh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of medicinal plants for treatment of periodontitis is of great value to establish their efficacy as sources of new antimicrobial drugs. Five hundred and fifty eight Korean local plant extracts were screened for antibacterial activity against representative periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Among the various medicinal plants, the alcohol extract of Pittosporum tobira, which significantly exhibited antibacterial effect for all tested strains, showed the highest activity in the antimicrobial assays. NMR analyses revealed that R1-barrigenol, a triterpene sapogenin, was the most effective compound in P. tobira. These results demonstrated that P. tobira possesses antimicrobial properties and would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of periodontitis.

  13. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

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    Amber Farooqui

    Full Text Available Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  14. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-12-01

    Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  15. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

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    Puji Astuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents.

  16. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Amino Acids Conjugated Diphenylmethylpiperazine Derivatives

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    K. N. Shivakumara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid conjugated diphenylmethylpiperazine derivatives were synthesized by coupling diphenylmethylpiperazine with different Boc-amino acids using EDCI/HOBt as coupling agent and NMM as base. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. The Boc-deblocked derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity. We are here reporting that Phe and Trp conjugated diphenylmethylpiperazine showed equally good antibacterial activities as that of conventional antimicrobial drugs.

  17. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  18. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Stem Bark of Cussonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study justifies to some extent the use of C. bancoensis in the treatment of microbial infections and supports the ethnomedical evidence that the plant could be a potential source of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. Keywords: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, phytochemical constituents, Cussonia ...

  19. Coordination modes of bidentate lornoxicam drug with some transition metal ions. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial and antibreastic cancer activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2014-03-01

    The NSAID lornoxicam (LOR) drug was used for complex formation reactions with different metal salts like Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Ni(II) chlorides and Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) borates. Mononuclear complexes of these metals are obtained that coordinated to NO sites of LOR ligand molecule. The nature of bonding and the stereochemistry of the complexes have been deduced from elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, mass, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility and ESR spectral studies, conductivity measurements, thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTG) and further confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. The data show that the complexes have composition of ML2 type except for Fe(II) where the type is [ML3]. The electronic absorption spectral data of the complexes suggest an octahedral geometry around the central metal ion for all the complexes. The antimicrobial data reveals that LOR ligand in solution show inhibition capacity less or sometimes more than the corresponding complexes against all the species under study. In order to establish their future potential in biomedical applications, anticancer evaluation studies against standard breast cancer cell lines (MCF7) was performed using different concentrations. The obtained results indicate high inhibition activity for Cr(III), Fe(II) and Cu(II) complexes against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and recommends them for testing as antitumor agents.

  20. Ohmyungsamycins promote antimicrobial responses through autophagy activation via AMP-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Shin, Yern-Hyerk; Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Jin Kyung; Choe, Jin Ho; Jang, Ji-Chan; Um, Soohyun; Jin, Hyo Sun; Komatsu, Masaaki; Cha, Guang-Ho; Chae, Han-Jung; Oh, Dong-Chan; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-06-13

    The induction of host cell autophagy by various autophagy inducers contributes to the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a major pathogenic strain that causes human tuberculosis. In this study, we present a role for the newly identified cyclic peptides ohmyungsamycins (OMS) A and B in the antimicrobial responses against Mtb infections by activating autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). OMS robustly activated autophagy, which was essentially required for the colocalization of LC3 autophagosomes with bacterial phagosomes and antimicrobial responses against Mtb in BMDMs. Using a Drosophila melanogaster-Mycobacterium marinum infection model, we showed that OMS-A-induced autophagy contributed to the increased survival of infected flies and the limitation of bacterial load. We further showed that OMS triggered AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which was required for OMS-mediated phagosome maturation and antimicrobial responses against Mtb. Moreover, treating BMDMs with OMS led to dose-dependent inhibition of macrophage inflammatory responses, which was also dependent on AMPK activation. Collectively, these data show that OMS is a promising candidate for new anti-mycobacterial therapeutics by activating antibacterial autophagy via AMPK-dependent signaling and suppressing excessive inflammation during Mtb infections.

  1. Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Zhumeria Majdae Essential Oil and its Capsulated Form

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    Rahil Emami

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It was found that in some cases, encapsulation could lead to better antimicrobial property and less toxicity. Because of high antimicrobial activity, both EO and EFEO of Zhumeria majdae may be used as powerfully antimicrobial agents.

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

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    K. Arab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g to powder of plant is for leaves 116.49 % and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

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    K. Arab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g  to powder of plant  is for leaves 116.49 %  and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  4. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of vaginal lactobacillus isolate

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    Zavišić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic potential of bacteriocin-producing lactobacilli strain Lactobacillus plantarum G2 isolated from the vaginal mucus of healthy women. The antimicrobial effect of G2 was confirmed in the mixed culture with pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella abony and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while bacteriocine activity was detected against S. aureus and S. abony only. The strain showed an excellent survival rate in low pH and in the presence of bile salts. The percentage of adhered cells of L. plantarum G2 to hexadecane was 63.85±2.0 indicating the intermediate hydrophobicity.

  5. Anti-microbial activities of sulfonamides using disc diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saba; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar

    2012-10-01

    Sulfonamides, being the member of the oldest anti-microbial group of compounds possess wide anti-microbial activities and are effective against pathogenic strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. They are widely used in the treatment of various infectious diseases e.g. malaria, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections etc. Based on their effectiveness against most of the bacteria, two novel sulfonamides (N-(2-methoxy phenyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide and N-ethyl-4-methyl-N-(3-methyl phenyl)benzenesulfonamide) were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR and elemental analyzer. Their anti-microbial activity was assessed and observed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. They showed good anti-microbial activities.

  6. Mixed ligand complexes of cobalt(III) and iron(III) containing N2O2-chelating Schiff base: Synthesis, characterisation, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Harun A. R.; Paul, Pradip C.; Mondal, Paritosh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R.

    2015-11-01

    Six mixed ligand complexes, namely, [Co(acac)L1] (1), [Fe(acac)L1] (2), [Co(acac)L2] (3), [Fe(acac)L2] (4), [Co(acac)L3] (5), and [Fe(acac)L3] (6) (H2L1 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-trans 1,2 diaminocyclohexane, H2L2 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-1,2 phenylenediamine, H2L3 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine) were synthesised and characterized using elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-Vis spectra, mass spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis. The molar conductance measurement confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes in DMF solution. Antioxidant activity of the complexes was studied using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method. Biological studies of the complexes have been carried out in vitro for antimicrobial activity against some selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. DFT calculations were performed using GAUSSIAN 09 program to ascertain the stable electronic structure, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, chemical hardness and dipole moment of the complexes.

  7. Isolation, antimicrobial activity of myxobacterial crude extracts and identification of the most potent strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charousová Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad spectrum antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to fight frequently occurring multidrug-resistant pathogens. Myxobacteria have been regarded as “microbe factories” for active secondary metabolites, and therefore, this study was performed to isolate two bacteriolytic genera of myxobacteria, Myxococcus sp. and Corallococcus sp., from 10 soil/sand samples using two conventional methods followed by purification with the aim of determining the antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts against 11 test microorganisms (four Gram-positive, four Gram-negative, two yeasts and one fungus. Out of thirty-nine directly observed strains, 23 were purified and analyzed for antimicrobial activities. Based on the broth microdilution method, a total of 19 crude extracts showed antimicrobial activity. The range of inhibited wells was more important in the case of anti-Gram-positive-bacterial activity in comparison with the anti-Gram-negative-bacterial and antifungal activity. In light of the established degree and range of antimicrobial activity, two of the most active isolates (BNEM1 and SFEC2 were selected for further characterization. Morphological parameters and a sequence similarity search by BLAST revealed that they showed 99% sequence similarity to Myxococcus xanthus − BNEM1 (accession no. KX669224 and Corallococcus coralloides - SFEC2 (accession no. KX669225. As these isolates had antimicrobial activity, they could be considered for use in the development of antibiotics for pharmaceutical use.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant leaf extracts against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikya Farjana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine antibacterial activity of water, oil and methanol extracts of guava (Psidium guajava, green tea (Camellia sinensis, neem (Azadirachta indica and marigold (Calendula officinalis against different species of bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Methods: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts was measured by agar well diffusion method. Results: Boiled water extracts of guava leaf showed the largest zone of inhibition (22 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. Water extracts of green tea leaf at boiling and room temperature showed 17.5 mm and 19 mm zone of inhibitions against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus, respectively. Boiled water extract of neem leaf showed moderate zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (10 mm and Klebsiella spp. (11 mm. Water and oil extracts of marigold leaf at both boiling and room temperature did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested microorganisms. Methanol extracts of both guava and green tea leaves showed same zone of inhibition against Pseudomonus spp. (18 mm. Methanol extract of neem leaf showed antibacterial acitivity against Klebsiella spp. (16 mm and Vibrio cholerae (14 mm and that of marigold leaf showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (18 mm and Klebsiella spp. (12 mm. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the leaves of guava, green tea, neem and marigold show anibacterial activity against different bacterial species. They could be used as alternatives to common antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial infections.

  9. Prediction of antibacterial activity from physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel N Melo

    Full Text Available Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible correlation of these with the in vivo onset of activity have only recently been proposed. In addition, such thresholds observed in model membranes occur at local peptide concentrations close to full membrane coverage. In this work we fully develop an interaction model of antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes; by exploring the consequences of the underlying partition formalism we arrive at a relationship that provides antibacterial activity prediction from two biophysical parameters: the affinity of the peptide to the membrane and the critical bound peptide to lipid ratio. A straightforward and robust method to implement this relationship, with potential application to high-throughput screening approaches, is presented and tested. In addition, disruptive thresholds in model membranes and the onset of antibacterial peptide activity are shown to occur over the same range of locally bound peptide concentrations (10 to 100 mM, which conciliates the two types of observations.

  10. Essential oil from Artemisia phaeolepis: chemical composition and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hsouna, Anis; Ben Halima, Nihed; Abdelkafi, Slim; Hamdi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia phaeolepis, a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, grows on the grasslands of Mediterranean region. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia phaeolepis was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 79 components representing 98.19% of the total oil were identified, and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (11.30%), camphor (8.21%), terpine-4-ol (7.32%), germacrene D (6.39), caryophyllene oxide (6.34%), and caryophyllene (5.37%). The essential oil showed definite inhibitory activity against 10 strains of test microorganisms. Eucalyptol, camphor, terpine-4-ol, caryophyllene, germacrene D and caryophyllene oxide were also examined as the major components of the oil. Camphor showed the strongest antimicrobial activity; terpine-4-ol, eucalyptol, caryophyllene and germacrene D were moderately active and caryophyllene oxide was weakly active. The study revealed that the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Xanthohumol and Its Selected Structural Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Stompor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of structural analogues of xanthohumol 1, a flavonoid compound found in hops (Humulus lupulus. The agar-diffusion method using filter paper disks was applied. Biological tests performed for selected strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria, fungi (Alternaria sp., and yeasts (Rhodotorula rubra, Candida albicans revealed that compounds with at least one hydroxyl group—all of them have it at the C-4 position—demonstrated good activity. Our research showed that the strain S. aureus was more sensitive to chalcones than to the isomers in which the heterocyclic ring C is closed (flavanones. The strain R. rubra was moderately sensitive to only one compound: 4-hydroxy-4’-methoxychalcone 8. Loss of the hydroxyl group in the B-ring of 4’-methoxychalcones or its replacement by a halogen atom (−Cl, −Br, nitro group (−NO2, ethoxy group (−OCH2CH3, or aliphatic substituent (−CH3, −CH2CH3 resulted in the loss of antimicrobial activity towards both R. rubra yeast and S. aureus bacteria. Xanthohumol 1, naringenin 5, and chalconaringenin 7 inhibited growth of S. aureus, whereas 4-hydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone 8 was active towards two strains: S. aureus and R. rubra.

  12. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of lemon balm Kombucha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velićanski Aleksandra S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage traditionally produced by metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of lemon balm kombucha as well as of particular control samples was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals of lemon balm kombucha and lemon balm tea was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Acetic acid, Kombucha samples and heat-denaturated kombucha showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacteria. However, there was no activity against yeasts and moulds. Kombucha showed higher antioxidant activity than tea sample for all applied sample volumes.

  13. Vibrational spectra and antimicrobial activity of selected bivalent cation benzoates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borawska, M. H.; Koczoń, P.; Piekut, J.; Świsłocka, R.; Lewandowski, W.

    2009-02-01

    Selected bands of FT-IR spectra of Mg(II), Ca(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) benzoates of both solid state and water solution, were assigned to appropriate molecular vibrations. Next evaluation of electronic charge distribution in both carboxylic anion and aromatic ring of studied compounds was performed. Classical plate tests and turbidimetry measurements, monitoring growth of bacteria Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and yeasts Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during 24 h of incubation, in optimal growth conditions (control) and in medium with addition of studied benzoate (concentration of 0.01% expressed as the concentration of benzoic acid), proved antimicrobial activity of studied compounds against investigated micro-organisms. PLS (partially least square) and PCR (principal component regression) techniques were applied to build a model, correlating spectral data reflecting molecular structure of studied compounds, with degree of influence of those compounds on growth of studied micro-organisms. Statistically significant correlation within cross validation diagnostic of PLS-1 calibration was found, when log 1/T of selected spectral regions of water solution samples were used as input data. The correlation coefficients between predicted with PLS calibration based on created 1, 2 or 3 factor models, and actual values of antimicrobial activity were: 0.70; 0.76, 0.81 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively. Log(PRESS) values of appropriate models were 2.10, 2,39 and 3.23 for P. anomala, B. subtilis, and E. coli, respectively.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja hortensis and Trachyspermum copticum essential oils against different kinds of microorganisms in vitro.Material and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by micro broth dilution assay and analysis of essential oils chemical composition by GC and GC/MS analysis.Results: Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene and carvacrol were the main components of S. horte...

  15. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid) and antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    WIBOWO MANGUNWARDOYO; SUCIATMIH; INDRAWATI GANDJAR

    2012-01-01

    Mangunwardoyo W, Suciatmih, Gandjar I. 2012. Frequency of endophytic fungi isolated from Dendrobium crumenatum (Pigeon orchid) and antimicrobial activity. Biodiversitas 13: 34-39. The aims of this research was to isolate and study the frequency of endophytic fungi from roots, bulbous, stems, and leaves of Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. (pigeon orchid) collected from Tanah Baru housing area, Bogor Botanical Garden, and Herbarium Bogoriense; and to assess for antimicrobial activity against Candida a...

  16. The antimicrobial activity of the Cnicus benedictus L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria PALLAG

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to test the antimicrobial effect of the aqueous solutions obtained from the soft extract of Cnicus benedictus L. (Asteraceae family flowers. The test was performed on Mueller - Hinton and blood-agar culture medium, on 8 standardized bacterial strains and microbiological strains obtained from infected secretions, using the diffusimetric method.The antimicrobial action of the plant extracts was confirmed by all bacterial tested strains, which presented inhibition zones, of approximately same values, at solutions with different concentrations. The values we obtained reveal significant differences of the intensity of the antimicrobial activity of the mature and immature flowers extract.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriophage Endolysin Produced in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Foster-Frey, Juli; Donovan, David M; Bauchan, Gary; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-01-01

    The increasing spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has raised the interest in alternative antimicrobial treatments. In our study, the functionally active gram-negative bacterium bacteriophage CP933 endolysin was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by a combination of transient expression and vacuole targeting strategies, and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. Expression of the cp933 gene in E. coli led to growth inhibition and lysis of the host cells or production of trace amounts of CP933. Cytoplasmic expression of the cp933 gene in plants using Potato virus X-based transient expression vectors (pP2C2S and pGR107) resulted in death of the apical portion of experimental plants. To protect plants against the toxic effects of the CP933 protein, the cp933 coding region was fused at its Nterminus to an N-terminal signal peptide from the potato proteinase inhibitor I to direct CP933 to the delta-type vacuoles. Plants producing the CP933 fusion protein did not exhibit the severe toxic effects seen with the unfused protein and the level of expression was 0.16 mg/g of plant tissue. Antimicrobial assays revealed that, in contrast to gram-negative bacterium E. coli (BL21(DE3)), the gram-positive plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis was more susceptible to the plant-produced CP933, showing 18% growth inhibition. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the combination of transient expression and protein targeting to the delta vacuoles is a promising approach to produce functionally active proteins that exhibit toxicity when expressed in plant cells.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure, antimicrobial activity and electrochemistry study of chromium(III) and copper(II) complexes based on semicarbazone Schiff base and azide ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaabani, B.; Khandar, A.A.; Dušek, Michal; Pojarová, Michaela; Mahmoudi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 394, JAN (2013), s. 563-568 ISSN 0020-1693 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0701 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * azide ligand * metal complex * Schiff base ligand * X-ray structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.041, year: 2013

  19. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Matouskova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  20. Effect of Encapsulation on Antimicrobial Activity of
Herbal Extracts with Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matouskova, Petra; Marova, Ivana; Bokrova, Jitka; Benesova, Pavla

    2016-09-01

    Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has increased. The use of natural components with antimicrobial properties can be of great significance to reduce this problem. The presented work is focused on the study of the effect of encapsulation of selected plant and animal antimicrobial substances (herbs, spices, lysozyme and nisin) on their activity and stability. Antimicrobial components were packaged into liposomes and polysaccharide particles (alginate, chitosan and starch). Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive ( Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus ) and two Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens ) bacteria. Encapsulation was successful in all types of polysaccharide particles and liposomes. The prepared particles exhibited very good long-term stability, especially in aqueous conditions. Antimicrobial activity was retained in all types of particles. Liposomes with encapsulated herb and spice extracts exhibited very good inhibitory effect against all tested bacterial strains. Most of herbal extracts had very good antimicrobial effect against the tested Gram-negative bacterial strains, while Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to lysozyme particles. Thus, particles with co-encapsulated herbs and lysozyme are more active against different types of bacteria, and more stable and more effective during long-term storage. Particles with encapsulated mixture of selected plant extracts and lysozyme could be used as complex antimicrobial preparation with controlled release in the production of food and food supplements, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available mouthrinses: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopavathi Kallahalli Mruthyuenjaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity ecosystem represents a dynamic pattern. An effective plaque control measure should target plaque formation before the mature plaque is formed. Various types of chemotherapeutic agents are coming up with different antimicrobial agents in them. Hence, this study has been undertaken to know whether these antimicrobial agents are effective on common microorganisms of oral cavity which directly and indirectly contributes to plaque formation Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial efficacy of different mouthrinses against the oral pathogens in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total of seven mouthrinses were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three oral pathogens, namely, Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 890, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by well agar diffusion assay. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. The level of significance used was P< 0.05. Results: Mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate, triclosan as main ingredients showed maximum zone of inhibition (P = 0.003 against streptococcal mutans and E. coli at 1:16 dilution and mouthrinse with CHX gluconate and zinc chloride showed maximum zone of inhibition at 1:16 dilution against Candida among seven mouthrinses used in the present study. It was also observed that zone of inhibition of all the mouthrinses decreased with the increase in dilution. Conclusion: Among mouthrinses formulations, CHX combined with other active ingredients was found to be more effective.

  2. Histological and antimicrobial study of Ononis arvensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Tünde; Bartha, Sámuel Gergely; Kerényi, Mónika; Varga, Erzsébet; Balázs, Viktória Lilla; Csepregi, Rita; Papp, Nóra

    2017-09-01

    In this study field restharrow (Ononis arvensis) was investigated for histological and antimicrobial features. The aerial part and the root were embedded in synthetic resin and investigated following sectioning by a rotation microtome. The antimicrobial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the solvent fractions of the aerial part were studied against four bacterial strains and one fungus. According to histology, the root covered by rhizodermis contains contiguous vascular elements, which are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells. The epidermis cells are anisodiametric in the stem, sepal, and petal. The bundles of the stem form a Ricinus type thickening. The adaxial side of the heterogeneous leaf is covered by unbranching non-glandular and capitate glandular trichomes. The stipule, petiole, sepals and petals are isolateral having mesomorphic stomata. Pollen grains are tricolpate. The different extracts of the herb showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Data show that the extracts of the leaf contain compounds which may be responsible for the antifungal effect, while extracts obtained from display against the tested bacteria, except Escherichia coli. Further studies are required to complete the phytochemical analysis and identify the antimicrobial compounds of extracts.

  3. Development of elastin-like recombinamer films with antimicrobial activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, André; Machado, Raul; Ribeiro, Artur

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we explored the ABP-CM4 peptide properties from Bombyx mori for the creation of biopolymers with broad antimicrobial activity. An antimicrobial recombinant protein-based polymer (rPBP) was designed by cloning the DNA sequence coding for ABP-CM4 in frame with the N-terminus of ...... and human keratinocytes. Finally, we have developed an optimized ex vivo assay with pig skin demonstrating the antimicrobial properties of the CM4-A200 cast films for skin applications....... the incorporation of a formic acid cleavage site between the peptide and the A200 sequence. In soluble state the antimicrobial activity of both CM4-A200 polymer and ABP-CM4 peptide was poorly effective. However, when the CM4-A200 polymer was processed into free-standing films high antimicrobial activity against...... Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi was observed. The antimicrobial activity of CM4-A200 was dependent on the physical contact of cells with the film surface. Furthermore, CM4-A200 films did not reveal a cytotoxic effect against both normal human skin fibroblasts...

  4. Effect of growth conditions and extraction solvents on enhancement of antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mashhadinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding increasing rate of drug resistance among microbial pathogens, a global search to find new antimicrobial agents from natural compounds with fewer side effects has been considered by many researchers worldwide. Bioactive compounds with good antimicrobial activity have been isolated from different algae and cyanobacteria. The current study was performed to determine antimicrobial potential and to characterize the effect of algal growth modes (autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic and extraction solvents on antimicrobial activity of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris against four bacterial and one fungal pathogens. C. vulgaris was grown under different growth conditions and the biomass was harvested. Different extracts were prepared using acetone, chloroform and ethyl acetate as extraction solvents and antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a fungal strain (Candida albicans using agar well diffusion assay. In addition, Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extracts were determined. Moreover, the total oil content and lipid productivity of C. vulgaris grown under different modes were determined. The heterotrophic growth resulted in stronger antimicrobial activity compared to the other growth conditions. In addition, the highest antimicrobial activity was observed for chloroform mediated extract and extraction using acetone resulted in minimum antimicrobial activity. Moreover, heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth significantly increased the total lipid content and lipid productivity compared to the autotrophic growth. C. vulgaris exhibited good antimicrobial potential and the antimicrobial efficacy could be influenced by extraction solvents and growth conditions.

  5. Screening of antimicrobial activity of macroalgae extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wahidi, M; El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Bamhaoud, T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is the screening of the antimicrobial activity of seaweed extracts against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae collected from the Moroccan's Atlantic coast (El-Jadida) was tested against two Gram+ (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram- (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) human pathogenic bacteria, and against two pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) using the agar disk-diffusion method. Seven algae (70%) of ten seaweeds are active against at least one pathogenic microorganisms studied. Five (50%) are active against the two studied yeast with an inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm for Cystoseira brachycarpa. Six (60%) seaweeds are active against at least one studied bacteria with five (50%) algae exhibiting antibacterial inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm. Cystoseira brachycarpa, Cystoseira compressa, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gelidium sesquipedale have a better antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum antimicrobial and are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds and can be subject of isolation of the natural antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal complexes of salicylhydroxamic acid and 1,10-phen-anthroline; equilibrium and antimicrobial activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Fazary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salicylhydroxamic acid and its binary and ternary copper(II, nickel(II, and iron(III complexes involving 1,10-phenanthroline were studied pH-potentiometrically in 0.15 mol.L-1 NaNO3 aqueous solutions at 37 oC. The protonation constants of salicylhydroxamic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline as well their binary and mixed ligand complex species stability constants were determined based on 3 estimation models (Irving Rossetti, Bjerrum-Calvin and Hyperquad 2008. Also, six solid complexes were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi organisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v28i3.8

  7. Antimicrobial activity of earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae) paste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kavi pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... results in the facilitation of blood circulation (Cooper and. Balamurugan, 2010). The earthworm ... The bacterial cultures were used for antimicrobial test maintained on nutrient agar slant and the fungal ... were obtained by growing the test organisms at 37°C, for 24 h while fungi were grown at 28°C for 48 h.

  8. synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Kurtoglu, M.; Purtas, F.; Serin, S. Transit. Met. Chem. 2005, 30, 1042; c) Sreedaran, S.;. Bharathi, K.S.; Kalilur-Rahiman, A.; Rajesh, K.; Nirmala, G.; Jagadish, L.; Kaviyarasan, V.;. Narayana, V. Polyhedron 2008, 27, 1867. 14. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility ...

  9. Structural Basis for Antimicrobial Activity of Lasiocepsin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monincová, Lenka; Buděšínský, Miloš; Čujová, Sabína; Čeřovský, Václav; Veverka, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2014), s. 301-308 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536; GA MŠk(CZ) LK11205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * Lasioglossum laticeps * membranes * NMR spectroscopy * ShK family Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.088, year: 2014

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Zaharah, M.Y.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Malaysia has led to increasing quantity and complexity of generated waste or by-product. The main objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder. The squid ink was collected from fresh squid and dried using freeze dryer before it was ground into powder. The yield of squid ink was 22.82% after freeze-drying which was 69.37g in amount. Proximate composition analysis as well as two total antioxidant activity assays named 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay, and antimicrobial analysis were done on the powdered squid ink. The proximate results of squid ink powder were 4.43 ± 0.29% moisture, 62.46 ± 0.62% protein, 3.96 ± 0.08% fat, and 9.29 ± 0.05% ash. Results of DPPH assay showed that water extraction of squid ink powder has the highest 94.87 ± 4.87%, followed by ethanol 67.57 ± 7.55%, and hexane extract 2.10 ± 1.18%. FRAP assay result presented the same trend with water extraction had the highest value of 929.67 ± 2.31 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract, followed by ethanol extract 201.00 ± 26.29 μmol Fe (II per gram sample and hexane 79.67 ± 12.66 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract. Both water and ethanol extract showed antimicrobial properties with inhibition range of 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Fresh squid ink had 1.254 × 103 colony forming unit per gram of sample of microbial content. Squid ink powder had protein as major compound and microbial content was below from standard value of fisheries products as stated in Food Act 1983 and Regulation 1985.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin-derived peptides on bovine respiratory pathogen Histophilus somni

    OpenAIRE

    Dassanayake, Rohana P.; Falkenberg, Shollie M.; Briggs, Robert E.; Tatum, Fred M.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2017-01-01

    Bovine NK-lysins, which are functionally and structurally similar to human granulysin and porcine NK-lysin, are predominantly found in the granules of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and NK-cells. Although antimicrobial activity of bovine NK-lysin has been assessed for several bacterial pathogens, not all the important bacterial pathogens that are involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex have been studied. Therefore the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activi...

  12. Natural Cinnamic Acids, Synthetic Derivatives and Hybrids with Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Guzman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  13. Poly(anhydride-esters) comprised exclusively of naturally occurring antimicrobials and EDTA: antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone-Howell, Ashley L; Stebbins, Nicholas D; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2014-05-12

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways.

  14. Oxidized amylose with high carboxyl content: A promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Ye, Youxin; Zhang, Wenwen; Li, Songling; Chen, Jing; Wang, Shiting; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-12-10

    The oxidized amyloses with different carboxyl content were prepared to include linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. The results show that linalool can be effectively reserved from volatilization through encapsulation into amylose and oxidized amyloses. The inclusion ability of oxidized amyloses towards linalool is decreasing with the increase of oxidation level due to the depolymerization of amylose. However, the solubilization effect of oxidized amyloses to linalool is enhanced efficiently owning to the high water solubility of oxidized amyloses. It is interesting that the inclusion complexes have good antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. Linalool solubilized by oxidized amyloses presents better antimicrobial performance than that solubilized by amylose, mainly resulting from that amylose-linalool inclusion complex would aggregate and retrograde fast in aqueous solution, which is disadvantageous for the release of linalool. The study suggests that oxidized amylose is a promising solubilizer and carrier of linalool for antimicrobial activity in aqueous environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS FLOWERS

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    P. V. Afanasyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the Russian Federation and abroad. The wide range of pharmacological activity of this medicinal plant is determined by carotenoids, flavonoids, saponins. These biologically active substances give total therapeutic effect of flowers of Calendula officinalis and medicines on base of pot marigold. This paper discusses the results of comparative investigations for a determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and aqueous- alcoholic extracts from pot marigold flowers. Detection of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was carried out by using the method of double serial dilutions in broth. The following microorganisms were used as test cultures: Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The study showed that the widest spectrum of antibacterial activity has water extract of pot marigold flowers. As for Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active medicine is tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol. As for Escherichia coli the only phytopharmaceutical – water extract of marigold flowers, reveals antimicrobial activity. Against Bacillus cereus the most effective properties was indicated for tincture (1:5 with 70% ethanol and the liquid extract (1:2 with 70% alcohol. In case of Candida albicans, tincture (1:10 with 70% alcohol exhibited the highest activity.

  16. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review

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    Mounyr Balouiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents from various sources to combat microbial resistance. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to antimicrobial activity screening and evaluating methods. Several bioassays such as disk-diffusion, well diffusion and broth or agar dilution are well known and commonly used, but others such as flow cytofluorometric and bioluminescent methods are not widely used because they require specified equipment and further evaluation for reproducibility and standardization, even if they can provide rapid results of the antimicrobial agent's effects and a better understanding of their impact on the viability and cell damage inflicted to the tested microorganism. In this review article, an exhaustive list of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and detailed information on their advantages and limitations are reported.

  17. Analysis of essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different hydrodistillation extraction stages: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jiajia; Ren, Na

    2015-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from Voacanga africana seeds at different extraction stages were investigated. In the chemical composition analysis, 27 compounds representing 86.69-95.03% of the total essential oils were identified and quantified. The main constituents in essential oils were terpenoids, alcohols and fatty acids accounting for 15.03-24.36%, 21.57-34.43% and 33.06-57.37%, respectively. Moreover, the analysis also revealed that essential oils from different extraction stages possessed different chemical compositions. In the antioxidant evaluation, all analysed oils showed similar antioxidant behaviours, and the concentrations of essential oils providing 50% inhibition of DPPH-scavenging activity (IC50) were about 25 mg/mL. In the antimicrobial experiments, essential oils from different extraction stages exhibited different antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial activity of oils was affected by extraction stages. By controlling extraction stages, it is promising to obtain essential oils with desired antimicrobial activities.

  18. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

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    D. Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n=10 with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n=10. After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h, the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%. The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction (P<0.001 of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 (0.580±0.209 log10, 100 (0.998±0.508 log10, and 200 mg/mL (1.093±0.462 log10 was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%.

  19. Synthesis, DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of three rimantadine analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing-Mi; Zhang, Jun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Xin, E-mail: wangxinlnu@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yang [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Niu, Hua-Ying [Jinan Dachpharm Development Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Bin, E-mail: liubinzehao@163.com [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The interactions of three rimantadine analogues (RAs) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) in buffer solution (pH 7.4) were investigated using berberine (BR) as a probe by various methods. Fluorescence studies revealed that the RAs interacted with DNA in vitro and the quenchings were all static. Furthermore, the binding modes of these compounds to DNA were disclosed as groove binding supported by absorption spectroscopy, viscosity measurement and denatured DNA experiment. The antimicrobial activities of the RAs were also evaluated in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and they all exhibited good bacteriostasic effects. The results might provide an important reference for investigation of the molecular mechanism associated with the DNA binding of the RAs. - Highlights: • Three rimantadine analogues were synthesized. • The RAs effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of DNA via a static combination. • These analogues can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. • The antimicrobial activities of three analogues were also evaluated by the disk diffusion method.

  20. Evidence for antimicrobial activity associated with common house spider silk

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    Wright Simon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spider silk is one of the most versatile materials in nature with great strength and flexibility. Native and synthetically produced silk has been used in a wide range of applications including the construction of artificial tendons and as substrates for human cell growth. In the literature there are anecdotal reports that suggest that native spider silk may also have antimicrobial properties. Findings In this study we compared the growth of a Gram positive and a Gram negative bacterium in the presence and absence of silk produced by the common house spider Tegenaria domestica. We demonstrate that native web silk of Tegenaria domestica can inhibit the growth of the Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. No significant inhibition of growth was detected against the Gram negative bacterium, Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial effect against B. subtilis appears to be short lived thus the active agent potentially acts in a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal manner. Treatment of the silk with Proteinase K appears to reduce the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. This is consistent with the active agent including a protein element that is denatured or cleaved by treatment. Tegenaria silk does not appear to inhibit the growth of mammalian cells in vitro thus there is the potential for therapeutic applications.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Santos, Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25-5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates.

  2. Synthesis, characteristics and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki, A. Chinnammal; Sailatha, E.; Gunasekaran, S.

    2015-06-01

    The utilization of various plant resources for the bio synthesis of metallic nano particles is called green technology and it does not utilize any harmful protocols. Present study focuses on the green synthesis of ZnO nano particles by Zinc Carbonate and utilizing the bio-components of powder extract of dry ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale). The ZnO nano crystallites of average size range of 23-26 nm have been synthesized by rapid, simple and eco friendly method. Zinc oxide nano particles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectra confirmed the adsorption of surfactant molecules at the surface of ZnO nanoparticles and the presence of ZnO bonding. Antimicrobial activity of ZnO nano particles was done by well diffusion method against pathogenic organisms like Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and Penicillium notatum. It is observed that the ZnO synthesized in the process has the efficient antimicrobial activity.

  3. Effect of ripening inhibitor type on formation, stability, and antimicrobial activity of thyme oil nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Victor; McClements, David J; Corradini, Maria G; McLandsborough, Lynne

    2018-04-15

    The objective of this research was to study the impact of ripening inhibitor level and type on the formation, stability, and activity of antimicrobial thyme oil nanoemulsions formed by spontaneous emulsification. Oil-in-water antimicrobial nanoemulsions (10 wt%) were formed by titrating a mixture of essential oil, ripening inhibitor, and surfactant (Tween 80) into 5 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.5). Stable nanoemulsions containing small droplets (d palm ≈ corn > canola > coconut which also depended on their ability to transfer hydrophobic antimicrobial constituents to the separated hydrophobic domain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

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    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of Enterococcus faecium KQ 2.6 isolated from peacock feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Hui-Min; Li, Dan-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E

    2015-05-12

    The objective of this paper was to study antimicrobial activity and safety of Enterococcus faecium KQ 2.6 (E. faecium KQ 2.6) isolated from peacock feces. Agar well diffusion method was adopted in antimicrobial activity assay. Disk diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance. The identification and virulence potential of E. faecium KQ 2.6 were investigated using PCR amplification. The results indicated that cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain had the good antimicrobial activity against selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biochemical characteristics of antimicrobial substances were investigated. The results indicated that the antimicrobial substances were still active after treatment with catalase and proteinase, respectively. Moreover, the stability of antimicrobial substances did not change after heat treatment at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°C for 30 min, respectively. The activity of antimicrobial substances remained stable at 4 and -20°C after long time storage. The antimicrobial activity of CFS was compared with that of the buffer with similar strength and pH. The inhibitory zone of the buffer was apparently smaller than that of CFS, which meant that the acid in CFS was not the only factor that was contributed to antibacterial activity of CFS. The antibiotic resistance and virulence potential were evaluated using disk diffusion test and PCR amplification. The results showed that E. faecium KQ 2.6 did not harbor any tested virulence genes such as gelE, esp, asa1, cylA, efaA and hyl. It was susceptible to most of tested antibiotics except for vancomycin and polymyxin B. E. faecium KQ 2.6 may be used as bio-preservative cultures for the production of fermented foods.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSA CANINA FLOWERS AGAINST SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

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    Katarína Rovná

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa canina flowers were screened against various plant pathogenic microbial strains to study the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers were screened applying agar well diffusion method against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960 and three microscopic filamentous fungi strains Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata, respectively. The best antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the best antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Escherichia coli.

  7. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirali, Resmiye E; Bodur, Haluk; Sipahi, Bilge; Sungurtekin, Elif

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) in different concentrations against endodontic pathogens in vitro. Agar diffusion procedure was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the tested materials. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and the mixture of these were used for this study. In the agar diffusion test, 5.25% NaOCl exhibited better antimicrobial effect than the other concentrations of NaOCl for all strains. All concentrations of OCT were effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis. Some 0.2% CHX was ineffective on all microorganisms. Antibacterial effectiveness of all experimental solutions decreased on the mixture of all strains. Decreasing concentrations of NaOCl resulted in significantly reduced antimicrobial effect. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid hydrazone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasras, Anas J M; Al-Tel, Taleb H; Al-Aboudi, Amal F; Al-Qawasmeh, Raed A

    2010-06-01

    Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of cholic acid analogues 4a-t are reported. The synthesis of 4a-t was accomplished from ethylcholate 2. The hydrazone moiety was introduced via coupling of the cholic acid hydrazide (3) with appropriately functionalized aldehyde utilizing acetic acid as a catalyst. Quiet of interest in relation to the synthesized hydrazones is the formation of two rotamers s-cis.E and s-trans.E. Most compounds showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than Cefaclor and Cefixime. Compounds 4d, 4i and 4j indicated 15-fold stronger antimicrobial activities against Enterobacter faecalis compared to Cefaclor and Cefixime. Some of the synthesized compounds (e.g. 4a, 4c, 4d, 4i, and 4l) reflected two-folds less activity against Escherichia coli relative to Cefixime. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain and aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuj; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain, and aloe vera (all in gel formulations), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis—an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using dentin shavings collected at 2 depths of 200 and 400 μm. The total colony forming units at the end of 1, 3, and 5 days were assessed. Results: The overall percentage inhibition of bacterial growth (200 and 400 μm depth) was 100% with chlorhexidine gel. This was followed by M. citrifolia gel (86.02%), which showed better antimicrobial efficacy as compared with aloe vera gel (78.9%), papain gel (67.3%), and calcium hydroxide (64.3%). There was no statistical difference between data at 200 and 400 μm depth. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine gel showed the maximum antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, whereas calcium hydroxide showed the least. Among the natural intracanal medicaments, M. citrifolia gel consistently exhibited good inhibition up to the 5th day followed by aloe vera gel and papain gel. PMID:22876022

  10. Antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Zhang, Xuejing; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Chengting; Lin, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, essential oils are recognized as safe substances and can be used as antibacterial additives. Salvia sclarea is one of the most important aromatic plants cultivated world-wide as a source of essential oils. In addition to being flavoring foods, Salvia sclarea essential oil can also act as antimicrobials and preservatives against food spoilage. Understanding more about the antibacterial performance and possible mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil will be helpful for its application in the future. But so far few related researches have been reported. In our study, Salvia sclarea oil showed obvious antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of seven pathogens were 0.05 and 0.1 % respectively. In addition, Salvia sclarea oil also exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and meats. After treated with Salvia sclarea oil, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images can clearly see the damage of cell membrane; the intracellular ATP concentrations of E. coli and S. aureus reduced 98.27 and 69.61 % respectively, compared to the control groups; the nuclear DNA content of E. coli and S. aureus was significantly reduced to 48.32 and 50.77 % respectively. In addition, there was massive leakage of cellular material when E. coli and S. aureus were exposed to Salvia sclarea oil. Salvia sclarea essential oil damaged the cell membrane and changed the cell membrane permeability, leading to the release of some cytoplasm such as macromolecular substances, ATP and DNA. In general, the antimicrobial action of Salvia sclarea essential oil is not only attributable to a unique pathway, but also involves a series of events both on the cell surface and within the cytoplasm. Therefore, more experiments need to be done to fully understand the antimicrobial mechanism of Salvia sclarea essential oil.

  11. Structure-activity relationships and molecular docking studies of chromene and chromene based azo chromophores: A novel series of potent antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tarek H; Okasha, Rawda M; Ahmed, Hany E A; Ilaš, Janez; Saleh, Tarek; Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S

    2017-01-01

    The design of novel materials with significant biological properties is a main target in drug design research. Chromene compounds represent an interesting medicinal scaffold in drug replacement systems. This report illustrates a successful synthesis and characterization of two novel series of chromene compounds using multi-component reactions. The synthesis of the first example of azo chromophores containing chromene moieties has also been established using the same methodology. The antimicrobial activity of the new molecules has been tested against seven human pathogens including two Gm+ve, two Gm-ve bacteria, and four fungi, and the results of the inhibition zones with minimum inhibitory concentrations were reported as compared to reference drugs. All the designed compounds showed significant potent antimicrobial activities, among of them, four potent compounds 4b , 4c , 13e , and 13i showed promising MIC from 0.007 to 3.9 µg/mL. In addition, antiproliferative analysis against three target cell lines was examined for the novel compounds. Compounds 4a , 4b , 4c , and 7c possessed significant antiproliferative activity against three cell lines with an IC 50 of 0.3 to 2 µg/mL. Apoptotic analysis was performed for the most potent compounds via caspase enzyme activity assays as a potential mechanism for their antiproliferative effects. Finally, the computational 2D QSAR and docking simulations were accomplished for structure-activity relationship analyses.

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of crude ethanol extracts and fractions of Terminalia catappa and Vitex doniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O O; Sood, S; Osiyemi, O A; Agnihotri, V K; Gulati, A; Ajaiyeoba, E O; Singh, B

    2015-03-01

    The spread of microorganisms resistant to some antimicrobial agents necessitates the need to search for novel and effective antimicrobial agents. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Terminalid catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) and Vitex doniana Sweet. (Verbenaceae), two Nigerian medicinal plants used in folk medicines for the management of various ailments related to microbial infections were evaluated. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude ethanol extracts and fractions of the leaves and stem bark of T. catappa and V. doniana. Four crude ethanol extracts and 16 (n-hexane, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous) fractions of leaves and stem bark of T. catappa and V doniana were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against fifteen (15) strains of bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial activity was determined in a 96-well plate using a resazurin based broth microdilution method. Two standard antimicrobial drugs ampicillin and nystatin were included as positive control. The butanoL fraction of stem bark of T. catappa and ethanol crude extract of leaf of V don iana displayed the highest antibacterial activity with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 93.75 microg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtilis. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction of stem bark of T. catappa showed the highest antifungal activity with MIC of 187.5 microg/mL against A. sydowi. Amp icillin had MIC of 15.6 and 31.3 microg/mL against S. aureus and B. subtili, respectively while nystatin produced MIC of 3.9 microg/mL against A. sydowi. Termninalia catappa and Vitex doniana may serve as useful sources of plant derived antimicrobial agents.

  13. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

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    Luciana de C Tavares

    Full Text Available Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3, and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12 were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10, followed by avicine (12 and dihydrochelerythrine (4. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14 was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective

  14. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luciana de C; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D; Neto, Alexandre T; Mostardeiro, Clarice P; Da Cruz, Ivana B M; Oliveira, Raul M; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect

  16. Imparting permanent antimicrobial activity onto viscose and acrylic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekewi, M; El-Sayed, A Atef; Amin, M S; Said, Hala I

    2012-05-01

    Viscose and acrylic fabrics were aminated to enhance metal chelation of Cu, Zn and Ni for the purpose of imparting fabrics antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Fabrics were firstly epoxidized using epichlorohydrin prior amination. Optimization of the reaction conditions, e.g., temperature, medium pH, amine type and metal type and their concentrations, are reported. Aminated fabrics of viscose and acrylic were shown to be viable for chelation with divalent metal cations. The overall results revealed that antibacterial resistance of metalized aminated fabrics that the activity trend of metals is in the order Cu-complex>Zn-complex>Ni-complex with regard to fighting of microorganisms and permanent even after 10 washing. Reaction mechanism of epoxidation, amination and metal chelation of fabrics are offered supported by FT-IR structural study, nitrogen content and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of aroylhydrazone-based oxido vanadium(v) complexes: in vitro and in silico studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebrahimipour, S.Y.; Sheikhshoaie, I.; Simpson, J.; Ebrahimnejad, H.; Dušek, Michal; Kharazmi, N.; Eigner, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2016), s. 2401-2412 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12653S; GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Schiff bases * oxido-vanadium complexes * antimictobial activity * crystal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  18. STUDIES ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF BIOACTIVE MOLECULES FROM DATE PALM(PHOENIXDACTYLIFERAL.) POLLENS AND SEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentrad, Najla; Gaceb-Terrak, Rabéa; Benmalek, Yamina; Rahmania, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Natural resources have been the crucial origin of chemical elements. They have been used in many traditions as alternative medicines. The chemical profiling of some plant extracts and essential oils related to different plants were followed to unveil their most active components. In this paper, Phoenix dactilyfera L was selected as a host plant to investigate the composition of different organs with different cultivars. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts have been tested using different techniques, including optical density and GC/MS analyses of the natural extracts. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of abundant oleic (36.69%) and lauric (20.49%) acids in date seeds. However, the pollen contains a high amount of palmitic (22.27 %), linoleic (33.4%) and linolenic (17.055%) acids. Moreover, the largest inhibition zone is obtained with the organic extract of Deglet Nour which showed a strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and pollen extract showed also a strong inhibition against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , S. aureus MRSA and Enterococcus faecalis . Aqueous extracts of date palm seeds of and pollen seem to have a fongitoxique activity from a concentration of 6 mg.mL -1 and 12mg.mL -1 of cyanidine; as well as the organic extracts of pollen with a concentration of 90 μg.mL" 1 induce an inhibition to the growth of five special forms of Fusarium oxysporum . The bioactive compounds of date palm can be used for drug development and in the food industry.

  19. Comparative studies on the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. essential oil and methanol extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Devrnja, Nina; Anđelković, Boban; Aranđelović, Sandra; Radulović, Siniša; Soković, Marina; Krstić Milošević, Dijana; Ristić, Mihailo; Ćalić, Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Chemical composition of essential oil (EO) and methanol extracts (MEs) from different parts of Tanacetum vulgare L. plant was analyzed and investigated for potential biological activities and correlated with the main constituents detected in EO and MEs. The EO was characterized by a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes with trans-chrysanthenyl acetate as major compound. All MEs were characterized by neochlorogenic, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic and caffeoylquinic acids. High phenolic content in M...

  20. Study the antimicrobial activity of six marine sponges and three parts of sea anemone on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Hamayeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of six different species of marine sponges and one species of sea anemone that were collected from the Persian Gulf on the growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans. Methods: Sea anemone and six different sponges were gathered from the Persian Gulf and extracted by methanol macerated with dichloromethane solvents. The activity of each extracts against C. albicans was determined by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Also, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of each extract were determined. Results: The finding of current research confirmed that all sponge extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of sponge type 2 and 5 had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans and their zones of inhibition were 45 mm and 38 mm, respectively. The tentacle of sea anemone had the best inhibitory effect against C. albicans compared to other part of the body and its zone of inhibition was 41 mm. Besides, the sponge type 5 extracts had the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values with 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that the crude extracts of six different sponges and sea anemone have high potential to produce broad spectral antifungal activity with minimal concentration against different pathogenic fungi.

  1. The antimicrobial activity of as-prepared silver-loaded phosphate glasses and zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Wang; Jiang, Ji Zhi; Yang, Yang; Yan, Zhao Chun; Yan, Wang Xiao [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); He, Shui Zhong [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The antimicrobial activities of silver-loaded zirconium phosphate (JDG) and silver-loaded phosphate glasses (ZZB) against Escherichia coli were studied. Although the silver content in JDG was higher than that in ZZB, ZZB suspensions showed better antimicrobial property than JDG suspensions, especially at low concentrations. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed using minimum inhibitory concentrations, bacterial inhibition ring tests, and detection of silver ions in the suspensions. Furthermore, the amounts of silver ions in suspensions with/without bacterial cells were analyzed. Results revealed that only a portion of released silver ions could be adsorbed by E. coli cells, which are critical to cell death. The damaged microstructures of E. coli cells observed by transmission electron microscopy may further prove that the adsorbed silver ions play an important role in the antimicrobial process.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Venom and Melittin against Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Kayla M. Socarras; Priyanka A. S. Theophilus; Jason P. Torres; Khusali Gupta; Eva Sapi

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne, multi-systemic disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Though antibiotics are used as a primary treatment, relapse often occurs after the discontinuation of antimicrobial agents. The reason for relapse remains unknown, however previous studies suggest the possible presence of antibiotic resistant Borrelia round bodies, persisters and attached biofilm forms. Thus, there is an urgent need to find antimicrobial agents suitable to eliminate all known f...

  3. Antimicrobial activity of thin metallic silver flakes, waste products of a manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzano, Manuela; Tosti, Alessandra; Lasagni, Marina; Campiglio, Alfredo; Pitea, Demetrio; Collina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to develop new products and processes from a manufacturing waste from an Italian metallurgic company. The company produced thin silver metallic films and the production scraps were silver flakes. The possibility to use the silver flakes in water disinfection processes was studied. The antimicrobial activity of the flakes was investigated in batch using Escherichia coli as Gram-negative microorganism model. The flakes did not show any antimicrobial activity, so they were activated with two different processes: thermal activation in reducing atmosphere and chemical activation, obtaining, respectively, reduced flakes (RF) and chemical flakes (CF). The flakes, activated with either treatment, showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. The kill rate was dependent on the type of activated flakes. The chemical flakes were more efficient than reduced flakes. The kill rate determined for 1 g of CF, 1.0 +/- 0.2 min(-1), was greater than the kill rate determined for 1 g of RF, 0.069 +/- 0.004 min(-1). This was confirmed also by the minimum inhibitory concentration values. It was demonstrated that the antimicrobial capability was dependent on flakes amount and on the type of aqueous medium. Furthermore, the flakes maintained their properties also when used a second time. Finally, the antimicrobial activities of flakes were tested in an effluent of a wastewater treatment plant where a variety of heterotrophic bacteria were present.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Momordica charantia and Alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The medicinal plants, Momordica rharantia and Alstonia boonei were examined for antimicrobial activity against a Gram positive bacterium: Staphylororcus aureus and some Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella typhi, Proteus 1•ilfgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klehsiella pneumoniae. The active constituents of the ...

  5. Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: The content of total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins of the alcohol, hydroalcohol and aqueous extracts of ... Keywords: Crataegus oxyacantha L.; Natural phenolic compounds; Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, Southeast Serbia. ..... Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swart extracts, Food ...

  6. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New Pyrazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    29 antimalarial,30 antimicrobial,31,32 antiviral,33,34 hypoglycaemic,35 anti-HIV activity,36 insecticidal,37 and anti- fungal38 activities. In view of these reports and in continuation of our previous work39 we describe here a facile synthesis of.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces sp. isolated from the gulf of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-nine Streptomyces isolates were recovered from sediment samples in the gulf of Aqaba/Jordan. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria, and yeast. Twenty eight Streptomyces isolates were active against at least one of the tested strains. The majority of ...

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compounds were made on the basis of spectroscopic data and elemental analysis. Keywords. 10H-phenothiazines; Smiles rearrangement; sulphones; ribofuranosides; antimicrobial activity; anthelmintic activity. 1. Introduction. A large number of publications and patents registered worldwide gave much emphasis on the ...

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Various Plant Extracts on Pseudomonas Species Associated with Spoilage of Chilled Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osan Bahurmiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on Pseudomonas bacteria isolated from spoiled chilled tilapia (Oreochromis sp. was evaluated in this study. In the first stage of this study, red tilapia was subjected to chilled storage (4°C for 3 weeks, and spoilage bacteria were isolated and identified from the spoiled fish. Pseudomonas was the dominant bacteria isolated from the spoiled fish and further identification revealed that P. putida, P. fluorescens and Pseudomonas spp. were the main species of this group. In the second stage, methanolic extracts of 15 selected plant species were screened for their antimicrobial activity, by agar disc diffusion method, against the Pseudomonas isolates. Results indicated that most of the extracts had different degrees of activity against the bacterial isolates. The strongest activity was exhibited by bottlebrush flower (Callistemon viminalis extract. This was followed by extracts from guava bark (Psidium guajava and henna leaf (Lawsonia inermis. Moderate antimicrobial activities were observed in extracts of clove (Syzygium aromaticum, leaf and peel of tamarind (Tamarindus indica, cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, wild betel leaf (Piper sarmentosum and fresh thyme (Thymus spp.. Weak or no antimicrobial activity was observed from the remaining extracts. The potential antimicrobial activity shown by some plant extracts in this study could significantly contribute to the fish preservation.

  10. Fungi Treated with Small Chemicals Exhibit Increased Antimicrobial Activity against Facultative Bacterial and Yeast Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown “cryptic” secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3–4.3. For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S. aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  11. Fungi treated with small chemicals exhibit increased antimicrobial activity against facultative bacterial and yeast pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Bandian, Dragana; Neumayer, Bernhard; Speringer, Franz; Gorfer, Markus; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown "cryptic" secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3-4.3). For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial studies of mixed nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conductance values indicated a 1:1 electrolyte for the complexes. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and their mixed ligand complexes were screened using Agar diffusion method. It was found that the mixed metal complexes have higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. Keywords: Benzylhydrazone ...

  13. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hăncianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gille, Elvira; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is used in traditional medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, gastric conditions, psychiatric conditions, migraines, hypertension and bronchial conditions. Natural essential oils (mixtures of fragrant chemical) obtained from various parts of plants are efficient active antimicrobial agents. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents selects resistant bacterial strains, which seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of lack of susceptibility to synthetic antibiotics that is associated with therapeutic failures. In this work, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from romanian Melissa officinalis were determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon balm oil by comparison with lavender essential oil, which is also utilised for its antimicrobial properties in folk medicine. The most important identified compounds, well known for their antimicrobial effects were citral (neral and geranial) (16.10%), citronellal (3.76%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.57%).The lemon balm oil sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains. The both oil samples tested has shown a high activity against Candida albicans. The gram-negative bacteria were not affected by the lemon balm oil.

  14. Influence of montmorillonite on antimicrobial activity of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Guocheng; Pearce, Cody W.; Gleason, Andrea; Liao, Libing; MacWilliams, Maria P.; Li, Zhaohui

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics are used not only to fight infections and inhibit bacterial growth, but also as growth promotants in farm livestock. Farm runoff and other farm-linked waste have led to increased antibiotic levels present in the environment, the impact of which is not completely understood. Soil, more specifically clays, that the antibiotic contacts may alter its effectiveness against bacteria. In this study a swelling clay mineral montmorillonite was preloaded with antibiotics tetracycline and ciprofloxacin at varying concentrations and bioassays were conducted to examine whether the antibiotics still inhibited bacterial growth in the presence of montmorillonite. Escherichia coli was incubated with montmorillonite or antibiotic-adsorbed montmorillonite, and then the number of viable bacteria per mL was determined. The antimicrobial activity of tetracycline was affected in the presence of montmorillonite, as the growth of non-resistant bacteria was still found even when extremely high TC doses were used. Conversely, in the presence of montmorillonite, ciprofloxacin did inhibit E. coli bacterial growth at high concentrations. These results suggest that the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in clayey soils depends on the amount of antibiotic substance present, and on the interactions between the antibiotic and the clays in the soil, as well.

  15. Studies on Synthesis of Some Novel Heterocyclic Chalcone, Pyrazoline, Pyrimidine - 2 - One, Pyrimidine - 2 - Thione, para-Acetanilide Sulphonyl and Benzoyl Derivatives and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh N. Mistry

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available 1, 2 - Dichloro benzene on chlorosulphonation by chlorosulphonic acid gives 1, 2 - [dichloro] - benzene sulphonyl chloride which on condensation with p –amino acetophenone gives 1-[acetyl] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative. This derivative undergo condensation with 2,4- dichloro benzaldehyde gives 1- [3” - (sub. phenyl - 2” - propene - 1” - one] - 1’ , 2’ - [dichloro] - dibenz sulphonamide derivative which on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate and glacial acetic acid gives 1-[acetyl]-3- [1’ , 2’ - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] -5 - [2” , 4” - dichloro phenyl] - 2 - pyrazoline derivative. This derivative reacts with various substituted aldehydes to give corresponding substituted chalcone derivatives [1(a-j]. Now, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on condensation with urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine - 2 - one derivatives [2(a-j] and on condensation with thio-urea gives corresponding substituted pyrimidine- 2 -thione derivatives [3(a-j]. Further, these chalcone derivatives [1(a-j] on reaction with 99% hydrazine hydrate gives 1 - [1’ - (H - 5’ - (sub. phenyl - 2’ - pyrazoline]- 3 - [1” , 2” - (dichloro - dibenz sulphonamide] - 5 - [2’’’ , 4’’’ - dichloro phenyl]-2- pyrazoline derivatives [4(a-j] as an intermediate compounds, which on condensation with p-acetanilide sulphonyl chloride gives corresponding substituted p - acetanilide sulphonyl derivatives [5(a-j] and on condensation with benzoyl chloride gives corresponding substituted benzoyl derivatives [6(a-j]. Structure elucidation of synthesised compounds has been made on the basis of elemental analysis, I.R. spectral studies and 1H N.M.R. spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesised compounds has been studied against the cultures “Staphylococcus aureus”, “Escherichia coli” and “Candela albicans”.

  16. Preparation of Fe3O4 encapsulated-silica sulfonic acid nanoparticles and study of their in vitro antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Nazifi, Zahra Sadat; Amininezhad, Seyedeh Matin

    2015-08-01

    A simple and efficient method for the functionalization of silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2) using chlorosulfonic acid is described. The prepared compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 25923) under UV-light and dark conditions. It was found that the Fe3O4@SiO2-SO3H was significantly indicated the higher photocatalytic inactivation than both Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 against E. coli in compared with S. aureus. Furthermore, the inactivation efficiency against both organisms under light conditions has been higher than this efficiency under dark conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Mehrotra, Shubhi; Amitabh; Kirar, Vandana; Vats, Praveen; Nandi, Shoma Paul; Negi, P S; Misra, Kshipra

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the phytochemical and antimicrobial activities and also quantified bioactive nucleoside using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) of five extracts of Indian Himalayan Cordyceps sinensis prepared with different solvents employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique. The phytochemical potential of these extracts was quantified in terms of total phenolic and total flavonoid content while antioxidant activities were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total reducing power (TRP) was determined by converting iron (III) into iron (II) reduction assay. CS(50%Alc) (15.1 ± 0.67mg/g of dry extract) and CS(100%Alc) (19.3 ± 0.33 mg/g of dry extract) showed highest phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively while CS(Aq) extract showed maximum antioxidant activity and the highest concentration of the three nucleosides (adenine 12.8 ± 0.49 mg/g, adenosine 0.36 ± 0.28 mg/g and uracil 0.14 ± 0.36 mg/g of dry extract) determined by HPTLC. The evaluation of extracts for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial strains showed CS(25%Alc), CS(75%Alc) and CS(100%Alc) extract to be more effective against E. coli, P. aerugenosa and B. subtilis giving 9, 7 and 6.5 mm of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in 93.75, 93.75 and 45 μg concentration, respectively, whereas CS(Aq) extract showed minimal inhibition against these.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and second harmonic studies on organic non-centrosymmetric pure and doped ninhydrin single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanyaa, T.; Jayaramakrishnan, V.; Haris, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we report the successful growth of pure, Cu2+ ions and Cd2+ ions doped on ninhydrin single crystals by slow solvent evaporation technique. The presence of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ions in the specimen of ninhydrin single crystal has been determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction analysis was done to calculate the lattice parameters of the pure and doped crystals. The percentage of transmittance of the crystal was recorded using the UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. Thermal behaviors of the grown crystals have been examined by the thermal gravimetric/differential thermal analysis. The hardness of the grown crystals was assessed and the results show the minor variation in the hardness value for the pure and doped ninhydrin samples. The value of the work hardening coefficient n was found to be 2.0, 1.0 and 1.06 for pure, copper and cadmium doped ninhydrin crystals respectively. The second harmonic generation efficiency of Cd2+ and Cu2+ doped ninhydrin is 8.3 and 6.3 times greater than well known nonlinear crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate respectively. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the title compound were performed by disk diffusion method against the standard bacteria Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas oryzae and against the fungus Aspergillis niger and Aspergillus flavus.

  20. Study the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Activities of Eight Clinically Applied Disinfectants against Clinical Isolated of Enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Zareniya, Somayeh Hallaj-Nezhadi, Farideh Dinmohamadi, Fakhri Haghi, Maryam Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital-acquired infections are among the most significant reasons of human mortality world-wide which can be controlled by efficient application of suitable disinfectant for hospital setting. The main goal of the present study was to determine the efficacy of eight routinely used hospital disinfectants against clinical isolates. Methods: In our descriptive study, in the first step the antibiogram assay of 99 clinical isolates enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined. Then, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of isolates against Povidone Iodine 10%, Ethanol 70%, Savlon 3.2%, Deconex51Gastro, Procept Floor, Septo med, Surfanious and Gigasept AF were evaluated. Furthermore, the efficacy of disinfectants was reevaluated in presence of 5% (w/v Bovine Serum Albumin. Results: The results showed that Septo med and Surfanious are the most and less potent disinfectants against clinical isolates, respectively. It is also resulted that Povidone Iodine is the most effective choice among the conventional disinfectants in this study. Clearly, addition of 5% organic substances reduced the efficacy of selected disinfectants significantly. Conclusion: Novel quaternary ammonium compounds are the most applicable choice for disinfection of hospital surfaces and instruments in this study.

  1. In vitro determination of the short-chain synthetic peptide RP13 antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Adrián; Calderón, Ernesto; Castañón-Alonso, Sandra L; Santos, Araceli; Hernández, Beatriz; Vázquez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, along with the lack of new drugs against them, has elicited the interest of the scientific community on the study and development of endogenous synthetic compounds with bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity. In recent years, several short-chain, low molecular weight peptides isolated from natural sources such as plants and animals have demonstrated an array of antimicrobial activities. Despite having structural characteristics similar to microbicidal peptides isolated from human platelets, peptide RP11 does not exhibit antimicrobial activity. In vitro determination of the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic peptide RP13. Peptide RP13 was prepared modifying the original amino acids sequence of peptide RP11, reversing the position of the amino acids lysine and tyrosine in order to modify the conformation of the original peptide. These amino acids are localized close to the N-terminus of the peptidic chain. Peptide RP13 was prepared in solution using conventional methods for peptide synthesis. The antimicrobial activity of RP13 was assessed against the microorganisms S. aureus, E. faecalis and E. coli in a test solution and later evaluated by cultivation of plates during the first 2 h after inoculation of bacteria. RP13 activity antimicrobial was compared against tetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic. The new peptide RP13, resulting form the structural modification of the amino acid sequence of peptide RP11, displayed antimicrobial activity. RP13 demonstrated to be more efficient inhibiting the growth of gram-positive than gramnegative bacteria. The structural modification of peptide RP11, obtained from human platelets, resulted in a new peptide with improved antimicrobial activity. These results clearly demonstrate that peptides of natural origin, as well as their synthetic analogs, represent an attractive alternative against pathogenic agents.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Echinops kebericho against human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... endemic medicinal plant in Ethiopia and is traditionally used to treat both infectious and non-infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal activities of water, ethanol and methanol based crude extracts of E. kebericho Mesfin against selected human pathogenic bacteria and fungi.

  4. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities of Strychnos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Strychnos lucida R. Br. (Loganiaceae), a well-known indigenous medicine in Timor Leste, has been used for the treatment of ailments such as malaria, diarrhoea, fever, hypertension, cancer, diabetes mellitus and skin infections. Its pharmacological activity has never been reported. The aim of this study was to ...

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of amphiphilic carbohydrate derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Roberta C.N.; Oda, Simone C.; Almeida, Mauro V. de; Le Hyaric, Mireille; Barbosa, Nadia R.; Trevizani, Rafael; Santos, Priscila L.C.

    2008-01-01

    N-monoalkylated diamines were synthesised and treated with D-ribonolactone or D-gluconolactone. The resulting aldonamides were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, M. tuberculosis and C. albicans. Two hydrazides were also prepared from ribonohydrazide and their biological activity was compared to their amide analogues. All the ribono-derivatives displayed moderated antitubercular activity, and some of them were also active against S. aureus. (author)

  6. Nanoparticles for antimicrobial purposes in Endodontics: A systematic review of in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samiei, Mohammad [Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjami, Afsaneh; Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki [Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfipour, Farzaneh, E-mail: lotfipoor@tbzmed.ac.ir [School of Advanced Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hematology & Oncology Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial nanoparticles with enhanced physiochemical properties have attracted attention as modern antimicrobials, especially in the complicated oral cavity environment. The goal of the present article is to review the current state of nanoparticles used for antimicrobial purposes in root canal infections. Methods: A review was conducted in electronic databases using MeSH keywords to identify relevant published literature in English. The analysis and eligibility criteria were documented according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA-guidelines). No restrictions on publication date were imposed. Data regarding root canal disinfections, general antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles, type of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in endodontics were collected and subjected to descriptive data analysis. Results: The literature search in electronic databases according to the inclusion criteria provided 83 titles and abstracts. Among them 15 papers were related to antimicrobial effect of nanoparticles in Endodontics. Silver nanoparticles with sustainable activity were the most studied agent for its antimicrobial behavior in root canal infection. Aided polymeric nanoparticles with photo or ultrasound, glass bioactive nanoparticles as well as Calcium derivative based nanoparticles, with improved activity in comparison with the non-nano counterparts, are of importance in infection control of dental root canal. Bioactive Non-organic nanoparticles with structural capabilities present enhanced antimicrobial activity in root canal infections. Discussion: All included studies showed an enhanced or at least equal effect of nanoparticulate systems to combat dental root canal infections compared to conventional antimicrobial procedures. However, it is crucial to understand their shortcomings and their probable cellular effects and toxicity as well as environmental effects

  7. New perspective of dendrobium crumenatum orchid for antimicrobial activity against selected pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrasagaran, U.M.; Murugaiyah, V.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential anti-microbial activity from different parts of Dendrobium crumenatum (leaf, stem, root and pseudo-bulb) against 8 pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using disc diffusion assay, microdilution test for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The methanolic extracts of stem, root and pseudo-bulb displayed antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the standard antibiotics. Stem extract of D. crumenatum had the most potent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 0.39, 0.195 and 0.195 mg/mL, respectively. Root and stem extracts were found to be active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Shigella dysentriae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae with MIC values of 0.78 mg/ml compared to 0.00312 mg/mL, 0.025 mg/mL and 0.0125 mg/mL of standard antibiotics of amoxcillin, chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Stem and root extracts yield MBC values in the range of 0.78 mg/mL to 6.25 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The present study showed that D. crumenatum exhibited potential antimicrobial activity which could be due to the presence of alkaloid and flavonoid compounds and this is a first report on South East Asia region's wild orchid. (author)

  8. Isolation of actinomycetes from mangrove and estuarine sediments of Cochin and screening for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilda Rosmine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and screen actinomycetes for antimicrobial activity from mangroves and estuarine soil samples of Cochin. Methods: In the present study, sediment samples collected from mangroves and various stations of Cochin estuary were pretreated and actinomycetes were isolated on different selective media. The isolates were screened for antibiotic activity by following disc diffusion assay (Kirby-Bauer method against human pathogens, fish pathogens and Gram-positive bacteria. The isolates were identified based on their morphology. Results: Only 2 actinomycete isolates (ER7 and ER10 of the 50 isolates screened had antimicrobial activities against one or more pathogens tested. ER7 isolate showed higher antimicrobial activity as compared to that of ER10 isolate. The maximum inhibition zone of crude extract from ER7 was 16.7 mm. The methanol extract of ER7 showed antimicrobial activity against all the pathogens tested with a maximum zone of 21.0 mm. The isolates with antimicrobial activity were found to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Conclusions: There is no significant report on bioactive actinomycetes from the present study areas. Potent antibiotics from the selected isolates could contribute to fight against several human and fish diseases. Further purification, structural elucidation and characterization are recommended to know the quality, novelty and commercial value of these antibiotics. Hence, the mangroves and estuary of Kochi show great promise for the discovery of bioactive actinomycetes.

  9. Eco-friendly green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using salmalia malabarica: synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial, and catalytic activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Krishna, I.; Bhagavanth Reddy, G.; Veerabhadram, G.; Madhusudhan, A.

    2016-06-01

    An economically viable and "green" process has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an average size of 7 nm using non-toxic and renewable salmalia malabarica gum (SMG) as reducing and capping agent without using any chemical reducing agent. The effect of various parameters such as concentration of SMG and silver nitrate and reaction time for the synthesis of AgNPs was studied. The synthesized AgNPs are systematically characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. The resultant SMG-capped AgNPs are highly stable and had significant antibacterial action on both Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus). The catalytic action of the SMG-capped AgNPs to initiate the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in the presence of NaBH4 has also been reported. The kinetics of the reaction was found to be of pseudo-first-order with respect to the 4-NP.

  10. Synthesis and spectral studies of organotin(IV) 4-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thionates: In vitro antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Sulaxna; Song, Xueqing; Eng, George; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Some di- and triorganotin(IV) triazolates of general formula, R (4- n) SnL n (where n = 2; R = Me, n-Bu and Ph; n = 1; R = Me, n-Pr, n-Bu and Ph and HL = 4-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 1); and 4-amino-3-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 2)) were synthesized by the reaction of R (4- n) SnCl n with sodium salt of HL- 1 and HL- 2. The bonding and coordination behavior in these derivatives have been discussed on the basis of IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies in the solid state. Their coordination behavior in solution is discussed by multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectral studies. The IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that the ligands, HL- 1 and HL- 2 act as a monoanionic bidentate ligand, coordinating through Sexo- and Nring. The distorted skew trapezoidal-bipyramidal and distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries have been proposed for R 2SnL 2 and R 3SnL, respectively, in the solid state. In vitro antimicrobial screening of some of the newly synthesized derivatives and of some di- and triorganotin(IV) derivatives of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 3) and 5-amino-3H-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (HL- 4) along with two standard drugs such as fluconazole and ciprofloxacin have been carried out against the bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and against some fungi, viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida krusei (GO 3) and Candida glabrata (HO 5) by the filter paper disc method. The studied organotin(IV) compounds show mild antifungal activity as compared to that of fluconazole, however, they show almost insignificant activity against the studied Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureas) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria as compared to that of standard drug, ciprofloxacin.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Venâncio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa and Allium tuberosum (Atu against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923 and MRSA (ATCC 33592. Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 108 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control – 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 – Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 – Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 – amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 – Asa 400mg/kg; G7 – amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes isolated from unexplored regions of Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sohan; Pramanik, Arnab; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Bhattacharyya, Maitree

    2015-08-21

    New broad spectrum antimicrobial agents are urgently needed to combat frequently emerging multi drug resistant pathogens. Actinomycetes, the most talented group of microorganisms isolated from unexplored regions of the world may be the ultimate solution to this problem. Thus the aim of this study was to isolate several bioactive actinomycetes strains capable of producing antimicrobial secondary metabolite from Sundarbans, the only mangrove tiger land of the world. Fifty four actinomycetes were isolated and analyzed for antimicrobial activity against fifteen test organisms including three phytopathogens. Nine morphologically distinct and biologically active isolates were subjected to polyphasic identification study.16 s rDNA sequencing indicated eight isolates to reveal maximum similarity to the genus streptomyces, whereas one isolate presented only 93.57% similarity with Streptomyces albogriseolus NRRL B-1305(T). Seventy-one carbon sources and twenty-three chemical sources utilization assay revealed their metabolic relatedness. Among these nine isolates three specific strains were found to have notably higher degree of antimicrobial potential effective in a broader range including phyto-pathogenic fungus. Finally the strain SMS_SU21, which showed antimicrobial activity with MIC value of 0.05 mg ml(-1) and antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 0.242 ± 0.33 mg ml(-1) was detected to be the most potential one. True prospective of this strain was evaluated utilizing GC-MS and the bioactive compound responsible for antimicrobial activity was purified. Rare bioactive actinomycetes were isolated from unexplored heritage site. Antimicrobial compound has also been identified and purified which is active against a broad range of pathogens.

  14. Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa TG Silva

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex physalin metabolites present in the capsules of the fruit of Physalis angulata L. have been isolated and submitted to a series of assays of antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538P, Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739; E. coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 applying different methodologies such as: bioautography, dilution broth, dilution agar, and agar diffusion techniques. A mixture of physalins (pool containing physalins B, D, F, G inhibit S. aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538P, and N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 at a concentration of 200 mg/µl, using agar dilution assays. The mixture was inactive against P. aeruginosa ATCC27853, E. coli ATCC 8739; E. coli ATCC 25922, C. albicans ATCC 10231 when applying bioautography assays. Physalin B (200 µg/ml by the agar diffusion assay inhibited S. aureus ATCC 6538P by ± 85%; and may be considered responsible for the antimicrobial activity.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2017-03-28

    For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis in foodborne pathogens and its quantitative chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Nedji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of propolis samples collected from different regions of Algeria and their chemical composition. Methods: The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis against Bacillus cereus (IPA, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923R, Escherichia coli (ATCC25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27893R was evaluated by the disc diffusion method and determined as an equivalent of the inhibition zones diameters after incubation of the cultures at 37 °C for 24 h. The investigation of the polyphenol and flavonoid contents was done spectrophotometrically. Results: The ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis samples inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms with the highest antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria. Polyphenol and flavonoids contents were variable, depending on the propolis samples and a positive correlation between antimicrobial activity and chemical composition was observed. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activity, polyphenol and flavonoid contents were variable, depending on the propolis sample. The strong antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis may be due to high total phenolic and flavonoid contents and this study suggests potential use of propolis in foods.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  19. In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aerial parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride procedures were used to quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively, while antioxidant properties were determined by two methods: phosphomolybdenum and DPPH assays. Antimicrobial activity was also evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The ethyl ...

  20. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial and antiviral activities against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from marine algae isolated from Qusier and Marsa-Alam Seashore (Red Sea), Egypt. ... and two filamentous fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum) and against the Newcastle sense Virus (NDV)-(Paramyxoviridae) which is responsible ...

  1. Evaluation Of In-Vitro Antimicrobial Activities And Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occdentials. Cassia leaves were collected from Kacha town in Niger State and extracted using methano, hexane, chloroform and water extraction methods. Serial concentrations: 50 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 ...

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the fruitrind of Picralima nitida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Proteus mirabilis for the (M) extract of PN. These results provide a rationalization for the traditional use of both plants for the treatment of infections diseases. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Cylicodiscus gabunensis, Picralima nitida. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol. 21 (1&2) 2005: pp. 6-12 ...

  3. chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydro-distilled essential oil from Satureja biflora (Lamiaceae) growing in Kenya was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Twenty two compounds which constitute 99.29 % of the total oil were identified. The oil was dominated by monoterpenes, which ...

  4. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oils of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Pulicaria inuloides and Ocimum forskolei essential oils. Methods: Steam distillation of the aerial parts of P. inuloides and O. forskolei was performed using a Clevenger apparatus. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... Many Schiff base metal complexes have been prepared and screened for their antimicrobial activity. Ortho-hydroxysalicylaldimines possess N2O2 donor atoms and consequently, form stable chelates with metal ions.15,21,23–24. The configuration of the chelate group in the four coordinate complexes may ...

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique.

  7. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Polesný, Z.; Rada, V.; Nepovím, Aleš; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2002), s. 51-53 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/02/0257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * medicinal plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.188, year: 2002

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Diospyros melanoxylon bark from Similipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of five extracts of Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. bark collected from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa was evaluated against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extracts including both polar and non polar solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and aqueous were ...

  9. Reconfirmation of antimicrobial activity in the coelomic fluid of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the antimicrobial activity of dialysed coelomic fluid of the lumbricid E. f. andrei was 25% less than that of the coelomic fluid. They contributed this decrease to the par- tial elimination of riboflavin and lysozyme after dialysis. (Milochau et al 1997). We consider that the ECF would lose most of riboflavin and most of the lysozyme ...

  10. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In particular, it was found that the use of triethylamine as a co-solvent was necessary to avoid acid-mediated isomerization of the alkenes, which resulted in an inseparable mixture of products. The antimicrobial activity of the four hexenyl and hexyl nonanoate compounds was undertaken using microdilution minimum ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the antimicrobial activity classification, eucalypt and Cootamundra and silver wattles extracts (both water and ethanol) presented good efficacy against B. cereus, a food poisoning agent, and moderate efficacy against the remaining microorganisms. E. coli, a Gram negative, exhibited low sensibility to all foliar ...

  12. Antimicrobial activities of lactic acid bacteria isolated from akamu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Key words: Bacteriocins, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), target organisms, antimicrobial activity. INTRODUCTION. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play essential roles in the fermentative production of many traditional foods. A wide variety of strains are routinely used as starter cultures in the manufacture of fermented ...

  13. Microwave-assisted green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived from a supercritical carbon dioxide extract of the fresh aerial parts of Phyllanthus niruri. Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs of a P. niruri extract was carried out in a microwave oven. The extraction was carried out using a ...

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of three new generation disinfectants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    against some bacteria and yeast. Methods: Three commercially available new generation disinfectant (0.2 % chlorine dioxide, 0.3 % chlorine dioxide and 50 % hydrogen peroxide-stabilized by colloidal silver) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumonia RSKK ...

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Diospyros melanoxylon bark from Similipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... root, leaf and bark of D. anisandra (Borges-Argaez et al.,. 2007) and D. peregrina fruits (Dewanjee et al., 2007). Similarly there are also reports of antipyretic properties of D. mespiliformis (bark) and D. variegata (stem) (Adzu et al., 2002; Trongsakul et al., 2003). Antimicrobial activity of D. melanoxylon has ...

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of the Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity hot water, hot and cold ethanolic extracts of the bark of Vocanga Africana stapt. on Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescen, Staphyloccus aureus, Alternaria solani , Aspergellius niger and Penicillium notatum were investigated using paper disc diffusion technique. Results ...

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two endemic plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to the antioxidant activity of these plants, the total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also measured in the extracts. ... that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in food

  19. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenol Extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenolic extracts of three wild red wild berry fruit species from Southeast Serbia, viz, European cornel (Cornus mas), blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) and wild blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). Methods: Polyphenol content was determined using ...

  20. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against. Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry ...

  1. Antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants used in folklore remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In south-western part of Nigeria Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica are commonly used for herbal preparations in the treatment of toothache, gastrointestinal disorders, dynsentery, diarrhoea, sore gums and sore throats. This has, therefore, led to the investigation of the antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of P.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn | Doughari | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Tamarindus indica is a plant that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cold, fever, stomach disorder, diarrhea and jaundice and as skin cleanser. To evaluate the scientific basis for the use of the plant, the antimicrobial activities of extracts of the stem bark and leaves were evaluated against some ...

  3. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Marković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of some Euphorbia species | Kirbag | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were examined on test microorganisms as follows: Staphylococcus aureus COWAN 1, Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Klebsiella pneumonia FMC 5, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50071, Candida albicans FMC 17, Candida ...

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some novel thienopyrimidines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    pounds in drug discovery programs. In view of these reports and in continuation of our work on biologi- cally active nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles,. 13–15 we report here the synthesis of some novel thieno- pyrimidines and thienotriazolopyrimidines for the evaluation of their antimicrobial properties. The synthesized ...

  6. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New Pyrazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Some New Pyrazoles, Oxadiazoles and Isoxazole Bearing Benzofuran Moiety. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... Twelve new compounds were synthesized and their identities have been established on the basis of elemental and spectroscopic analysis such as IR, 1H NMR, ...

  7. Antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... This research work was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples of Linum usitatissimum against seven bacterial and one fungal pathogen. Three concentrations (0.66, 1.00 and 1.33 mg dics-1) each of ethyl acetate, n-hexane, butanol and distilled.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Lycoperdon perlatum whole fruit body on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of Lycoperdon perlatum whole fruit body on common pathogenic bacteria and fungi. ... The aqueous extract of Lycoperdon perlatum inhibited the growth of all the tested pathogenic organisms except P. aeruginosa while the methanol and ethanol extracts inhibited all the tested organisms.

  9. Antimicrobial activity analysis of extracts of Acacia modesta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of extracts of certain herbs including Acacia modesta (leaf and stem), Artimisia absinthium (leaf and stem), Nigella sativa (seeds) and i (root) was evaluated against three Gram positive and two Gram negative microorganisms. The Gram positive organisms included Bacillus subtalis (ATCC 6633), ...

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Sabulun Salo a Local Traditional Medicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of Sabulun salo; a local traditional medicated soap widely used by different tribes in Nigeria such as Hausa, Yoruba and Nupe against skin infections was examined against some clinical isolates of pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans) using ...

  11. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of some Turkish pleurocarpic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... viticulosus showed the highest antifungal effect against the fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC. All the results were compared with standard antibiotic discs: ketoconazole (50 μg), amphicillin (10 μg), eritromycin (15 μg), penicillin (10 μg) and vancomycin (30 μg). Key words: Moss, pleurocarpic, antimicrobial activity.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of Bryonopsis laciniosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of the leaf, stem, seed and fruit of an Indian medicinal plant, Bryonopsis laciniosa, used traditionally as potent medication in healing several ailments such as adenopathy, ague, asthma, bronchitis, cholera, colic, consumption, convulsion, cough, fertility and phthisis, was tested against ...

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial Activities of isolated compounds from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolated compounds from the petroleum spirit, chloroform and methanol crude leaf extracts of the white specie of the leaf of the Sesamum indicum used by traditional medicinal practitioners for the management of infecticious diseases were investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against some organisms.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and chemical analysis of some edible oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... 2Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Karachi, Pakistan. Received 31 January, 2014; Accepted 21 October, 2014. Antimicrobial activity of oils of Syzigium aromaticum (Clove), Nigella sativa (Kalonji) and Eruca sativa ... al., 1999) and essential oil (Halwani et al., 1999) possess.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn . stem extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activities of the water and methanolic extracts of Psidium guajava Linn. stem bark were evaluated against eight methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. The plant material was extracted and phytochemical analyses were performed by standard procedures. The agar diffusion method ...

  16. Antimicrobial activities of some volatile oils against some pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities of volatile oils of Ocimum gratissimum, Citrus sinensis, C. maxima and Eucalyptus globulus obtained through steam distillation using Clavenger-type apparatus were examined on clinical isolates of some human pathogenic fungi and bacteria using ditch – plate method. The fungal organisms used ...

  17. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of six constituents of essential oil from Salvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonboli, Ali; Babakhani, Babak; Mehrabian, Ahmad Reza

    2006-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of three Salvia species, i.e. S. santolinifolia, S. hydrangea and S. mirzayanii, essential oils were investigated. The essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of plants and analyzed by GC-MS. The main constituents of aforementioned species were alpha-pinene (72.4%), beta-pinene (6.6%) and limonene (5.3%); beta-caryophyllene (25.1%), 1,8-cineol (15.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.5%); alpha-terpinenyl acetate (22.6%), 1,8-cineol (21.2%) and linalool (8.9%), respectively. Bioassays exhibited that the property of the oil of S. myrzayanii was superior to others. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Salvia species may well be due to the presence of synergy between six tested compounds (linalool, 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, beta-caryophyllene and limonene) and other constituents of the oils with various degrees of antimicrobial activity. Among these, linalool and 1,8-cineol had the highest antimicrobial activity.

  19. In-vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts of Launaea procumbens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aqueous extracts were inactive except for Vitis vinifera L. S. typhimurium was the most resistant bacterial strain against all the extracts (Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 9:89 – 93, May 2006). Keywords: antimicrobial activity, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract, Launaea procumbens Roxb., Vitis vinifera L. and Cyperus rotundus L.

  20. synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: agwara29@yahoo.com; Tel. 237 798 75425. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF. COBALT(II), COPPER(II) AND ZINC(II) MIXED-LIGAND COMPLEXES. CONTAINING 1,10-PHENANTHROLINE AND 2,2'-BIPYRIDINE. M.O. Agwara1*, P.T. Ndifon1, N.B. ...