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Sample records for antimatter superconducting spectrometer

  1. Cosmic ray antiproton measurements in the 4-19 GeV energy range using the NMSU/WiZard-matter antimatter superconducting spectrometer 2 (MASS2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Brunetti, M.T.; Codini, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The p/p-ratio from 4 to 19 GeV has been measured using the NMSU/WiZard balloon borne matter antimatter superconducting spectrometer (MASS2) instrument. This is the first confirmation of the cosmic ray antiproton component made in this energy range since their discovery in 1979. The MASS2 instrument is an updated version of the instrument flown in 1979. The p/p- ratio is 1.52x10{sup -}4.

  2. MASS-SAT: Matter-antimatter space spectrometer on satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Basini, G; Massimo Brancaccio, F; Ricci, M; Bocciolini, M; Spillantini, P; Wang, Y F; Bongiorno, F; de Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; de Marzo, C; Erriquez, O; Barbiellini, G; Vacchi, A; Galeotti, P; Ballocchi, G; Simon, M; Carlson, P; Goret, P; Golden, R L

    The MASS-SAT Experiment (Matter-Antimatter Space Spectrometer on SATellite) presented here is conceived to search for an experimental answer to many open problems related to both Astrophysics and Physics, through the detection of positrons, antiprotons, nuclei and, overall, antinuclei if they exist. Among these problems there are the hypothesized presence of antigalaxies in the Universe (the matter-antimatter symmetry problem), the existence of black holes as possible antiproton sources (the Hawking effect), the existence of photinos as antiproton sources (related to the dark-matter problem), the understanding of the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration in the interstellar medium, the determination of the relative abundancies of isotopes in cosmic rays and many others. The choice of an orbit expecially appropriate for that (geostationary or polar orbit) as well as the choice of an apparatus composed only of solid-state detectors and permanent magnets (no gas and no liquid helium on board, avoiding complexity ...

  3. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  4. Antimatter search with AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) during STS-91 precursor flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpat, Behcet

    2000-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed to study the antimatter, matter and dark matter in space. AMS successfully flown on space shuttle Discovery during precursor flight STS-91 in a 51.7 degree sign orbit at altitudes between 320 and 390 km. No antimatter nuclei with Z ≥ 2 were detected. In this report we present the AMS performances during shuttle flight and we give new limits on antimatter/matter flux ratio

  5. Antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Antimatter is a challenge to physicists. P.Dirac introduced the concept of antimatter in 1932 and since then the counterpart in the antimatter world of most particles has been discovered. The likeness of both worlds was explained by the fact that particles and anti-particles must comply with CPT invariance. In 1956 a Chinese team showed that kaons break the P-symmetry. In order to save the CPT theorem it was assumed that the C-symmetry was also broken in kaon system. It was a short-lived relief and in 1964 an American team discovered processes that did not comply with the CP-symmetry. In 1964 the Russian physicist A. Sakharov stated that the CP-breaking favours the disappearance of antimatter. This idea implies that the CP-symmetry breaking should occur in lot of processes, so different research programs have been launched to study CP and T invariance. The experiments NA48, BABAR and CP-LEAR are briefly described. Whenever antimatter meets matter, a burst of energy is released and then can be detected, so our galaxy did not contain any antimatter. As for the rest of the universe, if antimatter exists it must be in places out of reach of our instruments. (A.C.)

  6. Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Landua, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Antiparticles are a crucial ingredient of particle physics and cosmology. More than 70 years after Dirac's bold prediction and the subsequent discovery of the positron in 1932, antiparticles are still in the spotlight of modern physics. This lecture for non-specialists will start with a theoretical and historical introduction. Why are antiparticles needed? Why is the (CPT) symmetry between particles and antiparticles so fundamental? What is their role in cosmology? The second part will give an overview about the many aspects of antiparticles in experimental physics: as a tool in accelerators; as a probe inside atoms or nuclei; or as an object to study fundamental symmetries. In the third part, the lecture will focus on the experimental 'antimatter' programme at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), with special emphysis on antihydrogen production and spectroscopy. The lecture will conclude with an outlook on present and potential future applications of antiparticles in science and our daily life.

  7. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, G. F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    It appears probable that some fraction of the cosmic rays has extragalactic origin. A search for antimatter nuclei was conducted with the aid of a balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometer. The investigation made use of the fact that matter and antimatter nuclei, because of their opposite signs of charge, would be deflected in opposite directions when passing through a magnetic field. The antimatter flux limits set by the experiments are discussed.

  8. Search for antimatter in primary cosmic rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.; Alvarez, L. W.; Wahlig, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Data from two flights of a new superconducting magnetic spectrometer are reported. This instrument was capable of a direct matter-antimatter separation in the cosmic rays. Antimatter events would appear in the spectrometer as trajectories which curve in the opposite direction to common matter, because of their negative charge. A brief description of the equipment and of the characteristics of the instrument is presented, along with the data processing techniques used. A new upper limit on the amount of antimatter in primary cosmic rays has been established. The limits are considerably lower than those for any previous experiment.

  9. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  10. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  11. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  12. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN 2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations

  13. Design of a large superconducting spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Mito, T.; Yamanoi, Y.; Hashimito, O.; Nagae, T.

    1989-04-01

    The superconducting spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments has been under construction by Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo with collaboration from KEK. The magnet has a sector type coil. The magnetic field is 3 T with the magnet gap of 50 cm and the stored energy is 11.8 MJ. The easy operation and maintenance are taken into consideration in addition to usual design concept. Three dimensional magnetic field calculation and the stress analysis have been performed. The code 'QUENCH' was applied to decide the operation current and to check the safety of the coil. As a result, the current of 500 A was selected. The heat leaks were checked and estimated less than 2 W at 4 K. A small refrigerator is to be used for thermal insulations at 80 and 20 K. (author)

  14. Antimatter atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In january 1996, CERN broadcasted the information of the creation of nine anti-hydrogen atoms, observed through disintegration products. The experimental facility was CERN LEAR ring. An antiproton beam scattered a xenon jet, and the resulting antimatter was first selected by its insensitivity to beam bending magnets. Their disintegration was detected in thin NaI detectors, in which the anti-atoms are at once deprived from their positron. Then, magnetic and time-of-flight spectrometers are used. (D.L.)

  15. Piotron at SIN - a large superconducting double torus spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-01-01

    A test facility for radiation therapy with negative /pi/-mesons was constructed in Switzerland. The facility is a large double torus spectrometer similar to the Stanford design. For variation of stopping depth different momenta are selected by variation of the magnetic field. Superconducting ac magnets are necessary for tumor scanning and represent a major part of such a facility. Main design features and performance are reported. 10 refs

  16. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) for Extraterrestrial Study of Antimatter, Matter and Missing Matter on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    Lee, M W; Lipari, P; Berdugo perez, J F; Borgia, B; Lazzizzera, I; Battarbee, M C; Valente, V; Bartoloni, A

    2002-01-01

    % RE1\\\\ \\\\ AMS is the first magnetic particle physics spectrometer to be installed on the International Space Station. With a superconducting magnetic spectrometer, AMS will provide accurate measurements of electrons, positrons, protons, antiprotons and various nuclei up to TeV region. NASA has scheduled to install this detector on the International Space Station in May 2003. The first flight of AMS was done with a permanent magnet and this prototype detector has provided accurate information on the limit of the existence of antihelium. It also showed that proton and electron -positron spectra exhibited a complicated behavior in the near earth orbit. The construction of AMS is being carried out in Switzerland, Germany, Italy, France, Finland, Spain, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Taiwan, China and the United States. NASA provides the use of the space shuttle and the space station, as well as mission management.

  17. The magnetic spectrometer PAMELA for the study of cosmic antimatter in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basini, G.; Hof, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the RIM (Russian Italian mission) program, PAMELA is the experiment devoted to the accurate measurement of the positron and antiproton spectra from the very low energy thresh-old of 100 MeV up to more than 50 GeV, and to hunt antinuclei with sensitivity better than 10 -7 in the helium/helium ratio. A permanent magnet equipped by microstrip silicon sensors, measures the particle momentum with MDR=400 GV/c on GF=25 cm 2 sr. An accurate ToF system, a 19 X o deep imaging calorimeter, an aerogel Cherenkov counter and a TRD detector complement the spectrometer in order an efficient e +- /p +- separation and some light isotope identification capability. The PAMELA experiment will be carried out on a 700 km high polar orbit, on board of the Earth-observation meteor-3A satellite, to be launched at the end of 1988

  18. The magnetic spectrometer PAMELA for the study of cosmic antimatter in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Hof, M. [Siegen univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the RIM (Russian Italian mission) program, PAMELA is the experiment devoted to the accurate measurement of the positron and antiproton spectra from the very low energy thresh-old of 100 MeV up to more than 50 GeV, and to hunt antinuclei with sensitivity better than 10{sup -7} in the helium/helium ratio. A permanent magnet equipped by microstrip silicon sensors, measures the particle momentum with MDR=400 GV/c on GF=25 cm{sup 2} sr. An accurate ToF system, a 19 X{sub o} deep imaging calorimeter, an aerogel Cherenkov counter and a TRD detector complement the spectrometer in order an efficient e{sup +-}/p{sup +-} separation and some light isotope identification capability. The PAMELA experiment will be carried out on a 700 km high polar orbit, on board of the Earth-observation meteor-3A satellite, to be launched at the end of 1988.

  19. A spectrometer using one or two superconducting coaxial solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.; Gales, S.; Laurent, J.P.

    1979-06-01

    A set of two superconducting solenoidal coils which are presently under construction at the Orsay I.P.N. is described. Because of its optical properties, the system can be used as spectrometer: focusing properties with small geometrical aberrations allowing large solid angles to be used together with good transmission and isochronism. Various types of experiments can be envisaged with such a device: angular correlation at zero degree, study of rare events like exotic reactions, time of flight for mass identification and rapid (much less than 1 μs) and efficient collection of radioactive nuclei for subsequent spectroscopy measurements [fr

  20. Puzzling antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the absence of antimatter in the Universe has tantalised particle physicists and cosmologists: while the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, we do not observe any primordial antimatter today. Where has it gone? The LHC experiments have the potential to unveil natural processes that could hold the key to solving this paradox.   Every time that matter is created from pure energy, equal amounts of particles and antiparticles are generated. Conversely, when matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate and produce light. Antimatter is produced routinely when cosmic rays hit the Earth's atmosphere, and the annihilations of matter and antimatter are observed during physics experiments in particle accelerators. If the Universe contained antimatter regions, we would be able to observe intense fluxes of photons at the boundaries of the matter/antimatter regions. “Experiments measuring the diffuse gamma-ray background in the Universe would be able...

  1. Fabrication, Testing and Modeling of the MICE Superconducting Spectrometer Solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virostek, S.P.; Green, M.A.; Trillaud, F.; Zisman, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), an international collaboration sited at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, will demonstrate ionization cooling in a section of realistic cooling channel using a muon beam. A five-coil superconducting spectrometer solenoid magnet will provide a 4 tesla uniform field region at each end of the cooling channel. Scintillating fiber trackers within the 400 mm diameter magnet bore tubes measure the emittance of the beam as it enters and exits the cooling channel. Each of the identical 3-meter long magnets incorporates a three-coil spectrometer magnet section and a two-coil section to match the solenoid uniform field into the other magnets of the MICE cooling channel. The cold mass, radiation shield and leads are currently kept cold by means of three two-stage cryocoolers and one single-stage cryocooler. Liquid helium within the cold mass is maintained by means of a re-condensation technique. After incorporating several design changes to improve the magnet cooling and reliability, the fabrication and acceptance testing of the spectrometer solenoids have proceeded. The key features of the spectrometer solenoid magnets, the development of a thermal model, the results of the recently completed tests, and the current status of the project are presented.

  2. 2 T superconducting detector solenoid for the PANDA target spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremov, A.A.; Koshurnikov, E.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Lobanov, Y.Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)], E-mail: lobanov@jinr.ru; Makarov, A.F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Orth, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Sissakian, A.N.; Vodopianov, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joliot-Curie, 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes the JINR design of the large 2 T superconducting solenoid for the target spectrometer of the PANDA experiment at HESR (FAIR, GSI, Darmstadt, Germany). The solenoid coil has an inner radius of 1.08 m and a length of 2.90 m. This solenoid is non-centrally split providing a warm bore of 100 mm in diameter through the coil to accommodate sufficient space for the internal target installations. Maximally stored energy in the windings is 22.3 MJ. All tracking and calorimetric detectors surrounding the target point, with exception of a forward cone of 5{sup 0} opening, are placed inside the lqHe-cryostat. The main features of the design and technique are as follows: a copper stabilizer and soldering technique for the superconducting cable; a stainless steel cryostat; winding technique over a mandrel; coreless type of the coil; low operational current. The details of the PANDA solenoid design including the magnetic field and stress-strain calculations are covered.

  3. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  4. Antimatter Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Antimatter should behave in identical fashion to matter if a form of spacetime symmetry called CPT invariance holds. Two experiments at CERN near Geneva are testing this hypothesis using antihydrogen atoms

  5. Taiwan university joins search for antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Chiu, Y

    2002-01-01

    National Cheng Kung University announced yesterday that it will be joining the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, an international scientific research project aimed at looking for antimatter in space (1 page).

  6. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on balloon-borne experiments with superconducting magnet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akira

    1992-04-01

    The Third Work Shop on Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Magnet Spectrometer was held at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan on February 24 - 25, 1992. The main effort for this workshop was focused on the progress of the BESS (Balloon Borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer) experiment and on the scope for scientific investigation with the BESS detector. The progress was reviewed and further investigation was discussed for the BESS further scientific collaboration among Univ. of Tokyo, Kobe University, KEK, ISAS and NMSU. (J.P.N.)

  7. Some characteristics of the superconducting magnetic system of toroidal spectrometer STORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, S.V.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Kakurin, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting toroidal spectrometer (STORS) has been suggested to provide precision measurements of structure functions in muon beams. In this paper we present the calculation of the magnet induction and forces influencing the elements of the magnet, requirements to the reliability and rigidity of the carrying elements of the magnet construction. (author.) 14 refs.; 50 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. Cosmic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarle, G.; Swordy, S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac forecasted the existence of antimatter and 4 years later Carl Anderson detected the first antiparticle: the positron in a cloud chamber while studying cosmic radiation. Antiprotons were more difficult to find but in 1955 physicists from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory got some in a particle accelerator. In 1995 a team from the CERN synthesized atoms of anti-hydrogen by binding positrons to antiprotons in a particle accelerator. Astrophysicists have built more and more complex detectors to study cosmic rays. The detector HEAT (high energy antimatter telescope) has been designed to study positrons above the atmosphere. This detector has been launched for the first time in 1994 and has measured cosmic radiation for 32 hours at an altitude of 37000 meters. The results were challenging: whereas the number of low energy positrons detected agrees with the theory, the number of high energy positrons is too important. It suggests the existence of unknown sources of positrons somewhere in the universe. The massive particles that interact weakly (WIMP) could be such sources. This article draws the history of the quest for antimatter and its implications in cosmology, the detector HEAT is described. (A.C.)

  9. Antimatter in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, Yu.V.

    2002-01-01

    The current status of the antimatter problem is reviewed starting with theoretical developments over the last decades and then emphasizing the observational part. So far no antimatter was observed in agreement with numerous baryogenesis theories which expect no antimatter in our universe, although some primordial antimatter, theoretically, is not excluded and even predicted in a number of models. We analyse what we can learn from observations: what are the manifestations of antimatter, what are the difficulties in detecting it and what is the current experimental situation and perspective in the observation of antimatter. (author)

  10. World of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.

    1998-01-01

    Every particle in nature has an antimatter partner in a curious world. when the two meet, they vanish in a flash of radiation. Physicists create antiparticles for their experiments, and can even build antimatter atoms. (author). 4 Figs

  11. Antimatter brochure (German version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Lefevre, C

    2009-01-01

    Antimatter is the twin to matter, with an opposite electric charge. When they meet, they annihilate each other. In the first moments of the Universe there was a balance between antimatter and matter, but a second after the Big Bang, all the antimatter disappeared along with almost all of the matter, leaving a minute amount of matter that forms everything around us. Scientists are now trying to unravel the mystery of what happened to the antimatter.

  12. Antimatter brochure (English version)

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcastel, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Antimatter is the twin to matter, with an opposite electric charge. When they meet, they annihilate each other. In the first moments of the Universe there was a balance between antimatter and matter, but a second after the Big Bang, all the antimatter disappeared along with almost all of the matter, leaving a minute amount of matter that forms everything around us. Scientists are now trying to unravel the mystery of what happened to the antimatter.

  13. Antimatter in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigman, G.

    1973-01-01

    The means of detecting the presence of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Both direct, annihilation processes, and indirect, cosmic ray particles, were analyzed. All results were negative and it was concluded that no antimatter exists, if the universe is in fact symmetric. If the universe is not symmetric then matter and antimatter are well separated from each other.

  14. Antimatter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of antimatter and cosmology: 1. the fundamental cosmological question as to whether antimatter plays an equally important role as matter in the universe (overall baryon symmetry), and 2. cosmic-ray antimatter tests for the nature of the dark matter in the universe. (orig.)

  15. Cosmic antimatter: models and phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of creation of cosmologically significant antimatter are analyzed in different scenarios of baryogenesis. It is argued that there may exist plenty of antimatter even in our Galaxy. Possible forms of antimatter objects and their observational signatures are discussed.

  16. Antimatter in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Different scenarios of baryogenesis are briefly reviewed from the point of view of possibility of generation of cosmologically interesting amount of antimatter. It is argued that creation of antimatter is possible and natural in many models. In some models not only anti-helium may be produced but also a heavier anti-elements and future observations of the latter would be critical for discovery or establishing stronger upper limits on existence of antimatter. Incidentally a recent observation ...

  17. Development of transition edge superconducting bolometers for the SAFARI Far-Infrared spectrometer on the SPICA space-borne telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Withington, S.; Bruijn, M.; De Korte, P.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the optimization of transition edge superconducting (TES) detectors for use in a far-infrared (FIR) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) mounted on a cryogenically cooled space-borne telescope (e.g. SPICA). The required noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors is approximately 10?19

  18. The antimatter goes back in the time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.; Loubiere, P.; Mathieu, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents general aspects of the antimatter that offers new possibilities in cosmology and astrophysics but also promotes in medicine the medical imagery for the cancer diagnostic (the antiproton therapy). Different aspects of the antimatter are considered. It deals first with the instrumentation: the AD (Antiproton Decelerator) of the CERN, braking ring that produces 10 millions of antiproton per hours. Ten question-answer about the subject are abstracted to better understand this theory. It presents the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer), that analysed ten millions particles (anti-electrons and antiprotons) during its fly with Discovery. Antimatter, as the matter mirror, don't respect the symmetry laws. The authors explain these symmetry violations. (A.L.B.)

  19. A high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer based on superconducting microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208 (United States); Schmidt, D. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Kotsubo, V.; Mates, J. A. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Hoover, A. S.; Winkler, R.; Rabin, M. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Alpert, B. K.; Beall, J. A.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; O' Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schima, F. J.; Swetz, D. S.; Vale, L. R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); and others

    2012-09-15

    Improvements in superconductor device fabrication, detector hybridization techniques, and superconducting quantum interference device readout have made square-centimeter-sized arrays of gamma-ray microcalorimeters, based on transition-edge sensors (TESs), possible. At these collecting areas, gamma microcalorimeters can utilize their unprecedented energy resolution to perform spectroscopy in a number of applications that are limited by closely-spaced spectral peaks, for example, the nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials. We have built a 256 pixel spectrometer with an average full-width-at-half-maximum energy resolution of 53 eV at 97 keV, a useable dynamic range above 400 keV, and a collecting area of 5 cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated multiplexed readout of the full 256 pixel array with 236 of the pixels (91%) giving spectroscopic data. This is the largest multiplexed array of TES microcalorimeters to date. This paper will review the spectrometer, highlighting the instrument design, detector fabrication, readout, operation of the instrument, and data processing. Further, we describe the characterization and performance of the newest 256 pixel array.

  20. A Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer without Liquid Cryogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Hertrich, T.; Drury, O.B.; Cherepy, N.J.; Hohne, J.

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as X-ray detectors because they combine the high energy resolution of cryogenic detector technologies with the high count rate capabilities of athermal devices. We have built STJ spectrometers for chemical analysis of dilute samples by high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the synchrotron. The instruments use 36 pixels of 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs with 165 nm thick Nb absorber films. They have achieved an energy resolution of ∼10-20 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and can be operated at a total count rate of ∼10 6 counts/s. For increased user-friendliness, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free refrigerator based on a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler in combination with a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization stage. It holds the STJ detector at the end of a 40-cm-long cold finger, and attains the required operating temperature of ∼0.3 K at the push of a button. We describe the instrument performance and present speciation measurements on Eu dopant activators in the novel scintillator material SrI 2 to illustrate the potential for STJ spectrometers at the synchrotron

  1. On Antimatter and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, C J

    1961-02-24

    A cosmological model based on a gravitational plasma of matter and antimatter is discussed. The antigravitational interaction of matter and antimatter leads to segregation and an expansion of the plasma universe. The expansion time scale is controlled by the aggregation time scale.

  2. Antimatter plasmas and antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, R.G.; Surko, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent successes in confining antimatter in the form of positron and antiproton plasmas have created new scientific and technological opportunities. Plasma techniques have been the cornerstone of experimental work in this area, and this is likely to be true for the foreseeable future. Work by a number of groups on trapping antimatter plasmas is summarized, and an overview of the promises and challenges in this field is presented. Topics relating to positron plasmas include the use of positrons to study the unique properties of electron endash positron plasmas, the interaction between positrons and ordinary matter, and the laboratory modeling of positron-annihilation processes in interstellar media. The availability of cold, trapped antiprotons and positrons makes possible the production of neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen. This is expected to enable precise comparisons of the properties of matter and antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries and the measurement of the interaction of antimatter with gravity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and environmental X-ray facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Drury, O.B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); George, S.J. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cramer, S.P. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We have built a 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute samples in the soft X-ray band. It offers an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage of {approx}10{sup -3}, and can be operated at total rates of up to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. Here, we describe the spectrometer performance in speciation measurements by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray facility at the ALS synchrotron.

  4. Matter-antimatter Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omnes, R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe is evaluated. As a starting point, an attempt was made to understand the origin of matter as being essentially analogous to the origin of backgound thermal radiation. Several theories and models are examined, with particular emphasis on nucleon-antinucleon interactions at intermediate energies. Data also cover annihilation interaction with the matter-antimatter boundary to produce the essential fluid motion known as coalesence.

  5. Superconducting Gamma/Neutron Spectrometer Task 1 Completion Report Evaluation of Candidate Neutron-Sensitive Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Z W

    2002-01-01

    A review of the scientific literature regarding boron- and lithium-containing compounds was completed. Information such as Debye temperature, heat capacity, superconductivity properties, physical and chemical characteristics, commercial availability, and recipes for synthesis was accumulated and evaluated to develop a list of neutron-sensitive materials likely to perform properly in the spectrometer. The best candidate borides appear to be MgB sub 2 (a superconductor with T sub c = 39 K), B sub 6 Si, B sub 4 C, and elemental boron; all are commercially available. Among the lithium compounds are LiH, LiAl, Li sub 1 sub 2 Si sub 7 , and Li sub 7 Sn sub 2. These materials have or are expected to have high Debye temperatures and sufficiently low heat capacities at 100 mK to produce a useful signal. The responses of sup 1 sup 0 B and sup 6 Li to a fission neutron spectrum were also estimated. These demonstrated that the contribution of scattering events is no more than 3% in a boron-based system and 1.5% in a lith...

  6. ESR spectrometer with a loop-gap resonator for cw and time resolved studies in a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ferenc; Murányi, Ferenc

    2005-04-01

    The design and performance of an electron spin resonance spectrometer operating at 3 and 9 GHz microwave frequencies combined with a 9-T superconducting magnet are described. The probehead contains a compact two-loop, one gap resonator, and is inside the variable temperature insert of the magnet enabling measurements in the 0-9T magnetic field and 1.5-400 K temperature range. The spectrometer allows studies on systems where resonance occurs at fields far above the g approximately 2 paramagnetic condition such as in antiferromagnets. The low quality factor of the resonator allows time resolved experiments such as, e.g., longitudinally detected ESR. We demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer on the NaNiO2 antiferromagnet, the MgB2 superconductor, and the RbC60 conducting alkaline fulleride polymer.

  7. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  8. Searching for Primordial Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Scientists are on the hunt for evidence of antimatter - matter's arch nemesis - leftover from the very early Universe. New results using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory suggest the search may have just become even more difficult. Antimatter is made up of elementary particles, each of which has the same mass as their corresponding matter counterparts --protons, neutrons and electrons -- but the opposite charges and magnetic properties. When matter and antimatter particles collide, they annihilate each other and produce energy according to Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2. According to the Big Bang model, the Universe was awash in particles of both matter and antimatter shortly after the Big Bang. Most of this material annihilated, but because there was slightly more matter than antimatter - less than one part per billion - only matter was left behind, at least in the local Universe. Trace amounts of antimatter are believed to be produced by powerful phenomena such as relativistic jets powered by black holes and pulsars, but no evidence has yet been found for antimatter remaining from the infant Universe. How could any primordial antimatter have survived? Just after the Big Bang there was believed to be an extraordinary period, called inflation, when the Universe expanded exponentially in just a fraction of a second. "If clumps of matter and antimatter existed next to each other before inflation, they may now be separated by more than the scale of the observable Universe, so we would never see them meet," said Gary Steigman of The Ohio State University, who conducted the study. "But, they might be separated on smaller scales, such as those of superclusters or clusters, which is a much more interesting possibility." X-rayChandra X-ray Image In that case, collisions between two galaxy clusters, the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the Universe, might show evidence for antimatter. X-ray emission shows how much hot

  9. The mystery of the antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    The big bang created equal parts matter and antimatter. So what happened to all the antimatter?After years and years, matter and antimatter have turned out identical in every property tested. But there is one more particle, so little understood, that might harbour the secret behind our matter-dominated Universe - the mysterious neutrino.

  10. Antimatter in the classroom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A brand new teaching resource has just been made available on the CERN Education website. The Antimatter Teaching Module contains eight lesson plans, together with background materials and extension topics, which are part of a wide educational project whose aim is to stimulate interest in science by introducing themes in modern physics to students aged 14-15 years, that is, earlier than is the practice in most national curricula. Terrence Baine (left) and Rolf Landua (right) with an antimatter trap from the film 'Angels & Demons'. In his capacity as CERN’s first Teacher in Residence, Terrence Baine’s primary project was to develop teaching modules to help high school teachers around the world incorporate modern particle physics into their curricula. “Back in October, it was decided that the first module should be on antimatter”, explains Terrence, who worked on it in collaboration with Rolf Landua, head of the Education Group and antimatter expert. “...

  11. Antimatter Propulsion Developed by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie shows possible forms of an antimatter propulsion system being developed by NASA. Antimatter annihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical energy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is ongoing and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  12. A Review of Some Superconducting Technologies for AtLAST: Parametric Amplifiers, Kinetic Inductance Detectors, and On-Chip Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozian, Omid

    2018-01-01

    The current state of the art for some superconducting technologies will be reviewed in the context of a future single-dish submillimeter telescope called AtLAST. The technologies reviews include: 1) Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), which have now been demonstrated in large-format kilo-pixel arrays with photon background-limited sensitivity suitable for large field of view cameras for wide-field imaging. 2) Parametric amplifiers - specifically the Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance (TKIP) amplifier - which has enormous potential to increase sensitivity, bandwidth, and mapping speed of heterodyne receivers, and 3) On-chip spectrometers, which combined with sensitive direct detectors such as KIDs or TESs could be used as Multi-Object Spectrometers on the AtLAST focal plane, and could provide low-medium resolution spectroscopy of 100 objects at a time in each field of view.

  13. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  14. Matter-antimatter asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The Conference is devoted to a multidisciplinary study of matter-antimatter asymmetry and, in particular, from the point of view of particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. A number of topics, such as the practical applications of antimatter in medical imaging, of particular interest to non-specialists, will also be briefly covered. More than thirty years after the discovery of CP violation in the kaon system, precision experiments with kaons at CERN and Fermilab have demonstrated the existence of direct CP violation, opening a window on a hitherto poorly explored part of particle physics. On the one hand, two experiments devoted mainly to CP violation in B mesons, BABAR and Belle, are beginning to test CP violation in the Standard Model in a decisive way. On the other hand, balloon experiments and the space-based AMS project are circumscribing precise limits on the cosmological abundance of antimatter. Finally, the fundamental problem of cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry at a Grand Unification scale or at the Electroweak phase transition has been the object of intense theoretical activity in recent years. This document gathers most of the slides that have been presented in the plenary and parallel sessions.

  15. Antimatter cancer treatment

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "The idea that antimatter beams could treat cancer might seem ridiculous. But researchers working at Cerns particle accelerator laboratory in Geneva don't think so. They have just reported a successful first experiment into the biological effects of antiprotons radiation on living cells."

  16. Gravity and Antimatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Terry; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the theory and history behind an experiment that will be performed to measure the gravitational forces that effect antimatter. Describes conditions under which the principle of equivalence would be violated or supported. Reviews historical tests of equivalence, current theory and experiments. Presents the design of the new experiment.…

  17. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer for Astrobiology Research at the Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.B.; Hertrich, T.; Hoehne, J.

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as energy-dispersive soft X-ray detectors, because they combine the high energy resolution of low-temperature detectors with the comparably high count rates of non-thermal devices. We have built a 36-pixel spectrometer based on 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs. It offers an energy resolution of ∼10 to 20 eV FWHM in the soft X-ray band below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage (Omega)/4π ∼ 10 -3 , and can be operated at total rates up to ∼10 6 counts/s. For STJ operation by non-expert users, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free spectrometer with a mechanical pulse-tube cryocooler and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. It is fully automated for cooldown to a base temperature of 3 days between demagnetization cycles for STJ operation at 0.3 K. The STJ spectrometers are used for speciation measurements on dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and can achieve sensitivities below 100 ppm. We discuss the spectrometer performance in representative applications on metals in meteorites in the context of geological signatures of biological activity

  18. A Liquid-Cryogen-Free Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Spectrometer for Astrobiology Research at the Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Hertrich, T; Hoehne, J

    2008-06-15

    Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) are being developed as energy-dispersive soft X-ray detectors, because they combine the high energy resolution of low-temperature detectors with the comparably high count rates of non-thermal devices. We have built a 36-pixel spectrometer based on 200 {micro}m x 200 {micro}m Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb STJs. It offers an energy resolution of {approx}10 to 20 eV FWHM in the soft X-ray band below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage {Omega}/4{pi} {approx} 10{sup -3}, and can be operated at total rates up to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For STJ operation by non-expert users, we have built a liquid-cryogen-free spectrometer with a mechanical pulse-tube cryocooler and a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. It is fully automated for cooldown to a base temperature of <30 mK in 15 hours, and has a hold time of >3 days between demagnetization cycles for STJ operation at 0.3 K. The STJ spectrometers are used for speciation measurements on dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and can achieve sensitivities below 100 ppm. We discuss the spectrometer performance in representative applications on metals in meteorites in the context of geological signatures of biological activity.

  19. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  20. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  1. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  2. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references

  3. Gravity and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    No one has ever dropped a single particle of antimatter. Yet physicists assume that it would fall to the ground just like ordinary matter. Their arguments are based on two well established ideas: the equivalence principle of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical symmetry between matter and antimatter. Today this line of reasoning is being undermined by the possibility that the first of these ideas, the principle of equivalence, may not be true. Indeed all modern attempts to include gravity with the other forces of nature in a consistent, unified quantum theory predict the existence of new gravitational-strength forces, that among other things, will violate the principle. Such effects have been seen already in recent experiments. Hence, an experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter could be of great importance to the understanding of quantum gravity. An international team has been formed to measure the graviational acceleration of antiprotons. Such an experiment would provide an unambiquous test, if new gravitational interactions do exist. 10 figs

  4. DC superconducting quantum interference device usable in nuclear quadrupole resonance and zero field nuclear magnetic spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Non Q.; Clarke, John

    1993-01-01

    A spectrometer for measuring the nuclear quadrupole resonance spectra or the zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectra generated by a sample is disclosed. The spectrometer uses an amplifier having a dc SQUID operating in a flux-locked loop for generating an amplified output as a function of the intensity of the signal generated by the sample. The flux-locked loop circuit includes an integrator. The amplifier also includes means for preventing the integrator from being driven into saturation. As a result, the time for the flux-locked loop to recover from the excitation pulses generated by the spectrometer is reduced.

  5. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  6. Studying antimatter with laser precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of antihydrogen trapping devices, ALPHA-2, is moving into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD) hall. This brand-new experiment will allow the ALPHA collaboration to conduct studies of antimatter with greater precision. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst was recently awarded a grant by the Carlsberg Foundation, which will be used to purchase equipment for the new experiment.   A 3-D view of the new magnet (in blue) and cryostat. The red lines show the paths of laser beams. LHC-type current leads for the superconducting magnets are visible on the top-right of the image. The ALPHA collaboration has been working to trap and study antihydrogen since 2006. Using antiprotons provided by CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD), ALPHA was the first experiment to trap antihydrogen and to hold it long enough to study its properties. “The new ALPHA-2 experiment will use integrated lasers to probe the trapped antihydrogen,” explains Jeffrey Hangst, ALP...

  7. Antimatter as an Energy Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons and positrons are constantly generated in space, and periodically manufactured by humans here on Earth. Harvesting of these particles in space and forming stable antimatter atoms and molecules would create a significant energy source for power and propulsion. Though dedicated fabrication of these particles on Earth consumes much more energy than could be liberated upon annihilation, manufactured antimatter represents a high-density energy storage mechanism well suited for spacecraft power and propulsion. In this paper the creation, storage, and utilization of antimatter is introduced. Specific examples of electrical energy generation and deep-space propulsion based on antimatter are also reviewed.

  8. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  9. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  10. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  12. Enabling Exploration of Deep Space: High Density Storage of Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Portable electromagnetic antiproton traps are now in a state of realization. This allows facilities like NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to conduct antimatter research remote to production sites. MSFC is currently developing a trap to store 10(exp 12) antiprotons for a twenty-day half-life period to be used in future experiments including antimatter plasma guns, antimatter-initiated microfusion, and the synthesis of antihydrogen for space propulsion applications. In 1998, issues including design, safety and transportation were considered for the MSFC High Performance Antimatter Trap (HiPAT). Radial diffusion and annihilation losses of antiprotons prompted the use of a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet and a 20 KV electrostatic potential at 10(exp -12) Torr pressure. Cryogenic fluids used to maintain a trap temperature of 4K were sized accordingly to provide twenty days of stand-alone storage time (half-life). Procurement of the superconducting magnet with associated cryostat has been completed. The inner, ultra-high vacuum system with electrode structures has been fabricated, tested and delivered to MSFC along with the magnet and cryostat. Assembly of these systems is currently in progress. Testing under high vacuum conditions, using electrons and hydrogen ions will follow in the months ahead.

  13. The Search for Cosmological Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    For more than 40 years, experimentalists have searched in the cosmic radiation for evidence of antimatter which may have been created in the early Universe. The experimental evidence for cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe is reviewed. There is no compelling evidence, either theoretical of experimental. However, the possibility is not completely ruled out.

  14. A new titration system of a novel split-type superconducting magnet NMR spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Isao; Tanaka, Hideki; Okada, Michiya; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi; Kohzuma, Takamitsu

    2008-12-01

    A new titration system for studying protein-ligand interactions has been developed. In this system, the sample solution is circulated in the route formed by an access path in a split superconducting magnet to maintain a constant protein concentration during the titration experiments. A concentration-control procedure for the ligand/protein ratio is devised, and the ligand/protein ratio is well controlled by this apparatus.

  15. A 5 tesla superconducting magnet and cryostats for an EPR/FMR spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvekamp, E.M.C.M.; Gerritsma, G.J.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the cryogenic part of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectrometer using Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) and U-band (40-60 GHz) frequencies for resonance measurements on large magnetic thin-films. The unit has two cryostats; the first has a

  16. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  17. Antimatter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Spillantini, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the present knowledge on the study of antimatter in the universe is summarized. From the theoretical point of view, both baryon symmetric and asymmetric cosmologies are possible in the framework of big-bang theories. With the three 'Sakharov's conditions', it is possible to imagine an evolution from the big bang toward a universe with 'all matter' inside or toward a symmetric universe with matter and antimatter separated in domains. Measurement of the γ ray cosmic background implies only a local asymmetry and does not rule out the possibility of a symmetry on a large scale. Observations of the antiproton spectrum and antinuclei in cosmic rays are useful tools for studying the possible existence of an antigalaxy. The number and quality of the present data are poor, and no data are available at high energy, where the presence of an antigalaxy must be revealable owing to a large amount of antiprotons and antinuclei. In this paper, the future experimental projects to measure the antiproton flux at high energies and to search for antinuclei in cosmic rays are briefly presented

  18. The lost worlds of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1980-01-01

    Given that matter can exist in two forms, each the mirror image of the other which annihilate each other on contact, producing energy, Dirac's cosmological model explains why there is no conspicuous antimatter in the world since it cannot co-exist with ordinary matter. However, if the creation of matter is always accompanied by an equal and opposite quantity of antimatter, how has all the material of the Universe come into existence without being infested by its mirror substance. The question of whether Grand Unified Theories can bring about an imbalance between matter and antimatter in the primeval Universe is considered. (UK)

  19. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  20. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  1. Antimatter performs optical gymnastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eades, John [University of Tokyo (Japan); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Lasers have been used for the first time to create antihydrogen, which could allow precise spectroscopic measurements of anti-atoms. The philosopher William James once said that 'if you wish to upset the law that all crows are black, you must not seek to show that none of them are - it is enough to produce a single white crow'. Likewise, if you wish to test the so-called CPT theorem, according to which a world constructed of antimatter behaves exactly the same as one constructed of matter, you do not need to create an entire 'antiworld'. It would be quite sufficient to show that the frequency of just one transition in a simple anti-atom differs from the value of the same transition in the corresponding ordinary atom. The question is, by how much? Any gross violations of the CPT theorem - which, more formally, states that a system remains unchanged under the combined operations of charge conjugation, parity reversal and time reversal - have already been ruled out experimentally. As a result, nobody expects any difference between matter and antimatter to be anything other than minute, if, indeed, there is a difference at all. The laser-spectroscopy tools that have made it possible to measure transition frequencies in ordinary hydrogen to extraordinarily high precision should also be applicable to antihydrogen. This makes hydrogen anti-atoms excellent candidates to test the CPT theorem. Now, researchers in the ATRAP collaboration at CERN have taken an important step along the obstacle-strewn path towards this goal by using lasers to control the production of antihydrogen atoms. (U.K.)

  2. Antimatter in the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambi, C.; Dolgov, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Observational signatures of existence of antimatter objects in the Galaxy are discussed. We focus on point-like sources of gamma radiation, diffuse galactic gamma ray background and anti-nuclei in cosmic rays

  3. Alternative pathways to antimatter containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejcek, J.M.; Browder, M.K.; Fry, J.L.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Antimatter containment is a gateway technology for future advancements in many areas. Immediate applications in propulsion, medicine, and instrumentation have already been envisioned and many others are yet to be considered. Key to this technological advance is identifying one or more pathways to achieve safe reliable containment of antimatter in sufficient quantities to be useful on an engineering and industrial scale. The goal of this paper is to review current approaches and discuss possible alternative pathways to antimatter containment. Specifically, this paper will address the possibility of designing a solid-state containment system that will safely hold antimatter in quantities dense enough to be of any engineering utility. A discussion of the current research, the needed engineering requirements, and a survey of current research is presented

  4. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  5. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  6. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  7. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era

  8. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobov, A. V., E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com; Rubin, S. G., E-mail: sgrubin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  9. Antimatter in the universe and laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgov A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible signatures which may indicate an existence of antimatter in the Galaxy and in the early universe are reviewed. A model which could give rise to abundant antimatter in the Galaxy is considered.

  10. Antimatter in the universe and laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    Possible signatures which may indicate an existence of antimatter in the Galaxy and in the early universe are reviewed. A model which could give rise to abundant antimatter in the Galaxy is considered.

  11. Anti-helium flux as a signature for antimatter globular clusters in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, K.M.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Konoplich, R.V.; Sakharov, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The alpha magnetic spectrometer experiment is shown to be sensitive to test the hypothesis on the existence of antimatter globular cluster in our Galaxy. The hypothesis follows from the analysis of possible tests for the mechanisms of baryosynthesis and uses antimatter domain in the matter domain Universe as the probe for the physics underlaying the origin of the matter. The interval of masses for the antimatter in our Galaxy is fixed from below by the condition of antimatter domain survival in the matter dominated Universe and from above by the observed gamma-ray flux. For this interval the expected fluxes of anti-helium-3 and anti-helium-4 are calculated with the account of their interaction with the matter in the Galaxy [ru

  12. Anti-helium flux as a signature for antimatter globular clusters in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotsky, K.M.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Konoplich, R.V.; Sakharov, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment is shown to be sensitive to test the hypothesis on the existence of antimatter globular cluster in our Galaxy. The hypothesis follows from the analysis of possible tests for the mechanisms of baryosynthesis and uses antimatter domains in the matter-dominated Universe as the probe for the physics underlying the origin of matter. The interval of masses for the antimatter in our Galaxy is fixed from below by the condition of antimatter domain survival in the matter-dominated Universe and from above by the observed gamma-ray flux. For this interval, the expected fluxes of anti-helium-3 and anti-helium-4 are calculated with account for their interaction with the matter in the Galaxy

  13. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  14. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  15. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  16. Vast Antimatter Regions and Scalar Condensate Baryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kirilova, D.; Panayotova, M.; Valchanov, T.

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of natural and abundant creation of antimatter in the Universe in a SUSY-baryogenesis model with a scalar field condensate is described. This scenario predicts vast quantities of antimatter, corresponding to galaxy and galaxy cluster scales today, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. Theoretical and observational constraints on such antimatter regions are discussed.

  17. Negative numbers and antimatter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2012-01-01

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  18. Matter and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.

    1989-01-01

    For many years the physicist Herwig Schopper has been contributing in leading positions - either as director of DESY in Hamburg or as general director of CERN in Geneva - to the development of a fascinating field of modern physics. His book is the first comprehensive presentation of experimental particle physics for non-physicists. The search for the smallest constituents of matter, i.e. the exploration of the microcosmos, apart from the advance of the man into space belongs to the most exciting scientific-technical adventures of our century. Contrarily to the stars, atoms, atomic nuclei, and quarks cannot be seen. How objects are studied which are by thousands smaller than the smallest atomic nucleus? Can matter be decomposed in ever smaller constituents, or does there exist a limit? What is matter, and what is of consequence for the mysterious antimatter. Do the laws of the infinitely small also determine the development of the universe since its origin? Such and other questions - expressions of human curiosity - Schopper wants to answer with his generally understandable book. Thereby the 'machines' and the experiments of high-energy physics play a decicive role in the presentation. The author describes the development of the accelerators - in Europe, as well as in the Soviet Union, Japan, or in the USA -, and he shows, why for the investigation of the smallest immense experimental facilities - the 1989 finished LEP storage ring at CERN has a circumference of 27 kilometers - are necessary. Schopper explains how the 'machines' work and how the single experiments run. His book satisfies the curiosity of all those, who want to know more about the world of the quarks. (orig.) With 96 figs [de

  19. Studying Antimatter Gravity with Muonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Antognini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational acceleration of antimatter, g ¯ , has yet to be directly measured; an unexpected outcome of its measurement could change our understanding of gravity, the universe, and the possibility of a fifth force. Three avenues are apparent for such a measurement: antihydrogen, positronium, and muonium, the last requiring a precision atom interferometer and novel muonium beam under development. The interferometer and its few-picometer alignment and calibration systems appear feasible. With 100 nm grating pitch, measurements of g ¯ to 10%, 1%, or better can be envisioned. These could constitute the first gravitational measurements of leptonic matter, of 2nd-generation matter, and possibly, of antimatter.

  20. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  1. Artist's concept of Antimatter propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is an artist's rendition of an antimatter propulsion system. Matter - antimatter arnihilation offers the highest possible physical energy density of any known reaction substance. It is about 10 billion times more powerful than that of chemical engergy such as hydrogen and oxygen combustion. Antimatter would be the perfect rocket fuel, but the problem is that the basic component of antimatter, antiprotons, doesn't exist in nature and has to manufactured. The process of antimatter development is on-going and making some strides, but production of this as a propulsion system is far into the future.

  2. Physicists make the most of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmus, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the detection and creation of antimatter. The concept of antimatter was first suggested by Schuster in 1898, was predicted by Dirac in the 1930's and discovered in an accelerator experiment in California in the 1950's. So far, physicists have found no evidence of large amounts of antimatter in nature. However, the creation of artificial antimatter in the laboratory is a possibility. The facilities at CERN should enable the making of antimatter, by using the antiproton beam from LEAR, to make antihydrogen. (UK)

  3. Antimatter, the SME, and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasson, Jay D., E-mail: jtasson@carleton.edu [Whitman College, Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-12-15

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  4. Antimatter, the SME, and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasson, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    A general field-theoretic framework for the analysis of CPT and Lorentz violation is provided by the Standard-Model Extension (SME). This work discusses a number SME-based proposals for tests of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, including antihydrogen spectroscopy and antimatter gravity tests.

  5. The gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    It is argued that a determination of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter towards the earth is capable of imposing powerful constraints on modern quantum gravity theories. Theoretical reasons to expect non-Newtonian non-Einsteinian effects of gravitational strength and experimental suggestions of such effects are reviewed. 41 refs

  6. Search for cosmic-ray antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoot, G.F.; Buffington, A.; Orth, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    In a sample of 1.5times10 4 helium and 4.0times10 4 higher-charged nuclei, obtained with balloon-borne superconducting magnetic spectrometers, we find the ratio of antinuclei to nuclei in the cosmic rays to be less than 8times10 -5 for rigidities (momentum/charge) between 4 and 33 GV/c and less than 10 -2 between 33 and 100 GV/c, at the 95% confidence level. (auth)

  7. Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Origins and for Cosmological Antimatter with BESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Yoshimura, K.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment with a superconducting spectrometer (BESS) has performed cosmic-ray observations as a US-Japan cooperative space science program, and has provided fundamental data on cosmic rays to study elementary particle phenomena in the early Universe. The BESS experiment has measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic origins such as dark matter candidates or primordial black holes. and searched for heavier antinuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed in the early Universe. The apex of the BESS program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007- 2008 Austral Summer, that obtained over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events from 24.5 days of observation. The flight took place at the expected solar minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. Here, we report the scientific restults, focusing on the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II (2007-2008).

  8. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  9. World premiere. And the antimatter was

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an historical review of the discovery of antimatter. Nine anti-hydrogen atoms were produced in September 1995 by a German-Italian team using the CERN-LEAR. This exceptional event has convulsed the existing fundamental physics theories: the symmetry theory and the general relativity theory and its equivalence principle. The discovery of antimatter raises the question of the existence of an anti-universe and of where the antimatter could lie in the universe. The paper describes the experiment carried out at the CERN and the difficulties encountered for the measurement and the storage of antimatter particles. The possible forthcoming closure of the LEAR appears as a threat to future antimatter studies and developments using antimatter annihilation energy. (J.S.). 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo

  10. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  11. Antimatter: Its history and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Hughes, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    We review the conceptual developments of quantum theory and special relativity which culminated in the discovery of and understanding of antimatter. In particular, we emphasize how quantum theory and special relativity together imply that antimatter must exist. Our modern understanding of antimatter is summarized in the CPT theorem of relativistic quantum field theory. The implications of this theorem have never been contradicted by any experiment ever done. 38 refs

  12. Matter-antimatter domains in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.

    2001-01-01

    A possible existence of cosmologically large domains of antimatter or astronomical 'anti-objects' is discussed. A brief review of different scenarios of baryogenesis predicting a noticeable amount of antimatter is given. Though both theory and observations indicate that the universe is most possibly uniformly charge asymmetric without any noticeable amount of antimatter, several natural scenarios are possible that allow for cosmologically (astronomically) interesting objects in close vicinity to us. The latter may be discovered by observation of cosmic ray antinuclei

  13. Matter and antimatter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Different scenarios of baryogenesis are briefly reviewed from the point of view of possibility of generation of cosmologically interesting amount of antimatter. It is argued that creation of antimatter is possible and natural in many models. In some models not only anti-helium may be produced but also a heavier anti-elements and future observations of the latter would be critical for discovery or establishing stronger upper limits on existence of antimatter. Incidentally a recent observation of iron-rich quasar may present a support to one special model of antimatter creation

  14. Scientists hope to crack missing antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    CERN announced that it would be able to study antimatter in depth using the world's first 'antimatter factory'. The AD has a circumference of 188 meters and will slow down particles and antiparticles to one tenth of the speed of light and then deliver them to experiments for study (1 page).

  15. Gravity measurement on antimatter and supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverini, N.; Poggiani, R.; Torelli, G.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Scuri, F.

    1988-01-01

    The relevance of gravity measurements with antimatter is discussed assuming both scalar and vector terms in the generalized gravitational potential. On the basis of previous experimental results a suitable parametrization allows to point out the different sensitivity between matter-matter and matter-antimatter experiments. (orig.)

  16. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agakishiev, H.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Braidot, E; Peitzmann, T.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang1; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple

  17. Baryogenesis model predicting antimatter in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray and gamma-ray data do not rule out antimatter domains in the Universe, separated at distances bigger than 10 Mpc from us. Hence, it is interesting to analyze the possible generation of vast antimatter structures during the early Universe evolution. We discuss a SUSY-condensate baryogenesis model, predicting large separated regions of matter and antimatter. The model provides generation of the small locally observed baryon asymmetry for a natural initial conditions, it predicts vast antimatter domains, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. The characteristic scale of antimatter regions and their distance from the matter ones is in accordance with observational constraints from cosmic ray, gamma-ray and cosmic microwave background anisotropy data

  18. Measuring antimatter gravity with muonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational acceleration of antimatter, ḡ, has never been directly measured and could bear importantly on our understanding of gravity, the possible existence of a fifth force, and the nature and early history of the universe. Only two avenues for such a measurement appear to be feasible: antihydrogen and muonium. The muonium measurement requires a novel, monoenergetic, low-velocity, horizontal muonium beam directed at an atom interferometer. The precision three-grating interferometer can be produced in silicon nitride or ultrananocrystalline diamond using state-of-the-art nanofabrication. The required precision alignment and calibration at the picometer level also appear to be feasible. With 100 nm grating pitch, a 10% measurement of ḡ can be made using some months of surface-muon beam time, and a 1% or better measurement with a correspondingly larger exposure. This could constitute the first gravitational measurement of leptonic matter, of 2nd-generation matter and, possibly, the first measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter.

  19. Antimatter. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichichi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In order to have matter it needs to have fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons), particles (mesons and baryons) and nuclei. For antimatter to exist, the anti fundamental fermions as well as the antiparticles and the antinuclei are needed. The masses associated with these components of matter are the intrinsic (quarks and leptons), the confinement (mesons and baryons) and the binding [either nuclear (nuclei), or electromagnetic (atoms)]. The first two are positive, the two binding ones are negative. These masses have different origins. No one has been able to establish the origin of the intrinsic masses (it could be the Higgs mechanism, but this lacks experimental confirmation so far). The confinement masses are QCD non-perturbative effects. The nuclear binding masses are QCD-induced colour neutral effects; the electromagnetic binding is due to QED and, since QED is the best experimentally checked RQFT, its validity in terms of the CPT symmetry cannot easily be questioned and this is why the electromagnetic binding is not included in this review.If CPT were theoretically well established as it was when discovered, all mass differences, between any matter and its antimatter partner, should be zero

  20. Golden Jubilee photos: Gathering Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    One day, antimatter might take people where no one has gone before, but it isn't science fiction. Protons are easily obtainable by stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms, but their antimatter counterparts, the antiprotons, have to be created artificially at accelerators. Roughly one antiproton can be produced from around a million protons bombarding a target at 26 GeV. In 1978, when CERN decided to take the unprecedented step of turning the SPS accelerator into a proton-antiproton collider, it had to deal with the scarcity, and had to concentrate the beam until it was intense enough for the experiment. Antiprotons are produced with a wide range of angles and energy, so before they can be used in an accelerator they have to be captured and 'cooled', reducing the beam dimensions by many orders of magnitude. This was the job of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA), completed in 1980 and shown here before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. It followed the pioneering Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE) i...

  1. A scanning Auger electron spectrometer for internal surface analysis of Large Electron Positron 2 superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, C.; Cosso, R.; Genest, J.; Hauer, M.; Lacarrère, D.; Rijllart, A.; Saban, R.

    1996-08-01

    A computer-controlled surface analysis instrument, incorporating static Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning Auger mapping, and secondary electron imaging, has been designed and built at CERN to study and characterize the inner surface of superconducting radio-frequency cavities to be installed in the Large Electron Positron collider. A detailed description of the instrument, including the analytical head, the control system, and the vacuum system is presented. Some recent results obtained from the cavities provide examples of the instrument's capabilities.

  2. Matter and antimatter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canetti, Laurent; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Drewes, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We review observational evidence for a matter–antimatter asymmetry in the early universe, which leads to the remnant matter density we observe today. We also discuss bounds on the presence of antimatter in the present-day universe, including the possibility of a large lepton asymmetry in the cosmic neutrino background. We briefly review the theoretical framework within which baryogenesis, the dynamical generation of a matter–antimatter asymmetry, can occur. As an example, we discuss a testable minimal particle physics model that simultaneously explains the baryon asymmetry of the universe, neutrino oscillations and dark matter. (paper)

  3. Theoretical aspects of antimatter and gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Diego

    2018-03-28

    In this short contribution, I review the physical case of studying the gravitational properties of antimatter from a theoretical perspective. I first discuss which elements are desirable for any theory where the long-range interactions between matter and antimatter differ from those of matter with itself. Afterwards I describe the standard way to hide the effects of new forces in matter-matter interactions which still allows one to generate ponderable matter-antimatter interactions. Finally, I comment on some recent ideas and propose some possible future directions.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmus, P.I.P.

    1990-01-01

    The two broad aims of particle physics, to study the ultimate constituents of matter: to find the smallest building blocks out of which we and the rest of the universe are made, and to study the nature of the forces through which these particles interact are discussed. In the early 1930s scientists had a relatively simple picture of elementary particles. Nuclei consisted of clusters of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons having dimensions of around 10 -15 m. The nucleus was surrounded by a cloud of orbiting electrons, equal in number to the protons, to make an atom whose dimensions were around 10 -10 m. In addition the photon, the packet or quantum of light, was recognised as having particle-like properties. The idea that there might be antiparticles came not from experiment but from theoretical reasoning. The reasoning and the experiments which confirmed the theories put forward over the next decades are recounted. These culminated in the experiments at CERN in 1982 and 1983 to discover the W and Z particles. (author)

  5. Using antimatter in modern medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, A.C.B.; Pleitez, V.; Tijero, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Neste artigo, fazemos uma breve exposição de como um dos conceitos fundamentais da física moderna, a existência de antimatéria, tem aplicação na medicina, na chamada tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET na sigla em inglês). Ela consiste na produção de imagens tomográficas digitais do organismo que são obtidas pela detecção da radiação produzida na aniquilação do pósitron com o elétron. In this paper we discuss how the existence of antimatter, one of the main concepts of modern physics,...

  6. Antimatter and Dark Matter Search in Space: BESS-Polar Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Yamamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The apex of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007-2008 Austral Summer, that obtained 24.5 days of data on over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events. The US-Japan BESS Collaboration uses elementary particle measurements to study the early Universe and provides fundamental data on the spectra of light cosmic-ray elements and isotopes. BESS measures the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic sources, such as dark-matter candidates, and searches for heavier anti-nuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed during symmetry breaking processes in the early Universe. Since 1993, BESS has carried out eleven high-latitude balloon flights, two of long duration, that together have defined the study of antiprotons below about 4 GeV, provided standard references for light element and isotope spectra, and set the most sensitive limits on the existence of anti-deuterons and anti-helium, The BESS-Polar II flight took place at Solar Minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. The rich BESS-Polar II dataset more than doubles the combined data from all earlier BESS flights and has 10-20 times the statistics of BESS data from the previous Solar Minimum. Here, we summarize the scientific results of BESS program, focusing on the results obtained using data from the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II.

  7. The BESS Search for Cosmic-Ray Antiproton Origins and for Cosmological Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Yamamoto, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The apex of the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) program was reached with the Antarctic flight of BESS-Polar II, during the 2007-2008 Austral Summer, that obtained 24.5 days of data on over 4.7 billion cosmic-ray events. The US-Japan BESS Collaboration uses elementary particle measurements to study the early Universe and provides fundamental data on the spectra of light cosmic-ray elements and isotopes. BESS measures the energy spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons to investigate signatures of possible exotic sources, such as dark-matter candidates, and searches for heavier antinuclei that might reach Earth from antimatter domains formed during symmetry breaking processes in the early Universe. Since 1993, BESS has carried out eleven high-latitude balloon flights, two of long duration, that together have defined the study of antiprotons below about 4 GeV, provided standard references for light element and isotope spectra, and set the most sensitive limits on the existence of antideuterons and antihelium. The BESS-Polar II flight took place at Solar Minimum, when the sensitivity of the low-energy antiproton measurements to a primary source is greatest. The rich BESS-Polar II dataset more than doubles the combined data from all earlier BESS flights and has 10-20 times the statistics of BESS data from the previous Solar Minimum. Here, we summarize the scientific results of BESS program, focusing on the results obtained using data from the long-duration flights of BESS-Polar I (2004) and BESS-Polar II.

  8. Matter-antimatter puzzle: LHCb improves resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, Fermilab’s DØ experiment reported a one percent difference in the properties of matter and antimatter in decays of B mesons (that is, particles containing beauty quarks) to muons. Saturday, at the ICHEP Conference in Melbourne, the LHCb experiment at CERN presents new results, which do not confirm this anomaly and are consistent with the Standard Model predictions. The same experiment has also presented the first evidence of asymmetry arising in other decays of the same family of mesons. The image becomes clearer but the puzzle has not yet been solved.   Inside the LHCb detector. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe is a very hot topic in physics. The conundrum arises from the fact that, although objects made of antimatter are not observed in the Universe, theory predicts that matter and antimatter be created equally in particle interactions and in the Big Bang. Only small deviations from this very symmetric behaviour are incorporated in the theory. E...

  9. More Sci- than Fi, Physicists Create Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Physicists working in Europe announced yesterday that they had passed through nature's looking glass and had created atoms made of antimatter, or antiatoms, opening up the possibility of experiments in a realm once reserved for science fiction writers (5 pages)

  10. The antimatter. Press breakfast 23 may 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, M.; Dejardin, M.; Debu, P.; Aleksan, R.

    2000-05-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 23 may 2000 on the antimatter, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and the experiments on the antimatter and the symmetry violation: the CP LEAR and the NA48 experiments at CERN, the BaBar detector at SLAC, the fundamental research at the CEA and the impacts on the energy policy. It provides also links for more detailed inquiries. (A.L.B.)

  11. Avatars of a Matter-Antimatter Universe

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    1997-01-01

    An elegantly symmetric Universe, consisting of large islands of matter and antimatter, is by no means obviously out of the question. I review the observations that lead to the usual prejudice that the Universe contains only matter. I discuss recent work inferring that this prejudice can be converted into an inescapable conclusion. I argue that our theoretical conviction should not discourage direct searches for antimatter in cosmic rays.

  12. New interpretation of matter-antimatter asymmetry based on branes and possible observational consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Li Tong; Li Xueqian; Wang Xun

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the alpha-magnetic-spectrometer (AMS) project, we assume that after the big bang or inflation epoch, antimatter was repelled onto one brane which is separated from our brane where all the observational matter resides. It is suggested that CP may be spontaneously broken, the two branes would correspond to ground states for matter and antimatter, respectively. Generally a complex scalar field which is responsible for the spontaneous CP violation, exists in the space between the branes. The matter and antimatter on the two branes attract each other via gravitational force, meanwhile the scalar field causes a Casimir effect to result in a repulsive force against the gravitation. We find that the Casimir force is much stronger than the gravitational force, as long as the separation of the two branes is small. Thus at early epoch after the big bang, the two branes were closer and then have been separated by the Casimir repulsive force from each other. The trend will continue until the separation is sufficiently large and then the gravitational force observed in our four-space would obviously deviate from the Newton's universal gravitational law. We suppose that there is a potential barrier at the brane boundary, which is similar to the surface tension for a water membrane. The barrier prevents the matter (antimatter) particles from entering the space between two branes and jump from one brane to another. However, by the quantum tunneling, a sizable antimatter flux may come to our brane and be observed by the AMS. In this work by considering two possible models, i.e. the naive flat space-time and Randall-Sundrum models, and using the observational data on the visible matter in our universe as inputs, we derive the antimatter flux which comes to our detector in the nonrelativistic approximation and make a rough numerical estimate of possible numbers of antihelium at AMS

  13. Stability of matter-antimatter molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Lee, Teck-Ghee

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine stability of matter-antimatter molecules with four constituents. → The binding of matter-antimatter molecules is a common phenomenon. → Molecules have bound states if ratio of constituent masses greater than ∼4. → We evaluate molecular binding energies and annihilation lifetimes. - Abstract: We examine the stability of matter-antimatter molecules by reducing the four-body problem into a simpler two-body problem with residual interactions. We find that matter-antimatter molecules with constituents (m 1 + ,m 2 - ,m-bar 2 + ,m-bar 1 - ) possess bound states if their constituent mass ratio m 1 /m 2 is greater than about 4. This stability condition suggests that the binding of matter-antimatter molecules is a rather common phenomenon. We evaluate the binding energies and eigenstates of matter-antimatter molecules (μ + e - )-(e + μ - ),(π + e - )-(e + π - ),(K + e - )-(e + K - ),(pe - )-(e + p-bar),(pμ - )-(μ + p-bar), and (K + μ - ) - (μ + K - ), which satisfy the stability condition. We estimate the molecular annihilation lifetimes in their s states.

  14. In gas laser ionization and spectroscopy experiments at the Superconducting Separator Spectrometer (S3): Conceptual studies and preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Bastin, B.; Boilley, D.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Liénard, E.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Lecesne, N.; Lu, H.; Lutton, F.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Pauwels, D.; Piot, J.; Radulov, D.; Rens, L.; Savajols, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A setup to perform In-Gas Laser Ionization and Spectroscopy experiments at the Super Separator Spectrometer is presented. • The reported studies address important aspects necessary to applied the IGLIS technique to short-lived isotopes. • An R and D phase required to reach an enhanced spectral resolution will be carried out at KU Leuven. • High-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies will be possible with the IGLIS setup at S 3 . -- Abstract: The results of preparatory experiments and the preliminary designs of a new in-gas laser ionization and spectroscopy setup, to be coupled to the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 of SPIRAL2-GANIL, are reported. Special attention is given to the development and tests to carry out a full implementation of the in-gas jet laser spectroscopy technique. Application of this novel technique to radioactive species will allow high-sensitivity and enhanced-resolution laser spectroscopy studies of ground- and excited-state properties of exotic nuclei

  15. 2005 annual report of MEXT specially promoted research, 'Development of the 4D Space Access Neutron Spectrometer (4SEASONS) and elucidation of the Mechanism of Oxide High-Tc superconductivity'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Kajimoto, Ryoichi; Nakajima, Kenji; Shamoto, Shin'ichi; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Mitsutaka; Aizawa, Kazuya; Asaoka, Hidehito; Kodama, Katsuaki; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Imai, Yoshinori; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ino, Takashi; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Masaki; Ohoyama, Kenji; Hiraka, Haruhiro

    2006-11-01

    A research project entitled 'Development of the 4D Space Access Neutron Spectrometer (4SEASONS) and Elucidation of the Mechanism of Oxide High-T c Superconductivity' has started in 2005 (repr. by M. Arai). It is supported by MEXT, Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research and is going to last until fiscal 2009. The goal of the project is to elucidate the mechanism of oxide high-T c superconductivity by neutron scattering technique. For this purpose, we will develop an inelastic neutron scattering instrument 4SEASONS (4d SpacE AccesS neutrON Spectrometer) for the spallation neutron source in Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The instrument will have 100 times higher performance than existing world-class instruments, and will enable detailed observation of anomalous magnetic excitations and phonons in a four-dimensional momentum-energy space. This report summarizes the progress in the research project in fiscal 2005. (author)

  16. Possible measurements of the gravitational acceleration with neutral antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverini, N.; Torelli, G.; Lagomarsino, V.; Manuzio, G.; Scuri, F.

    1989-01-01

    The interest in measuring the gravitational acceleration using neutral antimatter is discussed as well as the advantages compared with using charged antimatter, and a few possible experimental schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  17. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Helen R

    2008-01-01

    In the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang lingers a question at the heart of our very existence: why does the universe contain matter but almost no antimatter? The laws of physics tell us that equal amounts of matter and antimatter were produced in the early universe--but then, something odd happened. Matter won out over antimatter; had it not, the universe today would be dark and barren. But how and when did this occur? Helen Quinn and Yossi Nir guide readers into the very heart of this mystery--and along the way offer an exhilarating grand tour of cutting-edge physics. They explain both the history of antimatter and recent advances in particle physics and cosmology. And they discuss the enormous, high-precision experiments that particle physicists are undertaking to test the laws of physics at their most fundamental levels--and how their results reveal tantalizing new possibilities for solving this puzzle at the heart of the cosmos. The Mystery of the Missing Antimatter is at once a history of i...

  18. Antimatter annihilation detection with AEgIS

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, Angela

    2015-01-01

    AE ̄ gIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an antimatter exper- iment based at CERN, whose primary goal is to carry out the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. A precise measurement of antimatter gravity would be the first precision test of the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter. The principle of the experiment is based on the formation of antihydrogen through a charge exchange reaction between laser excited (Rydberg) positronium and ultra-cold antiprotons. The antihydrogen atoms will be accelerated by an inhomogeneous electric field (Stark acceleration) to form a pulsed cold beam. The free fall of the antihydrogen due to Earth’s gravity will be measured using a moiré de- flectometer and a hybrid position detector. This detector is foreseen to consist of an active silicon part, where the annihilation of antihydrogen takes place, followed by an emulsion part coupled to a fiber time-of-flight detector. This overview prese...

  19. What's the matter with Antimatter? Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Antimatter may be the stuff of science fiction, but to physicists it poses a serious question. Why is there not more of it around? At the Big Bang, matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts, yet today we seem to live in a Universe entirely made of matter. So where has all the antimatter gone?

  20. Vast antimatter regions and SUSY-condensate baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.; Panayotova, M.; Valchanov, T.

    2002-10-01

    Natural and abundant creation of antimatter in the Universe in a SUSY baryogenesis model is described. The scenario predicts vast quantities of antimatter, corresponding to galaxy and galaxy cluster scales, separated from the matter ones by baryonically empty voids. Observational constraints on such antimatter regions are discussed. (author)

  1. Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-24

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP012494 TITLE: Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold...part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP012489 thru ADP012577 UNCLASSIFIED Cold Antimatter Plasmas, and Aspirations for Cold Antihydrogen G...and positrons. The antiprotons come initially from the new Antiproton Decel- erator facility at CERN. Good control of such cold antimatter plasmas is

  2. Does antimatter fall with the same acceleration as ordinary matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.; Heckel, B.R.; Stubbs, C.W.; Su, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Equivalence-principle experiments with ordinary matter probe the gravivector acceleration of antimatter in the same way as do direct measurements of antimatter in free fall and set stringent upper limits on the gravivector acceleration of antimatter predicted by certain quantum-gravity models

  3. Antimatter, a new frontier of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1988-09-01

    The interest in antimatter arises because antimatter offers such high potential, and it also happens to be the most fascinating of materials. In the discussions that follow, considerations will be made on the potential utilization of antimatter in various applications including: Alternate energy source for rocket propulsion and space missions; Pion-induced fission; Muon-catalyzed cold fusion; and Medicine: in treatment of cancer, and for superior radiographs. Comments also are provided that presently discount antiproton-proton annihilation as a possible source of negative muons in hypothetical hybrid fusion-fission reactors, but this could change in the future. Reasons are given as to why further exploratory work should be undertaken at this time. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Antimatter questions the big-bang theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daninos, F.

    2005-01-01

    A few moments after the big-bang matter an antimatter existed in the same quantities. Today the universe seems to be exclusively composed of matter. Nature prefers matter to antimatter but scientists do not know why. Experimental results from Babar and Belle experiments have confirmed the existence of CP violation in quark systems. This article draws the story of the quest for symmetry violation since the discovery of P violation in cobalt decay in the end of the fifties. Our understanding of CP violation is by far insufficient for explaining the matter-antimatter imbalance and may be we will have to admit that CP violation might concern other systems like neutrinos or super-symmetric particles. (A.C.)

  5. Antimatter Production at a Potential Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Reddy, Dhanireddy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current antiproton production techniques rely on high-energy collisions between beam particles and target nuclei to produce particle and antiparticle pairs, but inherently low production and capture efficiencies render these techniques impractical for the cost-effective production of antimatter for space propulsion and other commercial applications. Based on Dirac's theory of the vacuum field, a new antimatter production concept is proposed in which particle-antiparticle pairs are created at the boundary of a steep potential step formed by the suppression of the local vacuum fields. Current antimatter production techniques are reviewed, followed by a description of Dirac's relativistic quantum theory of the vacuum state and corresponding solutions for particle tunneling and reflection from a potential barrier. The use of the Casimir effect to suppress local vacuum fields is presented as a possible technique for generating the sharp potential gradients required for particle-antiparticle pair creation.

  6. A moiré deflectometer for antimatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S; Ahlén, O; Amsler, C; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Belov, A S; Berggren, K; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R S; Cabaret, L; Canali, C; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Derking, H; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ereditato, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S N; Haider, S; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kawada, J; Kellerbauer, A; Kimura, M; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Lehner, S; Magnani, A; Malbrunot, C; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V A; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Oberthaler, M K; Pacifico, N; Petràček, V; Pistillo, C; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Scampoli, P; Storey, J; Vasquez, M A Subieta; Špaček, M; Testera, G; Vaccarone, R; Widmann, E; Zavatarelli, S; Zmeskal, J

    2014-07-28

    The precise measurement of forces is one way to obtain deep insight into the fundamental interactions present in nature. In the context of neutral antimatter, the gravitational interaction is of high interest, potentially revealing new forces that violate the weak equivalence principle. Here we report on a successful extension of a tool from atom optics--the moiré deflectometer--for a measurement of the acceleration of slow antiprotons. The setup consists of two identical transmission gratings and a spatially resolving emulsion detector for antiproton annihilations. Absolute referencing of the observed antimatter pattern with a photon pattern experiencing no deflection allows the direct inference of forces present. The concept is also straightforwardly applicable to antihydrogen measurements as pursued by the AEgIS collaboration. The combination of these very different techniques from high energy and atomic physics opens a very promising route to the direct detection of the gravitational acceleration of neutral antimatter.

  7. Some examples of propulsion applications using antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, B.W.

    1985-07-01

    Macroapplications of antimatter and annihilation energies to various uses beyond very high energy physics, which presupposes the solution of basic production and storage problems is discussed. Propulsion applications in identifiable missions which cannot be achieved conventionally are discussed. The use of annihilation energies provides ways to access effective exhaust velocities from 10 Km/sec to a major fraction of light velocity. The promise of antimatter is illustrated by considering a mix ratio r = amount of normal matter/amount of antimatter and calculating the effective attained temperature of the mixture as approx. 2 GeV/r. Ensuring that this mixing produces high temperatures and that the energy does not largely escape from the mix is the art of utilizing annihilation energies. The immediate product of nucleon-antinucleon annihilations is almost wholly pions. The subsequent reaction trains and the ultimate forms of the end products, their spectral attributes, the decay or capture mechanisms, are documented

  8. In defense of anti-matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, S.; Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    There appears to be a prejudice in the astronomical world against an obvious high-energy source - the mutual annihilation of matter and anti-matter. In favor of this prejudice is the lack of any convincing evidence of the presence of naturally occurring anti-matter. Only recently have cosmic-ray antiprotons been detected (cf. Golden et al., 1979), and then in numbers consistent with secondary production in flight, while annihilation X-rays have also been detected, but again in circumstances where they might well be attributed to secondary effects of some other high-energy process. (orig.)

  9. Can we detect antimatter from other galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlen, S.P.; Price, P.B.; Salamon, M.H.; Tarle, G.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in particle detection technology now make it possible to use well-established principles of high-order quantum electrodynamics to search for antimatter in the cosmic rays with unprecedented sensitivity. The technique is described and is shown to be superior in both collecting power and resolution to other, more conventional, techniques used in the past. By considering various estimates of the metagalactic cosmic-ray energy density and by taking into account the possible modulation of metagalactic cosmic rays by a galactic wind within the framework of the dynamical halo model, we show that our proposed experiment would be the first to be sensitive to the presence of extragalactic antimatter

  10. Can we detect antimatter from other galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.; Price, P. B.; Salamon, M. H.; Tarle, G.

    1982-01-01

    A novel particle detection technique employing well established principles of high order quantum electrodynamics for searching for antimatter in cosmic rays is described, and shown to have both collecting power and resolution superior to conventional alternatives. By taking into account various estimates of the metagalactic cosmic-ray energy density, and the possible modulation of metagalactic cosmic rays by a galactic wind within the framework of the dynamical halo model, it is shown that the experiment proposed would be the first to be sensitive to the presence of extragalactic antimatter.

  11. Considerations for design of a Fourier transform mass spectrometer in the 4.2 K cold bore of a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Peter B

    2002-01-01

    An external source Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) constructed inside the vertical cold bore of a superconducting magnet will have dramatic advantages in effective magnetic field, noise figures, and base pressure over current commercially available external source FTMS systems. There are substantial, but solvable, difficulties in the design, primarily with regard to control of the helium boiloff rate to an acceptable level, as well as relatively minor design challenges with heat sinks, contraction of metallic ion optic elements in the extreme temperature, and tandem mass spectrometry experiments. However, the ability to construct the FTMS inside the narrow bore tube of existing, commercially available vertical bore NMR magnets will allow access to the upper magnetic field limit currently used by 900 MHz (21 Tesla) - 1 GHz (23.3 Tesla) NMR experiments. The vacuum system, simply by being held inside the cold bore at 4.2 K, will cryopump itself dropping base pressures substantially, and heat sinking the input resistor of the preamplifier to this cryogenically cooled vacuum chamber will allow reduction of the input Johnson noise by a factor of 8.4 with associated 8.4-fold improvement in signal/noise, sensitivity, and dynamic range. The simultaneous improvement of three fundamental limiting factors in the FTMS (field strength, base pressure, and Johnson noise figure) will clearly outweigh the concomitant increased helium boiloff rate particularly if this rate can be dropped to the estimated <5 L/day range. The additional use of modern cryorefrigerators will further reduce helium boiloff to zero except during MS(n) experiments and system cooldown. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. High density storage of antimatter for space propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Gerald A.; Coughlin, Dan P.

    2001-01-01

    The specific energy of antimatter is 180 MJ/μg, making it the largest specific energy density material known to humankind. Three challenges remain to be solved for space propulsion applications: first, sufficient amounts must be made to permit missions into deep space; second, efficient methods must be found to turn the antimatter into thrust and Isp; and third, the antimatter must be stored for long periods of time. This paper addresses the third issue. We discuss conventional (electromagnetic) methods of confining antimatter, as well as unconventional concepts, including the use of quantum effects in materials and antimatter chemistry

  13. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    1997-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out

  14. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria [Instituto per la Ricerca di Base (Italy)

    1997-08-15

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particles and antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus bypassing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out.

  15. Does antimatter emit a new light?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Contemporary theories of antimatter have a number of insufficiencies which stimulated the recent construction of the new isodual theory based on a certain anti-isomorphic map of all (classical and quantum) formulations of matter called isoduality. In this note we show that the isodual theory predicts that antimatter emits a new light, called isodual light, which can be distinguished from the ordinary light emitted by matter via gravitational interactions (only). In particular, the isodual theory predicts that all stable antiparticles such as the isodual photon, the positron and the antiproton experience antigravity in the field of matter (defined as the reversal of the sign of the curvature tensor). The antihydrogen atom is therefore predicted to: experience antigravity in the field of Earth; emit the isodual photon; and have the same spectroscopy of the hydrogen atom, although subjected to an anti-isomorphic isodual map. In this note we also show that the isodual theory predicts that bound states of elementary particle sand antiparticles (such as the positronium) experience ordinary gravitation in both fields of matter and antimatter, thus by passing known objections against antigravity. A number of intriguing and fundamental, open theoretical and experimental problems of 'the new physics of antimatter' are pointed out. 16 refs

  16. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  17. Antimatter/HiPAT Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Raymond A.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques were developed for trapping normal matter in the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT). Situations encountered included discharge phenomena, charge exchange and radial diffusion processes. It is important to identify these problems, since they will also limit the performance in trapping antimatter next year.

  18. Antimatter persuaded to react with matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Van Noorden, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Matter and antimatter usually destroy each other in a flash of energy and a spray of exotic particles when they meet. Yet the two have been coaxed into a chemical reaction by the international research group Athena." (2/3 page)

  19. Development of high-capacity antimatter storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Smith, Gerald A.

    2000-01-01

    Space is vast. Over the next few decades, humanity will strive to send probes farther and farther into space to establish long baselines for interferometry, to visit the Kuiper Belt, to identify the heliopause, or to map the Oort cloud. In order to solve many of the mysteries of the universe or to explore the solar system and beyond, one single technology must be developed--high performance propulsion. In essence, future missions to deep space will require specific impulses between 50,000 and 200,000 seconds and energy densities greater than 10 14 j/kg in order to accomplish the mission within the career lifetime of an individual, 40 years. Only two technologies available to mankind offer such performance--fusion and antimatter. Currently envisioned fusion systems are too massive. Alternatively, because of the high energy density, antimatter powered systems may be relatively compact. The single key technology that is required to enable the revolutionary concept of antimatter propulsion is safe, reliable, high-density storage. Under a grant from the NASA Institute of Advanced Concepts, we have identified two potential mechanisms that may enable high capacity antimatter storage systems to be built. We will describe planned experiments to verify the concepts. Development of a system capable of storing megajoules per gram will allow highly instrumented platforms to make fast missions to great distances. Such a development will open the universe to humanity

  20. Antimatter: What is and where did it go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodman, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    In this public lecture we will explore the mystery of antimatter: Where did it go? Why is the universe made up of only matter, with no observable antimatter? And why does the universe have any matter left in it anyway? The SLAC 'B'-Factory was built to answer these questions. Over the last decade, almost a billion 'B'-mesons were created and studied at the B-Factory to search for subtle differences between matter and antimatter, differences that lie at the heart of the antimatter mystery. We will explain the matter-antimatter discoveries made at the B-Factory, and their connection to this year's Nobel prize in physics. It does not matter if you have no prior knowledge of Antimatter; just bring your curiosity.

  1. CPT symmetry and antimatter gravity in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2011-04-01

    The gravitational behavior of antimatter is still unknown. While we may be confident that antimatter is self-attractive, the interaction between matter and antimatter might be either attractive or repulsive. We investigate this issue on theoretical grounds. Starting from the CPT invariance of physical laws, we transform matter into antimatter in the equations of both electrodynamics and gravitation. In the former case, the result is the well-known change of sign of the electric charge. In the latter, we find that the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter is a mutual repulsion, i.e. antigravity appears as a prediction of general relativity when CPT is applied. This result supports cosmological models attempting to explain the Universe accelerated expansion in terms of a matter-antimatter repulsive interaction.

  2. Antimatter: What is and where did it go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roodman, Aaron (Stanford University)

    2008-10-28

    In this public lecture we will explore the mystery of antimatter: Where did it go? Why is the universe made up of only matter, with no observable antimatter? And why does the universe have any matter left in it anyway? The SLAC 'B'-Factory was built to answer these questions. Over the last decade, almost a billion 'B'-mesons were created and studied at the B-Factory to search for subtle differences between matter and antimatter, differences that lie at the heart of the antimatter mystery. We will explain the matter-antimatter discoveries made at the B-Factory, and their connection to this year's Nobel prize in physics. It does not matter if you have no prior knowledge of Antimatter; just bring your curiosity.

  3. The MEG positron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative spectrometer for the MEG experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This experiment searches for a lepton flavour violating decay μ + →e + γ with a sensitivity of 10 -13 in order to explore the region predicted by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The MEG positron spectrometer consists of a specially designed superconducting solenoidal magnet with a highly graded field, an ultimate low-mass drift chamber system, and a precise time measuring counter system. This innovative positron spectrometer is described here focusing on the drift chamber system

  4. A moiré deflectometer for antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S; Amsler, C; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Belov, A S; Berggren, K; Bonomi, G; Braunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R S; Cabaret, L; Canali, C; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Derking, H; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ereditato, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S N; Haider, S; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kawada, J; Kellerbauer, A; Kimura, M; Knecht, A; Krasnicky, D; Lagomarsino, V; Lehner, S; Magnani, A; Malbrunot, C; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V A; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nedelec, P; Oberthaler, M K; Pacifico, N; Petracek, V; Pistillo, C; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Scampoli, P; Storey, J; Subieta Vasquez, M A; Spacek, M; Testera, G; Vaccarone, R; Widmann, E; Zavatarelli, S; Zmeskal, J

    2014-01-01

    The precise measurement of forces is one way to obtain deep insight into the fundamental interactions present in nature. In the context of neutral antimatter, the gravitational inter- action is of high interest, potentially revealing new forces that violate the weak equivalence principle. Here we report on a successful extension of a tool from atom optics—the moire ́ deflectometer—for a measurement of the acceleration of slow antiprotons. The setup con- sists of two identical transmission gratings and a spatially resolving emulsion detector for antiproton annihilations. Absolute referencing of the observed antimatter pattern with a photon pattern experiencing no deflection allows the direct inference of forces present. The concept is also straightforwardly applicable to antihydrogen measurements as pursued by the AEgIS collaboration. The combination of these very different techniques from high energy and atomic physics opens a very promising route to the direct detection of the gravitational acceleratio...

  5. Antimatter applied for Earth protection from asteroid collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, Shin; Kuninaka, Hitoshi; Kuriki, Kyoichi

    1990-01-01

    An Earth protection system against asteroids and meteorites in colliding orbit is proposed. The system consists of detection and deorbiting systems. Analyses are given for the resolution of microwave optics, the detectability of radar, the orbital plan of intercepting operation, and the antimatter mass require for totally or partially blasting the asteroid. Antimatter of 1 kg is required for deorbiting an asteroid 200 m in diameter. An experimental simulation of antimatter cooling and storage is planned. The facility under construction is discussed.

  6. Fusion Reactions and Matter-Antimatter Annihilation for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-13

    FUSION REACTIONS AND MATTER- ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION FOR SPACE PROPULSION Claude DEUTSCH LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Bât. 210, UPS, 91405 Orsay...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE šFusion Reactions And Matter- Antimatter Annihilation For Space Propulsion 5a...which is possible with successful MCF or ICF. Appropriate vessel designs will be presented for fusion as well as for antimatter propulsion. In

  7. Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2015-12-01

    The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP), is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear - current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits - 65 antigravity phenomenon, i.e. repulsion of the antimatter by Earth. Here we demonstrate an indirect bound 0.96 antigravity. By considering the absolute potential of the Local Supercluster (LS), we also predict the bounds 1 - 4 ×10-7

  8. Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP, is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear – current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits −65antimatter by Earth. Here we demonstrate an indirect bound 0.96

  9. Observation of the Antimatter Nuclei in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, I.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently antimatter hyper-triton nuclei ( 3 Λ¯ H ¯) and antimatter helium nuclei ( 4 2 He ¯ ) are discovered with the Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC detector in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (STAR Collaboration in Science 328(5974):58-62, 2010; STAR Collaboration in Nature 473:353-356, 2011). In this presentation, discoveries of antimatter particle are historically scanned and the recent observations at RHIC are reported in details as well as potential possibilities of discovery of antimatter nuclei at ALICE. (author)

  10. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  11. Heavy weak bosons, cosmic antimatter and DUMAND. 2: Looking for cosmic antimatter with DUMAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Brown, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Discussion of various means for using high energy neutrino astronomy to directly test for the existence of cosmic antimatter on a significant cosmological scale is presented. Studies of the ultrahigh energy diffuse neutrino background using acoustic detector and high mass Glashow resonances are reported. Point source studies are also discussed.

  12. The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I will give here an overview of the present observational and theoretical situation regarding the question of the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe and the related question of the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale. I will also give a simple discussion of the role of CP (charge conjugation parity) violation in this subject.

  13. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  14. Matter-antimatter asymmetry - aspects at low energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willmann, Lorenz; Jungmann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The apparent dominance of matter over antimatter in our universe is an obvious and puzzling fact which cannot be adequately explained in present physical frameworks that assume matter-antimatter symmetry at the big bang. However, our present knowledge of starting conditions and of known sources of

  15. Measurement of gravitational acceleration of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.

    1989-12-01

    The minute yet effective impact of gravitational potential in the central region of a long tube magnetic container of non-neutral plasmas can be utilized for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter particles. The slight change in distribution of plasma particles along the gravitational field affects the internal electric field of the plasma, which in turn affects the frequency of the magnetron motion of its particles. Thus, a rather straightforward relation is established between the gravitational acceleration of the particles and their magnetron frequencies, which is measurable directly, determining the value of the gravitational acceleration. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  16. Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  17. Origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; Kusenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Although the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry remains unknown, continuing advances in theory and improved experimental limits have ruled out some scenarios for baryogenesis, for example, sphaleron baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model. At the same time, the success of cosmological inflation and the prospects for discovering supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider have put some other models in sharper focus. We review the current state of our understanding of baryogenesis with emphasis on those scenarios that we consider most plausible

  18. Experiments with low-energy antimatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolati G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on antimatter allow us to shed light on fundamental issues of contemporary physics. The only antiatom presently available, antihydrogen, is produced making use of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD facility at CERN. International collaborations currently on the floor (ALPHA, ASACUSA and ATRAP have succeeded in producing antihydrogen and are now involved in its confinement and manipulation. The AEGIS experiment is currently completing the commissioning of the apparatus which will generate and manipulate antiatoms. The present paper, after a report on the main results achieved with antihydrogen physics, gives an overview of the AEGIS experiment, describes its current status and discusses its first target.

  19. Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-09-01

    According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation

  20. Problems of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines the problems of the quasi-steady matter-antimatter boundary layers discussed in Klein-Alfven's cosmological theory, and a crude model of the corresponding ambiplasma balance is presented: (i) at interstellar particle densities, no well-defined boundary layer can exist in presence of neutral gas, nor can such a layer be sustained in an unmagnetized fully ionized ambiplasma. (ii) Within the limits of applicability of the present model, sharply defined boundary layers are under certain conditions found to exist in a magnetized ambiplasma. Thus, at beta values less than unity, a steep pressure drop of the low-energy components of matter and antimatter can be balanced by a magnetic field and the electric currents in the ambiplasma. (iii) The boundary layer thickness is of the order of 2x 0 approximately 10/BT 0 sup(1/4) meters, where B is the magnetic field strength in MKS units and T 0 the characteristic temperature of the low-energy components in the layer. (Auth.)

  1. Traps for antimatter and antihydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Even though positrons have been captured and stored in ion traps for precision measurements, the recent trapping and cooling of antiprotons may be considered as the beginning of a new era in antimatter research. For the first time all the ingredients to produce the first atom of the antimatter world, the antihydrogen atom, are at hand, and several groups have entered an active discussion on the feasibility of producing antihydrogen as well as on the possibility to perform precision tests on CPT and gravity. At the same time, the trapping of reasonable large numbers of antiprotons has opened up the way for a variety of exciting physics with ultra-low energy antiprotons, ranging from atomic physics issues to nuclear physics and medical applications. I will describe the current status of the work on trapping antiprotons and positrons, discuss possible physics applications of this technique, and describe the two most promising routes to produce antihydrogen for precision spectroscopy. Towards the end a few comments on storing the produced antihydrogen and on utilizing antihydrogen for gravity measurements and for CPT tests are given

  2. Measuring gravitational effects on antimatter in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piacentino Giovanni Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter has never been performed to date. Recently, such an experiment has been proposed, using antihydrogen with an atom interferometer and an antihydrogen confinament has been realized at CERN. In alternative we propose an experimental test of the gravitational interaction with antimatter by measuring the branching fraction of the CP violating decay of KL in space. In fact, even if the theoretical Standard Model explains the CPV with the presence of pure phase in the KMC Kobaiashi-Maskava-Cabibbo matrix, ample room is left for contributions by other interactions and forces to generate CPV in the mixing of the neutral K and B mesons. Gravitation is a good candidate and we show that at the altitude of the International Space Station, gravitational effects may change the level of CP violation such that a 5 sigma discrimination may be obtained by collecting the KL produced by the cosmic proton flux within a few years.

  3. Atom optical tools for antimatter experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeunig, Philippe H.M.

    2014-12-17

    The direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter in the earth's field, which represents a test of the weak equivalence principle, is in the focus of several ongoing experimental attempts. This thesis investigates tools and techniques known from the field of atom optics that can be utilised for such a measurement with antihydrogen atoms as envisioned by the AEgIS collaboration. A first experimental step is presented, in which a detection due to an electromagnetic force acting on antiprotons is measured with a Moire deflectometer. This device, which can be described with classical particle trajectories, consists of two gratings and a spatially resolving detector. Key elements of this measurement are the use of an emulsion detector with high spatial resolution and an absolute reference technique based on an interferometric fringe pattern of light, which is not deflected by forces. For future realisations, a new detection and evaluation scheme to measure gravity based on a three-grating system enclosed by a vertex-reconstructing detector is discussed. This allows the use of a grating periodicity that is smaller than the resolution of the detector while making efficient use of the particle flux. Smaller periodicities are favourable to increase the inertial sensitivity of the measurement apparatus but require to take effects of diffraction into account. To explore this near-field regime with antimatter, a Talbot-Lau interferometer for antiprotons is proposed and its possible experimental implementation is discussed.

  4. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered.

  5. Feasibility for EGRET detection of antimatter concentrations in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Although the Grand Unified Theories of elementary particle dynamics have to some extent reduced the aesthetic attraction of matter-antimatter symmetry in the Universe, the idea is still not ruled out. Although first introduced by Alfven (1965), most of the theoretical development related to gamma-ray astronomy was carried out by Stecker, who has proposed (Stecker, Morgan, and Bredekamp, 1971) matter-antimatter annihilation extending back to large redshifts as a possible explanation of the apparently extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation. Other candidate explanations were also proposed, such as superposition of extragalactic discrete sources. Clearly, the existence of significant amounts of antimatter in the universe would be of great cosmological importance; its detection, however, is not simple. Since the photon is its own antiparticle, it carries no signature identifying whether it originated in a matter or an antimatter process; even aggregates of photons (spectra) are expected to be identical from matter and antimatter processes. The only likely indicator of the presence of concentrations of antimatter is evidence of its annihilation with normal matter, assuming there is some region of contact or overlap. The EGRET (Energetic Gamma-Ray Experimental Telescope) on the Gamma Ray Observatory, with a substantial increase in sensitivity compared with earlier high energy gamma ray telescopes, may be able to address this issue. The feasibility of using EGRET in such a search for antimatter annihilation in the Universe is considered

  6. Investigation of matter-antimatter interaction for possible propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation is discussed as a means of rocket propulsion. The feasibility of different means of antimatter storage is shown to depend on how annihilation rates are affected by various circumstances. The annihilation processes are described, with emphasis on important features of atom-antiatom interatomic potential energies. A model is developed that allows approximate calculation of upper and lower bounds to the interatomic potential energy for any atom-antiatom pair. Formulae for the upper and lower bounds for atom-antiatom annihilation cross-sections are obtained and applied to the annihilation rates for each means of antimatter storage under consideration. Recommendations for further studies are presented.

  7. Gamma ray astronomy and search for antimatter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy provides a powerful tool for searching antimatter in the universe; it probably provides the only means to determine, if the universe has baryon symmetry. Presently existing gamma-ray observations can be interpreted without postulating the existence of antimatter. However, the measurements are not precise enough to definitely exclude the possibility of its existence. The search for antimatter belongs to one of the main scientific objectives of the Gamma Ray Observatory GRO of NASA, which will be launched in 1990 by the Space Shuttle. (orig.)

  8. The story of antimatter matter's vanished twin

    CERN Document Server

    Borissov, Guennadi

    2018-01-01

    Each elementary particle contained within every known substance has an almost identical twin called its antiparticle. Existing data clearly indicate that equal numbers of particles and antiparticles were initially created soon after the birth of the universe. Despite this, all objects around us, as well as all the stars in all the known galaxies, are made of particles, while antiparticles have almost completely vanished. The reasons behind this disappearance are not yet fully known. Uncovering them will allow us to not only penetrate much deeper into the structure of matter, but also to understand the secret mechanisms that determine the genesis and development of our immense universe. That is why explaining the mystery of the missing antimatter is currently considered to be one of the main tasks of particle physics. This book tells the story of all the achievements in solving the problem of the missing antiparticles including the latest developments in the field. It is written by Prof. Guennadi Borissov, an...

  9. The Matter-Antimatter Concept Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquet P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we briefly review the theory elaborated by Louis de Broglie who showed that in some circumstances, a particle tunneling through a dispersive refracting material may reverse its velocity with respect to that of its associated wave (phase velocity: this is a consequence of Rayleigh's formula defining the group velocity. Within his Double Solution Theory, de Broglie re-interprets Dirac's aether concept which was an early attempt to describe the matter-antimatter symmetry. In this new approach, de Broglie suggests that the (hidden sub-quantum medium required by his theory be likened to the dispersive and refracting material with identical properties. A Riemannian generalization of this scheme restricted to a space-time section, and formulated within an holonomic frame is here considered. This procedure is shown to be founded and consistent if one refers to the extended formulation of General Relativity (EGR theory, wherein pre-exists a persistent field.

  10. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  11. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  12. How did matter gain the upper hand over antimatter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Antimatter exists. We routinely make it in laboratories. For every familiar particle type we find a matching antiparticle with opposite charge, but exactly the same mass. For example, a positron with positive charge has the same mass as an electron; an antiproton with negative charge has the same mass as a proton. Antimatter occurs naturally all over the universe wherever high-energy particles collide. The laws of physics for antimatter are very, very similar to those for antimatter--so far we know only one tiny difference in them, a detail of the weak interactions of quarks that earned Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa a share of the 2008 Nobel Prize for Physics. Our understanding of the early Universe also tells us that after inflation ended equal amounts of matter and antimatter were produced. Today there's a lot of matter in the universe, but very little antimatter. This leaves a big question for cosmology. How did matter gain the upper hand over antimatter? It's a question at the root of our existence. Without this excess, there would be no stars, no Earth, and no us. When a particle meets its antiparticle, they annihilate each other in a flash of radiation. This process removed all the antimatter and most of the matter as the universe expanded and cooled. All that's left today is the excess amount of matter when destruction began to dominate over production. To get from equality to inequality for matter and antimatter requires a difference in the laws of physics between them and some special situation where it affects the balance between them. But, when we try to use the tiny difference we know about between quark and antiquark weak interactions to generate the imbalance, it doesn't work. We find a way that it can indeed give a small excess of matter over antimatter, but not nearly enough to give us all the matter we see in our universe. We can patch up the theory by adding unknown particles to it to make a scenario that works. Indeed we can do that in

  13. 2nd International Workshop on Antimatter and Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Scampoli, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this meeting is to review the experimental and theoretical aspects of the interaction of antimatter with gravity. Tests of the weak equivalence principle with e.g. positronium, muonium and antihydrogen with be discussed. Progress reports on the experiments at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator and on the available future facilities will be presented. A session on the relevance of antimatter with respect to Dark Energy and Dark Matter in the Universe (theory and experiments) is also foreseen.

  14. Charged anti-cluster decay modes of antimatter nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Gherghescu, R.A.; Greiner, W.

    2015-01-01

    Antimatter may exist in large amounts in far-away galaxies due to cosmic inflation in the primordial time of the universe. The antimatter character of Dirac’s negative energy states of electrons became clear after discovery in 1932 of the positron by C.D. Anderson. A positron soon finds an electron, undergo annihilation, and produces a pair of 511 keV rays. Antimatter is a material composed of antiparticles which bind with each other, e.g. e"+ and p can form an H atom. Charged antimatter can be confined by a combination of electric and magnetic fields, in a Penning trap. Anti-atoms are difficult to produce; the antihydrogen ( H ) was produced and confined for about 1000 s. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus, "4He, or , is the heaviest observed antinucleus. It was established that every antiparticle has the same mass with its particle counterpart; they differ essentially by the sign of electric charge: m_e_+ = m_e_-, m_p = m_p, m_n = m_n, etc. Also every antinucleus has the same mass or binding energy as its mirror nucleus. We expect that anti-alpha spontaneous emission from an antimatter nucleus will have the same Q-value and half-life as alpha emission from the corresponding mirror nucleus. The same will be true for anti-cluster decay and spontaneous fission of antimatter nuclei. This is the consequence of the invariance of binding energy as well as of the surface and Coulomb energy when passing from matter to antimatter nuclei. (author)

  15. Antimatter in the Direct-Action Theory of Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Kastner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Feynman's greatest contributions to physics was the interpretation of negative energies as antimatter in quantum field theory. A key component of this interpretation is the Feynman propagator, which seeks to describe the behavior of antimatter at the virtual particle level. Ironically, it turns out that one can dispense with the Feynman propagator in a direct-action theory of fields, while still retaining the interpretation of negative energy solutions as antiparticles. Quanta 2016; 5: 12–18.

  16. When clusters collide: constraints on antimatter on the largest scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Observations have ruled out the presence of significant amounts of antimatter in the Universe on scales ranging from the solar system, to the Galaxy, to groups and clusters of galaxies, and even to distances comparable to the scale of the present horizon. Except for the model-dependent constraints on the largest scales, the most significant upper limits to diffuse antimatter in the Universe are those on the ∼Mpc scale of clusters of galaxies provided by the EGRET upper bounds to annihilation gamma rays from galaxy clusters whose intracluster gas is revealed through its x-ray emission. On the scale of individual clusters of galaxies the upper bounds to the fraction of mixed matter and antimatter for the 55 clusters from a flux-limited x-ray survey range from 5 × 10 −9 to −6 , strongly suggesting that individual clusters of galaxies are made entirely of matter or of antimatter. X-ray and gamma-ray observations of colliding clusters of galaxies, such as the Bullet Cluster, permit these constraints to be extended to even larger scales. If the observations of the Bullet Cluster, where the upper bound to the antimatter fraction is found to be −6 , can be generalized to other colliding clusters of galaxies, cosmologically significant amounts of antimatter will be excluded on scales of order ∼20 Mpc (M∼5×10 15 M sun )

  17. NASA declares no room for antimatter experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Law??, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    "The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a model of international cooperation, led by a dynamic Nobel Prize winner, and promises to do impressive science in space. But it may never get a chance to do its thing." (1 page)

  18. Superconducting-Magnet-Based Faraday Rotation Spectrometer for Real Time in Situ Measurement of OH Radicals at 106 Molecule/cm3 Level in an Atmospheric Simulation Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weixiong; Fang, Bo; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Wenge; Chen, Zhiyou; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Weidong

    2018-03-20

    Atmospheric simulation chambers play vital roles in the validation of chemical mechanisms and act as a bridge between field measurements and modeling. Chambers operating at atmospheric levels of OH radicals (10 6 -10 7 molecule/cm 3 ) can significantly enhance the possibility for investigating the discrepancies between the observation and model predications. However, few chambers can directly detect chamber OH radicals at ambient levels. In this paper, we report on the first combination of a superconducting magnet with midinfrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) for real time in situ measurement of the OH concentration in an atmospheric simulation chamber. With the use of a multipass enhanced FRS, a detection limit of 3.2 × 10 6 OH/cm 3 (2σ, 4 s) was achieved with an absorption path length of 108 m. The developed FRS system provided a unique, self-calibrated analytical instrument for in situ direct measurement of chamber OH concentration.

  19. Search for antimatter in 1012 eV cosmic rays using Artemis method and interpretation of the cosmic rays spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarede, D.

    1999-04-01

    This thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is a review of the present knowledge of the antimatter and of the cosmic rays. Theoretical and experimental aspects are presented. It is demonstrated that a measurement of the antimatter abundance in TeV cosmic rays is of fundamental interest, and would establish the symmetric or asymmetric nature of the Universe. The second part is dedicated to the method of antimatter research through the Earth Moon ion spectrometer (ARTEMIS). The account is given of the winter 1996-97 41-nights observation campaign undertaken at the Whipple Observatory in Arizona (USA). A 109 photomultiplier camera is operated on the 40 meter telescope to detect by Cherenkov imaging the cosmic ray initiated showers. We describe the performance of an optical filter used to reduce the noise. The development and the utilization of a simulation program are described. The main work is the analysis of the data: data characterization, understanding of the apparatus, understanding of the noise and its influence, calibration, search for signals by different methods. Subtle systematic effects are uncovered. The simulations establish that the amount of data is insufficient to reveal a shadow effect in the cosmic ray flux. The conclusion of this work is that the experimental setup was not suitable, and we propose important improvements of the method based on a bigger focal plane that would allow to reach a one percent sensitivity on the antimatter content of the cosmic rays. In the third part of the thesis, an interpretation of the total cosmic ray spectrum is proposed and discussed. (author)

  20. The instrument PAMELA for antimatter and dark matter search in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picozza, Piergiorgio; Sparvoli, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    The PAMELA satellite experiment is dedicated to the study of charged particles in cosmic radiation, with a particular focus on antiparticles for the search of antimatter and signals of dark matter, in the energy window from 100 MeV to some hundreds of GeV. PAMELA is installed on board of the Resurs DK1 satellite that was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome on June 15th, 2006. The PAMELA apparatus comprises a magnetic spectrometer, a time-of-flight system, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail catcher scintillator and a neutron detector. The combination of these devices allows antiparticles to be reliably identified from a large background of other charged particles.

  1. Direct observation limits on antimatter gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark; Lykken, Joe; Roberts, Tom; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Antihydrogen Gravity experiment at Fermilab (P981) will directly measure the gravitational attraction g between antihydrogen and the Earth, with an accuracy of 1% or better. The following key question has been asked by the PAC: Is a possible 1% difference between g and g already ruled out by other evidence? This memo presents the key points of existing evidence, to answer whether such a difference is ruled out (a) on the basis of direct observational evidence; and/or (b) on the basis of indirect evidence, combined with reasoning based on strongly held theoretical assumptions. The bottom line is that there are no direct observations or measurements of gravitational asymmetry which address the antimatter sector. There is evidence which by indirect reasoning can be taken to rule out such a difference, but the analysis needed to draw that conclusion rests on models and assumptions which are in question for other reasons and are thus worth testing. There is no compelling evidence or theoretical reason to rule out such a difference at the 1% level

  2. Academic Training - Studying Anti-Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 24, 25, 26 April from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 14, 15 March, Council Room on 13, 16 March Studying Anti-Matter R. LANDUA / DSU Antiparticles are a crucial ingredient of particle physics and cosmology. Almost 80 years after Dirac's bold prediction and the subsequent discovery of the positron in 1932, antiparticles are still in the spotlight of modern physics. This lecture for non-specialists will start with a theoretical and historical introduction. Why are antiparticles needed? When and how were they discovered? Why is the (CPT) symmetry between particles and antiparticles so fundamental? What is their role in cosmology? The second part will give an overview about the many aspects of antiparticles in experimental physics: their production, their use in colliders; as a probe inside atoms or nuclei; or as an object to study fundamental symmetries. In the third part, the lecture will focus on results and challenges of the '...

  3. The Matter-Antimatter Concept Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquet P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we briefly review the theory elaborated by Louis de Broglie who showed that in some circumstances, a particle tunneling through a dispersive refracting material may reverse its velocity with respect to that of its associated wave (phase velocity: this is a consequence of Rayleigh’s formula defining the group velocity. Within his “Double Solution Theory”, de Broglie re-interprets Dirac’s aether concept which was an early attempt to describe the matter-antimatter symmetry. In this new approach, de Broglie suggests that the (hidden sub-quantum medium required by his theory be likened to the dispersive and refracting material with identical properties. A Riemannian generalization of this scheme restricted to a space-time section, and formulated within an holonomic frame is here considered. This procedure is shown to be founded and consistent if one refers to the extended formulation of General Relativity (EGR theory, wherein pre-exists a persistent field.

  4. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  5. The antimatter factory is ready for another successful year

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s contribution to antimatter research is interspersed with important breakthroughs: from the creation of the very first anti-atoms in 1995 to the production of large quantities in 2002 and the invention in 2010 of the technique that freezes them down to allow precise studies of their properties. This week, antimatter experiments are on the starting blocks for a new run that promises to be just as exciting.   The Antiproton Decelerator (AD). CERN’s Antimatter Decelerator (AD) is a unique antimatter factory that produces low-energy anti-protons for creating anti-atoms. The AD delivers its precious ingredients to several experiments that use them to study antimatter properties from many different angles. The 2011 run is about to start, and the experiments are ready to enter a new data-taking period. Their scientific goals for this year include applying spectroscopy techniques for the first time to probe the inner workings of antihydrogen atoms; evaluating the biological effe...

  6. The need for expanded exploration of matter-antimatter annihilation for propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massier, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of matter-antimatter annihilation as a propulsion application for interstellar travel is discussed. The physical basis for the superior energy release in such a system is summarized, and the problems associated with antimatter production, collection and storage are assessed. Advances in devising a workable propulsion system are reported, and the parameters of an antimatter propulsion system are described.

  7. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  8. The magnetic spectrometer of the PAMELA satellite experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gabbanini, A.; Grandi, M.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.B.; Spillantini, P.; Straulino, S.; Taccetti, F.; Tesi, M.; Vannuccini, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of the magnetic spectrometer of the PAMELA experiment, that will be launched during 2003 to do a precise measurement of the energy spectra of the antimatter components in cosmic rays. This paper will mainly focus on the detailed description of the tracking system and on the solutions adopted to deal with the technical challenges that are required to build a very precise detector to be used in the hostile space environment

  9. AMS, a particle spectrometer in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Ren, Z.L.; Santos, D.; Thuillier, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed for extraterrestrial study of anti-matter, matter and dark matter. A precursor flight and on the STS-91 flight of the shuttle is planned to take place on May 1998. AMS will be installed on the International Space Station in January 2002 where it will be operated next, for three to five years. The contributions of the ISN to the project on the shuttle (aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter) as well as the steps to build a RICH detector for AMS on the ISSA are explained here below. (authors)

  10. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  11. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-09

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  12. Polarization of photons in matter–antimatter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskaliuk, S.S. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna Street, 14-b, Kyiv-143, Ukraine, UA-03143 e-mail: mss@bitp.kiev.ua (Ukraine)

    2015-03-10

    In this work we demonstrate the possibility of generation of linear polarization of the electromagnetic field (EMF) due to the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process for anisotropic space of the I type according to Bianchi. We study the dynamics of this process to estimate the degree of polarisation of the EMF in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model. It has been established that the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model provide contribution to the degree of polarisation of the EMF in quadrupole harmonics.

  13. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  14. Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter Resources ) 'to verify a fundamental tenet of physics, known as CP [charge-parity] symmetry, by showing that two into two pi mesons. Cronin and Fitch had found an example of CP violation. The discovery's

  15. Why is the universe more partial to mater than antimatter?

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "B factory experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) in the USA and at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan have reached a new milestone in the quest to understand the matter-antimatter imbalance in our universe.

  16. The Role of Antimatter in Big-Bang Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying man's conceptions of the universe, including Omnes' repulsive separation mechanism, the turbulence theory of galaxy formation, and the author's idea about gamma ray spectra in cosmological matter-antimatter annihilation. Indicates that the Apollo data provide encouraging evidence by fitting well with his theoretical…

  17. On the random geometry of a symmetric matter antimatter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Goto, M.

    1977-05-01

    A statistical analysis is made of the randon geometry of an early symmetric matter-antimatter universe model. Such a model is shown to determine the total number of the largest agglomerations in the universe, as well as of some special configurations. Constraints on the time development of the protoagglomerations are also obtained

  18. Measurement of matter-antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Arnau Romeu, J.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Babuschkin, I.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Coco, V.; David, P. N.Y.; De Bruyn, K.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Ketel, T.; Koopman, R. F.; Van Leerdam, J.; Merk, M.; Onderwater, C. J.G.; Raven, G.; Schiller, M.; Serra, N.; Snoek, H.; Storaci, B.; Syropoulos, V.; Van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.

    Differences in the behaviour of matter and antimatter have been observed in K and B meson decays, but not yet in any baryon decay. Such differences are associated with the non-invariance of fundamental interactions under the combined charge-conjugation and parity transformations, known as CP

  19. Measurement of matter-antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    Differences in the behaviour of matter and antimatter have been observed in K and B meson decays, but not yet in any baryon decay. Such differences are associated with the non-invariance of fundamental interactions under the combined chargeconjugation and parity transformations, known as CP

  20. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  1. Turning the Star Trek Dream into Reality by Understanding Matter & Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2002-04-01

    People are going to learn all about matter and antimatter. Where matter and antimatter comes from. Where antimatter exists within our solar system. What the Periodic Table of Matter-AntiMatter Elements looks like. What each of the 109 antimatter element's nuclear, physical, and chemical characteristics are. How much energy is produced from matter and antimatter. And what needs to be done to turn the Star Trek Dream into Reality. The Milky Way Galaxy is composed of matter and antimatter. At the center of the galaxy, there are two black holes. One black hole is composed of matter; and the other is antimatter. The black holes are ejecting matter and antimatter into space forming a halo and spiral arms of matter & antimatter stars. The sun is one of the billions of stars that are composed of matter. There are a similar number of antimatter stars. Our Solar System contains the sun, earth, planets, and asteroids that are composed of matter, and comets that are composed of antimatter. When galactic antimatter enters our solar system, the antimatter is called comets. Astronomers have observed hundred of comets orbiting the sun and are finding new comets every year. During the last century, mass destruction has resulted when antimatter collided with Jupiter and Earth. How Humanity deals with the opportunities and dangers of antimatter will determine our destiny. Mankind has known about comets destructive power for thousands of years going back to the days of antiquity. Did comets have anything to do with the disappearance of Atlantis over twelve thousand years ago? We may never know; but is there a similar situation about to take place? Scientists have been studying antimatter by producing, storing, and colliding small quantities at national laboratories for several decades. Symmetry exists between matter and antimatter. Science and Technology provides unlimited opportunities to benefit humanity. Antimatter can be used, as a natural source of energy, to bring every country

  2. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  3. ELENA prepares a bright future for antimatter research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    At its recent session in June, the CERN Council approved the construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) – an upgrade of the existing Antiproton Decelerator. ELENA will allow the further deceleration of antiprotons, resulting in an increased number of particles trapped downstream in the experimental set-ups. This will give an important boost to antimatter research in the years to come.   Layout of the AD experimental hall: the Antiproton Decelerator ring (purple); the ALPHA, ASACUSA, and ATRAP experiments (green); the ACE experiment (not pictured); and the new ELENA ring (blue). The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is CERN’s widely recognized facility for the study of antimatter properties. The recent successes of the AD experiments are just the latest in a long list of important scientific results that started with LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring). The scientific demand for low-energy antiprotons at the AD continues to grow. There are now four experiments runnin...

  4. Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry due to the gravitational interaction alone is discussed, considering the gravitational coupling of fermion matter related to the Yang-Mills (1954) gauge symmetry with the unique generalization of the four-dimensional Poincare group. Attention is given to the case of weak static fields which determines the space-time metric where only large source terms are retained. In addition, considering lowest-order Feynman diagrams, there are presented gravitational potential energies between fermions, between antifermions, and between a fermion and an antifermion. It is concluded that the gravitational force between matter is different from that between antimatter; implications from this concerning the evolution of the universe are discussed.

  5. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  6. Antimatter Production for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.; Schmidt, George R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use and potential of power generated from Proton-Antiproton Annihilation. The problem is that there is not enough production of anti-protons, and that the production methods are inefficient. The cost for 1 gram of antiprotons is estimated at 62.5 trillion dollars. Applications which require large quantities (i.e., about 1 kg) will require dramatic improvements in the efficiency of the production of the antiprotons. However, applications which involve small quantities (i.e., 1 to 10 micrograms may be practical with a relative expansion of capacities. There are four "conventional" antimatter propulsion concepts which are: (1) the solid core, (2) the gas core, (3) the plasma core, and the (4) beam core. These are compared in terms of specific impulse, propulsive energy utilization and vehicle structure/propellant mass ratio. Antimatter-catalyzed fusion propulsion is also evaluated. The improvements outlined in the presentation to the Fermilab production, and other sites. capability would result in worldwide capacity of several micrograms per year, by the middle of the next decade. The conclusions drawn are: (1) the Conventional antimatter propulsion IS not practical due to large p-bar requirement; (2) Antimatter-catalyzed systems can be reasonably considered this "solves" energy cost problem by employing substantially smaller quantities; (3) With current infrastructure, cost for 1 microgram of p-bars is $62.5 million, but with near-term improvements cost should drop; (4) Milligram-scale facility would require a $15 billion investment, but could produce 1 mg, at $0.1/kW-hr, for $6.25 million.

  7. Cosmic ray antimatter: Is it primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1981-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic ray antiprotons, including the low energy measurement of Buffington, were examined. It is concluded that the cosmic ray antiproton data may be strong evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present antiproton data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having antiproton/proton approximately equal to .0032 + or - 0.7.

  8. ALICE’s wonderland reveals the heaviest antimatter ever observed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Producing and observing antiparticles is part of everyday life for many physics laboratories around the world, including CERN. However, recreating and observing the anti-nuclei of complex atoms is a much more difficult task. Analysing data collected in a run of just one month, ALICE has recently found evidence of the formation of four anti-nuclei of Helium 4, the heaviest antimatter ever created in a laboratory.   The STAR experiment at RHIC came first and published the result in March: they presented evidence of 18 anti-nuclei of Helium 4 collected over several years of data taking. “ALICE came second but it's amazing to see how fast the results came,” exclaims Paolo Giubellino, the experiment’s spokesperson. “We were able to confirm the observation of 4He anti-nuclei with data collected in November 2010.” Scientists agree on the fact that antimatter was created in the Big Bang together with matter. However, today we do not observe antimatter outsid...

  9. Asymmetric creation of matter and antimatter in the expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastamatiou, N.J.; Parker, L.

    1979-01-01

    We consider a simple model in which the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe is brought about by an effective two-particle interaction that violates baryon-number conservation as well as CP invariance. The particle fields participating in the interaction are quantized, and their time development in an isotropically expanding universe is found to all orders in the coupling constant. Pair production by the asymmetric interaction, as well as symmetric production by the gravitational field of the expanding universe, appear simultaneously in the solution. Taking an initial state in which no particles participating in the asymmetric interaction are present, we find the created baryon-number density. We consider in more detail the case when the matter-antimatter asymmetry is produced during a stage when the radius of the universe is small with respect to its present value. We make numerical estimates of the created matter-antimatter asymmetry, and put limits on possible values of the parameters of this model

  10. Beta limitation of matter-antimatter boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1987-08-01

    A model has earlier been proposed for a boundary layer which separates a cloud of matter from one of antimatter in a magnetized ambiplasma. In this model steady pressure equilibrium ceases to exist when a certain beta limit is exceeded. The latter is defined as the ratio between the ambiplasma and magnetic field pressures which balance each other in the boundary layer. Thus, at an increasing density, the high-energy particles created by annihilation within the layer are 'pumped up' to a pressure which cannot be balanced by a given magnetic field. The boundary layer then 'disrupts'. The critical beta limit thus obtained falls within the observed parameter ranges of galaxies and other large cosmical objects. Provided that the considered matter-antimatter balance holds true, this limit is thus expected to impose certain existence conditions on matter-antimatter boundary layers. Such a limitation may apply to certain cosmical objects and cosmological models. The maximum time scale for the corresponding disruption development has been estimated to be in the range from about 10 -4 to 10 2 seconds for boundary layers at ambiplasma particle densities in the range from 10 4 to 10 -2 m -3 , respectively. (author)

  11. Complementary aspects on matter-antimatter boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-05-01

    This paper gives some complementary aspects on the problems of the matter-antimatter metagalaxy model and its cellular structure, as being proposed by Klein and Alfven. A previously outlined one-dimensional model of a magnetized matter-antimatter boundary layer is updated and extended, by introducing amended nuclear annihilation data, and by making improved approximations of the layer structure and its dependence on relevant parameters. The critical beta value obtained from this model leads to critical plasma densities which are not high enough to become reconcilable with a cellular matter-antimatter structure within the volume of a galaxy. Additional investigations are required on the questions whether the obtained beta limit would still apply to cells of the size of a galaxy, and whether large modification of this limit could result from further refinement of the theory and from the transition to a three-dimensional model. Attention is called to the wide area of further research on ambiplasma physics, and on a three-dimensional cell structure with associated problems of equilibrium and stability. In particular, the high-energy ambiplasma component has to be further analysed in terms of kinetic theory, on account of the large Larmor radii of the corresponding electrons and positrons

  12. HISS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented

  13. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  14. A simulation study of antimatter-helium ion planar channeling in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesundera, Dharshana; Jayarathna, Sandun; Bellwied, Rene; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2012-01-01

    With the physical significance arising with the reports on experimental observation of antimatter-He nuclei, we have investigated a case of 2 MeV antimatter-He ion planar channeling in Si (1 0 0) in comparison with He channeling, by simulation. For a negatively charged antimatter-He nucleus, the planar potential well is centered at the atomic plane itself as opposed to the center-channel minimum for He ions; the antimatter-He ion distribution therefore tends to concentrate toward the atomic lattice planes. The antimatter-He ion flux distribution and the resulting close encounter probability are crucial in determining the probability of close encounter events including annihilation at channeling incidence. We have therefore analyzed the variation of antimatter-He ion flux distribution within the channels with respect to the angle of incidence and have thereby derived the orientation dependence of probability of close encounter events, or an antimatter-He channeling angular scan. The angular scan is inverted with a maximum yield at the perfect beam-planar alignment. The half-angle is narrower compared to He channeling, as a consequence of the narrower planar channeling potential centered at the lattice planes. The high de-channeling rate associated with the higher antimatter-He ion concentration in the proximity of lattice planes causes the maximum yield to be less prominent and to decrease rapidly with depth. The shoulder region shows strong depth dependent reduction that can be associated to near surface depth dependent ion flux variation.

  15. Possible evidence for the existence of antimatter on a cosmological scale in the universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Morgan, D. L., Jr.; Bredekamp, J.

    1971-01-01

    Initial results of a detailed calculation of the cosmological gamma-ray spectrum from matter-antimatter annihilation in the universe. The similarity between the calculated spectrum and the present observations of the gamma-ray background spectrum above 1 MeV suggests that such observations may be evidence of the existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe.

  16. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  17. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  18. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  19. Longitudinal Proximity Effect Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) hold the highest energy resolving power of any nondispersive spectrometer.   They are used for imaging spectroscopy...

  20. Computing strategy of Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choutko, V.; Klimentov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is an experiment to search in the space for dark matter, missing matter, and antimatter scheduled for being flown on the International Space Station in the fall of year 2005 for at least 3 consecutive years. This paper gives an overview of the AMS software with emphasis on the distributed production system based on client/server approach. We also describe our choice of hardware components to build a processing farm with TByte RAID arrays of IDE disks and highlight the strategies that make our system different from many other experimental systems

  1. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  2. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  3. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  4. The Symmetry, or Lack of it, Between Matter and Antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Helen R

    2001-01-01

    The subject of antimatter and its relationship to matter began with Dirac, with the publication of his famous equation in 1928.[1] Today it remains an active area of particle physics. The dominant issue for a number of major experimental programs is to decipher the nature of the difference in the laws of physics for matter and for antimatter. This has been a central issue of my work in the past few years, and a recurring theme in earlier work. Hence when I was asked to review a subject of my choice for this conference, this was the obvious choice for me; a very different focus from any other talk here. (Also, it allows me along the way make reference to both pieces of work for which I was cited in my Dirac award, though neither is central to this story.) Given this opportunity, I decided to start with the early history of the subject, both in honor of Dirac and his essential role in it, and because it is fascinating to look back and see how understanding evolves

  5. A new “culprit” for matter-antimatter asymmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In our matter-dominated Universe, the observation of new processes showing matter-antimatter asymmetry allows scientists to test their theories and, possibly, to explore new territories. The LHCb collaboration has recently observed matter-antimatter asymmetries in the decays of the B0s meson, which thus becomes the fourth particle known to present such behaviour.   The VELO detector: a crucial element for particle identifiation in LHCb. Almost all physics processes known to scientists show perfect symmetry if a particle is interchanged with its antiparticle (C symmetry), and then if left and right are swapped (P symmetry). So it becomes very hard to explain why the Universe itself does not conform to this symmetry and, instead, shows a huge preference for matter. Processes that violate this symmetry are rare and of great interest to scientists. Violation of the CP symmetry in neutral kaons was first observed by Nobel Prize Laureates James Cronin and Val Fitch in the 1960s. About 40 years la...

  6. Atomic physics of the antimatter explored with slow antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Hiroyuki A.

    2010-01-01

    Frontiers of antimatter physics are reviewed, with a focus on our ASACUSA collaboration, doing research on 'Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons' at the 'Antiproton Decelerator' facility at CERN. Antiprotonic helium atoms give a unique test ground for testing CPT invariance between particles and antiparticles. Laser spectroscopy of this exotic atom has reached a precision of a few parts per billion in determation of the antiproton mass. We also have developed techniques to decelerate antiprotons and cool them to sub-eV energies in an electromagnetic trap at ultra-high vacuum and extract them as an ultra-slow beam at typically 250 eV. This unique low-energy beam opens up the possibility to study ionization and formation of antiprotonic atoms. The antihydrogen has been synthesized at low temperature in nested Penning traps by ATRAP and ATHENA(presently ALPHA) collaborations. Confinement of this neutral anti-atoms in a trap with magnetic field gradient is being studied, with an aim of 1S-2S laser spectroscopy in the future. ASACUSA has prepared a cusp trap for production of antihydrogen atoms, and aims at microwave spectroscopy between the hyperfine states of spin-polarized antihydrogen. A wide variety of low-energy antiproton physics also includes measurement of nuclear scattering, radiational biological effects, and gravity test of antimatter. (author)

  7. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Superconducting magnet and cryostat for a space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, W. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Smith, L. H.; Taylor, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the design concepts, development, and testing of a superconducting coil and cryostat for an orbiting superconducting magnetic spectrometer. Several coils were subject to overall thermal performance and coil charging tests. The coils have low but persistent currents and have proven themselves to be rugged and reliable for mobile balloon flights. Satellite experiments will be conducted on a new, similar design.

  9. Do we live in the universe successively dominated by matter and antimatter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2011-01-01

    We wonder if a cyclic universe may be dominated alternatively by matter and antimatter. Such a scenario demands a mechanism for transformation of matter to antimatter (or antimatter to matter) during the final stage of a big crunch. By giving an example, we have shown that in principle such a mechanism is possible. Our mechanism is based on a hypothetical repulsion between matter and antimatter, existing at least deep inside the horizon of a black hole. When universe is reduced to a supermassive black hole of a small size, a very strong field of the conjectured force might create (through a Schwinger type mechanism) particle-antiparticle pairs from the quantum vacuum. The amount of antimatter created from the vacuum is equal to the decrease of mass of the black hole and violently repelled from it. When the size of the black hole is sufficiently small, the creation of antimatter may become so fast, that matter of our Universe might be transformed to antimatter in a fraction of second. Such a fast conversion of...

  10. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  11. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  12. EXAM: An experiment to search for antimatter in distant clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlen, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    It is often claimed that the absence of antimatter in the universe is evidence in favor of Grand Unified Theories (GUT's) of particle physics. This is due to the three requirements initially enumerated by Sakharov, for the evolution of a matter-antimatter symmetric universe to an asymmetric universe: 1) Existence of baryon number non-conserving processes such as predicted by GUT's, 2) Existence of CP violating processes in the hot early universe, 3) Deviations from thermal equilibrium in the early universe. However, before this argument can be accepted, one must examine the evidence against antimatter in the universe

  13. Looking for the origin of the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Recent results from the Belle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Nobuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Why is our Universe made of matter and not antimatter? It might be explained if the laws that govern matter and antimatter are different. In 1964, matter-antimatter asymmetry was discovered in the weak decays of elementary particles called Kaons. At the KEKB B factory we have discovered CP violations in B meson decays and have thus established the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP violation. The present article reviews the history of CP violation, focusing on recent results from the B factories and prospects in this field. (author)

  14. Antimatter production in proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleymans, J.; Kabana, S.; Kraus, I.; Oeschler, H.; Redlich, K.; Sharma, N.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking features of particle production at high beam energies is the near-equal abundance of matter and antimatter in the central rapidity region. In this paper we study how this symmetry is reached as the beam energy is increased. In particular, we quantify explicitly the energy dependence of the approach to matter-antimatter symmetry in proton-proton and in heavy-ion collisions. Expectations are presented also for the production of more complex forms of antimatter such as antihypernuclei.

  15. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  16. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  17. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  18. Initial results of the mexican participation in the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmont M, E.; Menchaca R, A.; Sandoval, A.; Alfaro, R.; Martinez D, A.; Grabski, V.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico is part of the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) project, consisting of several radiation detectors integrated in a single telescope to be sent to the outer space in search of antimatter. One of those detectors is a RICH (Ring Imaging Cherenkov), where the cosmic particle's speed is calculated from the Cherenkov light-rings observed. The IF-UNAM group works in characterizing the silica aerogel used as luminous element in this detector. Because the spectrometer will be in orbit for several years, some particular studies are necessary. Our group works on possible ageing mechanisms, showing that the main threat to this material is contamination rather than thermal, or vacuum, shocks. (Author)

  19. Superconducted tour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.

  20. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  1. Matter-antimatter asymmetry induced by a running vacuum coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Astronomia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Singleton, D. [California State University Fresno, Department of Physics, Fresno, CA (United States); Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-12-15

    We show that a CP-violating interaction induced by a derivative coupling between the running vacuum and a non-conserving baryon current may dynamically break CPT and trigger baryogenesis through an effective chemical potential. By assuming a non-singular class of running vacuum cosmologies which provides a complete cosmic history (from an early inflationary de Sitter stage to the present day quasi-de Sitter acceleration), it is found that an acceptable baryon asymmetry is generated for many different choices of the model parameters. It is interesting that the same ingredient (running vacuum energy density) addresses several open cosmological questions/problems: avoids the initial singularity, provides a smooth exit for primordial inflation, alleviates both the coincidence and the cosmological constant problems, and, finally, is also capable of explaining the generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the very early Universe. (orig.)

  2. Star Trek meets the Big Bang curiosity is leading scientists on a mission to explain antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    1998-01-01

    Next year, scientists at CERN will inaugurate the world's first 'antimatter factory'. The 'Antiproton Decelerator' will make more than 2000 atoms of anti-hydrogen an hour and contain them in a magnetic trap within a vacuum (1 page).

  3. Isodual theory of antimatter applications to antigravity, grand unification and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    2006-01-01

    Antimatter, already conjectured by A. Schuster in 1898, was actually predicted by P.A.M. Dirac in the late 19-twenties in the negative-energy solutions of the Dirac equation. Its existence was subsequently confirmed via the Wilson chamber and became an established part of theoretical physics. Dirac soon discovered that particles with negative energy do not behave in a physically conventional manner, and he therefore developed his "hole theory". This restricted the study of antimatter to the sole level of second quantization. As a result antimatter created a scientific imbalance, because matter was treated at all levels of study, while antimatter was treated only at the level of second quantization. In search of a new mathematics for the resolution of this imbalance the author conceived what we know today as Santilli’s isodual mathematics, which permitted the construction of isodual classical mechanics, isodual quantization and isodual quantum mechanics. The scope of this monograph is to show that our classi...

  4. Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies: An introduction and experimental confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhujbal, P. M. [Department of Physics, Nutan Adarsh Arts, Commerce and Smt. Maniben Harilal Wegad Science College, Umrer-441203, India. Email: prashantmbhujbal@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-03-10

    Studies accompanied over the past few decades on the generalization of quantum mechanics known as hadronic mechanics, initiated in 1978 by the Italian-American physicist Ruggero Maria Santilli and its application for detection of light from antimatter galaxy is reported in this paper. The isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy E{sup d} =-E with negative unit, experiences a negative curvature tensor R{sup d}=-R (gravitational repulsion) when in a matter gravitational field, and possesses a negative index of refraction n{sup d}=-n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Detection of antimatter galaxies is possible by the refractive telescope with concave lenses constructed by Santilli which follow the concept of negative energy and negative index of refraction for antimatter.

  5. Matter-antimatter and matter-matter interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Carlos Fontes dos

    2002-01-01

    This article presents some of the recent experimental advances on the study on antimatter-matter and matter-matter interactions, and some of the subtle differences stimulated a great theoretical efforts for explanation of the results experimentally observed

  6. Kinetics of Interactions of Matter, Antimatter and Radiation Consistent with Antisymmetric (CPT-Invariant Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Klimenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the influence of directional properties of decoherence on kinetics rate equations. The physical reality is understood as a chain of unitary and decoherence events. The former are quantum-deterministic, while the latter introduce uncertainty and increase entropy. For interactions of matter and antimatter, two approaches are considered: symmetric decoherence, which corresponds to conventional symmetric (CP-invariant thermodynamics, and antisymmetric decoherence, which corresponds to antisymmetric (CPT-invariant thermodynamics. Radiation, in its interactions with matter and antimatter, is shown to be decoherence-neutral. The symmetric and antisymmetric assumptions result in different interactions of radiation with matter and antimatter. The theoretical predictions for these differences are testable by comparing absorption (emission of light by thermodynamic systems made of matter and antimatter. Canonical typicality for quantum mixtures is briefly discussed in Appendix A.

  7. Santilli’s detection of antimatter galaxies: An introduction and experimental confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhujbal, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies accompanied over the past few decades on the generalization of quantum mechanics known as hadronic mechanics, initiated in 1978 by the Italian-American physicist Ruggero Maria Santilli and its application for detection of light from antimatter galaxy is reported in this paper. The isodual (antimatter) light has negative energy E d =-E with negative unit, experiences a negative curvature tensor R d =-R (gravitational repulsion) when in a matter gravitational field, and possesses a negative index of refraction n d =-n when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Detection of antimatter galaxies is possible by the refractive telescope with concave lenses constructed by Santilli which follow the concept of negative energy and negative index of refraction for antimatter

  8. Radio Frequency (RF) Trap for Confinement of Antimatter Plasmas Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Pearson, J. Boise

    2004-01-01

    Perturbations associated with a rotating wall electric field enable the confinement of ions for periods approaching weeks. This steady state confinement is a result of a radio frequency manipulation of the ions. Using state-of-the-art techniques it is shown that radio frequency energy can produce useable manipulation of the ion cloud (matter or antimatter) for use in containment experiments. The current research focuses on the improvement of confinement systems capable of containing and transporting antimatter.

  9. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  10. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  11. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  12. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  13. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  14. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  15. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  16. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  17. Superconducting transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor

  18. A trip to Rome—thanks to antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    The Angels and Demons exhibition created by the PH Department’s Education Group came to an end last summer. The exhibition was accompanied by a competition, with a first prize of a flight to Rome. Now we know the winner’s name. An exhibit of the Angels&Demons - the science behind the story exhibition She is Sarah Manton, and she is from Scotland. In September Sarah will fly to Rome with her husband to retrace the Angels and Demons street itinerary. “We are looking forward to visiting the usual tourist sights, including all the places that feature in Angels and Demons such as the Pantheon,” she said in answer to a question from the exhibition organisers. The couple was touring CERN when, intrigued by the Globe and the name of the exhibition, they decided to do a visit and participate in the competition. Five correct answers on antimatter later—and several months on—Sarah got a pleasant surprise: “I decided to have a go at the quiz an...

  19. LS1 Report: antimatter research on the starting blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The consolidation work at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) has been very intensive and the operators now have a basically new machine to “drive”. Thanks to the accurate preparation work still ongoing, the machine will soon deliver its first beam of antiprotons to the experiments. The renewed efficiency of the whole complex will ensure the best performance of the whole of CERN’s antimatter research programme in the long term.   The test bench for the new Magnetic Horn stripline. On the left, high voltage cables are connected to the stripline, which then feeds a 6 kV 400 kA pulse to the Horn. The Horn itself (the cylindrical object on the right) can be seen mounted on its chariot. The consolidation programme at the AD planned during LS1 has involved some of the most vital parts of the decelerator such as the target area, the ring magnets, the stochastic cooling system, vacuum system, control system and various aspects of the instrumentation. In addit...

  20. New experiment to gain unparalleled insight into antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    At last week’s Research Board meeting, the Baryon Antibaryon Symmetry Experiment (BASE) was approved for installation at CERN. The experiment will be diving into the search for matter-antimatter asymmetry, as it aims to take ultra-high precision measurements of the antiproton magnetic moment.   CERN's AD Hall: the new home of the BASE double Penning trap set-up. The BASE collaboration will be setting up shop in the AD Hall this September with its first CERN-based experimental set-up. Using the novel double-Penning trap set-up developed at the University of Mainz, GSI Darmstadt and the Max Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany), the BASE team will be able to measure the antiproton magnetic moment with hitherto unreachable part-per-billion precision. “We constructed the first double-Penning trap at our companion facility in Germany, and made the first ever direct observations of single spin flips of a single proton,” explains Stefan Ulmer from RIKE...

  1. Probing antimatter gravity – The AEGIS experiment at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellerbauer A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The weak equivalence principle states that the motion of a body in a gravitational field is independent of its structure or composition. This postulate of general relativity has been tested to very high precision with ordinary matter, but no relevant experimental verification with antimatter has ever been carried out. The AEGIS experiment will measure the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen to ultimately 1% precision. For this purpose, a pulsed horizontal antihydrogen beam with a velocity of several 100 m s−1 will be produced. Its vertical deflection due to gravity will be detected by a setup consisting of material gratings coupled with a position-sensitive detector, operating as a moiré deflectometer or an atom interferometer. The AEGIS experiment is installed at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator, currently the only facility in the world which produces copious amounts of low-energy antiprotons. The construction of the setup has been going on since 2010 and is nearing completion. A proof-of-principle experiment with antiprotons has demonstrated that the deflection of antiparticles by a few μm due to an external force can be detected. Technological and scientific development pertaining to specific challenges of the experiment, such as antihydrogen formation by positronium charge exchange or the position-sensitive detection of antihydrogen annihilations, is ongoing.

  2. Theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisan, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up to the 1987 results on high temperature superconductivity. Contents: Phenomenological Theory of Superconductivity; Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity; Theory of Superconducting Alloys; Superconductors in a Magnetic Field; Superconductivity and Magnetic Order; Superconductivity in Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems; and Non-Conventional Superconductivity

  3. a Classical Isodual Theory of Antimatter and its Prediction of Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Ruggero Maria

    An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatment of matter and antimatter in due time, and as the classical foundations of an axiomatically consistent inclusion of gravitation in unified gauge theories recently appeared elsewhere, in this paper we present a classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with corresponding formulations at all subsequent levels. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is antiautomorphic, the proposed theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, which is also antiautomorphic (and more generally, antiisomorphic), yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level where it becomes equivalent to charge conjugation. We therefore present, apparently for the first time, the classical isodual theory of antimatter, we identify the physical foundations of the theory as being the novel isodual Galilean, special and general relativities, and we show the compatibility of the theory with all available classical experimental data on antimatter. We identify the classical foundations of the prediction of antigravity for antimatter in the field of matter (or vice-versa) without any claim on its validity, and defer its resolution to specifically identified experiments. We identify the novel, classical, isodual electromagnetic waves which are predicted to be emitted by antimatter, the so-called space-time machine based on a novel non-Newtonian geometric propulsion, and other implications of the theory. We also introduce, apparently for the first time, the isodual space and time inversions and show that they are nontrivially different than the conventional ones, thus

  4. Observation of the antimatter partner of Rutherford's α-particle - 4He-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Aihong

    2012-01-01

    The antimatter helium-4 nucleus ( 4 He-bar, or anti-α) has not been observed previously although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford. High-energy nuclear collisions recreate energy densities similar to that of the universe microseconds after the Big Bang, and in both cases, matter and antimatter are created with comparable abundances. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions makes it possible for antimatter to decouple quickly from matter. This makes a high-energy accelerator facility the ideal environment for producing and studying antimatter. In this paper, we report 18 antihelium-4 nuclei discovered by the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The measured invariant differential cross section is consistent with expectation from thermodynamics and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, which has implications for future production of even heavier antimatter nuclei, as well as for experimental searches for new phenomena in the cosmos. Future directions of rare and exotic matter searches from STAR will also be discussed.

  5. CP violation and the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambye, T.

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday environment one observes only matter. That is quite a fortunate situation... Any sizeable presence of antimatter on Earth, from the enormous energy it would release through annihilation with matter, would prevent us talking about it. For the physicist this fact, at first sight obvious, is nevertheless a kind of surprise: antimatter, which is observed in cosmic rays, in radioactive decays of nuclei, which has been copiously produced and extensively studied in accelerators and which is nowadays currently used in hospitals, turns out to have pretty much the same properties as matter. Moreover, the fact that matter dominates appears to be a general property of our Universe: no evidence of large quantities of antimatter has been observed at any distance from us. Why would matter have taken the advantage on antimatter? In this short review we explain how, through a limited number of basic elements, one can find answers to this question. Matter and antimatter have, in fact, not exactly the same properties: from laboratory experiments CP conservation is known not to be a fundamental law of nature. (author)

  6. Superconducting magnets and leads thereto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biltcliffe, M.N.; Hanley, P.E.; McKinnon, J.B.; Wheatley, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The magnet described comprises a cryostat containing a superconducting coil for the generation of a magnetic field, with a short-circuiting superconducting link connected across the coil, and electrical leads extending through the cryostat to the coil; these leads are provided with joints within the cryostat to enable them to be detached from the coil and removed from the cryostat without interrupting the current through the coil, thus reducing heat conduction to the cryostat through the leads. The joints are arranged so that the leads can be readily detached and re-attached to the coil from outside the cryostat. Gas-tight seals are provided where the leads pass through the outer wall of the cryostat, with caps that can be secured after removal of the leads. This kind of magnet can provide a stable magnetic field continuously over long periods, such as is required in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers. (U.K.)

  7. Superconducting magnet systems for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawksworth, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    MRI is the first large scale commercial application of superconductivity and has not achieved the status of a mature industry with an annual turnover in the magnet industry alone in excess of $150M. Conservative estimates put the investment of the medical industry in MRI as a whole at more than a billion dollars. In the nine years since shipment of the first superconducting whole body imaging magnets of 0.3 Tesla field the standard product of the industry has become a system of 1 meter bore and field strength 0.5 Tesla to 1.5 Tesla. In this paper the evolution of present day MRI magnets from small bore but high field spectrometer magnets is reviewed and the direction of future developments discussed

  8. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  9. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  10. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  11. Melt formed superconducting joint between superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.; Knudsen, B.A.; Rumaner, L.E.; Zaabala, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting joint between contiguous superconducting tapes having an inner laminate comprised of a parent-metal layer selected from the group niobium, tantalum, technetium, and vanadium, a superconductive intermetallic compound layer on the parent-metal layer, a reactive-metal layer that is capable of combining with the parent-metal and forming the superconductive intermetallic compound, the joint comprising: a continuous precipitate of the superconductive intermetallic compound fused to the tapes forming a continuous superconducting path between the tapes

  12. Antimatter Plasmas in a Multipole Trap for Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  13. Antimatter plasmas in a multipole trap for antihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Telle, H H; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2007-01-12

    We have demonstrated storage of plasmas of the charged constituents of the antihydrogen atom, antiprotons and positrons, in a Penning trap surrounded by a minimum-B magnetic trap designed for holding neutral antiatoms. The neutral trap comprises a superconducting octupole and two superconducting, solenoidal mirror coils. We have measured the storage lifetimes of antiproton and positron plasmas in the combined Penning-neutral trap, and compared these to lifetimes without the neutral trap fields. The magnetic well depth was 0.6 T, deep enough to trap ground state antihydrogen atoms of up to about 0.4 K in temperature. We have demonstrated that both particle species can be stored for times long enough to permit antihydrogen production and trapping studies.

  14. A position sensitive silicon detector for AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy)

    CERN Multimedia

    Gligorova, A

    2014-01-01

    The AEḡIS experiment (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is located at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN and studies antimatter. The main goal of the AEḡIS experiment is to carry out the first measurement of the gravitational acceleration for antimatter in Earth’s gravitational field to a 1% relative precision. Such a measurement would test the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) of Einstein’s General Relativity. The gravitational acceleration for antihydrogen will be determined using a set of gravity measurement gratings (Moiré deflectometer) and a position sensitive detector. The vertical shift due to gravity of the falling antihydrogen atoms will be detected with a silicon strip detector, where the annihilation of antihydrogen will take place. This poster presents part of the development process of this detector.

  15. Matter-antimatter accounting, thermodynamics, and black-hole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, D.; Treiman, S.B.; Wilczek, F.; Zee, A.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss several issues bearing on the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the content of the universe, in particular, the possible role in this of Hawking radiation from black holes, with allowance for weak C- and T-violating interactions. We show that the radiation, species by species, can be asymmetric between baryons and antibaryons. However, if baryon number is microscopically conserved there cannot be a net flux of baryon number in the radiation. Black-hole absorption from a medium with net baryon number zero can drive the medium to an asymmetric state. On the other hand, if baryon conservation is violated, a net asymmetry can develop. This can arise through asymmetric gravitational interactions of the radiated particles, and conceivably, by radiation of long-lived particles which decay asymmetrically. In the absence of microscopic baryon conservation, asymmetries can also arise from collision processes generally,say in the early stages of the universe as a whole. However, no asymmetries can develop (indeed any ''initial'' ones are erased) insofar as the baryon-violating interactions are in thermal equilibrium, as they might well be in the dense, high-temperature stages of the very early universe. Thus particle collisions can generate asymmetries only when nonequilibrium effects driven by cosmological expansion come into play. A scenario for baryon-number generation suggested by superunified theories is discussed in some detail. Black-hole radiation is another highly nonequilibrium process which is very efficient in producing asymmetry, given microscopic C, T, and baryon-number violation

  16. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  17. Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments.

  18. Cosmic ray neutrino tests for heavier weak bosons and cosmic antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    A program for using high energy neutrino astronomy with large neutrino detectors to directly test for the existence of heavier weak intermediate vector bosons (ivb) and cosmic antimatter is described. Such observations can provide a direct test of baryon symmetric cosmologies. Changes in the total cross section for nu(N) yields mu(X) due to additional propagators are discussed and higher mass resonances in the annihilation channel bar-nu sub e e(-) yields X are analyzed. The annihilation channel is instrumental in the search for antimatter, partcularly if heavier IVB's exist.

  19. Constraining antimatter domains in the early universe with big bang nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki-Suonio, H; Sihvola, E

    2000-04-24

    We consider the effect of a small-scale matter-antimatter domain structure on big bang nucleosynthesis and place upper limits on the amount of antimatter in the early universe. For small domains, which annihilate before nucleosynthesis, this limit comes from underproduction of 4He. For larger domains, the limit comes from 3He overproduction. Since most of the 3He from &pmacr; 4He annihilation are themselves annihilated, the main source of primordial 3He is the photodisintegration of 4He by the electromagnetic cascades initiated by the annihilation.

  20. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  1. The state of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    The present status of applications based on the phenomena of superconductivity are reviewed. Superconducting materials, large scale applications, the Josephson effect and its applications, and superconductivity in instrumentation, are considered. The influence that superconductivity has had on modern theories of elementary particles, such as gauge symmetry breaking, is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpat, Behcet E-mail: behcet.alpat@pg.infn.it

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  3. Euro-led research team creates first ever reaction between matter and antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "An EU-funded team of international researchers has produced the first ever reaction between matter and antimatter, creating protonium. Protonium is a unique type of atom that consists of a proton and an antiproton orbiting around each other." (1 page)

  4. Study of the concordance of a matter-antimatter symmetric Dirac-Milne Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit-Levy, A.

    2009-09-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model in which matter and antimatter are present in equal quantities and where antimatter, as suggested by general relativity through the properties of the Kerr-Newman solutions, is supposed to have a negative active gravitational mass. Supposing such hypothesis removes the necessity to invoke inflation, Dark Energy and Dark matter as mandatory components. Matter (with positive mass) and antimatter (with negative mass) being present in equal quantities, the scale factor evolves linearly with time. After a short summary of basic properties of standard cosmology, some consequences of this linear evolution are studied. The full study of primordial nucleosynthesis within the framework of the Dirac-Milne universe reveals that deuterium can be produced by residual annihilations between matter and antimatter shortly before recombination. Even though Dirac-Milne universe does not present any recent acceleration of the expansion, it is shown that this model is in good agreement with the cosmological test of type Ia supernovae. It is also shown that the position of the acoustic scale of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) naturally appears at the degree scale. The full study of the CMB spectrum and the coherence of the notion of negative mass remain to be investigated, but this work exhibits a original model that could potentially give an alternative description of our Universe. (author)

  5. York University atomic scientist contributes to new breakthrough in the production of antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Physicists working in Europe, including Canada Research Chair in Atomic Physics at York University, Prof. Eric Hessels, have succeeded in capturing the first glimpse of the structure of antimatter. The ATRAP group of scientists at CERN have managed to examine the internal states of anti-hydrogen atoms (1/2 page).

  6. Unified picture for Dirac neutrinos, dark matter, dark energy and matter–antimatter asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2008-01-01

    We propose a unified scenario to generate the masses of Dirac neutrinos and cold dark matter at the TeV scale, understand the origin of dark energy and explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. This model can lead to significant impact on the Higgs searches at LHC.

  7. Matter-antimatter separation in the early universe by rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration of the effect of rotating black holes evaporating early in the universe shows that they would have produced oppositely directed neutrino and antineutrino currents, which push matter and antimatter apart. This separation mechanism is, however, too feeble to account for a present baryon-to-photon ratio of 10 to the -9th, and has no significant observational consequences.

  8. Constraints on Exotic Spin-Dependent Interactions Between Matter and Antimatter from Antiprotonic Helium Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Fadeev, Pavel; Flambaum, Victor V.; Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Kozlov, Mikhail G.; Stadnik, Yevgeny V.; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Heretofore undiscovered spin-0 or spin-1 bosons can mediate exotic spin-dependent interactions between standard model particles. Here, we carry out the first search for semileptonic spin-dependent interactions between matter and antimatter. We compare theoretical calculations and spectroscopic measurements of the hyperfine structure of antiprotonic helium to constrain exotic spin- and velocity-dependent interactions between electrons and antiprotons.

  9. Matter antimatter domains: A possible solution to the CP domain wall problem in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, A. K.; Stecker, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    An SU(5) grand unified theory model is used to show how the degeneracy between vacua with different spontaneously broken charge parity can be dynamically lifted by a condensate of heavy fermion pairs. This drives a phase transition to a unique vacuum state with definite charge parity. The transition eliminates the domain walls in a matter antimatter symmetric domain cosmology.

  10. The Bess Investigation of the Origin of Cosmic-ray Antiprotons and Search for Cosmological Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Yamamoto, Akira; Yoshimura, Koji; Makida, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Shinya; Hasegawa, Masaya; Horikoshi, Atsushi; Tanaka,Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Junichi; Nishimura, Jun; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) collaboration has made precise measurements of the spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and light nuclei and conducted a sensitive search for antinuclei. Ten BESS high-latitude flights, eight from Canada and two from Antarctica, span more than a Solar cycle between 1993 and 2007/2008. BESS measurements of low-energy antiprotons constrain candidate models for dark matter including the possible signature of primordial black hole evaporation. The stringent BESS measurements of antiprotons and the elemental and isotopic spectra of H and He provide strong constraints on models of cosmic-ray transport in the Galaxy and Solar System. BESS has also reported the first antideuterium upper limit. BESS employs a superconducting magnetic-rigity spectrometer with time-of-flight and aerogel Cherenkov detectors to identify incident particles by charge, charge sign, mass, and energy. The BESS-Polar long-duration instrument has reduced lower energy limit of 100 MeV (top of the atmosphere) to increase its sensitivity to possible primary antiproton sources. BESS-Polar II was rebuilt with extended magnet lifetime, improved detector and electronic performance, and greater data storage capacity. It was flown fro Antarctica December 2007-January 2008, recording about 4.6 bission events during 24.5 days at float altitude with the magnet on. During the flight the influence of a high-speed stream in the Solar wind was observed. Details of the BESS-Polar II instrument and flight performance are reported elsewhere at this conference. The successful BESS-Polar II flight at Solar minimum is especially important. Most cosmic-ray antiprotons are secondary products of nuclear interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, giving a spectrum that peaks at about 2 GeV and falls rapidly to higher and lower energies. However, BESS data taken in the previous Solar minimum show a small excess over secondary

  11. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  12. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  14. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  15. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  16. Operation of a 400MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Y; Piao, R; Iguchi, S; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Kominato, K; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Suematsu, H; Jin, X; Takahashi, M; Yamazaki, T; Maeda, H

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1GHz (23.5T). (RE)Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7- x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10- x (Bi-2223) and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8- x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400MHz (9.39T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High field superconducting magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  18. Understanding and application of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung

    1997-02-01

    This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.

  19. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  20. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  1. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  2. Chemical reaction between matter and antimatter realized for the first time: it brings about the formation of protonium

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Matter and antimatter particles run into each other and they annihilate into a small flash of energy: it happened at the first light of the Universe and it happens every day in the particles accelerators throughout the world." (1 page)

  3. How to build an antimatter rocket for interstellar missions - systems level considerations in designing advanced propulsion technology vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the general mission requirements and system technologies that would be required to implement an antimatter propulsion system where a magnetic nozzle is used to direct charged particles to produce thrust.

  4. The antimatter. Press breakfast 23 may 2000; L'antimatiere. Petit dejeuner de presse 23 mai 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiro, M; Dejardin, M; Debu, P; Aleksan, R [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-05-01

    This document brings together the subjects discussed during the Press breakfast of 23 may 2000 on the antimatter, with scientists of the CEA and the CNRS. It presents the research programs and the experiments on the antimatter and the symmetry violation: the CP LEAR and the NA48 experiments at CERN, the BaBar detector at SLAC, the fundamental research at the CEA and the impacts on the energy policy. It provides also links for more detailed inquiries. (A.L.B.)

  5. Karlsruhe: En route to a superconducting r.f. separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    A superconducting r.f. separator is under construction at Karlsruhe for use at the SPS in the beam-line to the Omega spectrometer. Tests on a section of the first 3 m deflector have given results close to the desired parameters.

  6. A silicon microstrip detector in a magnetic spectrometer for high-resolution electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, A.W.; Bonnes, U.; Burda, O.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Platz, M.; Richter, A.; Watzlawik, S.

    2006-01-01

    A silicon microstrip detector was developed as focal plane detector of the 169.7 deg. magic angle double-focussing spectrometer at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). It allows experiments with minimum ionizing electrons at data rates up to 100 kHz, utilizing the maximum resolution of the spectrometer achievable in dispersion-matching mode

  7. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  8. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  9. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  10. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-01-15

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.

  11. Local gamma ray events as tests of the antimatter theory of gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, S.; Wilson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nearby examples of the antimatter 'chunks' postulated by Sofia and Van Horn to explain the cosmic gamma ray bursts may produce detectable gamma ray events when struck by solar system meteoroids. These events would have a much shorter time scale and higher energy spectrum than the bursts already observed. In order to have a reasonably high event rate, the local meteoroid population must extend to a distance from the Sun of the order of 0.1 pc, but the required distance could become much lower if the instrumental threshold is improved. The expected gamma ray flux for interaction of the antimatter bodies with the solar wind is also examined, and found to be far below present instrumental capabilities. (Auth.)

  12. Can the new Neutrino Telescopes and LHC reveal the gravitational proprieties of antimatter?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2011-01-01

    What are the gravitational proprieties of antimatter is still not known. One possibility is the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter (in short we call it antigravity). We point out two possible signatures of the assumed existence of antigravity. First, the supermassive black hole in the center of our Galaxy (Southern Sky)and in the center of the Andromeda Galaxy (Northern Sky)may produce a flux of antineutrinos measurable with the new generation of the neutrino telescopes; like the IceCube Neutrino Detector under construction at the South Pole, and the future one cubic kilometer telescope in Mediterranean Sea. Second, if microscopic black holes are successfully produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, their thermal (Hawking's) radiation should be dominated by a non-thermal radiation caused by antigravity.

  13. Some aspects of matter-antimatter asymmetry and states in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braghin, Fabio L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Matter-antimatter asymmetry observed in our Universe is discussed considering different aspects. The usual baryogenesis mechanism proposed by Sakharov is described and and few other mechanisms are analyzed. Furthermore, the possibility of the existence of antimatter islands is discussed in view of different observational results and plans for future observations. For the different mechanisms of producing such asymmetry, besides the breaking of CP, particular attention is given to CPT , considering both its possible breakdown in different systems and the framework of the CPT theorem, and to few other different effects which are (or might be) present in the (extended) phase diagram of strong interacting systems and which might not rely on non-equilibrium conditions. Some ideas of relevance for finite (anti)baryonic density systems are discussed as well. (author)

  14. Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent

  15. Gravitationally neutral dark matter-dark antimatter universe crystal with epochs of decelerated and accelerated expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, I. A.; Trigger, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    A large-scale self-similar crystallized phase of finite gravitationally neutral universe (GNU)—huge GNU-ball—with spherical 2D-boundary immersed into an endless empty 3D- space is considered. The main principal assumptions of this universe model are: (1) existence of stable elementary particles-antiparticles with the opposite gravitational “charges” (M+gr and M -gr), which have the same positive inertial mass M in = |M ±gr | ≥ 0 and are equally presented in the universe during all universe evolution epochs; (2) the gravitational interaction between the masses of the opposite charges” is repulsive; (3) the unbroken baryon-antibaryon symmetry; (4) M+gr-M-gr “charges” symmetry, valid for two equally presented matter-antimatter GNU-components: (a) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (b) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM). The GNU-ball is weightless crystallized dust of equally presented, mutually repulsive (OM+DM) clusters and (OAM+DAM) anticlusters. Newtonian GNU-hydrodynamics gives the observable spatial flatness and ideal Hubble flow. The GNU in the obtained large-scale self-similar crystallized phase preserves absence of the cluster-anticluster collisions and simultaneously explains the observable large-scale universe phenomena: (1) the absence of the matter-antimatter clusters annihilation, (2) the self-similar Hubble flow stability and homogeneity, (3) flatness, (4) bubble and cosmic-net structures as 3D-2D-1D decrystallization phases with decelerative (a ≤ 0) and accelerative (a ≥ 0) expansion epochs, (5) the dark energy (DE) phenomena with Λ VACUUM = 0, (6) the DE and DM fine-tuning nature and predicts (7) evaporation into isolated huge M±gr superclusters without Big Rip.

  16. Frontiers in propulsion research: Laser, matter-antimatter, excited helium, energy exchange thermonuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, D. D. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Concepts are described that presently appear to have the potential for propulsion applications in the post-1990 era of space technology. The studies are still in progress, and only the current status of investigation is presented. The topics for possible propulsion application are lasers, nuclear fusion, matter-antimatter annihilation, electronically excited helium, energy exchange through the interaction of various fields, laser propagation, and thermonuclear fusion technology.

  17. Emerging science and technology of antimatter plasmas and trap-based beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surko, C.M.; Greaves, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Progress in the ability to accumulate and cool positrons and antiprotons is enabling new scientific and technological opportunities. The driver for this work is plasma physics research - developing new ways to create and manipulate antimatter plasmas. An overview is presented of recent results and near-term goals and challenges. In atomic physics, new experiments on the resonant capture of positrons by molecules provide the first direct evidence that positrons bind to 'ordinary' matter (i.e., atoms and molecules). The formation of low-energy antihydrogen was observed recently by injecting low-energy antiprotons into a cold positron plasma. This opens up a range of new scientific opportunities, including precision tests of fundamental symmetries such as invariance under charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal, and study of the chemistry of matter and antimatter. The first laboratory study of electron-positron plasmas has been conducted by passing an electron beam through a positron plasma. The next major step in these studies will be the simultaneous confinement of electron and positron plasmas. Although very challenging, such experiments would permit studies of the nonlinear behavior predicted for this unique and interesting plasma system. The use of trap-based positron beams to study transport in fusion plasmas and to characterize materials is reviewed. More challenging experiments are described, such as the creation of a Bose-condensed gas of positronium atoms. Finally, the future of positron trapping and beam formation is discussed, including the development of a novel multicell trap to increase by orders of magnitude the number of positrons trapped, portable antimatter traps, and cold antimatter beams (e.g., with energy spreads ≤1 meV) for precision studies of positron-matter interactions

  18. Gravitationally neutral dark matter–dark antimatter universe crystal with epochs of decelerated and accelerated expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, I A; Trigger, S A

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale self-similar crystallized phase of finite gravitationally neutral universe (GNU)—huge GNU-ball—with spherical 2D-boundary immersed into an endless empty 3D- space is considered. The main principal assumptions of this universe model are: (1) existence of stable elementary particles-antiparticles with the opposite gravitational “charges” ( M + gr and M -gr ), which have the same positive inertial mass M in = | M ±gr | ≥ 0 and are equally presented in the universe during all universe evolution epochs; (2) the gravitational interaction between the masses of the opposite charges” is repulsive; (3) the unbroken baryon-antibaryon symmetry; (4) M +gr -M -gr “charges” symmetry, valid for two equally presented matter-antimatter GNU-components: (a) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (b) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM). The GNU-ball is weightless crystallized dust of equally presented, mutually repulsive (OM+DM) clusters and (OAM+DAM) anticlusters. Newtonian GNU-hydrodynamics gives the observable spatial flatness and ideal Hubble flow. The GNU in the obtained large-scale self-similar crystallized phase preserves absence of the cluster-anticluster collisions and simultaneously explains the observable large-scale universe phenomena: (1) the absence of the matter-antimatter clusters annihilation, (2) the self-similar Hubble flow stability and homogeneity, (3) flatness, (4) bubble and cosmic-net structures as 3D-2D-1D decrystallization phases with decelerative (a ≤ 0) and accelerative (a ≥ 0) expansion epochs, (5) the dark energy (DE) phenomena with Λ VACUUM = 0, (6) the DE and DM fine-tuning nature and predicts (7) evaporation into isolated huge M ±gr superclusters without Big Rip. (paper)

  19. Final Technical Report: "New Tools for Physics with Low-energy Antimatter"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surko, Clifford M. [U. C. San Diego

    2013-10-02

    The objective of this research is to develop new tools to manipulate antimatter plasmas and to tailor them for specific scientific and technical uses. The work has two specific objectives. One is establishing the limits for positron accumulation and confinement in the form of single-component plasmas in Penning-Malmberg traps. This technique underpins a wealth of antimatter applications. A second objective is to develop an understanding of the limits for formation of cold, bright positron beams. The research done in this grant focused on particular facets of these goals. One focus was extracting tailored beams from a high-field Penning-Malmberg trap from the magnetic field to form new kinds of high-quality electrostatic beams. A second goal was to develop the technology for colder trap-based beams using a cryogenically cooled buffer gas. A third objective was to conduct the basic plasma research to develop a new high-capacity multicell trap (MCT) for research with antimatter. Progress is reported here in all three areas. While the goal of this research is to develop new tools for manipulating positrons (i.e., the antiparticles of electrons), much of the work was done with test electron plasmas for increased data rate. Some of the techniques developed in the course of this work are also relevant to the manipulation and use of antiprotons.

  20. The Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) : An answer to the missing cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, Gilles; Petit, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological antimatter absence remains unexplained. Twin universes 1967 Sakarov's model suggests an answer: excess of matter and anti-quarks production in our universe is balanced by equivalent excess of antimatter and quark in twin universe. JCM provides geometrical framework, with a single manifold , two metrics solutions of two coupled field equations, to describe two populations of particles, one with positive energy-mass and the other with negative energy-mass : the `twin matter'. In a quantum point of view, it's a copy of the standard matter but with negative mass and energy. The matter-antimatter duality holds in both sectors. The standard and twin matters do not interact except through the gravitational coupling expressed in field equations. The twin matter is unobservable from matter-made apparatus. Field equations shows that matter and twin matter repel each other. Twin matter surrounding galaxies explains their confinement (dark matter role) and, in the dust universe era, mainly drives the process of expansion of the positive sector, responsible of the observed acceleration (dark energy role).

  1. Prospects for Studies of the Free Fall and Gravitational Quantum States of Antimatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different experiments are ongoing to measure the effect of gravity on cold neutral antimatter atoms such as positronium, muonium, and antihydrogen. Among those, the project GBAR at CERN aims to measure precisely the gravitational fall of ultracold antihydrogen atoms. In the ultracold regime, the interaction of antihydrogen atoms with a surface is governed by the phenomenon of quantum reflection which results in bouncing of antihydrogen atoms on matter surfaces. This allows the application of a filtering scheme to increase the precision of the free fall measurement. In the ultimate limit of smallest vertical velocities, antihydrogen atoms are settled in gravitational quantum states in close analogy to ultracold neutrons (UCNs. Positronium is another neutral system involving antimatter for which free fall under gravity is currently being investigated at UCL. Building on the experimental techniques under development for the free fall measurement, gravitational quantum states could also be observed in positronium. In this contribution, we report on the status of the ongoing experiments and discuss the prospects of observing gravitational quantum states of antimatter and their implications.

  2. Overview of the Axial Field Spectrometer in the ISR tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A view of the Axial Field Spectrometer – the last large experiment at the ISR. The horizontal top and vertical outer arrays of the uranium-scintillator hadron calorimeter are clear to be seen, with the blue cylindrical pole piece of the magnet just visible. The pipes that are visible in front of the pole piece are cryogenic feed pipes for the superconducting low-beta quadrupoles.

  3. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  4. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy

    2017-06-20

    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  6. Superconductivity in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.

  7. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  8. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  10. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  11. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  12. Some conceptual designs for a LASSY spectrometer magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The LASSY spectrometer is a gas filled spectrometer (hydrogen or helium at a pressure of about 1 torr). The design bending power for the primary bending magnet for the spectrometer will have an induction bend radius product of 2.5 tesla-meters. In order to increase the acceptance of the spectrometer, the bending magnet system must be located close to the target where the desired nuclei are created. The spectrometer magnet system must consist of both bending and focusing elements so that the wide acceptance of particles can be brought to a focus at the analysis point that is down stream from the last magnet element. In order improve the spectrometer resolution and to catch the shortest lived nuclei, the length of the magnet system must be as short as possible. The length for the LASSY spectrometer magnet system from the target to the analysis point has been set at 2.5 meters or less. To improve the resolution of the spectrometer, the bending angle for bending magnet system must be increased to close to 180 degrees. In order to achieve a large bending angle and a short magnet system length, the bending induction must be above 3 tesla and the focusing elements must be combined with the bending elements. As a result, a LASSY spectrometer will have bending magnet with a bending angle from 140 to 170 degrees. This magnet win be combined with one or more focusing magnets (a straight dipole in some places and a combined function dipole in other places). The result is a single superconducting bending magnet with one or more quadrupoles incorporated within the large angle bending magnet

  13. Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr

  14. Rigidity spectrum of z greater than or equal to 3 cosmic-ray nuclei in the range 4-285 GV and a search for cosmic antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, R. L.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Marar, T. M. K.; Deney, C. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Heckman, H. H.; Lindstrom, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    A measurement, using the magnetic emulsion spectrometer system, of the differential rigidity spectrum of Z greater than or equal to 3 nuclei of the galactic cosmic radiation is presented. The system was flown on Aug. 22, 1969, from Palestine, Texas. The instrument floated above 125,000 feet for eight hours. The data in the rigidity range 8-285 GV can be represented by a power-law spectrum in rigidity, J(rho) = A rho to the minus gamma power, with the exponent gamma = 2.6 plus or minus 0.10. The spectrum in the range 15-285 GV is also described by the same exponent, gamma = 2.6 plus or minus 0.25. The data below 8 GV cannot be described by the same power law without invoking solar modulation. A set of nonunique parameters for modulation are given. Upper limit for the fraction of antimatter in the rigidity range 4-125 GV is .005 with 95% confidence limit.

  15. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshelets, V P [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Ermakov, A B [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Filippenko, L V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Koryukin, O V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Khudchenko, A V [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Sobolev, A S [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Torgashin, M Yu [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (IREE) (Russian Federation); Yagoubov, P A [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Hoogeveen, R W M [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Vreeling, W J [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Wild, W [SRON National Institute for Space Research (Netherlands); Pylypenko, O M [State Research Center of Superconducting Electronics ' Iceberg' (Ukraine)

    2006-06-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 {mu}m{sup 2} junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm{sup 3} box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference.

  16. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V P; Ermakov, A B; Filippenko, L V; Koryukin, O V; Khudchenko, A V; Sobolev, A S; Torgashin, M Yu; Yagoubov, P A; Hoogeveen, R W M; Vreeling, W J; Wild, W; Pylypenko, O M

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring a variety of atmospheric constituents of the stratosphere. The 550 - 650 GHz channel of TELIS is based on a phase-locked Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR). SIR is an on-chip combination of a low-noise Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixer with quasioptical antenna, a superconducting Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) acting as Local Oscillator (LO), and SIS harmonic mixer (HM) for FFO phase locking. A number of new solutions were implemented in the new generation of SIR chips. To achieve the wide-band performance of the spectrometer, a side-feed twin-SIS mixer and balanced SIS mixer with 0.8 μm 2 junctions integrated with a double-dipole (or double-slot) antenna is used. An improved design of the FFO for TELIS has been developed and optimized providing a free-running linewidth between 10 and 2 MHz in the frequency range 500 - 700 GHz. It is important to ensure that tuning of a phase-locked (PL) SIR can be performed remotely by telecommand. For this purpose a number of approaches for the PL SIR automatic computer control have been developed. All receiver components (including input optical elements and Martin-Puplett polarization rotating interferometer for single side band operation) will be mounted on a single 4.2 K plate inside a 40 x 180 x 80 mm 3 box. First measurements give an uncorrected double side band (DSB) noise temperature below 250 K measured with the phase-locked FFO; more detailed results are presented at the conference

  17. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  18. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V

    2005-01-01

    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  19. Superconductivity and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, António; Sousa, Duarte M.; Fernão Pires, Vítor; Margato, Elmano

    2017-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...

  20. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Superconductivity in the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials

  2. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators.

  3. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators

  4. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  5. Superconductivity and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadoni, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials

  6. Superconducting quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, V.

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews recent accomplishments, presents new results and discusses possible future developments of superconducting quantum electronics and high T c superconductivity. The three main parts of the book deal with fundamentals, sensitive detectors, and precision metrology. New results reported include: correct equivalent circuits modelling superconducting electronic devices; exact solution of the Mattis-Bardeen equations describing various experiments for thin films; complete theoretical description and experimental results for a new broad band spectrum analyzer; a new Josephson junction potentiometer allowing tracing of unknown voltage ratios back to well-known frequency ratios; and fast superconducting SQUID shift registers enabling the production of calculable noise power spectra in the microwave region

  7. Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)

  8. Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康

    2000-01-01

    There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...

  9. Development and data analysis of a position detector for AE$\\bar{g}$IS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy)

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, Angela; Doser, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola

    2015-03-13

    AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an antimatter experiment based at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, whose goal is to carry out the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. The outcome of such measurement would be the first precision test of the Weak Equivalence Principle in a completely new area. According to WEP, all bodies fall with the same acceleration regardless of their mass and composition. AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS will attempt to achieve its aim by measuring the gravitational acceleration ($\\bar{g}$) for antihydrogen with 1$\\%$ relative precision. The first step towards the final goal is the formation of a pulsed, cold antihydrogen beam, which will be performed by a charge exchange reaction between laser excited (Rydberg) positronium and cold (100 mK) antiprotons. The antihydrogen atoms will be accelerated by an inhomogeneous electric field (Stark acceleration) to form a beam whose fr...

  10. The development and performance of the EXAM detector to search for extragalactic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    The design and development of a practical balloon borne instrument capable of detecting heavy (Z approximately equal to -26) antimatter in the cosmic rays are described. Emphasis is placed on describing the essential physics of the EXAM (extragalactic antimatter) instrument's individual detectors that make such a detection possible. In particular, it is shown that the responses from a plastic scintillator, a Cerenkov radiation detector, dielectric track detectors, and proportional drift tube arrays can be used to uniquely determine the speed, charge magnitude, and charge sign of a cosmic ray nucleus. This novel nonmagnetic detection scheme permits the construction of a relatively light weight (approximately 2,000 kg) detector with a large collecting power (approximately 10 sq m sr). The profound cosmological and elementary particle physics implications of the detection of just a single heavy antimatter nucleus are discussed in chapter one, along with arguments that imply that such a detected antinucleus must necessarily be extragalactic in origin. Chapters two through six describe the response of EXAM's individual detectors to the passage of heavily ionizing charged particles. Chapter seven is an overview of the mechanical construction of the entire instrument. Details of the measurement of the light collection efficiency of EXAM's Cerenkov detector and primary scintillator using sea-level muons and how this will be used to assist in the flight data analysis are contained in chapter eight. This chapter also includes a description of the instrument's electronic configuration and its data acquisition system. Finally, there are two appendices summarizing some important mechanical stress calculations that were required to actually build the instrument

  11. Intensity-Frontier Antiproton Physics with The Antiproton Annihilation Spectrometer (TAPAS) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; /Fermilab; Asner, David M.; /PNL, Richland; Baldini, Wander; /INFN, Ferrara; Bartoszek, Larry; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Brown, Charles N.; /Fermilab; Chakravorty, Alak; /St. Xavier U., Chicago; Colas, Paul; /Saclay; Derwent, Paul; /Fermilab; Drutskoy, Alexey; /Moscow, ITEP; Fortner, Michael; /Northern Illinois U. /Saclay /Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad

    2011-11-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Source is the world's most intense source of antimatter. With the Tevatron program now behind us, this unique facility can help make the case for Fermilab's continued accelerator operations. The Antiproton Source can be used for unique, dedicated antimatter studies, including medium-energy {bar p}-annihilation experiments. We propose to assemble a powerful, yet cost-effective, solenoidal magnetic spectrometer for antiproton-annihilation events, and to use it at the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator to measure the charm production cross section, study rare hyperon decays, search for hyperon CP asymmetry, precisely measure the properties of several charmonium and nearby states, and make the first measurements of the Drell-Yan continuum in medium-energy antiproton annihilation. Should the charm production cross section be as large as some have proposed, we will also be able to measure D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing with high precision and discover (or sensitively limit) charm CP violation. The observation of charm or hyperon CP violation would be evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model, with possible implications for the origin of the baryon asymmetry of the universe - the question of what happened to all the antimatter that must have been produced in the Big Bang. The experiment will be carried out by an international collaboration and will require some four years of running time. As possibly the sole hadron experiment in progress at Fermilab during that time, it will play an important role in maintaining a broad particle physics program at Fermilab and in the U.S. It will thus help us to continue attracting creative and capable young people into science and technology, and introducing them to the important technologies of accelerators, detectors, and data acquisition and analysis - key roles in society that accelerator-based particle physics has historically played.

  12. Experimental considerations for testing antimatter antigravity using positronium 1S-2S spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D. A.; Friedreich, S.

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution to the WAG 2013 workshop we report on the status of our measurement of the 1S-2S transition frequency of positronium. The aim of this experiment is to reach a precision of 0.5 ppb in order to cross check the QED calculations. After reviewing the current available sources of Ps, we consider laser cooling as a route to push the precision in the measurement down to 0.1 ppb. If such an uncertainty could be achieved, this would be sensitive to the gravitational redshift and therefore be able to assess the sign of gravity for antimatter.

  13. Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.

  14. Dissecting the Science of "Angels and Demons" or Antimatter and Other Matters (Vernon W. Hughes Memorial Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Howard

    2009-05-27

    Howard Gordon, a physicist from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, and local educators will separate the science facts from the science fiction of “Angels & Demons,” a major motion picture based on Dan Brown’s best-selling novel. The film, which opens nationally in theaters today, focuses on a plot to destroy the Vatican using antimatter stolen from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European particle physics laboratory CERN. Speakers will explain the real science of the LHC, including antimatter – oppositely charged cousins of ordinary matter with intriguing properties.

  15. Dissecting the Science of 'Angels and Demons' or Antimatter and Other Matters (Vernon W. Hughes Memorial Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Howard Gordon, a physicist from the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, and local educators will separate the science facts from the science fiction of 'Angels and Demons,' a major motion picture based on Dan Brown's best-selling novel. The film, which opens nationally in theaters today, focuses on a plot to destroy the Vatican using antimatter stolen from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European particle physics laboratory CERN. Speakers will explain the real science of the LHC, including antimatter - oppositely charged cousins of ordinary matter with intriguing properties.

  16. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  17. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  18. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  19. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  20. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  1. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  2. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  3. A device for regulating the field generated by a superconducting winding or the gradient of same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, Denis; Dunand, J.-J.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a stabilizing device which does not require the use of a specific solvent. Changes occurring in the field generated by the main winding and the correcting winding are transmitted by a superconducting unit to a quantum superconducting interferometer. An impedance measurement provides an error-signal, the latter being integrated for feeding the correcting winding. A form of embodiment relates to the regulation of a modulated field. This can be applied to nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers [fr

  4. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  5. Superconducting elliptical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sekutowicz, J K

    2011-01-01

    We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.

  6. Superconductivity in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1976-01-01

    Physics, especially high energy physics and solid state physics was the first area in which superconducting magnets were used but in the long run, the most extensive application of superconductivity will probably be in energy technology. Superconducting power transmission cables, magnets for energy conversion in superconducting electrical machines, MHD-generators and fusion reactors and magnets for energy storage are being investigated. Magnets for fusion reactors will have particularly large physical dimensions, which means that much development effort is still needed, for there is no economic alternative. Superconducting surfaces in radio frequency cavities can give Q-values up to a factor of 10 6 higher than those of conventional resonators. Particle accelerators are the important application. And for telecommunication, simple coaxial superconducting radio frequency cables seem promising. The tunnel effect in superconducting junctions is now being developed commercially for sensitive magnetometers and may soon possibly feature in the memory cells of computer devices. Hence superconductivity can play an important role in the technological world, solving physical and technological problems and showing economic advantages as compared with possible conventional techniques, bearing also in mind the importance of reliability and safety. (author)

  7. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  8. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  9. Superconductivity in bad metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'' with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described

  10. The SSC superconducting air core toroid design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.; Carroll, A.; Chiang, I.H.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.; Littenberg, L.; Morse, W.; Strand, R.C.; Lau, K.; Weinstein, R.; McNeil, R.; Friedman, J.; Hafen, E.; Haridas, P.; Kendall, H.W.; Osborne, L.; Pless, I.; Rosenson, L.; Pope, B.; Jones, L.W.; Luton, J.N.; Bonanos, P.; Marx, M.; Pusateri, J.A.; Favale, A.; Gottesman, S.; Schneid, E.; Verdier, R.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting air core toroids show great promise for use in a muon spectrometer for the SSC. Early studies by SUNY at Stony Brook funded by SSC Laboratory, have established the feasibility of building magnets of the required size. The toroid spectrometer consists of a central toroid with two end cap toroids. The configuration under development provides for muon trajectory measurement outside the magnetic volume. System level studies on support structure, assembly, cryogenic material selection, and power are performed. Resulting selected optimal design and assembly is described. 4 refs., 6 figs

  11. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  12. Submicron superconducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of works concerning superconducting structures of submicron dimensions and a system of such structures is given. It is noted that usage of the above structures in superconducting microelectronics permits, first, to increase the element packing density, to decrease the signal transmission time, capacity, power dissipated in high-frequency applications. Secondly, negligible coherence length in transition metals, their alloys and high-temperature compounds also restrict the dimensions of superconducting weak couplings when the 'classical' Josephson effect is displayed. The most effective methods for production of submicron superconducting structures are the following: lithography, double scribering. Recently the systems of superconducting submicron elements are extensively studied. It is shown that such systems can be phased by magnetic field

  13. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  14. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  15. Prospects for comparison of matter and antimatter gravitation with ALPHA-g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsche, W. A.

    2018-03-01

    The ALPHA experiment has recently entered an expansion phase of its experimental programme, driven in part by the expected benefits of conducting experiments in the framework of the new AD + ELENA antiproton facility at CERN. With antihydrogen trapping now a routine operation in the ALPHA experiment, the collaboration is leading progress towards precision atomic measurements on trapped antihydrogen atoms, with the first excitation of the 1S-2S transition and the first measurement of the antihydrogen hyperfine spectrum (Ahmadi et al. 2017 Nature 541, 506-510 (doi:10.1038/nature21040); Nature 548, 66-69 (doi:10.1038/nature23446)). We are building on these successes to extend our physics programme to include a measurement of antimatter gravitation. We plan to expand a proof-of-principle method (Amole et al. 2013 Nat. Commun. 4, 1785 (doi:10.1038/ncomms2787)), first demonstrated in the original ALPHA apparatus, and perform a precise measurement of antimatter gravitational acceleration with the aim of achieving a test of the weak equivalence principle at the 1% level. The design of this apparatus has drawn from a growing body of experience on the simulation and verification of antihydrogen orbits confined within magnetic-minimum atom traps. The new experiment, ALPHA-g, will be an additional atom-trapping apparatus located at the ALPHA experiment with the intention of measuring antihydrogen gravitation. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  16. Light element abundances in a matter-antimatter model of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of light element synthesis in a baryon symmetric Big-Bang cosmology, in which the universe is constituted at the end of the leptonic era by a nucleon-antinucleon emulsion. If the initial typical size of the matter or antimatter regions is sufficiently high to avoid significant neutron annihilation, nucleosynthesis can proceed in this kind of model in the same way as in the conventional Big-Bang. But the abundances of the created light elements can be modified at a later time by interaction of the nuclei with the high energy particles and photons resulting from annihilation. In this article, we consider two specific mechanisms able to change the abundances: a 4 He 'nucleodisruption' process (proposed by Combes et al., 1975), which leads to deuterium production, and 4 He photodisintegration by annihilation γ-rays, which leads to an increase of the 3 He and D production. General relations are established which allow one to compute the abundances of the so created elements when the size l of the matter or antimatter regions and the annihilation rate are given as function of time. These relations are applied to the Omnes model, in which the size l grows by a coalescence mechanism. It is shown that in this model the D and 3 He abundances are much greater than the limits on primordial abundances deduced from the present observations. (orig.) [de

  17. Prospects for comparison of matter and antimatter gravitation with ALPHA-g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsche, W A

    2018-03-28

    The ALPHA experiment has recently entered an expansion phase of its experimental programme, driven in part by the expected benefits of conducting experiments in the framework of the new AD + ELENA antiproton facility at CERN. With antihydrogen trapping now a routine operation in the ALPHA experiment, the collaboration is leading progress towards precision atomic measurements on trapped antihydrogen atoms, with the first excitation of the 1S-2S transition and the first measurement of the antihydrogen hyperfine spectrum (Ahmadi et al. 2017 Nature 541 , 506-510 (doi:10.1038/nature21040); Nature 548 , 66-69 (doi:10.1038/nature23446)). We are building on these successes to extend our physics programme to include a measurement of antimatter gravitation. We plan to expand a proof-of-principle method (Amole et al. 2013 Nat. Commun. 4 , 1785 (doi:10.1038/ncomms2787)), first demonstrated in the original ALPHA apparatus, and perform a precise measurement of antimatter gravitational acceleration with the aim of achieving a test of the weak equivalence principle at the 1% level. The design of this apparatus has drawn from a growing body of experience on the simulation and verification of antihydrogen orbits confined within magnetic-minimum atom traps. The new experiment, ALPHA-g, will be an additional atom-trapping apparatus located at the ALPHA experiment with the intention of measuring antihydrogen gravitation.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. Mathematical Descriptions of Axially Varying Penning Traps for the Antimatter Experiment: gravity, Interferometry, and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanie, Brown

    2015-01-01

    Antimatter, though proposed in 1933, is still not well understood. AEgIS aims to study the interaction of antihydrogen with the earth's gravitational field. This information will add to our understanding of the matter-antimatter asymmetry present in our universe. This paper discusses a Penning-Malmberg with a magnetic mirror that will hold $C_{2}^{-}$ that will be used for sympathetic cooling of antiprotons before the antihydrogen is created. The trap, which is critical to the cooling process of the antihydrogen, can be characterized by the separatrix between trapped and untrapped particles. This paper applies analytical processes used to define the separatrix of pure electron plasmas to a molecular plasma. Our work is based on the desire conditions (density, particle number, field strength, trap size) of the high field region. The initial application of a semi-analytical method applied to our trap defines the trap potential difference at \\~ 0.6V. The separatrix is defined in both the high and low fiel...

  19. Summary of existing superconducting magnet experience and its relevance to the safety of fusion magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Powell, J.; Prodell, A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of experience with over twenty superconducting magnet systems has been collected through visits to and discussions about existing facilities including, for example, the bubble chamber magnets at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the large superconducting spectrometer at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This summary includes data relating to parameters of these magnets, magnet protection methods, and operating experiences. The information received is organized and presented in the context of its relevance to the safe operation of future, very large superconducting magnet systems for fusion power plants

  20. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.

    1977-01-01

    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  1. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  2. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  3. Current high-temperature superconducting coils and applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, four projects for the application of Bi-based superconducting magnets to practical apparatus are currently underway. These projects involve the development of an insert magnet for a 1 GHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, a magnet for a silicon single-crystal pulling apparatus, a magnet for a magnetic separation system, and a 1 T pulse magnet for a superconducting magnet energy storage system. For example, the magnet for the silicon single-crystal pulling apparatus is of the class with stored energy of 1 MJ to be operated at around 20 K. This review focuses on the present status of the development of these magnets, followed by a discussion of the problems of the present superconducting tapes that need to be overcome for future applications. (author)

  4. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  5. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  6. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  7. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  8. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The huge superconducting magnet (3 m inside coil diameter, 2 m gap, 18 kGauss) contains a large number of optical spark chambers partly surrounding a hydrogen target which is hit by the beam entering from behind. The half cylindrical aluminium hut houses eight television cameras viewing the spark chambers from the top. The big gas Cerenkov counter in front of the picture (6 m x 4 m x 3 m) which identifies fast forward particles was constructed at Saclay as a contribution of one of the Omega.

  9. Superconducting materials and magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  11. ESCAR superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Pope, W.L.; Green, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four superconducting dipoles, each about 1 meter long, provide the guide field for the Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring proton accelerator--storage ring. Injection of 50 MeV protons corresponds to a 3 kG central dipole field, and a peak proton energy of 4.2 GeV corresponds to a 46 kG central field. Thirty-two quadrupoles provide focusing. The 56 superconducting magnets are contained in 40 cryostats that are cryogenically connected in a novel series ''weir'' arrangement. A single 1500 W refrigeration plant is required. Design and testing of the magnet and cryostat system are described. (U.S.)

  12. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  13. Superconductivity in doped insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described

  14. Superconducting active impedance converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures

  15. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  16. Studying antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Antiparticles are a crucial ingredient of particle physics and cosmology. Almost 80 years after Dirac’s bold prediction and the subsequent discovery of the positron in 1932, antiparticles are still in the spotlight of modern physics. This lecture for non-specialists will start with a theoretical and historical introduction. Why are antiparticles needed? When and how were they discovered? Why is the (CPT) symmetry between particles and antiparticles so fundamental? What is their role in cosmology? The second part will give an overview about the many aspects of antiparticles in experimental physics: their production, their use in colliders; as a probe inside atoms or nuclei; or as an object to study fundamental symmetries. In the third part, the lecture will focus on results and challenges of the “antimatter” programme at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), with special emphasis on antihydrogen production, trapping and precision measurements.

  17. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  18. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  19. Superconducting Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...

  20. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.

    2008-01-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  1. Superconductivity and its devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles

  2. Superconductivity: Heike's heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.

    2011-01-01

    A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.

  3. RADIOFREQUENCY SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency is already playing an important role in the beam acceleration system for the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and new such systems are being prepared for other major machines. Thus the fourth Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity, organized by KEK under the chairmanship of local specialist Yuzo Kojima and held just before the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, had much progress to review and even more to look forward to

  4. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  5. Superconductivity at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I

    1969-07-01

    Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.

  6. Superconductivity: A critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Nicola

    1997-01-01

    It is some forty years now that superconductivity has entered into the field of applied Physics. Countless applications have been proposed some of which have been successfully tested in the form of prototypes and relatively few have become widely used products. This article offers an objective examination of what applied superconductivity represents in the area of modern technology highlighting its exclusive advantages and its inevitable limitations

  7. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  8. Superconducting magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, Yu.N.

    1979-01-01

    Expediency of usage and possibilities arising in application of superconducting devices in magnetic systems of accelerators and experimental nuclear-physical devices are studied. Parameters of specific devices are given. It is emphasized that at the existing level of technological possibilities, construction and usage of superconducting magnetic systems in experimental nuclear physics should be thought of as possible, from the engineering, and expedient, from the economical viewpoints [ru

  9. Jeans instability and antiscreening in the system of matter-antimatter with antigravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigger, S A; Gribov, I A

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of antigravitational interaction of elementary particles and antiparticles is applied to the simple two-component hydrodynamic model Λ-CDM (Lambda cold-dark matter) with gravitational repulsion and attraction. An increase in the Jeans instability rate, the presence of antiscreening, and the dominant role of the gravitational repulsion as a possible mechanism of spatial separation of matter and antimatter in the Universe are shown, as well as the observable acceleration of far galaxies. The sound wave is found for the two-component gravitational-antigravitational system. The suggested approach permits to reestablish the idea about baryon symmetry of the Universe, causing its steady large-scale flatness and accelerated Universe expansion. (paper)

  10. The electrosphere of macroscopc ""nuclei"": diffuse emissions in the MeV band from dark antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Michael Mcneil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lawson, Kyle [CANADA; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R [CANADA

    2009-01-01

    Using a Thomas-Fermi model, we calculate the structure of the electrosphere of the quark antimatter nuggets postulated to comprise much of the dark matter. This provides a single self-consistent density profile from ultra-rel ativistic densities to the non-relativistic Boltzmann regime. We use this to present a microscopically justified calculation of several properties of the nuggets, including their net charge, and the ratio of MeV to 511 keV emissions from electron annihilation. We find that the calculated parameters agree with previous phenomenological estimates based on the observational supposition that the nuggets are a source of several unexplained diffuse emissions from the galaxy. This provides another nontrivial verification of the dark matter proposal. The structure of the electrosphere is quite general and will also be valid at the surface of strange-quark stars, should they exist.

  11. Can the New Neutrino Telescopes Reveal the Gravitational Properties of Antimatter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the hypothesis of the gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter can be tested at the Ice Cube, a neutrino telescope, recently constructed at the South Pole. If there is such a gravitational repulsion, the gravitational field, deep inside the horizon of a black hole, might create neutrino-antineutrino pairs from the quantum vacuum. While neutrinos must stay confined inside the horizon, the antineutrinos should be violently ejected. Hence, a black hole (made from matter should behave as a point-like source of antineutrinos. Our simplified calculations suggest that the antineutrinos emitted by supermassive black holes in the centre of the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy could be detected by the new generation of neutrino telescopes.

  12. Postinflationary Higgs relaxation and the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Pearce, Lauren; Yang, Louis

    2015-02-13

    The recent measurement of the Higgs boson mass implies a relatively slow rise of the standard model Higgs potential at large scales, and a possible second minimum at even larger scales. Consequently, the Higgs field may develop a large vacuum expectation value during inflation. The relaxation of the Higgs field from its large postinflationary value to the minimum of the effective potential represents an important stage in the evolution of the Universe. During this epoch, the time-dependent Higgs condensate can create an effective chemical potential for the lepton number, leading to a generation of the lepton asymmetry in the presence of some large right-handed Majorana neutrino masses. The electroweak sphalerons redistribute this asymmetry between leptons and baryons. This Higgs relaxation leptogenesis can explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe even if the standard model is valid up to the scale of inflation, and any new physics is suppressed by that high scale.

  13. Neutrinos in the Early Universe, Kalb-Ramond Torsion and Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe may be induced by the propagation of fermions in non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating gravitational backgrounds. Such backgrounds may characterise the epoch of the early universe. The key point in these models is that the background induces di_erent dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV appears in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. We consider here a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar “axionlike” field. The mixing of the KR field with an ordinary axion field can lead to the generation of a Majorana neutrino mass.

  14. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  15. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  16. Domain Walls and Matter-Antimatter Domains in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgov A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a scenario of spontaneous (or dynamical C and CP violation according to which it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated matter and antimatter domains. So this scenario does not suffer from the problem of domain walls. According to this scenario the width of the domain wall should grow exponentially to prevent annihilation at the domain boundaries. Though there is a classical result obtained by Basu and Vilenkin that the width of the wall tends to the one of the stationary solution (constant physical width. That is why we considered thick domain walls in a de Sitter universe following paper by Basu and Vilenkin. However, we were interested not only in stationary solutions found therein, but also investigated the general case of domain wall evolution with time. When the wall thickness parameter, δ0 , is smaller than H−1/2 where H is the Hubble parameter in de Sitter space-time, then the stationary solutions exist, and initial field configurations tend with time to the stationary ones. However, there are no stationary solutions for δ0>H−1/2 We have calculated numerically the rate of the wall expansion in this case and have found that the width of the wall grows exponentially fast for δ0≫H−1 An explanation for the critical value δ0c=H−1/2 is also proposed.

  17. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  18. High-current applications of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, P.

    1995-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: superconducting materials, design principles of superconducting magnets, magnets for research and engineering, superconductivity for power engineering, superconductivity in nuclear fusion technology, economical considerations

  19. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons

  20. HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1980-11-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame but, instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. The beam can be brought into the magnet at a variable position and the magnet can be rotated

  1. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  2. Proposal for a national facility - the 8π spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Hagberg, E.; Horn, D.; Lone, M.A.; Schmeing, H.; Ward, D.; Waddington, J.E.; Palameta, G.; Koslowsky, V.; Haeusser, O.

    1984-03-01

    The Tandem Accelerator Superconducting Cyclotron Complex (TASCC) will be a world class facility, and one major associated field of research will be the study of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics by γ-ray spectroscopy. We propose construction of the 8π spectrometer, a versatile state-of-the-art instrument that will greatly increase the power of γ-ray spectroscopy. The 8π spectrometer will comprise an array of 20 hyperpure germanium detectors equipped with Compton suppression, and an inner, nearly spherical, shell of 72 detector elements arranged to capture most of the γ radiation emitted in a nuclear event. This shell or hollow core measures the total γ-ray energy, γ-ray multiplicity, and the spin orientation of the radiating nucleus for each single event, thereby vastly increasing the specificity of the suppressed array. Both the core and suppressors will be fabricated of Bismuth Germanate (BGO), a revolutionary scintillator only recently available in commercial quantities

  3. Matter-antimatter and matter-matter interactions at intermediate energies; Interacao materia-antimateria e materia-materia a energias intermediarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Antonio Carlos Fontes dos [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics]. E-mail: antoniocfs@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This article presents some of the recent experimental advances on the study on antimatter-matter and matter-matter interactions, and some of the subtle differences stimulated a great theoretical efforts for explanation of the results experimentally observed.

  4. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  5. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Stephen; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production (ship effect), (a, n) reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  6. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  7. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  8. Review of superconducting transition-edge sensors for x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, Joel N; Bennett, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of emerging x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers based on arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). Special attention will be given to recent progress in TES applications and in understanding TES physics. (paper)

  9. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.; Hauschild, K.

    2015-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  11. Superconducting nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlushko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines

  12. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  13. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  14. Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)

  15. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  16. Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

  17. Micro-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-Yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Caltado, Giuseppe; Wollock, Edward

    2012-01-01

    We describe the micro-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the micro strip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  18. Mu-Spec: A High Performance Compact Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas; Brown, Ari; Patel, Amil; U-yen, Kongpop; Ehsan, Negar; Cataldo, Giuseppe; Wollack, Ed

    2012-01-01

    We describe the Mu-Spec, an extremely compact high performance spectrometer for the submillimeter and millimeter spectral ranges. We have designed a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology and fabricated its critical elements. Using low loss transmission lines, we can produce a fully integrated high resolution submillimeter spectrometer on a single four inch Si wafer. A resolution of 500 can readily be achieved with standard fabrication tolerance, higher with phase trimming. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using a built-in planar filter, and the light is detected using photon counting Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID). We will discus the design principle of the instrument, describe its technical advantages, and report the progress on the development of the instrument.

  19. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  20. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  1. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-06-27

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.

  2. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  3. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  4. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  5. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  6. Quenches in large superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.

    1977-08-01

    The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed

  7. Large-scale anisotropy in the extragalactic gamma-ray background as a probe for cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Tian; Stecker, Floyd W.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Cline, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropies in the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), which should be detectable with the forthcoming Gamma Ray Observatory, can be used to examine some of the mechanisms proposed to explain its origin, one of which, the baryon-symmetric big bang (BSBB) model, is investigated here. In this simulation, large domains containing matter and antimatter galaxies produce gamma rays by annihilation at the domain boundaries. This mechanism can produce mountain-chain-shaped angular fluctuations in the EGB flux.

  8. On anyon superconductivity--

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-H.; Wilczek, F.; Witten, E.; Halperin, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the statistical mechanics of a gas of fractional statistics particles in 2 + 1 dimensions. In the case of statistics very close to Fermi statistics (statistical parameter θ = π(1 - 1/n), for large n), the effect of the statistics is a weak attraction. Building upon earlier RPA calculation for the case n = 2, the authors argue that for large n perturbation theory is reliable and exhibits superfluidity (or superconductivity after coupling to electromagnetism). They describe the order parameter for this superconductng phase in terms of spontaneous breaking of commutativity of translations as opposed to the usual pairing order parameters. The vortices of the superconducting anyon gas are charged, and superconducting order parameters of the usual type vanish. They investigate the characteristic P and T violating phenomenology

  9. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  10. Superconducting linac booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.; Betigeri, M.G.; Pandey, M.K.; Pillay, R.G.; Kurup, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The report on superconducting LINAC booster, which is a joint project of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), brings out the work accomplished so far towards the development of the technology of superconducting LINAC to boost the energy of ions from the 14UD Pelletron. The LINAC is modular in construction with each module comprising of a helium cryostat housing four lead-plated quarter wave resonators. The resonators are superconducting for temperatures below 7.19K. An energy boost of 2 MeV/q per module is expected to be achieved. The first module and the post-tandem superbuncher have been fabricated and tested on the LINAC beam line. This report gives a summary of the technological achievements and also brings out the difficulties encountered during the R and D phase. (author)

  11. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  12. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Védrine, P.

    2014-07-17

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  13. Superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures

  14. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  15. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Védrine, P [Saclay (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.

  16. MEMS based digital transform spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Yariv; Ramani, Mouli

    2005-09-01

    Earlier this year, a new breed of Spectrometers based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) engines has been introduced to the commercial market. The use of these engines combined with transform mathematics, produces powerful spectrometers at unprecedented low cost in various spectral regions.

  17. Superconducting current generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevey, P.

    1970-01-01

    After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr

  18. Materials for superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)

  19. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  20. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  1. Superconducting cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources

  2. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-14

    Segmuller, A., Cooper, E.I., Chisholm, M.F., Gupta, A. Shinde, S., and Laibowitz, R.B. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-T superconducting thin...M. F. Chisholm, A. Gupta, S. Shinde, and R. B. Laibowitz, " Lanthanum Gallate Substrates for Epitaxial High-T c Superconducting Thin Films," Appl...G. Forrester and J. Talvacchio, " Lanthanum Copper Oxide Buffer Layers for Growth of High-T c Superconductor Films," Disclosure No. RDS 90-065, filed

  3. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  4. Technology of RF superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams

  5. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  6. Performance of drift chambers in a magnetic rigidity spectrometer for measuring the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, M.; Bremerich, M.; Menn, W.; Pfeifer, C.; Reimer, O.; Simon, M.; Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    A drift chamber tracking system was developed and flown as part of the IMAX balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer. The drift chamber uses a hexagonal drift-cell structure and is filled with pure CO 2 gas. It operated with high efficiency in the strong and inhomogenous field of a superconducting magnet, demonstrating a spatial resolution of better than 100 μm over most of the drift path for singly charged particles, as well as for helium and lithium nuclei. The drift chamber portion of the spectrometer achieved a maximum detectable rigidity of 175 and 250 GV/c for protons and helium respectively. ((orig.))

  7. Possible physics program with a large acceptance hyperon spectrometer at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    We are going to construct a large acceptance hyperon spectrometer (HypTPC) at J-PARC primarily to search for H-dibaryon. The HypTPC consists of a superconducting Helmholtz magnet and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The short-life hyperons can be detected with high precision as well as any charged particles. Here, we discuss possible physics programs other than H-dibaryon which can be done with this spectrometer, such as a nucleon resonance spectroscopy experiment, systematic study of Λ(1405) and spectroscopy of Ξ and Ω - resonances. (author)

  8. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in a ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontos, T.; Aprili, M.; Lesueur, J.; Genet, F.; Boursier, R.; Grison, X.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied a new superconducting state where the condensate wave function resulting from conventional pairing, is modified by an exchange field. Superconductivity is induced into a ferromagnetic thin film (F) by the proximity effect with a superconducting reservoir (S). We observed oscillations of the superconducting order parameter induced in F as a function of the distance from the S/F interface. They originate from the finite momentum transfer provided to Cooper pairs by the splitting of the spin up and down bands. We measured the superconducting density of states in F by tunneling spectroscopy and the Josephson critical current when F is coupled with a superconducting counter-electrode. Negative values of the superconducting order parameter are revealed by capsized tunneling spectra in F and a negative Josephson coupling (π-junction)

  9. Fusion-evaporation studies with the Super Separator spectrometer (S3 at Spiral2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déchery F.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Super Separator Spectrometer S3 is a device designed for experiments with the very high intensity stable ion beam of the superconducting linear accelerator of the SPIRAL2 facility. Its Physics goals cover the study of radioactive ions produced by fusion-evaporation reactions, like superheavy elements or neutron deficient nuclei close to the proton drip line, but also neutron rich nuclei produced by multi-nucleon transfer reactions as well as ion-ion atomic interactions. It is composed of a two-step separator, with a momentum achromat followed by a mass spectrometer. Superconducting multipole triplets, combining quadruple, sextuple and octupole fields, allow a combination of high transmission and mass resolution. A specific open multipole has been designed to stop the high beam power at the first momentum dispersive plane. A decay spectroscopy detection set-up or a low energy branch can be coupled to S3 for a wide range of studies.

  10. Superconductivity and magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The background theory of superconducting behavior is reviewed. Three parameters that characterize superconducting materials with values of commercial materials as examples are discussed. More than 1000 compounds and alloy systems and 26 elements are known to exhibit superconducting properties under normal conditions at very low temperatures. A wide variety of crystal structures are represented among the known superconductors. The most important ones do seem to have cubic symmetry such as the body-centered cubic (NbZr and NbTi), face-centered cubic (NbN), and the A15 or β-tungsten structures (Nb 3 Sn), V 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, and V 3 Si). Attempts to understand some of the particular phenomena associated with superconductors as a necessary prelude to constructing superconducting magnets are discussed by the author. The origin of degradation is briefly discussed and methods to stabilize magnets are illustrated. The results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory design studies of toroidal magnet systems for fusion reactors are described

  11. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  12. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  13. Forecasting of superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning

  14. Superconducting Super Collider project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-04-01

    The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  16. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  17. Superconducting magnets 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design

  18. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  19. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When an electric field is applied, this electron can be lifted to this higher energy ... By such a virtual process two electrons .... using superconducting coils has come to be a reality. ... nance imaging techniques used in medical diagnostics. Com ...

  20. Superconducting magnets for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1987-01-01

    The Hadron-Electron-Ring Accelerator (HERA) presently under construction at DESY, Hamburg, consists of an electron storage ring of 30 GeV and a proton storage ring of 820 GeV. Superconducting magnets are used for the proton ring. There are 416 superconducting bending magnets of 4.698 T central field and 8.824 m magnetic length, 224 superconducting quadrupoles of 91.2 T/m central gradient and many superconducting correction dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles. The main dipoles and quadrupoles consist of two-layer coils of 75 mm inner diameter clammed with aluminium (for the dipoles) or stainless steel laminations (for the quadrupoles). The collared coils are surrounded by a laminated cold iron yoke and supported inside a low loss cryostat. The protection system uses cold diodes to bypass the current around a quenching magnet. The magnets are cooled with one phase helium supplied by a 3 block central refrigeration system of 20 kW refrigeration power at 4.3 K. Two helium is returned through the magnets in good thermal contact with the one phase helium in the dipoles for temperature control. This paper describes the magnet system and gives the results obtained for prototype magnets