WorldWideScience

Sample records for antilock brake systems

  1. Linear Control Technique for Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankit Jain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antilock braking systems are used in modern cars to prevent the wheels from locking after brakes are applied. The dynamics of the controller needed for antilock braking system depends on various factors. The vehicle model often is in nonlinear form. Controller needs to provide a controlled torque necessary to maintain optimum value of the wheel slip ratio. The slip ratio is represented in terms of vehicle speed and wheel rotation. In present work first of all system dynamic equations are explained and a slip ratio is expressed in terms of system variables namely vehicle linear velocity and angular velocity of the wheel. By applying a bias braking force system, response is obtained using Simulink models. Using the linear control strategies like PI-type the effectiveness of maintaining desired slip ratio is tested. It is always observed that a steady state error of 10% occurring in all the control system models.

  2. Design and Analysis of a Novel Centrifugal Braking Device for a Mechanical Antilock Braking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Ming-Shien; Liu, Tyng

    2015-06-01

    A new concept for a mechanical antilock braking system (ABS) with a centrifugal braking device (CBD), termed a centrifugal ABS (C-ABS), is presented and developed in this paper. This new CBD functions as a brake in which the output braking torque adjusts itself depending on the speed of the output rotation. First, the structure and mechanical models of the entire braking system are introduced and established. Second, a numerical computer program for simulating the operation of the system is developed. The characteristics of the system can be easily identified and can be designed with better performance by using this program to studying the effects of different design parameters. Finally, the difference in the braking performance between the C-ABS and the braking system with or without a traditional ABS is discussed. The simulation results indicate that the C-ABS can prevent the wheel from locking even if excessive operating force is provided while still maintaining acceptable braking performance.

  3. Digital Sliding Mode Control of Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITIC, D. B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of anti-lock braking system is a great challenge, because of the nonlinear and complex characteristics of braking dynamics, unknown parameters of vehicle environment and system parameter variations. Using some of robust control methods, such as sliding mode control, can be a right solution for these problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to design of ABS controllers, which is based on digital sliding mode control with only input/output measurements. The relay term of the proposed digital sliding mode control is filtered through digital integrator, reducing the chattering phenomenon in that way, and the additional signal of estimated modelling error is introduced into control algorithm to enhance the system steady-state accuracy. The given solution was verified in real experimental framework and the obtained results were compared with the results of implementation of two other digital sliding mode control algorithms. It is shown that it gives better system response, higher steady-state accuracy and smaller chattering.

  4. Development of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) for Vehicles Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Oamen, Godwin; Vassiljeva, Kristina; Teder, Leo

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a real laboratory of anti-lock braking system (ABS) for vehicle and conducts real experiments to verify the ability of this ABS to prevent the vehicle wheel from being locked while braking. Two controllers of PID and fuzzy logic are tested for analysis and comparison. This ABS laboratory is designed for bachelor and master students to simulate and analyze performances of ABS with different control techniques on various roads and load conditions. This paper provides educational theories and practices on the design of control for system dynamics.

  5. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF ANTILOCK BRAKE SYSTEM EFFECT ON PASSENGER CAR BRAFKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Davidenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been experimentally proved that in case of emergency braking the constant decelera-tion of passenger cars equipped by antilock brake system exceeds the tabulated statistical data by 7,7–17 % that is recommended to apply at technical expertise at traffic accident causes investigation.

  7. Design and Analysis of Electro-mechanical Hybrid Anti-lock Braking System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Utilizing Motor Regenerative Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianlong; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu

    2009-01-01

    Braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads, hybrid electric vehicle's motor regenerative torque is switched off to safeguard the normal anti-lock braking system (ABS) function. When the ABS control is terminated, the motor regenerative braking is readmitted.Aiming at avoiding permanent cycles from hydraulic anti-lock braking to motor regenerative braking, a novel electro-mechanical hybrid anti-lock braking system using fuzzy logic is designed. Different from the traditional single control structure, this system has a two-layered hierarchical structure. The first layer is responsible for harmonious adjustment or interaction between regenerative system and anti-lock braking system. The second layer is responsible for braking torque distribution and adjustment. The closed-loop simulation model is built. Control strategy and method for coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking are developed. Simulation braking on low adhesion-coefficient roads with fuzzy logic control and real vehicle braking field test are presented. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show braking performance of the vehicle is perfect, harmonious coordination between regenerative and anti-lock braking function, significant amount of braking energy can be recovered and the proposed control strategy and method are effective.

  8. Model-based fuzzy control solutions for a laboratory Antilock Braking System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precup, Radu-Emil; Spataru, Sergiu; Rǎdac, Mircea-Bogdan;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives two original model-based fuzzy control solutions dedicated to the longitudinal slip control of Antilock Braking System laboratory equipment. The parallel distributed compensation leads to linear matrix inequalities which guarantee the global stability of the fuzzy control systems...

  9. Model-based Sliding Mode Controller of Anti-lock Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Luo, Yue-Gang; Kang, Jing; Shi, Zhan-Qun

    2016-05-01

    The anti-lock braking system (ABS) used in automobiles is used to prevent wheel from lockup and to maintain the steering ability and stability. The sliding mode controller is able to control nonlinear system steadily. In this research, a one-wheel dynamic model with ABS control is built up using model-based method. Using the sliding model controller, the simulation results by using Matlab/Simulink show qualified data compared with optimal slip rate. By using this method, the ABS brake efficiency is improved efficiently.

  10. Stable and optimal fuzzy control of a laboratory Antilock Braking System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precup, Radu-Emil; Spataru, Sergiu; Petriu, Emil M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusse four new Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy controllers (T-S FCs) for the longitudinal slip control of an Antilock Braking System laboratory equipment. Two discretetime dynamic Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models of the controlled plant are derived based on the parameters in the consequents...... conditions to the fuzzy control systems (FCSs) and the other two T-S FCs are tuned by the linear-quadratic regulator approach applied to each rule. Linear matrix inequalities are solved to guarantee the global stability of the FCSs. Real-time experimental results validate the original T-S FCs and design...

  11. Road Identification for Anti-Lock Brake Systems Equipped with Only Wheel Speed Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴卫东; 尹用山

    2001-01-01

    Anti-lock brake systems (ABS) are now widely used on motor vehicles. To reduce product cost andto use currently available technologies, standard ABS uses only wheel speed sensors to detect wheel angularvelocities, which is not enough to directly obtain wheel slip ratios needed by the control unit, but can be usedto calculate reference slip ratios with measured wheel angular velocities and the estimated vehicle speed.Therefore, the road friction coefficient, which determines the vehicle deceleration during severe braking, is animportant parameter in estimating vehicle speed. This paper analyzes wheel acceleration responses insimulations of severe braking on different road surfaces and selects a pair of specific points to identify thewheel acceleration curve for each operating condition, such as road surface, pedal-braking torque and wheelvertical load. It was found that the curve using the selected points for each road surface clearly differs fromthat of the other road surfaces. Therefore, different road surfaces can be distinguished with these selectedpoints which represent their corresponding road surfaces. The analysis assumes that only wheel speed sensorsare available as hardware and that the road cohesion condition can be determined in the initial part of thesevere braking process.``

  12. New Method of Road Surface Identification in Anti-Lock Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhi-quan; LIU Zhao-du; ZHANG Jing-bo; MA Yue-feng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the vehicle-road dynamic model, the road characteristic parameter, which depends on different types of road surfaces, is introduced and a new method of road surface identification for automotive anti-lock braking system (ABS) is proposed. According to the characteristics of vehicle-road dynamic model, a simple math resolution method of the model's factors is established. Only using the information of wheel speed, the vehicle reference velocity and the wheel slip ratio are estimated real-timely. And based on the wheel dynamic model, the road characteristic parameter is determined to identify the road surface for the determination of thresholds of ABS regulative parameters. With this new method, the road surface identification can be accurately obtained and calculation time is short that it can meet the ABS real time control need, and it also improves the performance of ABS.

  13. The effectiveness of antilock braking systems in reducing accidents in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy; Baughan, Chris

    2002-05-01

    Antilock braking systems (ABS) are fitted to many new cars with the aims of improving their ability to steer while braking heavily and of reducing stopping distances on some road surfaces. This paper presents the findings of a project that assessed the effectiveness of ABS in reducing accidents in Great Britain. A large postal survey was carried out of the owners of modern cars. asking for details of any accidents in which they had been involved during the previous year as well as factors that might influence their likelihood of being involved in an accident. Questions were also asked to test respondents' knowledge of ABS. ABS cars ditfered in several respects from non-ABS cars, as did the two groups of drivers. Consequently, a sophisticated statistical analysis was required to provide unbiased estimates of the effectiveness of ABS. Various results did not achieve statistical significance, but the overall stability of the results indicates that real effects have been measured. They confirm that ABS does have the potential to reduce the number of accidents, but show that this has not been fully achieved. One reason may be that many drivers have little or no knowledge of ABS.

  14. Performance Evaluation of an Anti-Lock Braking System for Electric Vehicles with a Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional friction braking torque and motor braking torque can be used in braking for electric vehicles (EVs. A sliding mode controller (SMC based on the exponential reaching law for the anti-lock braking system (ABS is developed to maintain the optimal slip value. Parameter optimizing is applied to the reaching law by fuzzy logic control (FLC. A regenerative braking algorithm, in which the motor torque is taken full advantage of, is adopted to distribute the braking force between the motor braking and the hydraulic braking. Simulations were carried out with Matlab/Simulink. By comparing with a conventional Bang-bang ABS controller, braking stability and passenger comfort is improved with the proposed SMC controller, and the chatting phenomenon is reduced effectively with the parameter optimizing by FLC. With the increasing proportion of the motor braking torque, the tracking of the slip ratio is more rapid and accurate. Furthermore, the braking distance is shortened and the conversion energy is enhanced.

  15. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  16. The Development of a Fuzzy Predictive Control System for Automotive Anti-lock Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGFU Shihui; BAO Xiangying

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the model of one-tire kinetics、tires、the braking system and the model of control system. On virtual road, this paper builds a fuzzy predictive control system to insure the best attachment coefficient between tires and road. And it turns out to be that this fuzzy predictive control method has achieved good performances.

  17. Development and Verification of the Tire/Road Friction Estimation Algorithm for Antilock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road friction information is very important for vehicle active braking control systems such as ABS, ASR, or ESP. It is not easy to estimate the tire/road friction forces and coefficient accurately because of the nonlinear system, parameters uncertainties, and signal noises. In this paper, a robust and effective tire/road friction estimation algorithm for ABS is proposed, and its performance is further discussed by simulation and experiment. The tire forces were observed by the discrete Kalman filter, and the road friction coefficient was estimated by the recursive least square method consequently. Then, the proposed algorithm was analysed and verified by simulation and road test. A sliding mode based ABS with smooth wheel slip ratio control and a threshold based ABS by pulse pressure control with significant fluctuations were used for the simulation. Finally, road tests were carried out in both winter and summer by the car equipped with the same threshold based ABS, and the algorithm was evaluated on different road surfaces. The results show that the proposed algorithm can identify the variation of road conditions with considerable accuracy and response speed.

  18. Electromechanical imitator of antilock braking modes of wheels with pneumatic tire and its application for the runways friction coefficient measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putov, A. V.; Kopichev, M. M.; Ignatiev, K. V.; Putov, V. V.; Stotckaia, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper it is considered a discussion of the technique that realizes a brand new method of runway friction coefficient measurement based upon the proposed principle of measuring wheel braking control for the imitation of antilock braking modes that are close to the real braking modes of the aircraft chassis while landing that are realized by the aircraft anti-skid systems. Also here is the description of the model of towed measuring device that realizes a new technique of runway friction coefficient measuring, based upon the measuring wheel braking control principle. For increasing the repeatability accuracy of electromechanical braking imitation system the sideslip (brake) adaptive control system is proposed. Based upon the Burkhard model and additive random processes several mathematical models were created that describes the friction coefficient arrangement along the airstrip with different qualitative adjectives. Computer models of friction coefficient measuring were designed and first in the world the research of correlation between the friction coefficient measuring results and shape variations, intensity and cycle frequency of the measuring wheel antilock braking modes. The sketch engineering documentation was designed and prototype of the latest generation measuring device is ready to use. The measuring device was tested on the autonomous electromechanical examination laboratory treadmill bench. The experiments approved effectiveness of method of imitation the antilock braking modes for solving the problem of correlation of the runway friction coefficient measuring.

  19. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  20. Based on Embedded on Board Antilock Brake Key Technical Design%基于嵌入式的车载防抱死关键技术设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凤茹

    2013-01-01

    针对车辆模型分别在湿沥青和雪路面模型下很容易发生抱死线性,传统的抱死控制器很难使车辆的实时滑移率快速到达并保持在期望滑移率附近,不能保证车辆获得最大的地面制动力,刹车性能较低的问题,提出一种基于多重优化的刹车防抱死系统的设计方法.通过运用合理的硬件设计,配合刹车动态约束的软件设计方法,研究新一代车载防抱死的系统设计方法.给出了合理的硬件软件设计思路.实验证明,这种新一代的系统设计方法能够在一些异常天气中,完成较高准确度的防抱死措施,保证了汽车的安全与稳定,为新一代的车载防抱死系统提供思路.%For vehicle model respectively in wet asphalt road surface model and snow were likely to lock linear, traditional lock controller is hard to make the vehicle real-time sliding rate fast access to and keep expectations in the slip rate near, can not ensure the maximum ground braking force, brake performance is low.In order to solve this problem, and put forward a kind of multiple optimization based on the brake antilock brake systems design methods, through the use of reasonable design of hardware, software with the brake dynamic restraint design method, a new generation of car antilock brake system design method.Given the reasonable hardware and software design ideas.Experiments show that the new generation of system design method can in some abnormal weather, complete accuracy of the antilock brake measures to ensure that the car's security and stability, for a new generation of car antilock brake systems to provide ideas..

  1. 49 CFR 571.121 - Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed air or vacuum only to assist the driver in applying muscular force to hydraulic or mechanical... transmission of response or control signals in the vehicle's antilock brake system. The indicator lamp shall...) S5.1.6.3Antilock power circuit for towed vehicles. Each truck tractor manufactured on or after...

  2. Negative Effect of Disc Thickness Variation on the Performance of Anti-lock Braking System and Its Control Method%制动盘厚薄差对ABS性能的负面影响及控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 黄平宇

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear braking dynamics model for a quarter car is established, which consists of a rigid-ring-based transient tire model and a disc brake model with consideration of disc thickness variation ( DTV). Based on the model and by using MATLAB/Simulink, the negative effects of DTV on the braking performance of ABS system with slip rate threshold control are analyzed, and a set of adaptive control parameters based on the degrees of DTV are proposed on the basis of optimization to suppress the negative effects of DTV. The results indicate that DTV has negative effects on wheel motion, braking performance and braking comfort, while the use of DTV adaptive control parameters though may deteriorate braking comfort, but can effectively improve wheel motion and braking performance.%建立了包含瞬态刚性圈轮胎模型、考虑制动盘厚薄差(DTV)的制动器模型的1/4车非线性制动动力学模型.基于该模型,利用MATLAB/Simulink软件分析了DTV对滑移率门限值控制下ABS制动性能的负面影响,并提出了一套抑制DTV影响的适应性控制参数.结果表明:DTV会对车轮运动状态、制动效能和制动舒适性产生负面影响,而采用DTV适应性ABS控制参数虽会恶化舒适性,但可改善车轮运动状态,提高制动效能.

  3. Simulation research of the auto anti-lock braking system based on simulink%基于simulink的汽车防抱死制动系统的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少廷; 徐家川

    2016-01-01

    在 simulink环境下对汽车防抱死制动系统进行数学建模,采用基于车轮加、减速度门限值及参考滑移率的控制策略,控制器以车轮的角加、减速度和滑移率的大小为输入,根据输入值的大小控制器输出相应的信号给制动模型,进而对轮速和滑移率进行调节,使其在理想范围内。对汽车ABS模型进行仿真研究,通过得出的仿真曲线,验证了 ABS 制动系统拥有良好的制动性和操纵性。%Mathematical modeling to the automotive anti-look braking system was built based on simulink.It adopted the wheel add,substract speed threshold method and referenced slip ratio control strategy.The size of the wheel angular velocity and slip ratio study were input into the controler,the corresponding signal was output to the model of the brake based on the size of the input value to adj ust the wheel speed and slip ratio.Simulation was carried out on the automobile ABS model and simulation curve was obtained.The results confirmed that the ABS braking sys-tem has good brake and maneuverability.

  4. 汽车主动悬架与制动防抱死系统集成控制研究%Research on the integrated control of the active suspension and anti-lock braking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灿波

    2015-01-01

    在7自由度半车模型的基础上,建立主动悬架和制动防抱死系统集成控制器. 仿真分析表明,所建立的集成控制器不仅减小了制动时间和制动距离,提高了车辆的制动安全性,还可以有效减小车身在制动过程中产生的俯仰运动,改善了制动时的乘坐舒适性.%On the basis of the 7 degree of freedom half vehicle model , it establishes the integrated controller of active suspension and braking system .Simulation results show that the integrated controller can not only decrease the braking time and distance , improve the security of vehicle braking , but also effectively reduce the body pitching motion , improve the ride comfort .

  5. A high performance pneumatic braking system for heavy vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2010-12-01

    Current research into reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, these algorithms require the knowledge of variables that are impractical to measure directly. This paper introduces a sliding mode braking force observer to support a sliding mode controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The performance of the observer is examined through simulations and field testing of an articulated heavy vehicle. The observer operated robustly during single-wheel vehicle simulations, and provided reasonable estimates of surface friction from test data. The effect of brake gain errors on the controller and observer are illustrated, and a recursive least squares estimator is derived for the brake gain. The estimator converged within 0.3 s in simulations and vehicle trials.

  6. Bicycle Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Noel

    2001-01-01

    A bicycle braking system for permitting controlled rotation and continuous power to the wheels of a bicycle during braking of the bicycle to enhance control of the bicycle during braking includes a cylindrical brake pad that is spring loaded within angled slots in a casing. The brake pad is positioned proximate the rim of a wheel and a cable assembly is coupled to the brake pad for urging the brake pad towards an end of the angled slots and against the rim of the wheel to slow rotation of the...

  7. 49 CFR 571.105 - Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... signal or signals. Electric vehicle or EV means a motor vehicle that is powered by an electric motor... or control signals in an antilock brake system, or a total functional electrical failure in a... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric...

  8. Safety Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Charles

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day's accidents due to brake failure are increasing in a high margin, so safety has acquired a greater priority. In order to control this sudden brake failures we have modified the conventional braking systems in automobiles by adding an extra safety brake to the engine shaft. The idea of the work is to improve the safety parameters regarding the brakes. Engagement of the secondary brake without the assistance of driver is an advantage for this system. As it would make the vehicle to stop without any lag. A Hall effect sensor is used to detect the motion of wheel by noting the magnetic field. The signals given out from the sensor directs the microcontroller to operate the relay and hence to actuate the solenoid and thereby actuating the secondary brake.

  9. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  10. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (ii) Allow the pilot(s) to override the system by use of manual braking. (d) Parking brake. The airplane must have a parking brake control that, when selected on, will, without further attention, prevent... be indication in the cockpit when the parking brake is not fully released. (e) Antiskid system. If...

  11. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  12. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thermal damage to wheels or discs. (f) The brake system design shall allow a disabled train's pneumatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake system. 238.431 Section 238.431... Equipment § 238.431 Brake system. (a) A passenger train's brake system shall be capable of stopping...

  13. Fireproof Brake Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    bulk modulus and density are the same (see Table 2). AO-2 is the base stock fluid for AO-8 which is a blend of AO-2 and a viscosity index (VI) improver...RADIANS LI+ BRAK .. .... " 17 . 3000 4 BRAKE .~1~~ 4~~I 4 4 4- 4 .! L 3 00 00i- FTLB 0 ’ 25 00 +--- + + i DISPCE EN FiueE4 raeSse taiiy tndr ytm...VA LVE ... it .. . . .. . F... .. igur E. 8 Brak Syste Stability...... .. .. .. .. Tw-FuRRSstNTer Daming Amit 327. .. .. .. .... APPENDIX F

  14. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  15. The design of brake fatigue testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang, Xiaoya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake is used to reduce the operating speed of the machinery equipment or to make it stop. It is essential for vehicles, climbing machines and many fixed equipment in their safety work. Brake tester is an experimental apparatus to measure and analyse the braking performance. Based on the PLC technology and for the purpose of testing brake shoe friction material’s life, this paper designed a virtual brake test platform. In it, inverter were used to control the motor, so that it can load automatically and ensure brake drum constant speed output; what is more, closed loop control system were used to control the brake shoe, so that the cylinder pressure keeps stable in the process of dynamic braking.

  16. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  17. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parking brake system. 393.41 Section 393.41... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.41 Parking brake system. (a) Hydraulic-braked vehicles...,536 kg (10,000 pounds) shall be equipped with a parking brake system as required by FMVSS No....

  18. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking brake and turn the ignition to start to verify that the brake system failure indicator lamp is... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles...

  19. 制动防抱死工况制动器热机耦合特性仿真分析%Computational Investigation into Thermal-mechanical Coupling Characteristics of Disc Brake under Anti-lock Braking Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 何臻; 孟德建

    2016-01-01

    制动工况对制动器的热机耦合特性具有重要影响.建立了三自由度汽车制动动力学模型,制动力由采用滑移率逻辑门限值控制策略的制动防抱死系统(ABS,Anti-lock Brake System)控制,对干路面和湿路面的制动防抱死工况仿真,同时对相应路面非制动防抱死工况仿真,用于比较分析;建立通风盘式制动器热机耦合有限元动力学模型,对不同制动工况制动盘和制动块的热机耦合特性进行仿真,分析了制动防抱死工况制动器热机耦合特性,并通过与非制动防抱死工况比较,探究ABS对制动器热机耦合特性影响.经分析发现,制动防抱死系统引起的制动压力变化以及制动摩擦热功率改变将对热机耦合特性各个指标产生影响.

  20. An Experimental Analysis of Brake Efficiency Using four Fluids in a Disc Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Daniel Oduro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies disc brake failure in Mini-buses using an experimental analysis to test the maximum braking force when different brake fluids such as clean, less dirty, dirty and soapy water solution were used in the braking system. The experimental results clearly showed that the soap solution appears to be the best fluid as far as low viscosity and stability of viscosity with increase in temperature are concerned. However, the soap solution is not compatible with other fluid which makes it difficult to be substitute as a clean brake fluid. The result of the Thepra Universal Brake Testing Equipment used for the braking efficiency test indicated that a pedal brake of 117 kN produce a brake force of 0.96 kN for clean brake fluid, 0.91 kN for the less dirty, 0.85 kN for dirty and 1.44 kN for soap solution. The value of 1.44 kN which was achieved when the soap solution was used indicated a positive braking force and the indicating that soap solution could be used to produce a high pedal force within a very short time (about 10-30 min and can therefore be used only in case of emergency. The brake efficiency test indicated that under hot conditions the braking efficiency is reduced and the presence of air in the system renders the braking ineffective because higher pedal force was needed to be able to produce a significant braking force which is noted for causing brake failure.

  1. An Experimental Analysis of Brake Efficiency Using Four Fluids in a Drum Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Owusu-Ansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies drum brake failure in Mini-buses using an experimental analysis to test the viscosities and the maximum braking force when different fluids such as clean, less dirty, dirty and soapy water solution were used in the braking system. The effects of each of these fluids when successive increments in pedal force were applied at hot and cold conditions for drum brakes were studied. The results of the Thepra Universal Brake Testing Equipment used for the braking efficiency test indicated that a pedal force of 110 kN produce a brake force of 0.61 kN for clean fluid, 0.56 kN for less dirty, 0.51 kN for dirty and 0.92 kN. The value of 0.92 kN which was achieved when the soapy water solution was used indicated a positive braking force and that soap water solution could be used to produce a high pedal force within a very short time (10-30 min and can therefore be used only in case of emergency. It was observed that the clean brake fluid gave the best braking force followed by the less dirty and finally the dirty brake fluid. In a situation where air has been trapped in the system under hot condition with or without a servo unit, clean brake fluid performed much better at least three times better than the other three fluids. For soap solution, braking was effective only when it was operated at cold condition but less effective when the system was hot. Soap solution is therefore not reliable when used for a very long time but effective only for emergency situations.

  2. A Conceptual Design Method of Disc Brake Systems for Reducing Brake Squeal Considering Pressure Distribution Variations

    OpenAIRE

    松島, 徹; 泉井, 一浩; 西脇, 眞二

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a design optimization method for disc brake systems that specifically aims to reduce brake squeal, with robustness against changes on contact surface pressure distribution, based on the concept of First Order Analysis. First, a simplified analysis model is constructed in which a pressure distribution parameter is introduced, and the relationships between the occurrence of brake squeal and the characteristics of various components is then clarified, using the simplified mod...

  3. Evaluation the course of the vehicle braking process in case of hydraulic circuit malfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper, the results of the research were discussed, the aim of which was the evaluation of the vehicle braking performance efficiency and the course of this process with regard to the dysfunction which may occur in braking hydraulic circuit. As part of the research, on-road tests were conducted. During the research, the delay of the vehicle when braking was measured with the use of the set of sensors placed in the parallel and the perpendicular axis of the vehicle. All the tests were conducted on the same flat section of asphalt road with wet surface. Conditions of diminished tire-to-road adhesion were chosen in order to force the activity of anti-lock braking system. The research was conducted comparatively for the vehicle with acting anti-lock braking system and subsequently for the vehicle without the system. In both cases, there was a subsequent evaluation of the course of braking with efficient braking system and with the dysfunction of hydraulic circuit.

  4. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... motor vehicle must meet the applicable service, parking, and emergency brake system requirements....49, and 393.52 of this subpart. (c) Parking brakes. Each commercial motor vehicle must be equipped with a parking brake system that meets the applicable requirements of § 393.41. (d) Emergency...

  5. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  6. Brake squeal reduction of vehicle disc brake system with interval parameters by uncertain optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Hui; Yu, Dejie

    2014-12-01

    An uncertain optimization method for brake squeal reduction of vehicle disc brake system with interval parameters is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, the parameters of frictional coefficient, material properties and the thicknesses of wearing components are treated as uncertain parameters, which are described as interval variables. Attention is focused on the stability analysis of a brake system in squeal, and the stability of brake system is investigated via the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) method. The dominant unstable mode is extracted by performing CEA based on a linear finite element (FE) model, and the negative damping ratio corresponding to the dominant unstable mode is selected as the indicator of instability. The response surface method (RSM) is applied to approximate the implicit relationship between the unstable mode and the system parameters. A reliability-based optimization model for improving the stability of the vehicle disc brake system with interval parameters is constructed based on RSM, interval analysis and reliability analysis. The Genetic Algorithm is used to get the optimal values of design parameters from the optimization model. The stability analysis and optimization of a disc brake system are carried out, and the results show that brake squeal propensity can be reduced by using stiffer back plates. The proposed approach can be used to improve the stability of the vehicle disc brake system with uncertain parameters effectively.

  7. HEAT TRANSIENT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF BRAKE DISC /PAD SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Thuppal Vedanta, Srivatsan; Kora, Naga Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Braking is mainly controlled by the engine. Friction between a pair of pads and a rotating disc converts the kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat. High temperatures can be reached in the system which can be detrimental for both, components and passenger safety. Numerical techniques help simulate load cases and compute the temperatures field in brake disc and brake pads. The present work implements a Finite Element (FE) toolbox in Matlab/Simulink able to simulate different braking manoeuvre...

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF BRAKE PADS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ON PASSANGER CAR BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  9. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  10. Brake Fluid Compatibility Studies with Advanced Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-16

    identified as silane based compounds. Therefore, we can eliminate brake fluid polymerization as a possible cause since no siloxane based polymers were...cm-1 indicate presence of O-H peak corresponding UNCLASSIFIED DRAFT UNCLASSIFIED 21 to water ; 1631.50 cm-1 indicate presence of C=C peak...measurements are usually made using an auxiliary liquid with a known density. In this case, water is used as the auxiliary liquid. The weight of the o

  11. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by testing or previous service. (h) Hand brakes and parking brakes. (1) Except for a locomotive that..., and except for MU locomotives, all locomotives shall be equipped with a hand or parking brake that can... locomotives, on locomotives so equipped, the hand or parking brake as well as its parts and connections...

  12. 49 CFR 232.609 - Handling of defective equipment with ECP brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conventional pneumatic brakes shall not move in a freight train operating in ECP brake mode unless it would otherwise have effective and operative brakes if it were part of a conventional pneumatic brake-equipped... pneumatic brakes shall not operate with freight cars equipped with stand-alone ECP brake systems unless:...

  13. The design of brake fatigue testing system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Brake is used to reduce the operating speed of the machinery equipment or to make it stop. It is essential for vehicles, climbing machines and many fixed equipment in their safety work. Brake tester is an experimental apparatus to measure and analyse the braking performance. Based on the PLC technology and for the purpose of testing brake shoe friction material’s life, this paper designed a virtual brake test platform. In it, inverter were used to control the motor, so that it can load automa...

  14. Parity space-based fault diagnosis of CCBII braking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志武; 杨迎泽; 王晶; 李赟

    2013-01-01

    Fault diagnosis is a key issue of the CCBII(computer controlled brake II) braking system, because the CCBII braking system is very complicated and nonlinear, which may exhibit isolated and multi-component coupled faults. A parity space-based method was proposed for fault diagnosis of CCBII braking systems. Firstly, the mathematical models were established according to three function modules of CCBII braking systems where the air fluid theory was utilized. Then, parity vector and threshold function were designed for each output of the system so as to identify more system faults. Fault character matrix was built based on the causal relationship between the output and the fault according to the system function and internal structure. Finally, fault detection and isolation can be realized by the comparison of the observed system output and the fault character matrix. Simulation results show that the proposed method is entirely feasible and effective.

  15. Designing safe road systems : A Human Factors perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kuiken, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many books focus on individual differences and how those relate to traffic safety, such as accident proneness, gender differences, age, alcohol, and the effects of drugs. Others focus on the safety effects regarding the vehicle, such as airbags, anti-lock brakes, navigation systems, intelligent crui

  16. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  17. Control strategy of disc braking systems for downward belt conveyors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Youfu; Xie Fangwei; Huang Fei

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of braking systems is a key requirement to ensure the safety of in using downward belt conveyor brakes.By analyzing and comparing three commonly used braking velocity curves,we conclude that the Harrison curve is the best.Given the characteristics of a downward belt conveyor,we studied the control in a closed-loop velocity,a conventional PID method and an optimal PID control method.We used MATLAB/Simulink to simulate the three control methods.Our simulation results show that optimal PID control is especially suitable for disc braking systems.To verify the results from theoretical analysis and simulation,a multifunctional test-bed was developed to simulate the braking process of a disc brake system.Our experimental results demonstrate that the optimal PID control can make the output velocity to follow a preset velocity correctly with only small fluctuations,meeting the requirements of a flexible brake for a belt conveyor.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  19. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses MAZ-103 and МАZ-104 one of the motor transportation enterprises of a city of Minsk. Principal causes of structural parameters modification of brake pneumatic system of buses, the brake mechanism and elements АBS are considered.

  20. Brake subharmonic solutions of first order Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we mainly use the Galerkin approximation method and the iteration inequalities of the L-Maslov type index theory to study the properties of brake subharmonic solutions for the first order non-autonomous Hamiltonian systems.We prove that when the positive integers j and k satisfy the certain conditions,there exists a jT-periodic nonconstant brake solution zj such that zj and zkj are distinct.

  1. 49 CFR 232.103 - General requirements for all train brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pneumatic technology, the integrity of the train line shall be monitored by the brake control system. (c) A... straight air brake 30-50 (7) Self-lapping portion for electro-pneumatic brake (minimum full application... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for all train brake...

  2. 混合动力汽车再生制动压力协调控制系统%Pressure Coordinated Control System for HEV Regenerative Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 邹佳航; 杨洋; 秦大同; 刘永刚

    2014-01-01

    再生制动作为混合动力汽车中的一门关键技术,越来越受到大家的关注和重视,针对国内外混合动力汽车再生制动压力协调控制系统的局限性和复杂性,设计出一种基于 ABS 硬件的再生制动压力协调控制系统,该系统实现了再生制动与(Anti-lock braking system,ABS)制动功能下的压力协调控制。建立AMEsim与Simulink联合仿真模型并进行恒制动强度下、变制动强度下、纯ABS模式下和综合制动模式下的仿真分析,结果表明除纯ABS外各模式下的电池SOC(State of Charge)回收率分别为0.27%、0.33%和0.29%,仿真结果表明电机能将汽车制动时减少的能量进行一定程度的回收并提供制动力。因此,所设计系统能实现各制动模式下压力协调控制以满足汽车制动需求,仿真结果验证了该方案的有效性和可行性,为再生制动系统的设计与优化奠定了基础。%As a key technology of hybrid electric vehicles, regenerative braking is attracting more and more attention. In view of the limitations and complexity of pressure coordinated control system for the regenerative braking of hybrid electric vehicles, a new kind of pressure coordinated control system has been designed in the basis of appropriate transformation on anti-lock braking system (ABS). The system can realize the pressure coordinated control of the regenerative braking and the traditional ABS braking. Based on AMESim-simulink co-simulation, models have been established to make some simulation analysis under the conditions of constant braking intensity, variable braking intensity, pure ABS model and integrated braking model. The result is that the battery’s state of charge(SOC) recovery rates of them except pure ABS model are 0.27%, 0.33% and 0.29% respectively. It proves that motor can partly recover energy which is reduced in braking and provide part braking force. Consequently, the system can realize pressure

  3. Design and development of coil casing MRF brake system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Lydia R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays magneto-rheological brakes has been introduce to overcome the drawback of conventional braking such as bulky, leakage and late build up pressure. Magnetic field is a main parameter need to be maximized in order to increase the efficiency of the brake. In MRF brake system the magnetic field directly affected by coil casing shapes. This paper focused on the study of the effect of coil casing shapes to the magnetic field distribution in MR brake. Finite Element Method will be used to analyze the magnetic field distribution produced by the coil. Five coils shape that different angle from 50° to 90° used in this study. As the result magnetic field was change quadratically by increasing the angle size. The best angle is between 60° to 70°. The peak value is at 70°. If more than that the magnetic field will drop. The significant of this study is to get the most efficient angle for the electromagnet casing for the MR brakes.

  4. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Jiankun Peng; Hongwen He; Wei Liu; Hongqiang Guo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  5. Charging valve of the full hydraulic braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the full hydraulic braking system has excellent braking performance. As the key component of the full hydraulic braking system, the parameters of the accumulator charging valve have a significant effect on the braking performance. In this article, the key parameters of the charging valve are analyzed through the static theoretical and an Advanced Modeling Environment for performing Simulation of engineering systems (AMESim simulation model of the dual-circuit accumulator charging valve is established based on the real structure parameters first. Second, according to the results of the dynamic simulation, the dynamic characteristics of the charging pressure, the flow rate, and the frequency of the charging valve are studied. The key parameters affecting the serial production are proposed and some technical advices for improving the performance of the full hydraulic system are provided. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation results. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental results indicates that the simulated AMESim model of the charging valve is accurate and credible with the error rate inside 0.5% compared with the experimental result. Hence, the performance of the charging valve meets the request of the full hydraulic braking system exactly.

  6. RELIABILITY OF BRAKE SYSTEMS OF BUSES OF GROUP MAZ

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bessarab

    2013-01-01

    All over the world safety of maintained vehicles has the major value. For motor vehicles of the Republic of Belarus this problem is also actual. Maintenance of high reliability of brake systems of cars in operation is one of ways of the decision of a problem of increase of traffic safety.The analysis of reliability of brake systems of buses MAZ is carried out following the results of the state maintenance service in 2010 and the analysis of premature returns from routes of movement of buses M...

  7. Maslov-type index and brake orbits in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Maslov-type index theory for linear Hamiltonian systems with brake orbits boundary value conditions and its applications to the existence of multiple brake orbits of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems.

  8. 49 CFR 214.529 - In-service failure of primary braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false In-service failure of primary braking system. 214... Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.529 In-service failure of primary braking system. (a) In the event of a total in-service failure of its primary braking system, an on-track roadway...

  9. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... George Soodoo, Division Chief, Vehicle Dynamics (NVS-122), Office of Crash Avoidance Standards (Email... technologies would help prevent the introduction of unsafe motorcycle brake systems on the road. Moreover... the proper grade of brake fluid. If the service brake system is a split hydraulic type, a...

  10. Piecewise polynomial chaos expansion with an application to brake squeal of a linear brake system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouy, E.; Dessombz, O.; Sinou, J.-J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes numerical developments based on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to process stochastic eigenvalue problems efficiently. These developments are applied to the problem of linear stability calculations for a simplified brake system: the stability of a finite element model of a brake is investigated when its friction coefficient or the contact stiffness are modeled as random parameters. Getting rid of the statistical point of view of the PC method but keeping the principle of a polynomial decomposition of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the stochastic space is decomposed into several elements to realize a low degree piecewise polynomial approximation of these quantities. An approach relying on continuation principles is compared to the classical dichotomy method to build the partition. Moreover, a criterion for testing accuracy of the decomposition over each cell of the partition without requiring evaluation of exact eigenmodes is proposed and implemented. Several random distributions are tested, including a uniform-like law for description of friction coefficient variation. Results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations so as to determine the method accuracy and efficiency. Some general rules relative to the influence of the friction coefficient or the contact stiffness are also inferred from these calculations.

  11. Thermo-mechanical behaviour of heavy-duty disc brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    In heavy-duty disc brake systems, braking is a transient, non-linear and asymmetrical thermo-mechanical process. Surface cracking, rather than wear, is the major factor limiting the brake disc's life. The disc material (cast-iron), heat transfer boundary conditions and pad-disc frictional reactions are characteristically non-linear and asymmetrical during the friction process. Non-uniform deformation and surface cracks in brake discs result from the accumulation of excess...

  12. Slide Mode Control for Integrated Electric Parking Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Xuexun Guo; Chengcai Zhang; Zhe Xiong; Huan Xia; Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The emerging integrated electric parking brake (IEPB) system is introduced and studied. Through analyzing the various working stages, the stages switched IEPB system models are given with the consideration of the friction and system idle inertia. The sliding mode control (SMC) method is adopted to control the clamping force by the widely used motor angle and clamping force relationship method. Based on the characteristics of the state equations, two sliding surfaces are built to control the m...

  13. Subway Train Braking System: A Fuzzy Based Hardware Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun B.I. Reaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automated subway train-braking system require perfection, efficiency and fast response. In order to cope with this concerns, an appropriate algorithm need to be developed which need to be implemented in hardware for faster response. Approach: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy based subway train braking system has been presented on an Alter FLEX10K device to provide an accurate and increased speed of convergence of the network. The fuzzy based subway train braking system is comprised of fusilier, inference, rule selector and defuzzifier modules. Sixteen rules are identified for the rule selector module. After determining the membership functions and its fuzzy variables, the Max-Min Composition method and Madman-Min implication operator are used for the inference module and the Centre of Gravity method is used for the defuzzification module. Each module is modeled individually using behavioral VHDL. The layers are then connected using structural VHDL. Two 8-bit and one 8-bit unsigned digital signals are used for input and output respectively. Six ROMs are defined in order to decrease the chances of processing and increasing the throughput of the system. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system as well. We have validated the hardware implementation of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2372 units of LC with a system frequency of 139.8MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy brake system of subway train has been successfully implemented with minimum usage of logic cells. The validation study with C model shows that the hardware model is appropriate and the hardware approach shows faster and accurate response with full automatic control.

  14. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY...-second of an inch over the fastener, or one-sixteenth of an inch over the brake shoe on bonded linings or... surface. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be...

  15. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  16. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  17. Carbon nanotube torsional springs for regenerative braking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanwei; Martin, Corbin; Lashmore, David; Schauer, Mark; Livermore, Carol

    2015-10-01

    The modeling and demonstration of large stroke, high energy density and high power density torsional springs based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns is reported, as well as their application as energy-storing actuators for regenerative braking systems. An originally untwisted CNT yarn is cyclically loaded and unloaded in torsion, with the maximum rotation angle increasing incrementally until failure. The measured average extractable energy density values are 2.9 kJ kg-1  ±  1.2 kJ kg-1 and 3.4 kJ kg-1  ±  0.4 kJ kg-1 for 1-ply CNT yarns and 2-ply CNT yarns, respectively. Additionally, a regenerative braking system is demonstrated to capture the kinetic energy of a wheel and store it as elastic energy in twisted CNT yarns. When the yarn’s twist is released, the stored energy reaccelerates the wheel. The measured energy and mean power densities of the CNT yarns in the simple regenerative braking setup are on average 3.3 kJ kg-1 and 0.67 kW kg-1, respectively, with maximum measured values of up to 4.7 kJ kg-1 and 1.2 kW kg-1, respectively. A slightly lower energy density of up to 1.2 kJ kg-1 and a 0.29 kW kg-1 mean power density are measured for CNT yarns in a more complex setup that mimics a unidirectional rotating regenerative braking mechanism.

  18. Detection of visually unrecognizable braking tracks using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, David; Bilík, Martin; Prochazková, Petra; Brada, Michal; Klus, Jakub; Pořízka, Pavel; Novotný, Jan; Novotný, Karel; Ticová, Barbora; Bradáč, Albert; Semela, Marek; Kaiser, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Identification of the position, length and mainly beginning of a braking track has proven to be essential for determination of causes of a road traffic accident. With the introduction of modern safety braking systems and assistance systems such as the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) or Electronic Stability Control (ESC), the visual identification of braking tracks that has been used up until the present is proving to be rather complicated or even impossible. This paper focuses on identification of braking tracks using a spectrochemical analysis of the road surface. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was selected as a method suitable for fast in-situ element detection. In the course of detailed observations of braking tracks it was determined that they consist of small particles of tire treads that are caught in intrusions in the road surface. As regards detection of the "dust" resulting from wear and tear of tire treads in the environment, organic zinc was selected as the identification element in the past. The content of zinc in tire treads has been seen to differ with regard to various sources and tire types; however, the arithmetic mean and modus of these values are approximately 1% by weight. For in-situ measurements of actual braking tracks a mobile LIBS device equipped with a special module was used. Several measurements were performed for 3 different cars and tire types respectively which slowed down with full braking power. Moreover, the influence of different initial speed, vehicle mass and braking track length on detected signal is discussed here.

  19. Design and analysis of the hybrid excitation rail eddy brake system of high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-en MA; Bin ZHANG; Xiao-yan HUANG; You-tong FANG; Wen-ping CAO

    2011-01-01

    Compared to the current eddy braking patterns using a single magnetic source,hybrid excitation rail eddy brakes have many advantages,such as controllability,energy saving,and various operating models.Considering the large braking power consumption of the high-speed train,a hybrid excitation rail eddy brake system,which is based on the principle of electromagnetic field,is proposed to fulfill the needs of safety and reliability.Then the working processes of the mechanical lifting system and electromagnetic system are demonstrated.With the electromagnetic system analyzed using the finite element method,the factors such as speed,air gap,and exciting current have influences on the braking force and attractive force.At last,the structure optimization of the brake system is discussed.

  20. Climate Based Performance of Carbon-Carbon Disc Brake for High Speed Aircraft Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Mohanty

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon composite brake discs are lighter, economical, and have excellent high energy friction characteristics. These have twice thermal capability compared to steel, remain unaffected by thermal shocks and mechanical fatigue. These are highly useful in emergency breaking situations. Prior to this work, two dimensional (2D reinforced carbon composite laminates were prepared through pitch impregnation process. In an effort to protect the exposed non frictional surface from high temperature service degradations, multilayered ceramic coating systems were developed on 2D composite. Oxidation studies have been carried out on these systems viz., C-SiC, C-SiC-MoSi2-Al2O3 and C-SiC-B4C. These were performed both in dynamic and static conditions up to 1200 °C in 60 per cent humid climate. The hardness, surface topography, developed phases and integrity of layers on the samples at various stages of the experiment have been characterized and analyzed. It was observed that C-SiC-B4C system performs well in the oxidizing environment.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.531-538, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.3932

  1. Diagnostics monitor of the braking efficiency in the on board diagnostics system for the motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The article presents diagnostics monitor for control of the efficiency of brakes in various road conditions in cars equipped with pressure sensor in brake (ESP) system. Now the brake efficiency of the vehicles is estimated periodically in the stand conditions on the base of brake forces measurement or in the road conditions on the base of the brake deceleration. The presented method allows to complete the stand - periodical tests of the brakes by current on board diagnostics system OBD for brakes. First part of the article presents theoretical dependences between deceleration of the vehicle and brake pressure. The influence of the vehicle mass, initial speed of braking, temperature of brakes, aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, engine resistance, state of the road surface, angle of the road sloping on the deceleration have been analysed. The manner of the appointed of these parameters has been analysed. The results of the initial investigation have been presented. At the end of the article the strategy of the estimation and signalization of the irregular value of the deceleration are presented.

  2. Development of electronic diagnostic system for improving the diagnosis reliability of passenger car brakes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The mathematical model that allows determining the pressure in the brake cylinder, distributor chambers and auxiliary reservoir of the car depending on the absolute pressure changes in the air flow through the throttle openings for a scheduled time is developed in the paper for diagnosing the parameters of the brake system of the individual car or train. It is embedded in the hardware-software system algorithm. This allows simulating the operation of the serviceable brake equipment and provid...

  3. Guidelines for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of disc brake squeal using simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.; Marburg, S.

    2013-04-01

    Brake squeal has become of increasing concern to the automotive industry but guidelines on how to confidently predict squeal propensity are yet to be established. While it is standard practice to use the complex eigenvalue analysis to predict unstable vibration modes, there have been few attempts to calculate their acoustic radiation. Here guidelines are developed for numerical vibration and acoustic analysis of brake squeal using models of simplified brake systems with friction contact by considering (1) the selection of appropriate elements, contact and mesh; (2) the extraction of surface velocities via forced response; and (3) the calculation of the acoustic response itself. Results indicate that quadratic tetrahedral elements offer the best option for meshing more realistic geometry. A mesh has to be sufficiently fine especially in the contact region to predict mesh-independent unstable vibration modes. Regarding the vibration response, only the direct, steady-state method with a pressurised pad and finite sliding formulation (allowing contact separation) should be used. Comparison of different numerical methods suggest that a obroadband fast multi-pole boundary element method with the Burton-Miller formulation would efficiently solve the acoustic radiation of a full brake system. Results also suggest that a pad lift-off can amplify the acoustic radiation similar to a horn effect. A horn effect is also observed for chamfered pads which are used in practice to reduce the number and strength of unstable vibration modes. These results highlight the importance of optimising the pad shape to reduce acoustic radiation of unstable vibration modes.

  4. Modal reduction of brake squeal systems using complex interface modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besset, S.; Sinou, J.-J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with a new efficient reduction method for predicting the stability analysis of a damped nonlinear brake system subjected to friction-induced vibration. The originality of the present work is to propose a generalized double modal synthesis method that combines a classical modal reduction and a condensation at the frictional interface by computing a reduced complex mode basis. Comparisons with the existing double modal synthesis reduction method are performed. It is demonstrated that the new suggested reduction technique is more efficient. It allows to provide satisfactory results with a small number of interfaces modes.

  5. Emergency braking : research summary.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    This report deals with an investigation concerning braking capacity of trucks if somewhere a failure occurs in the normal service brake. Purpose of research was to get an insight in various secondary braking systems for trucks. It is shown that with almost all of the secondary braking system it was

  6. Dynamic Braking System of a Tidal Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy generation has experienced significant cost reductions during the past decades, and it has become more accepted by the global population. In the beginning, wind generation dominated the development and deployment of renewable energy; however, during recent decades, photovoltaic (PV) generation has grown at a very significant pace due to the tremendous decrease in the cost of PV modules. The focus on renewable energy generation has now expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input water flow to these types of resources is more predictable than wind or solar generation. The data used in this paper is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. The analysis is based on a generator with a power rating of 40 kW. The tidal generator under consideration is driven by two sets of helical turbines connected to each side of the generator located in between the turbines. The generator is operated in variable speed, and it is controlled to maximize the energy harvested as well as the operation of the turbine generator. The electrical system consists of a three-phase permanent magnet generator connected to a three-phase passive rectifier. The output of the rectifier is connected to a DC-DC converter to match the rectifier output to the DC bus voltage of the DC-AC inverter. The three-phase inverter is connected to the grid, and it is controlled to provide a good interface with the grid. One important aspect of river and tidal generation is the braking mechanism. In a tidal generator, the braking mechanism is important to avoid a runaway condition in case the connection to the grid is lost when there is a fault in the lines. A runaway condition may lead to an overspeed condition and cause extreme stresses on the turbine blade structure and eventual disintegration of the mechanical structure. In this paper, the concept of the dynamic braking system is developed and investigated for normal

  7. A Predictive Distribution Model for Cooperative Braking System of an Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Hongqiang Guo; Hongwen He; Xuelian Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A predictive distribution model for a series cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle is proposed, which can solve the real-time problem of the optimum braking force distribution. To get the predictive distribution model, firstly three disciplines of the maximum regenerative energy recovery capability, the maximum generating efficiency and the optimum braking stability are considered, then an off-line process optimization stream is designed, particularly the optimal Latin hypercube d...

  8. Braking Distance Prediction by Hydroplaning Analysis of 3-D Patterned Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin-Rae; Choi, Joo-Hyoung; Lee, Hong-Woo; Woo, Jong-Shik; Yoo, Wan-Suk

    In this paper, we present a wet-road braking distance estimate for the vehicles equipped with ABS (Anti-lock Brake System). In order to effectively compute the interval-wise braking times and the resulting total braking distance, we divide the entire speed interval at braking into finite number of uniform sub-intervals and apply the energy conservation law to individual sub-intervals. The proposed method is based on a numerical-analytical approach such that the frictional energy loss of the patterned tire is computed by 3-D hydroplaning analysis while the other at the disc pad is analytically derived. The hydroplaning simulation is performed by generally coupling an Eulerian finite volume method and an explicit Lagrangian finite element method. The operation of ABS is numerically implemented by controlling the tire angular velocity such that the preset tire slip ratio on the wet road is maintained. Numerical results are presented to illustrative and verify the the proposed numerical estimate.

  9. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  10. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  11. ABSs系统模糊控制器优化设计%Design of An Optimal Fuzzy Controller for Antilock Braking Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Mirzaei; Mehdi Moallem; Behzad Mirzaeian; Dehkordi B.Fahimi

    2008-01-01

    已经开发了的ABSs系统改善了突然制动和特别是滑动路面状况时车辆控制.这样的控制目标是在保持车辆合适稳定性及可操纵性和缩短车辆刹车距离情况下在要求的方向增大车轮的牵引力.本文提出了ABSs系统优化的模糊控制器.从保持其车轮滑动值为目标函数获得车轮最大的牵引力和车轮最大的减速度.采用遗传算法优化模糊系统的全部组件.采用误差数整体优化方法收敛接近最优点.仿真结果表明快速收敛和对不同路况的控制器的最好性能.

  12. Slide Mode Control for Integrated Electric Parking Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging integrated electric parking brake (IEPB system is introduced and studied. Through analyzing the various working stages, the stages switched IEPB system models are given with the consideration of the friction and system idle inertia. The sliding mode control (SMC method is adopted to control the clamping force by the widely used motor angle and clamping force relationship method. Based on the characteristics of the state equations, two sliding surfaces are built to control the motor angle and current, respectively. And in every working stage, the control stability is guaranteed by choosing the control parameters based on Lyapunov theory and SMC reachability. The effectiveness of the proposed control system has been validated in Matlab/Simulink.

  13. Development of brake system of railway vehicles for real-time HILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Joon-Hyuk; Goo, Byeong-Choon

    2007-12-01

    Brake system of railway vehicles has a crucial role for the safety as well as riding quality of passengers. Its core technology for successful development of the brake system is to design of ECU (Electric Control Unit) containing antiskid control, brake blending control, load compensating control, and so on. Each development procedure of ECU involves a verifying test for each step and is completed by an evaluation test of the comprehensive performance verification for the overall systems. The development tool which is applied to this objective is the HILS (Hardware-In-the- Loop-Simulation). In order to design a controller, a good representative model of the system is needed. This paper describes the dynamic modeling of brake system of railway vehicle for HILS and analyzes some dynamic behavior under emergency braking force.

  14. Design of Braking Caliper's Braking Torque in Hydraulic Disc Braking System%液压盘式刹车系统制动钳制动力矩的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 宋胜涛; 王跃军; 韩美香; 郭太清

    2012-01-01

    针对目前液压盘式刹车系统刹车力矩小,刹车性能不稳定等现状,基于老算法对制动转矩的计算原理设计了一种新算法,对制动钳的工作制动转矩,紧急制动转矩及驻车制动转矩,冗余安全设计等进行了计算.为提高液压盘式刹车系统的设计效率和安全系数,该算法从制动钳的工作原理出发,通过对制动钳的制动结构进行分析,以下放到井中的最重套管柱所形成的静制动转矩作为盘刹系统能满足的最小工作制动转矩为依据,通过验证计算结果,保障了液压盘式刹车系统的安全性和有效性.%The current braking torque of the hydraulic disc braking system is small and braking performance is instable.A new algorithm was designed based on the braking torque's calculation of the old algorithm.The work braking torque, emergency braking torque, park braking torque and the redundant safety design were calculated in this new algorithm.To improve the design efficiency and safety coefficient of the hydraulic disc braking system, the algorithm based on the working principle of the braking caliper, through the braking structure analysis of the braking caliper, according to the static braking torque formed by the heaviest casing string that put into the well could be taken as the minimum working braking torque which the disc braking system could meet.The safety and effectiveness of the hydraulic disc braking system are safeguarded through the authentication and calculation of the result.

  15. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  16. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  17. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongliang; Dong, Wei; Li, Nan; Dai, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-positi...

  18. Brake Pedal Displacement Measuring System based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of brake pedal was an important characteristic of driving behavior. This paper proposed a displacement measure algorithm based on machine vision. Image of brake pedal was captured by camera from left side, and images were processed in industry computer. Firstly, average smooth algorithm and wavelet transform algorithm were used to smooth the original image consecutively. Then, edge extracting method which combined Roberts’s operator with wavelet analysis was used to identify the edge of brake pedal. At last, least square method was adopted to recognize the characteristic line of brake pedal’s displacement. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method takes the advantages of Roberts’s operator and wavelet transform, it can obtain better measurement result as well as linear displacement sensors

  19. STUDY ON THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF HYDRAULIC MOMENT-ADJUSTED BRAKE FOR DOWNWARD BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟国营; 徐志强; 霍森; 方佳雨

    1997-01-01

    Having analyzed the drawbacks on the design of control system of hydraulic momentadjusted brake system, the author presents a closed loop control system in the process of start and braking of the conveyer. On the basis of the concept of the critical time and the critical acceleration and its deductions, the working mode of the conveyer can be identified and controlled in feedback, furthermore, thus realize the process of soft start. In the deceleration process, the author points out the problems that exist in the present control system and sets forward the control process that acted by the combined function of brake moment of motor and the drag torque of hydraulic brake at the beginning of deceleration, it will further improved reliability of conveyor system.

  20. Design and Development of Hydraulic Disc Brake Systems for Well Servicing Rig Drawworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao xiangqian; Zhou Yongxia

    1996-01-01

    @@ The conventional band brakes have been known to be important but also the most unlnerable part in servicing rig deawworks.. The failures in braking and releasing operations haven't well been avoided. There have evidently existed the problems of difficult operation and inconvenient maintenance in this connection. The use of power-assisted hydraulic cylinders or pneumatic cylinders can not meet the requirements of operations either. Since the late 1980s, we have cooperated with Shengli oilfields and others in the successful design and development of PST25 hydraulic disc brake systems for well servicing rig in a fully closed working state.

  1. FSC赛车制动系统设计%FSC racing brake system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祥超; 赵运德; 鲁雄文

    2014-01-01

    A design method of brake system that is applicable to theFormula Student China racing car is proposed in this paper. A simple hydraulic disc brake system is chosen, and adding balance bar is to regulate the distribution coefficient of braking force. Calculation and analysis show that the braking system can meet the requirements of dynamic testing during the game.%本文提出了一套适用于FSC赛车制动系统的设计方法。选用简单液压盘式制动系统,并且加装平衡杆以调节制动器制动力分配系数。计算和分析表明,该制动系统能够满足比赛时动态测试的要求。

  2. Multi-objective optimization of the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system with genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fengjiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the control strategy plays an important role in improving the performance of electric vehicles. In order to improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the key parameters in the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system. Various limitations are considered in the optimization process, and the optimization results are verified by a software simulation platform of electric vehicle regenerative braking system in typical brake conditions. The results show that optimization objectives achieved a good astringency, and the optimized control strategy can increase the brake energy recovery effectively under the condition of ensuring the braking stability.

  3. Investigations upon the effects of an auxiliary brake system on the working parameters of diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Cornel; Mihai, Ioan

    2016-12-01

    Classical systems have the main disadvantage of being unable to ensure that high load diesel engine vehicles are slowed in good conditions, for the entire range of combinations of inclinations and lengths of sloped public roads. On such roads, where brakes are used repeatedly and for long periods, friction components that enter classical braking systems will overheat and lead to failure. The present paper aims to investigate, the efficiency of a braking system based on compression release, called a Jake Brake. In such a system, the exhaust valve is actuated at a certain predetermined angle of the crankshaft. The presented research was conducted on an experimental rig based on a four-stroke mono-cylinder diesel engine model Lombardini 6 LD400. Pressure and temperature evolutions were monitored before and during the use of the Jake Brake system. As the generated phonic pollution is the main disadvantage of such systems, noise generated in the vicinity of the engine was monitored as well. The monitored parameters were then plotted in diagrams that allowed evaluating the performances of the system.

  4. Research on Electro Hydraulic Proportional Control for Heavy Vehicle Blend Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming

    2009-01-01

    A blend braking system of heavy vehicle was proposed. The main control part of the system is the electro hydraulic proportional servo valve. A nonlinear model of brake cylinder controlled by the valve was deduced through the analysis of its control property and system feature. The transfer function of the system was also proposed, and the hydraulic inherent frequency and the PID closed-loop system feature were calculated. The simulated result is consistent with those tested in the bench and on the site with 50t heavy vehicle. The experimental result shows that the control method has quick response and high precision.

  5. Laboratory testing of airborne brake wear particle emissions using a dynamometer system under urban city driving cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Motoaki; Sasaki, Sousuke

    2016-04-01

    To measure driving-distance-based mass emission factors for airborne brake wear particulate matter (PM; i.e., brake wear particles) related to the non-asbestos organic friction of brake assembly materials (pads and lining), and to characterize the components of brake wear particles, a brake wear dynamometer with a constant-volume sampling system was developed. Only a limited number of studies have investigated brake emissions under urban city driving cycles that correspond to the tailpipe emission test (i.e., JC08 or JE05 mode of Japanese tailpipe emission test cycles). The tests were performed using two passenger cars and one middle-class truck. The observed airborne brake wear particle emissions ranged from 0.04 to 1.4 mg/km/vehicle for PM10 (particles up to 10 μm (in size), and from 0.04 to 1.2 mg/km/vehicle for PM2.5. The proportion of brake wear debris emitted as airborne brake wear particles was 2-21% of the mass of wear. Oxygenated carbonaceous components were included in the airborne PM but not in the original friction material, which indicates that changes in carbon composition occurred during the abrasion process. Furthermore, this study identified the key tracers of brake wear particles (e.g., Fe, Cu, Ba, and Sb) at emission levels comparable to traffic-related atmospheric environments.

  6. Regenerative braking strategies, vehicle safety and stability control systems: critical use-case proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross

    2013-05-01

    The sustainable development of vehicle propulsion systems that have mainly focused on reduction of fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 emission) has led, not only to the development of systems connected with combustion processes but also to legislation and testing procedures. In recent years, the low carbon policy has made hybrid vehicles and fully electric vehicles (H/EVs) popular. The main virtue of these propulsion systems is their ability to restore some of the expended energy from kinetic movement, e.g. the braking process. Consequently new research and testing methods for H/EVs are currently being developed. This especially concerns the critical 'use-cases' for functionality tests within dynamic events for both virtual simulations, as well as real-time road tests. The use-case for conventional vehicles for numerical simulations and road tests are well established. However, the wide variety of tests and their great number (close to a thousand) creates a need for selection, in the first place, and the creation of critical use-cases suitable for testing H/EVs in both virtual and real-world environments. It is known that a marginal improvement in the regenerative braking ratio can significantly improve the vehicle range and, therefore, the economic cost of its operation. In modern vehicles, vehicle dynamics control systems play the principal role in safety, comfort and economic operation. Unfortunately, however, the existing standard road test scenarios are insufficient for H/EVs. Sector knowledge suggests that there are currently no agreed tests scenarios to fully investigate the effects of brake blending between conventional and regenerative braking as well as the regenerative braking interaction with active driving safety systems (ADSS). The paper presents seven manoeuvres, which are considered to be suitable and highly informative for the development and examination of H/EVs with regenerative braking capability. The critical manoeuvres presented are considered to be

  7. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the current distance between the host vehicle and the obstacle with the critical braking distance. To reflect the nonlinear time-varying characteristics and control effect of the longitudinal dynamics, the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established in CarSim. Then the braking controller with the structure of upper and lower layers is designed based on sliding mode control and the single neuron PID control when confronting deceleration or emergency braking conditions. Cosimulations utilizing CarSim and Simulink are finally carried out on a CarSim intelligent vehicle model to explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Results display that the designed controller has a good response in preventing colliding with the front vehicle or pedestrian.

  8. Performance of a fully mechanical parking brake system for passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaini, A. H.; Ishak, M. R.; Abu Bakar, A. R.; Mohd Zain, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    In order to ensure that a vehicle remains stationary when it is parked at a certain road slope, the driver has to apply sufficient pulling force on the handbrake lever. Otherwise, the vehicle will start to rollaway where the torque generated by the parking brake system is lower that the torque required by the vehicle to remain stationary. This poses a danger situation not only to the vehicle's occupants but also to the people surrounding it. Thus, this paper aims to investigate performance of a typical parking brake system used in passenger cars. A theoretical model of drum-type parking brake system is derived and later being validated by test data that measured from the parking brake test bench. A good agreement is achieved between calculated and test results. Results from the model show that the parking brake system used in this work can hold the vehicle stationary at 11 degree slope less than 200 N of the applied force and thus it meets the regulation requirement, and also the vehicle will not rollaway even though there are four adult passengers inside it.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system with genetic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Fengjiao; Wei Minxiang

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of the control strategy plays an important role in improving the performance of electric vehicles. In order to improve the braking stability and recover the braking energy, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the key parameters in the control strategy of electric vehicle electro-hydraulic composite braking system. Various limitations are considered in the optimization process, and the optimization results are verified by a software simulation platform of el...

  10. Fuzzy System of Distribution of Braking Forces on the Engines of a Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a fuzzy system of distribution of braking forces on the engines of a mobile robot during its lifting and going down.The block diagram of the system of distribution of braking forces and location of sensors on a mobile robot is given in the paper. Also, fuzzy mathematical model of redistribution of braking forces depending on the conditions of the movement a mobile robot is shown in the article. The result of the simulation of control parameters are presented in the article. The control system of a mobile robot is demonstrated on the example of an autonomous mini-robot on platform Pirate under the control of microprocessor Arduino Mega 2560.

  11. Development of hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control; Active brake seigyoyo yuatsu booster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y.; Hattori, M. Sugisawa, M.; Nishii, M. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, application of active brake control systems of the vehicle are increasing. (Vehicle stability control, Panic brake assist ) We have developed a new hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control systems. New hydraulic brake actuator is composed of the three parts. (Hydraulic booster unit, Power supply unit, Control valve unit) This report describes the construction of the new hydraulic booster unit. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. A Predictive Distribution Model for Cooperative Braking System of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictive distribution model for a series cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle is proposed, which can solve the real-time problem of the optimum braking force distribution. To get the predictive distribution model, firstly three disciplines of the maximum regenerative energy recovery capability, the maximum generating efficiency and the optimum braking stability are considered, then an off-line process optimization stream is designed, particularly the optimal Latin hypercube design (Opt LHD method and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN are utilized. In order to decouple the variables between different disciplines, a concurrent subspace design (CSD algorithm is suggested. The established predictive distribution model is verified in a dynamic simulation. The off-line optimization results show that the proposed process optimization stream can improve the regenerative energy recovery efficiency, and optimize the braking stability simultaneously. Further simulation tests demonstrate that the predictive distribution model can achieve high prediction accuracy and is very beneficial for the cooperative braking system.

  13. Optimal design method for force in vibration control of multi-body system with quick startup and brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; PENG Ya-qing

    2005-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented through optimal design of driving load of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was built, and mathematical model of representing vibration control was also set up according to the moving process from startup to brake. Then optimization vibration control model of system driving load was founded by applying theory of optimization control, which takes rigid body moving variable of braking moment as the known condition, and vibration control equation of multi-body system with quick startup and brake was converted into boundary value problem of differential equation. The transient control algorithm of vibration was put forward, which is the analysis basis for the further research. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical examples show that the optimal design method for the multi-body system driving load can decrease the vibration of system with duplication.

  14. Design and research on the electronic parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on auto control of parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles, the key problems are studied including the system design and control strategies. The structure and working principle of the parking brake system of the medium and heavy duty vehicles are analyzed. The functions of EPB are proposed. The important information of the vehicle are analyzed which could influence the EPB system. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system is designed, which adopts the two-position three-way electromagnetic valve with double coil as actuator. The system could keep the vehicle parking brake status or parking release status for a long time without power supply. The function modules of the system are planned, and the control strategies of automatic parking brake and parking release are made. The experiment is performed on a medium-sized commercial vehicle which is experimentally modified. The overall plan of the pneumatic EPB system and the automatic parking function are proved through real vehicle tests.

  15. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  16. Study on Cooperative Control Method of Vehicle Steering/Anti-lock Braking System%汽车转向/防抱死制动系统的协调控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 刘华伟; 王旭

    2012-01-01

    A new cooperative control system was proposed for the vehicle's steering antilock braking stability fields.The cooperative control architecture is composed with the execution layer and the cooperation layer.On the execution layer,based on the optimum slip ratio,the vehicle adjustable sliding mode controller was designed for the robustness of vehicles.Moreover,the adaptor was designed to adjust the gain of sliding mode control parameters,so as to reduce the chatter.On the other hand,the yaw moment and the front wheel angle controllers based on the robust adaptive control law were designed to improve the respond,adaptive robustness and stability of vehicles.On the cooperation layer,the brake force distribution policy applicable to the complex work condition and a new cooperative control method were proposed to solve the problems of steering and braking systems.Finally,the stability and the validity of the control algorithm were validated by simulation results.%协同控制结构由执行级和协调级组成。在执行级中,设计基于最佳滑移率的汽车防抱死制动可调节滑模控制器。针对滑模控制中固有抖振缺陷,自动适时调节控制参数增益以消弱抖振。此外,设计基于鲁棒自适应控制的横摆力矩控制器和主动前轮转向控制器力求改善汽车动态响应、鲁棒自适应性和稳定性。在协调级中,设计适用于复杂工况的制动力分配策略,并提出一种协调控制转向系统和制动系统的新方法。最后用仿真结果验证所设计控制算法的稳定性和有效性。

  17. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  18. Mechanical braking system for the pulsed power supply system of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Käsemann, C.-P., E-mail: c.p.kaesemann@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Huart, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Michel Huart Personal Coaching and Consulting, Georgenschwaigstraße 23 RG, 80807 München (Germany); Stobbe, F.; Goldstein, I.; Sigalov, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Sachs, E. [Siemens AG, Industrial Automation Systems, Gleiwitzer Straße 555, 90475 Nürnberg (Germany); Perk, E. [Piper Test and Measurement Ltd., The Barn, Bilsington, Ashford, Kent TN25 7JT, England (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Compact and innovative solution for dumping of large kinetic energy. ► Small mass of energy converter at the shaft due to circulating storage medium. ► Design of the active parts ensures flat torque/power characteristics. ► Also suitable for spending a great part of operating life in “Freewheeling” mode. -- Abstract: A few years ago, IPP reviewed the safety of the ASDEX Upgrade pulsed power supply system. Two critical sub-systems had been identified: The (electrical) braking system for the flywheel generators and the oil lubrication system for the shaft bearings. A simultaneous failure of these two systems may lead to severe damages and could have consequences for the safety of operating personnel. Therefore a second, independent braking possibility for every generator was stipulated. Especially the challenges adapting a dynamometer, originally designed for motor test benches, towards a plant safety system for generator EZ4 will be described in the paper. Further on, the paper will present the problems, implementing such a system into an existing installation, including the calculation of the required supporting structure, balancing of the extended shaft line and required water cooling and control. Finally it will report on the performance achieved during operation.

  19. Dynamic response of a vehicle with planar suspension system (PSS) under differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    To absorb the vibrations and shocks caused by road obstacles effectively in any direction within the wheel rotation plane, a planar suspension system (PSS), in which there are spring-damper struts in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, is proposed to improve the ride quality of a vehicle with such novel suspension systems. The longitudinal spring-damper strut in a PSS is considerably soft compared with the longitudinal connection in a conventional suspension. Consequently, the wheels in a vehicle with PSS can move forth and back with respect to the body. The dynamic behaviours of a PSS vehicle under some special conditions, such as a differential braking in which the braking torque applied to the wheels at two sides of an axle are uneven, may exhibit special characteristics. The directional stability of the PSS vehicle in such a case may be one of the major concerns. The dynamic performance of the PSS vehicle in the differential braking condition is thus necessary to be investigated. This paper presents the investigation results of the transient response of a vehicle with the PSS in such a case. The simulation results are also compared with those of a similar vehicle with conventional suspensions. The study demonstrates that the PSS vehicle is directionally stable in differential braking conditions. The dynamic behaviour of the PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of a conventional vehicle.

  20. Simulation and Experimental Analysis of Braking Squeal of Disc Brake System Considering Thermo-mechanical Coupling Effect%盘式制动器制动尖叫热机耦合特性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪德成; 陈凌珊; 黄欣; 蒋培露

    2014-01-01

    利用试验和仿真相结合的方法,对某车型前通风盘式制动器进行研究。基于多功能制动器动力学试验台架,分别对两套同型号制动器试件进行制动尖叫试验,基于有限元建立制动器热机耦合分析模型,在拖滞制动模式下进行仿真计算。分析研究表明,拖滞制动模式是一个明显的热机耦合过程,其热机耦合效应与减速制动模式具有很多共同点。热机耦合效应对制动尖叫影响较大,考虑热机耦合效应有利于提高尖叫预测精度,并能够反映制动尖叫的时变特性。%Braking squeal of ventilation disc brake systems was studied through experimental and numerical analysis. Using multi-function brake dynamometer test rig, brake squeal tests of two disc brake systems were carried out. The finite element model of the disc brake was built, and the thermo-mechanical coupling effect was investigated under drag braking conditions. The simulation results show that the thermo-mechanical coupling effect exists obviously in drag braking mode, which is similar to that in emergency braking mode. This effect has a serious influence on braking squeal. It must be considered in the brake squeal simulation analysis to improve the prediction accuracy and to reflect the time-varying characteristics of the braking squeal.

  1. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  2. 静动液辅助制动系统恒转矩制动策略研究%Research on Constant Torque Braking Strategy of Hydrostatic and Hydraulic Auxiliary Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建刚; 郭劭琰; 李彦路; 滕飞; 宋彬

    2012-01-01

    A constant torque braking strategy for tracked vehicle hydrostatic and hydraulic auxiliary braking system is studied. Combining the test and theoretical analysis results, the influence law of coupler filling liquid quantity and hydraulic pump discharge variation to vehicle braking force under the hydrodynamic braking and hydrostatic braking work condition is obtained. Absorbing the advantages of hydrodynamic braking and hydrostatic braking,aiming at the work condition of hydrodynamic - hydrostatic braking, the constant torque braking strategy is built. The vehicle constant torque braking is achieved through the automatic regulation of coupler filling liquid quantity and hydraulic pump discharge. The efficiency is verified through the comparison of energy recovery and braking length before and after using constant torque braking strategy.%对履带车辆液力辅助制动系统的恒转矩制动策略进行了研究.结合实验与理论分析的结果,得到了液压制动与液力制动工况下偶合器充液量、液压泵排量的变化对车辆制动力的影响规律,吸取了液压制动与液力制动的优点,针对液力-液压制动工况建立了恒转矩制动策略.通过对偶合器充液量、液压泵排量的自动调节,实现了车辆的恒转矩制动.最后对采用恒转矩制动策略前后的能量回收率与制动距离进行了对比,验证了该策略的效能.

  3. Active vibration control of multibody system with quick startup and brake based on active damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hua-ping; TANG Yun-jun; TAO Gong-an

    2006-01-01

    A kind of active vibration control method was presented based on active damping and optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation of multibody system with quick startup and brake and piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was built. The optimum driving load was calculated by applying the presented method. The self-sensing and self-tuning closed-loop active vibration control in quick startup and brake process was realized. The control algorithm, using local velocity negative feedback, i.e. the output of a sensor only affects the output of the actuator collocated, can induce damping effectively to actively suppress the system vibration. Based on the optimization design for driving load of multibody system with quick startup and bake, the active damping of piezoelectric actuators intelligent structure was used to farther suppress the vibration of system. Theoretical analysis and calculation of numerical show that the proposed method makes the vibration of system decrease more than the optimal design method for driving load of multibody system.

  4. Wheel slide protection control using a command map and Smith predictor for the pneumatic brake system of a railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2016-10-01

    In railway vehicles, excessive sliding or wheel locking can occur while braking because of a temporarily degraded adhesion between the wheel and the rail caused by the contaminated or wet surface of the rail. It can damage the wheel tread and affect the performance of the brake system and the safety of the railway vehicle. To safeguard the wheelset from these phenomena, almost all railway vehicles are equipped with wheel slide protection (WSP) systems. In this study, a new WSP algorithm is proposed. The features of the proposed algorithm are the use of the target sliding speed, the determination of a command for WSP valves using command maps, and compensation for the time delay in pneumatic brake systems using the Smith predictor. The proposed WSP algorithm was verified using experiments with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system including the hardware of the pneumatic brake system.

  5. Development of Quasi-3DOF upper limb rehabilitation system using ER brake: PLEMO-P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, T; Fukushima, K; Furusho, J; Ozawa, T [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)], E-mail: kikuchi@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, many researchers have studied the potential of using robotics technology to assist and quantify the motor functions for neuron-rehabilitation. Some kinds of haptic devices have been developed and evaluated its efficiency with clinical tests, for example, upper limb training for patients with spasticity after stroke. However, almost all the devices are active-type (motor-driven) haptic devices and they basically require high-cost safety system compared to passive-type (brake-based) devices. In this study, we developed a new practical haptic device 'PLEMO-P1'; this system adopted ER brakes as its force generators. In this paper, the mechanism of PLEMO-P1 and its software for a reaching rehabilitation are described.

  6. Modeling and Simulation of integrated steering and braking control for vehicle active safety system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Active chassis systems like braking, steering, suspension and propulsion systems are increasingly entering the market. In addition to their basic functions, these systems may be used for functions of integrated vehicle dynamics control. An experimental platform which aims to study the integration control of steering and braking is designed due to the research requirement of vehicle active safety control strategy in this paper. A test vehicle which is equipped with the systems of steer-by-wire and brake-bywire is provided and the Autobox, combined with Matlab/simulink and MSCCarsim, is used to fulfill the RCP (Rapid Control Prototyping and HIL (Hardware-in-loop. The seven-freedom vehicle model is constructed first and the approach of vehicle parameters estimation based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed. Testing the vehicle state through the sensor has its own disadvantage that the cost is high and easily affected by environment outside. To find a actual method of receiving the vehicle state using the ready-made sensors in vehicle, the researchers put forward various estimation method, of which have advantages and disadvantages. Based on the above, this paper applies the EKF to estimate the vehicle state, making the actual estimation come true. The primary control methods and controller designment is carried out to prove the validation of the platform.

  7. A SVM framework for fault detection of the braking system in a high speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Yan-Fu; Zio, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    In April 2015, the number of operating High Speed Trains (HSTs) in the world has reached 3603. An efficient, effective and very reliable braking system is evidently very critical for trains running at a speed around 300 km/h. Failure of a highly reliable braking system is a rare event and, consequently, informative recorded data on fault conditions are scarce. This renders the fault detection problem a classification problem with highly unbalanced data. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework, including feature selection, feature vector selection, model construction and decision boundary optimization, is proposed for tackling this problem. Feature vector selection can largely reduce the data size and, thus, the computational burden. The constructed model is a modified version of the least square SVM, in which a higher cost is assigned to the error of classification of faulty conditions than the error of classification of normal conditions. The proposed framework is successfully validated on a number of public unbalanced datasets. Then, it is applied for the fault detection of braking systems in HST: in comparison with several SVM approaches for unbalanced datasets, the proposed framework gives better results.

  8. Determination of minimum sample size for fault diagnosis of automobile hydraulic brake system using power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic brake in automobile engineering is considered to be one of the important components. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such a component is very essential for safety of passengers, vehicles and to minimize the unexpected maintenance time. Vibration based machine learning approach for condition monitoring of hydraulic brake system is gaining momentum. Training and testing the classifier are two important activities in the process of feature classification. This study proposes a systematic statistical method called power analysis to find the minimum number of samples required to train the classifier with statistical stability so as to get good classification accuracy. Descriptive statistical features have been used and the more contributing features have been selected by using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. The results of power analysis have also been verified using a decision tree algorithm namely, C4.5.

  9. Hardware simulation of automatic braking system based on fuzzy logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In certain situations, a moving or stationary object can be a barrier for a vehicle. People and vehicles crossing could potentially get hit by a vehicle. Objects around roads as sidewalks, road separator, power poles, and railroad gates are also a potential source of danger when the driver is inattentive in driving the vehicle. A device that can help the driver to brake automatically is known as Automatic Braking System (ABS. ABS is a part of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS, which is a device designed to assist the driver in driving the process. This device was developed to reduce human error that is a major cause of traffic accidents. This paper presents the design of ABS based on fuzzy logic which is simulated in hardware by using a remote control car. The inputs of fuzzy logic are the speed and distance of the object in front of the vehicle, while the output of fuzzy logic is the intensity of braking. The test results on the three variations of speed: slow-speed, medium-speed, and high-speed shows that the design of ABS can work according to design.

  10. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

  11. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  12. Identification and Modeling of Automotive Electrical Parking Brake System for SiL Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yi-qiang; LI Wei; ZHANG Jin-lei

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the software behavior of the electronic control unit (ECU) of automotive electrical parking brake (EPB), a software-in-the-loop (SiL) simulation system is built. The EPB is simulated by ARX (auto-regressive with auxiliary input) model, ARMAX (auto-regressive moving average with auxiliary input) model, and NNARMAX (neural network ARMAX) model. By system identification, the ARX(3,4,2), ARX(4,4,2), ARMAX(3,3,1,1), and ARMAX(4,4,3,2) models are derived. Validation results show that the four-order ARMAX model and the NNARMAX model better simulate the actuator of the EPB.

  13. KGS Based Control for Parking Brake Cable Manufacturing System

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Khare; R.S. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    In today’s competitive production environment, process industries, demand a totally integrated control and optimization solution that can increase productivity, reliability and quality while minimizing cost. Automation is a step beyond mechanization. For automation of production plant either centralized or distributed control system are used. There are standardized approaches and standard hardware & software available worldwide as per the requirement. Investment in process control system is a...

  14. 基于 Amesim 的整车制动系统建模与仿真%Braking System Model and Simulation Based on Amesim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王权; 周飞虎; 岳海姣

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , the structure program of the vehicle braking system is designed and its structure and working principle are also described .Based on the Amesim , the vehicle braking system model is established from the pedal , control system , the wheels and to the body .The model is used to simulate the braking process of three braking conditions such as the slight braking , conventional braking and emergency braking when the displacement of the vehicle braking pedal is at 30 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm respectively .The result shows that the result of simulation is consistent with the theoretical calculation and that the braking system model can accurately simulate the vehicle braking process , provide the theoretical basis for the developing the vehicle braking system , and shorten the development period of the braking system .%设计整车制动系统的结构方案,阐述其结构和工作原理。基于Amesim建立整车制动系统模型,通过该模型仿真汽车在制动踏板位移分别为30,40,50 mm时,分别进行轻微制动、常规制动与紧急制动等3种制动工况的制动过程,结果表明:仿真结果与理论计算一致,该制动系统模型可以准确的模拟汽车的制动过程,给汽车制动系统的研发提供理论依据,可缩短制动系统的研发周期。

  15. Research of Motorcycle Braking Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Levulytė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From a technical point of view, in dangerous or emergency situation is very important motorcycle driver reaction and vehicle braking time. Motor-cycle deceleration parameters depend not only on the motorcycle brake system, but also on the driving experience. A significant influence on decel-eration the motorcycle has aerodynamic parameters, pavement type and condition, as well as the technical condition of the motocycle, shock absorb-ers, tire type and their technical condition. This article provides an analysis of the motorcycle longitudinal deceleration, braking modes of the mo-torcycle on a dry asphalt road surface. Motorcycle stopping – deceleration – acceleration efficiency issue, stopping in different modes. First ana-lyzed the dynamics of a motorcycle deceleration braking only the front wheel, then braked front and rear wheels and complex – then braked the front and rear wheels at the same time. The goal of experimental study is to determine the influence of braking modes intense fir motorcycle brak-ing deceleration when braking on dry road pavement, at three different braking modes, and set the braking path of change. Motorcycle decelera-tion in the longitudinal direction is an important parameter for analysis traffic accidents, for accident reconstruction process and the examination of motorcyclists technical possibility to avoid an accident.

  16. Simulation Research on Braking Performance of Tracked Vehicle Hydraulic Energy Storage Braking System%履带车辆液压储能式制动系统制动性能仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广俊; 吕建刚; 宋彬; 滕飞

    2011-01-01

    为了实现对履带车辆制动能量的回收利用,针对某型履带车辆建立其液压储能式制动系统,分析系统工作模式;在AMESim下建立液压储能式制动系统及车辆模型,在Matlab/Simulink下建立控制系统模型;提出基于踏板行程逻辑门限值的模糊控制策略;在驾驶员不同的制动意图和系统负荷能力条件下,对履带车辆的制动工况进行联合仿真研究.结果表明,在该控制策略下液压储能式制动系统实现了对履带车辆的稳定制动和对制动能量的有效回收.%In order to achieve the tracked vehicle braking energy recovery and utilization, a certain type of tracked vehicle hydraulic energy storage braking system was established, and the working mode was analyzed. The model of hydraulic energy storage braking system and the vehicle was established in AMESim, and the control system model was established in Matlab/Simulink. Fuzzy logic control strategy based on pedal opening threshold was proposed. Under the driver's different braking intention and conditions of system load capacity, the tracked vehicle's braking process was researched under co-simulation. The results show that with the control strategy in the hydraulic energy storage braking system, the stable braking of tracked vehicle and the effective recovery of braking energy were achieved.

  17. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  18. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  19. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

  20. Magnetostrictive Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron A.; Hulse, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A magnetostrictive brake has been designed as a more energy-efficient alternative to a magnetic fail-safe brake in a robot. (In the specific application, failsafe signifies that the brake is normally engaged; that is, power must be supplied to allow free rotation.) The magnetic failsafe brake must be supplied with about 8 W of electric power to initiate and maintain disengagement. In contrast, the magnetostrictive brake, which would have about the same dimensions and the same torque rating as those of the magnetic fail-safe brake, would demand only about 2 W of power for disengagement. The brake (see figure) would include a stationary base plate and a hub mounted on the base plate. Two solenoid assemblies would be mounted in diametrically opposed recesses in the hub. The cores of the solenoids would be made of the magnetostrictive alloy Terfenol-D or equivalent. The rotating part of the brake would be a ring-and spring- disk subassembly. By means of leaf springs not shown in the figure, this subassembly would be coupled with the shaft that the brake is meant to restrain. With no power supplied to the solenoids, a permanent magnet would pull axially on a stepped disk and on a shelf in the hub, causing the ring to be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub. The friction associated with this axial squeeze would effect the braking action. Supplying electric power to the solenoids would cause the magnetostrictive cylinders to push radially inward against a set of wedges that would be in axial contact with the stepped disk. The wedges would convert the radial magnetostrictive strain to a multiplied axial displacement of the stepped disk. This axial displacement would be just large enough to lift the stepped disk, against the permanent magnetic force, out of contact with the ring. The ring would then be free to turn because it would no longer be squeezed axially between the stepped disk and the hub.

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

  2. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  3. Research on the Hybrid Modeling and Simulation of the Anti-lock Braking System%汽车制动防抱系统的混合建模与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙骏; 朱忠奎; 尹安东; 羊拯民

    2004-01-01

    在分析汽车制动防抱系统(ABS)工作特点的基础上,指出汽车ABS是由连续系统与离散系统组成的混合系统,进而提出基于有限状态机与Matlab/Simulink的ABS混合建模方法.利用混合建模方法建立了某轻型客车的ABS仿真模型并进行了低附着系数道路条件下的仿真研究,探讨了制动器制动力、电磁阀响应时间和车轮转动惯量对汽车ABS性能的影响.仿真结果表明基于混合建模的ABS仿真系统能很好的模拟汽车ABS的性能;制动器制动力、电磁阀响应时间和车轮转动惯量对ABS制动性能影响的分析为ABS的设计提供了依据.

  4. Signal Processing Experiment Analyses of Automotive Anti-lock Braking Systems%汽车防抱死制动系统信号处理实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉冬; 夏群生

    2009-01-01

    针对汽车防抱死制动系统(ABS)严格的制动信号控制问题,分析了ABS的工作原理,进行了基于机理的ABS信号处理实验,详细给出了采用四轮汽车轮速传感器的ABS信号处理的结构、数据和算法.实验结果证明其快速准确,为ABS的系统控制提供了依据.

  5. The Processing of the Signal from Wheel Speed Sensor in Anti-lock Brake System%汽车防抱死制动系统轮速传感器信号处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈在峰; 宋键; 于良耀

    2000-01-01

    本文研究了汽车防抱死制动系统轮速传感器信号的处理问题.在对变磁阻激励式轮速传感器的工作特性进行试验研究的基础上,提出了对轮速传感器信号处理电路的要求,设计出了由两级迟滞比较器+低通滤波构成的信号处理电路.对电路进行了仿真和试验研究.研究结果显示,这种轮速信号处理电路工作可靠、抗干扰能力强.在较低车速下(<3km/h)仍能准确地测量车速.

  6. Optimization of actuator/sensor position of multi-body system with quick startup and brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new method was put forward to optimize the position of actuator/sensor of multi-body system with quick startup and brake. Dynamical equation was established for the system with intelligent structure of piezoelectric actuators. According to the property of the modes varying with time, the performance index function was developed based on the optimal configuration principle of energy maximal dissipation, and the relevant optimal model was obtained. According to its characteristic, a float-encoding genetic algorithm, which is efficient, simple and excellent for solving the global-optimal solution of this problem, was adopted. Taking the plane manipulator as an example, the result of numerical calculation shows that, after the actuator/sensor position being optimized,the vibration amplitude of the multi-body system is reduced by 35% compared with that without optimization.

  7. Improvement of Brake System of Yutong Bus%字通客车制动系统改进探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希望; 杨正中; 蒋清莲

    2012-01-01

    针对宇通客车经过多年使用后出现的刹车不良或失效进行探究,提出在制动系统加装一个空气干燥器的改进方案,效果良好。%After use of Yutong Buses many years, the authors make study on the bad brakes or failure and put for- ward the braking system with an air dryer improvement program. The results are good.

  8. 汽车制动辅助系统的作用与特点分析%Analysis of the Functions and Features of Automobile Brake Assist System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻友良; 程胭脂; 陈希

    2014-01-01

    Describes the existence of the problem of the automobile during emergency braking ,and the role of brake assist system and basic components.Analysis of the existing car brake assist system to produce maximum braking pressure way and characteristics.Pointed out that the ESP-based HBA will be the development direction of the automobile brake assist system.%本文阐述了汽车紧急制动时存在的问题及制动辅助系统的作用和基本组成,分析了现有的汽车制动辅助系统产生最高制动压力的方式及特点,指出基于ESP的HBA将是汽车制动辅助系统的发展方向。

  9. Control strategy for braking energy recovery of hybrid powered sedan%混合动力轿车制动能量回馈控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶欣; 付主木

    2012-01-01

    A new type of braking energy recovery system and corresponding control strategy were designed so that the cruising mileage of hybrid powered sedans would be increased and the brake safety ensured. Taking a hybrid powered sedan as investigation object, a simulation model was set up for this recovery system on the basis of software ADVISOR and a braking energy recovery system with anti-lock braking subsystem was designed based on software ADVISOR This recovery system was simulatively analyzed with different control strategy for a typical city driving cycle. The result showed that the braking energy recovery system was safe and reliable, the recovered braking power and frictional braking power could well be adjusted, and its energy recovery capacity was brought into full play, the energy recovery effect was remarkable and compared with the original control strategy in software ADVISOR, its fuel economy was improved by about 15% for UDCC cycle.%设计出一种新型的制动能量回馈系统及相应的控制策略,从而显著提高混合动力轿车的续驶里程并保证车辆的制动安全.以某型混合动力轿车为研究对象,基于ADVISOR软件建立制动能量回馈系统的仿真模型,设计出一种新型的集成防抱死系统的制动能量回馈系统,并在不同控制策略下对该制动能量回收系统进行典型城市工况循环的仿真分析.结果表明,所设计的制动能量回馈系统安全可靠,回馈制动力与摩擦制动力能够很好地调节,最大限度地发挥能量回馈能力;能量回馈效果显著,在UDCC循环工况下,比ADVISOR原生制动控制策略燃油经济性提高了约15%.

  10. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... powered by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable storage batteries, fuel cells, or other... charge batteries and components thereof. Electrically-actuated service brakes means service brakes that... lightly loaded vehicle weight, and, if an EV, with the propulsion batteries at a state of charge of...

  11. Designs on Electric Control Processes of Automotive Electric Parking Brake System%汽车电子驻车制动EPB系统电控流程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰

    2016-01-01

    The author introduces the designs on the control principles and processes of automotive EPB electrical control system, including brake process, brake release process, ramp start process, emergency brake process and in-telligent brake process, in order to provide a reference for the application of the electronic parking brake system.%介绍汽车EPB电控系统原理与电控流程设计,包括制动流程、解除制动流程、坡道起步流程、紧急制动流程、智能制动流程等,为电子驻车制动系统的应用提供参考。

  12. Review on Composite Braking System of Electric Vehicle%电动汽车复合制动系统研究现状综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊璐; 钱超; 余卓平

    2015-01-01

    从原理、结构、特点、控制策略和制动动力学控制等方面阐述了电动汽车复合制动系统的发展现状,针对复合制动系统的3种结构型式(油门踏板型、未解耦型和解耦型)进行了对比分析,表明解耦型复合制动系统是未来复合制动系统的主要发展方向。重点分析了解耦型复合制动系统的控制策略,并且总结了正常制动和紧急制动2种工况下液压制动力和再生制动力的动态协调控制方法,最后提出复合制动对于液压制动系统的设计要求。%The development status of electric vehicle is discussed in term of theory, structure, characteristic, control strategy and braking dynamics control, etc.. And three composite braking system structures, i.e. the throttle pedal type, coupled type and decoupled type are analyzed and compared, which shows that the decoupled composite braking system represents the mainstream development trend of the composite brake system in the future. Control strategy of the decoupled composite braking system is the focus of analysis in this paper, and dynamic coordination control method of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking force in normal and emergency braking are summed up. The design requirements of the hydraulic braking system in composite brake are put forward in the end of this paper.

  13. Research on the Feasibility of Application of ABS in Hydraulic Disc Brake%ABS在液压盘式刹车中应用的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石固欧; 刘威

    2013-01-01

    The anti-lock braking system (ABS) of automobiles has such advantages as slippage and lock prevention,relatively short distance of braking and reduction of tyre wear.Therefore,the ABS control strategy was introduced to the design of the hydraulic system of drilling and workover rigs.The neotype hydraulic control system of hydraulic disc brake with both manual and automatic operation modes was built,which could achieve ABS control strategy.A comparative braking dynamic simulation analysis of the hydraulic system and running conditions with and without the ABS system was conducted.The analysis shows that selection of the proper duty cycle of the ABS system can get closer to the braking time and angle displacement without the ABS system.The better pressure regulation waveform had been obtained.Regulation of the ABS control strategy can obtain the ideal braking time and brake's braking torque.Therefore,the complex requirement of workover lifting system for operation process can be satisfied desirably.%汽车ABS防抱死刹车系统具有防滑防抱、制动相对距离短及能减轻轮胎磨损等优点.为此,将汽车ABS控制策略引入到钻(修)井机液压盘式刹车系统设计中,构建了具有手动/自动操作方式且能实现ABS控制策略的液压盘式刹车的新型液压控制系统,并对具有ABS系统与无ABS系统的盘式刹车分别进行液压系统与下入工况制动动力学仿真对比分析.分析结果表明,选择适当的ABS系统占空比,可以更接近无ABS系统刹车时间与角位移,并获得较好的压力调节波形,调整ABS控制策略可使系统获得理想的刹车时间与刹车制动力矩,从而能够较好地满足修井机起升系统作业过程的复杂要求.

  14. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  15. 汽车真空辅助制动系统的设计与研究%Design and Research of Automotive Vacuum Auxiliary Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树伟; 郭立新; 郝亮

    2015-01-01

    以汽车紧急制动工况为研究对象,设计和研制了一种汽车真空辅助制动系统,该系统主要包括机械执行机构、制动吸盘、真空系统、弹射收起系统、控制系统五个部分。对该系统进行了理论分析和实验研究,结果表明,该系统可显著提高汽车制动效能,可有效缩短汽车紧急制动时的制动距离,从而有效降低交通事故的发生概率并降低交通事故的严重程度。%An automotive vacuum auxiliary braking system was designed when the driver urgently braked the automobile.The system mainly contained five parts,such as mechanical actuator,braking sucker,vacuum system,ejection retracting system,the control system and so on.The vacuum auxiliary braking system could increase significantly the braking efficiency and shorten the braking distance of automobile emergency braking.After the theoretical analysis and the experimental research,the sys-tem will reduce effectively the probability and the damage degree of traffic accidents.

  16. An analysis of braking measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, S.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Wieringa, P.A.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Braking to a full stop at a prescribed target position is a driving manoeuvre regularly used in experiments to investigate driving behaviour or to test vehicle acceleration feedback systems in simulators. Many different performance measures have been reported in the literature for analysing braking.

  17. How does a collision warning system shape driver's brake response time? The influence of expectancy and automation complacency on real-life emergency braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscio, Daniele; Ciceri, Maria Rita; Biassoni, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Brake Reaction Time (BRT) is an important parameter for road safety. Previous research has shown that drivers' expectations can impact RT when facing hazardous situations, but driving with advanced driver assistance systems, can change the way BRT are considered. The interaction with a collision warning system can help faster more efficient responses, but at the same time can require a monitoring task and evaluation process that may lead to automation complacency. The aims of the present study are to test in a real-life setting whether automation compliancy can be generated by a collision warning system and what component of expectancy can impact the different tasks involved in an assisted BRT process. More specifically four component of expectancy were investigated: presence/absence of anticipatory information, previous direct experience, reliability of the device, and predictability of the hazard determined by repeated use of the warning system. Results supply indication on perception time and mental elaboration of the collision warning system alerts. In particular reliable warning quickened the decision making process, misleading warnings generated automation complacency slowing visual search for hazard detection, lack of directed experienced slowed the overall response while unexpected failure of the device lead to inattentional blindness and potential pseudo-accidents with surprise obstacle intrusion.

  18. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-pneumatic brake equipment on each vehicle of the train. ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  19. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  20. Design And Implementation of Dsp-Based Intelligent Controller For Automobile Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sidek and M.J.E. Salami

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent braking system has great potential applications especially, in developed countries where research on smart vehicle and intelligent highways are receiving ample attention. The system when integrated with other subsystems like automatic traction control, intelligent throttle, and auto cruise systems, etc will result in smart vehicle maneuver. The driver at the end of the day will become the passenger, safety accorded the highest priority and the journey optimized in term of time duration, cost, efficiency and comfortability. The impact of such design and development will cater for the need of contemporary society that aspires to a quality drive as well as to accommodate the advancement of technology especially in the area of smart sensors and actuators.  The emergence of digital signal processor enhances the capacity and features of universal microcontroller.  This paper introduces the use of TI DSP, TMS320LF2407 as an engine of the system. The overall system is designed so that the value of inter-vehicle distance from infrared laser sensor and speed of follower car from speedometer are fed into the DSP for processing, resulting in the DSP issuing commands to the actuator to function appropriately.Key words:  Smart Vehicle, Digital Signal Processor, Fuzzy Controller, and Infra Red Laser Sensor

  1. Design and control of a dual unidirectional brake hybrid actuation system for haptic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossa, Carlos; Lozada, José; Micaelli, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid actuators combining brakes and motors have emerged as an efficient solution to achieve high performance in haptic devices. In this paper, an actuation approach using two unidirectional brakes and a DC motor is proposed. The brakes are coupled to overrunning clutches and can apply a torque in only one rotational direction. The associated control laws, that are independent of the virtual environment model, calculate the control gains in real time in order limit the energy and the stiffness delivered by the motor to ensure stability. The reference torque is respected using the combination of the motor and the brake. Finally, an user experiment has been performed to evaluate the influence of passive and active torque differences in the perception of elasticity. The proposed actuator has a torque range of 0.03 Nm to 5.5 Nm with a 17.75 kNm (-2) torque density.

  2. Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

  3. Research on temperature rise of hoisting machine disk brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; JANG Hai-bo

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model and finite element model for analysis of temperature rise of the hoisting machine brake system was constructed,limit conditions were defined,and the law of temperature rise of brake shoes during emergent brake course was analyzed and calculated by using finite element software.By analyzing the calculation results,the law of temperature change of surface of brake disk and shoes during the braking process was found.The law of brake shoes surface temperature distribution and the law of temperature change along with thickness of brake shoes at brake time 0.5 s,1.0 s and 1.5 s was analyzed.A hoisting machine emergent braking test was carried out.Finally,the author concluded that velocity rebound in the process of hoisting machine emergent brake is due to decreased friction coefficient caused by the temperature rise of the brake shoes surface.

  4. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  5. Brake Test Bench Pneumatic Braking System Modeling and Simulation Based on MATLAB%基于MATLAB的制动器试验台气压制动系统建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2016-01-01

    结合某公司的项目“制动器试验台气动制动系统研究与应用”,对气压制动系统的的组成和工作原理进行了分析,通过MATLAB建立其数学模型。在此基础上利用MATLAB的Simulink对其仿真模型并进行仿真,实现对气压控制算法的改进,实现用模糊PID对气压制动系统的控制。通过仿真的结果表明使用模糊PID使得使系统输出响应具有的动静态性能。%Combined with a company project brake test pneumatic brake system research and application of the air brake system composition and working principle analysis,the mathematical model by MATLAB.On the basis of its use of MATLAB Simulink simulation model and simulation,to achieve improved pressure control algorithm,implemented using fuzzy PID control for air brake systems.

  6. The Improvement of Hydraulic System in Press Brake%折弯机液压系统的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹亮

    2011-01-01

    On the analysis of design faults in the hydraulic system for the 1000kN press brake, the design has been improved. The practice production shows that the improvement has a good effect.%在分析1000kN折弯机液压系统设计缺陷的基础上,进行了改进.经一段时间的生产表明,达到了预期效果.

  7. Performance Test of Countershaft Brake System for Commercial Vehicle AMT%商用车 AMT 中间轴制动器性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珊珊; 宁立群; 崔伟; 杨子轩

    2016-01-01

    商用车电控机械式自动变速器 AMT 升档时,通过中间轴制动器来同步待啮合的齿轮,以保证换档的平顺性,因而中间轴制动器的性能直接关系到 AMT 的换档品质。本文设计台架试验,对 AMT 中间轴制动器的制动力、密封性、一致性、寿命等性能进行测试。试验模拟实车升档情况,以16档商用车自动变速器为对象,采用 TTC200控制器,协调控制离合器和制动器,同时采用 CANalyser 实时监测制动器性能,最终提出制动器的改进方案。试验表明,该中间轴制动器可以满足自动变速器的使用需求。%In order to achieve shift comfort, automatic mechanical transmissions for commercial vehicles use a counter shaft brake system to synchronize the target gears when upshifting. Therefore the AMT shift quality depends largely on the performance of the countershaft brake system. A testbed for the countershaft brake system was built to analyze the braking force, sealing, consistency, durability etc. During the test, TTC200, a type of control unit which supports the rapid prototy ping, coordinately controled the clutch and brake system, simulating the actual upshift process. Meanwhile, CANalyser monitored the behavior of the brake system. Finally, improvements for brake system were proposed. In conclusion, the countershaft brake system could meet the requirements of AMT.

  8. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  9. 驻车制动器的自锁保护装置%Self-locking Protection System of Hand brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓琴

    2013-01-01

    The working conditions of central braking systems used in most automobiles are discussed.The reasons of the automobile sliding accident are analyze.And a simple improved design is put forward by adding a self-locking protection system,which is consist of electro-hydraulic control devices on the hand brake.While the self-locking protection system is working,the hand brake can not be released unless the ignition switch is turned on.%通过对汽车中央制动器的工作状态进行研究,分析了带中央制动器的汽车倒溜下滑的原因;提出了一种简单的改进设计方法,即在驻车制动器上加装一个带自锁功能的电液控制辅助装置,使得汽车在点火开关断开后,司机可以拉出手柄制动,但因自锁不能推回手柄解除制动,若要解除制动,必须先闭合点火开关,辅助装置的作用是要解除制动必须要点火开关闭合.

  10. Study on Braking Sensation Based on Urban Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Lanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the vehicle braking sense in three aspects of human, vehicle and environment and analysed their impacts on brake feeling. Through the real vehicle test we analysed the relationship among pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration. We used dynamometer test method to study the brake noise question. We designed a fixture which could imitate the suspension and made the test more close to the true level. Moreover we discussed how to establish the evaluation system of vehicle braking condition. Through real vehicle test of braking, we can test and record the brake system parameters in the braking process under urban working conditions. We recorded the brake frequency, the change of brake speed and brake disc temperature. Meanwhile, based on the analysis of braking condition, we put forward the index of brake load to reflect the city’s traffic conditions. Experiment show that the braking condition and brake feel are related, braking condition also provides theoretical support for the design of brake system.

  11. Braking System for Domestic Low-floor Light Rail Transit Vehicles%国产低地板轻轨车辆制动系统方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国利; 曾宪华; 刘睿

    2012-01-01

    描述了国产化低地板车制动系统的参数、组成和原理,本系统为电子液压制动系统,由电气指令直接控制液压基础制动装置,简化了制动系统,节省了车底空间,解决了低地板轻轨车辆底部空间小,无法容纳空气制动装置的问题,满足低地板轻轨车辆的要求.%The parameters,composition and principle of domestic low-floor hydraulic brake system are described. This system uses electronic signals to control the foundation braking gears directly,it simplifies the braking systems and occupies less space. It also solves the installation problem of pneumatic braking equipments under the floor in a lowfloor light rail vehicle. Consequently, the electric hydraulic braking system could meet the requirements of low-floor light rail vehicles, and help to establish a theoretical foundation for the future study of low-floor hydraulic brake system.

  12. 城轨车辆制动控制系统的分析%Analysis of the brake control system for mass transit vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宝昌

    2012-01-01

    制动系统是城轨车辆关键系统之一,根据故障导向安全原则,制动系统失效时应有充足的措施确保列车和人员安全。北京地铁四号线车辆的制动控制系统通过G阀和RIO阀,完成列车的保持制动、常用制动、紧急制动、防滑保护等功能,并且将列车制动控制系统接入到TCMS系统中,保证了车辆的安全运营。%Brake system is critical to a mass transit vehicle, and there should be sufficient measures for this system to ensure train and personnel safety whenever it fails according to Failure Guiding & Safety Principle. By means of G valve and RIO valve, the brake control system of vehicles for Beijing Metro Line 4 can perform retaining brake, service brake, emergency brake and antiskid protection, and can connect train brake control system to TCMS system to ensure the safe operation of rail vehicles.

  13. Reduction of Noise from Disc Brake Systems Using Composite Friction Materials Containing Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohsen; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Nazockdast, Hossein

    2006-09-01

    Attempts have been made for the first time to prepare a friction material with the characteristic of thermal sensitive modulus, by the inclusion of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) as viscoelastic polymeric materials into the formulation in order to the increase the damping behavior of the cured friction material. Styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), styrene ethylene butylene styrene (SEBS) and nitrile rubber/polyvinyl chloride (NBR/PVC) blend system were used as TPE materials. In order to evaluate the viscoelastic parameters such as loss factor (tan δ) and storage modulus (E‧) for the friction material, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) were used. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of friction material and brake disc were determined by modal analysis. However, NBR/PVC and SEBS were found to be much more effective in damping behavior. The results from this comparative study suggest that the damping characteristics of commercial friction materials can be strongly affected by the TPE ingredients. This investigation also confirmed that the specimens with high TPE content had low noise propensity.

  14. Structural Principle Analysis of SBC Braking System on BENZ%奔驰轿车SBC制动系统的结构原理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡北勤

    2012-01-01

    SBC which stands for sensotronic brake control is an electrically activated braking system equipped on BENZ. The author introduces its composition, analyzes its working principle and advantages.%SBC是奔驰轿车采用的一种电子感应制动系统,介绍SBC的结构组成,分析该系统的工作原理和优点。

  15. DESIGN OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE BRAKING ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BASED ON THE COMPOSITE BRAKING%基于复合制动的电动汽车制动能量回收系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭闪闪; 赵雪松; 时培成

    2015-01-01

    以某国产品牌纯电动汽车为研究对象,以回收和利用汽车的制动能量为研究目标,综合考虑汽车制动动力学特性、电机发电特性和电池充电特性等多方面因素,对其制动能量回收及控制策略进行探讨和研究;提出了一种机械和电机复合制动的能量回收方案;并基于Simulink软件进行了详细的仿真分析,获得了一个较为理想的能量回收率,为进一步开发设计具体的制动能量回收系统控制器奠定了良好的基础。%A domestic brand of pure electric vehicles is taken as the research object and the recovering and using of car braking energy of automobile is taken as the research target. The braking energy recovery and control method is discussed with the consideration of the vehicle braking dynamics, electric power generation characteristics, battery charging characteristics and other factors. A mechanical and electrical composite braking plan of energy recovery is proposed, and using the Simulink to simulate. The simulation results show that the energy efficiency is higher. It laid a good foundation for further design of specific braking energy recovery system controller.

  16. THE ASSESSMENT OF BASIC TECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE LOCOMOTIVE DISK BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Biloborodova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article a thermal (constructive calculation of the liquid-air recuperative heat exchanger is executed. Its purpose was an estimation of the areas of heat-exchange surfaces and the consumption of heat carriers necessary for dissipation of thermal energy generated by a locomotive disk brake.

  17. 49 CFR 571.122 - Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the sequence specified in S7. Corresponding test procedures of S7 are indicated in parentheses. If a... brake-fluid reservoir filler plug or cap; and (c) Of a color that contrasts with its background, if it... Newtons (10 pounds) of the fade test baseline check average force (S7.6.3), but not less than 0 Newtons...

  18. Ultrasonic Sensors in Urban Traffic Driving-Aid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa de Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, vehicles are often equipped with active safety systems to reduce the risk of accidents, most of which occur in urban environments. The most prominent include Antilock Braking Systems (ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control. All these systems use different kinds of sensors to constantly monitor the conditions of the vehicle, and act in an emergency. In this paper the use of ultrasonic sensors in active safety systems for urban traffic is proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages when compared to other sensors are discussed. Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC for urban traffic based on ultrasounds is presented as an application example. The proposed system has been implemented in a fully-automated prototype vehicle and has been tested under real traffic conditions. The results confirm the good performance of ultrasonic sensors in these systems.

  19. The Electronic Wedge Brake - EWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.M.; Roberts, R.P.; Hartmann, H.; Gombert, B. [Siemens VDO Automotive (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Future driver assistance systems will not only monitor the current traffic situation, but actively assist the driver in the day to day driving routines and as well in emergency situations. Autonomous intervention in the vehicle behavior will help to keep the vehicle under control, even in hazardous situations. A fast and smart braking system is one of the basics for the next generation of driver assistance systems. Siemens VDO sees its electronic wedge brake (EWB) brake-by-wire technology as the answer to future vehicle chassis safety, weight, reliability and space requirements. Particularly in the automobile sector, there is an increasing trend towards replacing existing hydraulic or pneumatic brake systems with drive 'by-wire' solutions. While mechatronics, i.e. intelligent, controllable electromechanical actuators, are already in use in many automotive and non automotive areas, there are particularly strict requirements for purely electromechanical braking systems which require complex development processes. These are highly safety critical systems, which must provide both excellent control quality and sophisticated fail-safe behavior. The challenge is to achieve a high power density in the wheel brake actuators. (orig.)

  20. 49 CFR 232.217 - Train brake tests conducted using yard air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train brake tests conducted using yard air. 232... Train brake tests conducted using yard air. (a) When a train air brake system is tested from a yard air... reduction of brake pipe air pressure at the same, or slower, rate as an engineer's brake valve. (b) The...

  1. 提升机闸瓦温度监测系统的研究%Temperature Monitoring System Research of Hoist Brake Shoe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙永东; 李晓豁; 康晓敏; 侯静

    2012-01-01

    In order to effectively protect hoist brake shoe' s braking performance,improve the work reliability and service life, establishing temperature monitoring system of hoist brake shoe in braking process.This system consists of detection system and alarm, communication lines,host computer,etc. ,can be for hoist brake shoe online measurement temperature and real--time monitoring,with low energy consumption,small size,reliability and stability,information processing ability and other characteristics. The system for staff to provide effective reference data,can be according to the monitoring results related parameters in the fixed,ensure brake shoe under the premise of performance improved the safety and reliability of the brake system.%为了有效地保护提升机闸瓦的制动性能、提高其工作可靠性和使用寿命,建立了提升机闸瓦在制动过程中的温度监测系统,该系统由检测系统及报警器、通讯线路、上位机等组成,能对提升机闸瓦温度进行在线测量和实时监控,具有能耗低、体积小、可靠性和稳定性好,信息处理能力强等特点,该系统为工作人员提供了有效数据参考,可以根据监测结果及时进行相关参数的修正,在保证闸瓦性能的前提下提高了制动系统的安全可靠性。

  2. Design of Feed-forward Controller with Stick-slip Friction Modeling in Electro-mechanical Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Giseo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB is expected to be one of the future brake system. Feedback controller with sensor measuring is commonly used for control of EMB. However, this controller has some issues like delayed response and extra cost about sensor installation. In this paper, Feed-forward controller in EMB is proposed for solving these problems of feedback control. Also, it is very necessary to describe dynamical phenomenon of friction in actual EMB system. The actual EMB system shows stick-slip friction of mechanical parts which is difficult to model and apply to design of controller. This research is focused on exquisitely describing this stick-slip friction. In order to do this, the experiment about EMB is proceeded in the open loop system with the motor current command and data from the experiment is used for identification of model parameters during stiction. Then, parameters during slip is estimated in the closed loop system. Finally, developed friction model of EMB is proposed and it is utilized for design of feed-forward controller. Matlab Simulink is used for design of EMB simulation model and EMB test bench is utilized for experiment. Performance of proposed control system is compared with that of feedback control system.

  3. Test and analysis of the reaction time of the automobile pneumatic braking system%某汽车气压制动系统制动反应时间的测试及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟

    2014-01-01

    The braking reaction time is one of the important performance parameters of automobile braking system, is one of the main factors influencing the automobile braking distance. This paper tested the braking reaction time of pneumatic braking system of an automobile, and analyzes its braking system performance.%汽车制动反应时间是汽车制动系统的重要性能参数之一,是影响汽车制动距离的主要因素之一。本文对某汽车气压制动系统进行制动反应时间测试,并分析其制动系统特性。

  4. Emergency braking systems for commercial vehicles in various markets shown for Europe and the USA; Marktspezifische Notbremssysteme im Nutzfahrzeug am Beispiel Europa und USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Karsten; Hoffmann, Guido; Sandkuehler, Dirk [WABCO, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Today the main focus of driver assistance in commercial vehicles changes from pure comfort systems to safety related systems. Currently most development work is taking place for collision avoidance and collision mitigation systems, which is caused by various initiatives of the legislation organizations around the world. Since the world's markets have differing requirements, those systems are varying in their concept and design. In the following course a concept for autonomous braking in collision immanent situations and its different implementations are shown for systems in Europe and the USA. Especially the different integration into the vehicle electronic architecture and the brake control is described. (orig.)

  5. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  6. The brake-system of the new Mercedes van-generation Sprinter; Die Bremsanlage der neuen Transporter-Generation Sprinter von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Spielmann, W.

    1996-01-01

    The new Mercedes-Sprinter is the first van model series in this weight category which is equipped with disc brakes all round and ABS und ABD as standard. A diagonally divided hydraulic brake system with vacuum-controlled power assistance and automatic load-sensitive brake pressure control (ALB) is installed. The wheel brakes used are of a floating caliper type. During the development particular attention was paid to the constant friction coefficient of the brake linings, the `high` speed suitability and the provision of high thermal reserves. This concept offers good prerequisites for adding additional functions such as a brake assistant or a dynamic handling control system. For the first time there was a close cooperation between vehicle manufacturer, suppliers of brakes, linings and components during the development phase. To organise this complex development work a comprehensive specification booklet with detailed specs was drawn up and agreed with all parties involved. The result of the close cooperation is a positive example of the Mercedes-Benz tandem philosophy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beim neuen Mercedes-Sprinter handelt es sich um die erste Transporter-Baureihe in dieser Gewichtsklasse mit vier Scheibenbremsen und serienmaessigem ABS mit ABD. Zum Einsatz kommt eine diagonal aufgeteilte hydraulische Bremsanlage mit Vakuum-Hilfskraftunterstuetzung und automatisch lastabhaengiger Bremskraftregelung (ALB). Als Radbremsen werden Schwimmsattelbremsen in Faustsattelbauweise verwendet. Besondere Schwerpunkte bei der Entwicklung waren die Reibwertkonstanz der Bremsbelaege, die Tauglichkeit bei hohen Geschwindigkeiten und die Schaffung hoher thermischer Reserven. Mit dieser Konzeption sind gute Voraussetzungen geschaffen, um weitere Zusatzfunktionen wie etwa einen Bremsassistenten oder eine Fahrdynamikregelung einzusetzen. Bei der Entwicklung wurde erstmals eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Fahrzeughersteller, Bremsen-, Belag- und Komponentenlieferanten praktiziert. Zur

  7. 风轮机液压制动控制系统的研究%Research on Hydraulic Braking Control System of Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文亭

    2015-01-01

    该文分析了风轮机常用的制动系统和控制系统,设计了基于紧急情况下的风轮机液压制动系统,并通过实验进行了测试,最后进行了紧急情况下的数据仿真研究,指出本制动器在不同最大设置压力和初始转速条件下的制动性能。%This paper analyses common braking system and control system in wind turbine, designs the hydraulic brake system of wind tur-bine based on emergency cases,and verified by experiment, also studies on the data simulation in case of emergency, points out the brake performance at different maximum set pressure and initial speed conditions.

  8. Adaptive Noise Cancellation Method Used for Wheel Speed Signal of Integrate ABS/ASR System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yue-feng; LIU Zhao-du; QI Zhi-quan; CUI Hai-feng

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive noise cancellation method for wheel speed signal of the anti-lock braking system/anti-slip regulation(ABS/ASR) control system is proposed. Based on the spectrum distribution of vehicle's wheel speed signal got from fast Fourier transform under various conditions, the high-pass filter is used to deal with original wheel speed signals sampled to get reference noise signal and the original wheel speed signals are used as adaptive filter's desired outputs. The difference between original signals and reference noise signals is used as the error signal for the adaptive FIR filter and also used as the whole adaptive noise cancellation system's final output. This method can obtain the noise signal on-line and is easy to use for real control system,which is useful to improve the performance of integrate system ABS/ASR.

  9. 新款三轮运动车制动系统设计%Design of Brake System of New Three-wheel Sports Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锐; 李桂华

    2012-01-01

    Through the braking performance analysis for new three-wheel sports car,the paper designed and calculated the structure of floating type disc brake in braking system and fully hydraulic braking drive system by human power.According to GB 7258-2004"safety specification for power-driven vehicles operating on road",its performance is verified,and the design result is good.And so the braking requirements of three-wheel sports car in ideal pavement is also met.%通过对新款三轮运动车制动性能要求进行分析,设计计算了制动系统的浮钳形盘式制动器结构和采用人力操纵的全液压制动驱动系统,并根据《机动车运行安全技术条件》(GB 7258-2004)进行了验证,达到了设计效果,满足了三轮运动车在理想路面上的制动要求。

  10. CFD Analysis Of Straight Ventilated Disc Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brakes are the key pieces of a vehicle that plays an active role in safety and performance of the system. The study of aerodynamic cooling of a disc brake in real working condition of vehicle is important in present situations. Brake discs get very hot quickly, so it should be dissipated properly through different modes of heat transfer. Contributions of these heat transfer modes are different in different type of problems. The cooling transfer rates are different in vane surface and frictional surface of a disc brake. Also the temperature varies in each small interval of braking time. So a transient problem simulation is important to study the cooling of a disc brake when a vehicle decelerates from a particular speed. ANSYS CFX tool is used for the simulation of this transient problem.

  11. Application Research on Urban Rail Transit EP2002 Brake System%城市轨道交通 EP2002制动系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 张帆; 杨颖; 高亮彰

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the EP2002 brake control logic and pneumatic principle were analyzed by intro-duced EP2002 brake system structure and the type and function of EP2002 valve.The advantages of EP2002 brake control system in urban rail vehicle applications were given.%介绍 EP2002制动系统构成和 EP2002阀的种类及作用,分析 EP2002制动控制逻辑及其气动原理,说明EP2002制动控制系统在城轨车辆中应用的优势。

  12. 球车制动系统寿命试验机的设计%Design of System Life Tester of Ball Vehicle Braking Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳金梅; 朱晓杰

    2012-01-01

    根据球车的制动踏板和加速踏板的联动运动原理,设计一种气动试验机,通过它模拟人在驾驶车辆时加速踏板和制动踏板的往复运动,来检验联动机构的耐久性,从而考察其制动系统的寿命。%According to link motion principle of brake pedal and accelerator pedal, a pneumatic tester is designed which simulates the reciprocating motion of brake and accelerator pedal when people driving the car. The durability of link gear is tested and the system life of brake system is tested.

  13. 防抱死制动系统应用研究及参数设计%Anti-lock Braking System Application Research and Its Parameter Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑾

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle emergency braking often brings about wheel lock ,while the anti‐lock braking system can be used for its improvement . The paper explained the working principle of the mechanical braking system structure and analyzed and calculated the main parameters .The re‐sults would be applied into practice to solve the problems in practical application .%针对车辆紧急制动时易产生车轮抱死的现象,运用防抱死制动系统对其改进,阐述机械式防抱死系统的工作原理及结构组成,对其主要参数进行分析和推算,并将研究成果运用到实例中,有效解决实际运用中的问题。

  14. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...

  15. A New Algorithm for ABS/GPS Integration Based on Fuzzy-Logic in Vehicle Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amin Zadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available GPS based vehicle navigation systems have difficulties in tracking vehicles in urban canyons due to poor satellite availability. ABS (Antilock Brake System Navigation System consists of self-contained optical encoders mounted on vehicle wheels that can continuously provide accurate short-term positioning information. In this paper, a new concept regarding GPS/ABS integration, based on Fuzzy Logic is presented. The proposed algorithm is used to identify GPS position accuracy based on environment and vehicle dynamic knowledge. The GPS is used as reference during the time it is in a good condition and replaced by ABS positioning system when GPS information is unreliable. We compare our proposed algorithm with other common algorithm in real environment. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the stability and reliability of ABS/GPS navigation system.

  16. Design and optimazation of braking system on FSAE racing car%FSAE赛车制动系统的设计及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋新; 黄光绪; 包耳

    2014-01-01

    按照FSAE规定,赛车制动系统要求简单控制,必须有两条液压回路而且每条液压回路必须有独立的储液罐,不允许采用带有助力的制动装置。将制动系统全部采用液压动力制动系统。这种方式作用滞后时间较短、工作压力高,因而主缸尺寸小,使制动器结构简单、质量小、机械效率高。假定附地面附着系数为0.8的情况下,赛车以20km/h制动的情况下计算了赛车的最大减速度和制动距离。对于制动系统的设计和优化具有指导性的意义。%According to the FSAE competition rules, the braking system of racing cars should be easily controlled, two hydraulic circuits and two independent resevoirs for each circuit are required, and no power assisting device is allowed. We put hydraulic power braking system into practice, by this mean we have short delay time and high working pressure so that the size of the master cylinder could be small. In this case the brake is constructed easily, having less mass and much more efficient. Assume adhension coefficient was 0.8 and initial speed of braking was 20 km/h, maximum deceleration and braking distance was calculated. This study is helpful for the braking system design of racing car.

  17. The strength of the hybrid braking calipers analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Weitao; Yu Haiqing; Jiang Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The braking system is an important part to ensure the safety of the vehicle, so the strength analysis is essential to the brake caliper. In this article, the forces will be mixed in the caliper brake systems theoretical analysis, and based on the actual working conditions established calipers ABAQUS finite element model to simulate calipers provide a theoretical basis for the structural design of the brake caliper.

  18. 液压蓄能器制动能量回收系统建模与仿真%Hydraulic Accumulator Brake Energy Recovery System Modeling and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷允朝

    2016-01-01

    本文分析了液压蓄能器混合动力制动回收系统基本组成和工作原理并建立力学模型,重点研究了基于Matlab/simulink仿真和传动比的匹配。结果表明:在最高转速变化允许范围内合理选择传动比的参数匹配,能缩短制动时间和获取较高的制动回收率。%Hydraulic accumulator hybrid brake recovery system basic composition and working principle are analyzed,Based on Matlab/simulink and the ratio of matching is key research, The results show that:In the range of allowable maximum speed change the rational selection of parameters matching ratio, Braking time is shortened and Brake recovery rate was improved.

  19. A Reduced-Order Model for Complex Modes of Brake Squeal Model and Its Application to a Flexible Pin-on-Disc System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake squeal is often analytically studied by a complex eigenvalue analysis of linearized models of the brake assembly that is usually quite large. In this paper, a method for determining those frequencies having the most effect on the pair of coupling frequencies that saves much time is put forward and a reduced-order model is presented based on the complex modes theory. The reduced-order model is proved to be effective when applied to a flexible pin-on-disc system; even damping and nonlinearity are taken into consideration. This reduced-order model can predict the onset of squeal as well as the squeal frequency with sufficient accuracy and largely reduced amount of calculation and gives us a practical guide to perform design optimization in order to reduce brake squeal.

  20. 基于LabVIEW的汽车ABS测试系统设计%Design of ABS Testing System Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文广; 杜春臣; 司利增

    2012-01-01

    ABS是汽车的一种重要主动安全装置.以图形化编程软件LabVIEW为核心,结合数据采集卡,设计了汽车ABS测试系统.该系统能够实现制动车速、制动距离、角速度、滑移率等性能参数的实时显示与存储,便于对ABS性能进行分析以及对控制算法进行优化改进,从而为开发和研制汽车防抱死制动系统提供了测试依据.%ABS is an important active safety device in a vehicle. This paper uses the graphical programming software LabVIEW as the core and combines the data acquisition card to design the car ABS testing system. The braking performance real-time display and storage such as braking speed, braking distance, angular velocity and slip rate can be realized ,in order analyze the ABS performance and improve the control algorithm. Form this the testing basis is provided for the development of automobile anti-lock braking system and its research.

  1. Control Circuit Design for Electronic Parking Brake System%电子驻车制动系统控制电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婷; 王洪亮; 王显会; 皮大伟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the research status of electronic parking brake system at home and abroad and the function analysis of electronic parking brake system ,the overall design of a cable-type electronic parking brake system was carried out .The gradient sensor ,motor speed sensor and parking pulling sensor were selected ,and each module circuit was designed .The real vehicle matching and the parking/removing function debugging in variable drive conditions were completed .The results show that the static and dynamic characteristics of the electronic parking brake system can meet the design requirements .%在结合目前国内外电子驻车制动系统研究现状以及对其功能要求分析的基础之上,针对钢索牵引式电子驻车制动系统进行整体设计。依次对倾角传感器、电机转速传感器和拉力传感器等进行选型并完成各模块的电路设计;完成实车匹配并根据驾驶员实际操作以及各种车况进行驻车制动或解除的功能调试,结果表明其静态特性和动态特性均满足设计要求。

  2. Performance experiment of integrated system with car electromagnetic and frictional brakes%轿车电磁制动与摩擦制动集成系统的性能试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘存香; 何仁; 胡春花

    2012-01-01

    At the test bench of integrated system with electromagne-tic and frictional brakes, the blend brake torque comparison was conducted with various air gap, maximum supplying current, electromagnetic brake coil turns and brake disc material. The relationship among blend brake torque, electromagnetic brake torque and frictional brake torque, and the influence of different parameters on the blend brake torque were investigated. The results show that air gap, supplying current of electromagnetic brake coil, electromagnetic brake coil turns and brake disc material all have influences on the total torque of integrated system. With consideration of two factors of performance and installation, the optimum air gap and maximum supplying current of electromagnetic brake coil are 2 mm and 15 A with electromagnetic brake coil turns of 820 x4 for copper brake disc. For those vehicles with gross mass more than 1 200 kg, the maximum supplying current of electromagnetic brake coil can be increased to 25 A.%利用所研制的电磁制动与摩擦制动集成系统试验台,进行了不同空气间隙、不同最大通电电流、不同电磁制动器线圈匝数以及不同制动盘材料时的集成系统联合制动力矩对比试验,研究了联合制动力矩、电磁制动力矩与摩擦制动力矩三者关系以及各参数对电磁制动与摩擦制动集成系统的影响.结果表明:气隙、电磁线圈通电电流、电磁线圈匝数以及制动盘材料等均对集成系统总制动力矩大小造成影响;综合考虑性能、安装2方面因素,可以选择的参数为气隙2 mm,电磁制动器线圈的最大通电电流为15 A,电磁线圈匝数为820×4,制动盘材料采用铜材质;对于整车总质量超过1200 kg的车辆,线圈最大通电电流可以增大至25 A.

  3. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that all of the equipment's brake system pneumatic components that contain moving parts and are sealed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance....

  4. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

  5. Improvement of Brake System of XJ-650 Workover Rig%XJ-650型修井机绞车制动系统改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵有清

    2015-01-01

    The working principle of hydraulic disc brake system of the hydraulic disc brake system is described in this paper.The problem of the existence of the pneumatic control belt brake for the XJ-650 type of the well is put forward.The hydraulic disc brake system of the workover rig is a-dapted for technological reformation,which is suitable for workover operation in deep and com-plex well conditions,and the construction of the labor intensity is decreased,security is obviously enhanced.%简述了修井机液压盘式刹车系统的工作原理。指出现有 XJ-650型修井机的气控带式刹车存在的问题。采用液压盘式刹车系统对该修井机进行技术改造,适应深井、复杂工况井等修井作业要求,并且使施工的劳动强度下降,安全性明显增强。

  6. 燃料电池汽车线控串行复合制动系统的开发%Development of BBW Series Hybrid Brake System for FCV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清河; 刘涛; 孙泽昌

    2011-01-01

    A brake-by-wire (BBW) hydraulic brake valve with mechanical backup is developed and its control performance is tested and analyzed. Based on BBW, a series hybrid brake system for a fuel-cell vehicle is built with corresponding control algorithm for electro-hydraulic braking designed. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation on series hybrid braking process is conducted. The results show that the system achieves the series application of motor regenerative braking and hydraulic friction braking, effectively enhancing braking energy recovery rate.%开发了具备机械备份的线控液压制动阀并对其控制性能进行了试验和分析.以线控制动系统为基础,建立了燃料电池汽车线控串行复合制动系统,并设计了与之相适应的电液复合制动控制算法.对串行复合制动过程进行了硬件在环仿真.结果表明,该系统实现了电机再生制动与液压摩擦制动的串行施加,有效提高了制动能量回收率.

  7. A mechanical brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a railway vehicle that accounts for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Chan Lee; Chul-Goo Kang

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for a railway vehicle provides an effective platform for testing the braking performance under various dangerous braking conditions. However, in general, four-brake calipers are required to implement a mechanical brake system for one car. In this article, we implement a brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system only with one brake caliper and three air tanks accounting for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics, ultimately saving installat...

  8. 基于混合系统理论的串联式再生制动控制策略分析%Analysis on the Control Strategy for Series Regenerative Braking Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋士刚; 李小平; 孙泽昌

    2015-01-01

    With series regenerative braking system of electric vehicle as the object of study, by the analyses on braking energy and braking regulations, the safe operation range of electro-hydraulic hybrid regenerative braking is theoretically determined, and with concurrent consideration of motor regenerative braking and battery charging power, a mathematical model for the optimization of regenerative braking is established. Based on the theory of hy-brid system and the model for hybrid automata, the regenerative braking system is visually described and a regenera-tive braking control strategy is proposed with coordinated control between motor regenerative braking force and the hydraulic braking forces on front and rear wheels, and a simulation is conducted on control model. The results indi-cate that the regenerative braking control strategy proposed increases the proportion of motor regenerative braking and thus enhance the recovery rate of vehicle braking energy in braking process.%以电动汽车串联式再生制动系统为研究对象,通过对制动能量和制动法规的分析,从理论上确定了电液复合再生制动的安全运行范围,并综合考虑电机再生制动和电池充电功率,建立了再生制动优化问题的数学模型。基于混合系统理论,利用混合自动机模型,直观描述了再生制动系统,提出了电机再生制动力和前后轮液压制动力协调控制的再生制动控制策略,并对控制模型进行了仿真分析。结果表明,该再生制动控制策略在制动过程中增加了电机再生制动的比例,从而提高了汽车制动能量的回收率。

  9. Research of the Brake Parking Problem of Industrial Sewing Machine System%工业缝纫机系统制动停车问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边淳; 郗晓田; 文小琴; 游林儒

    2012-01-01

    order to improve the efficiency of industrial sewing machine system based on brushless dc motor control, simplified brake method and simplify the brake method, this paper put forward a new kind of reversing lock brake parking control method about the brushless dc motor control industrial sewing machine system. This method analyzed from the two aspects of speed and braking, PI speed control method is used, detecting needle position signal for reversing locking brake, and demonstrated the feasibility of this control method in theory. Finally, presents a practical control rendering. Practice proves that the method has achieved good effect, met the control requirements of the industrial sewing machine system and improves the dynamic performance of the system.%为提高基于直流无刷电机控制的工业缝纫机系统的制动效率、简化制动方法,提出了一种新型的基于无刷直流电机控制的工业缝纫机系统换向锁定制动停车控制方法.该方法从调速、制动两方面人手,采用PI调节降速,通过检测停针位信号进行换向锁定制动.同时从理论方面分析论证了该控制方法的可行性,并给出了实际的控制效果图.实践证明:该方法取得了良好的控制效果,完全满足工缝机系统的控制要求,提高了系统的性能.

  10. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  11. Design and Simulation on Electric Braking System of Pure Electric Vehicle%纯电动汽车电制动系统设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王系朋; 潘盛辉

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the utilization of electrical energy and more efficient pure electric vehicles, electric braking system can be installed on pure electric vehicles. Electric brake system can recover kinetic energy during braking and convert it into electrical energy. This paper presents an electrical braking system. The basic idea of the design is to rectify AC during braking is-sued by the AC motor into DC, and DC-DC converter converts the rectified voltage DC to appropriate size and charge it to the battery pack. According to the simulation results, electric energy 17 267 J can be recovered with the recovery efficiency 49. 1%. The sim-ulation results show that the designed electric braking system can recover kinetic energy during braking, and convert it into electrical energy to re-use, improving utilization of electrical energy, and effectively extending the pure electric vehicle mileage.%为了提高电能的利用率,让纯电动汽车在行驶过程中更加节能,可以为纯电动汽车安装电制动系统,电制动系统可以回收纯电动汽车在制动过程中的部分动能,并将其转换成为电能再次利用。本文设计了一种电制动系统,设计的基本思路是先将制动过程中电机发出的交流电整流,然后通过DC-DC直流变换器把整流后的直流电的电压值转换为合适的大小并充入电池组。根据仿真结果求得本文设计的电制动系统在测试的工况下,可以回收电能17267 J,回收效率为49.1%。仿真结果表明,本文设计的电制动系统可以将纯电动汽车制动过程中的部分动能被转化成为了电能再次利用,提高了电能的利用率,可以有效地延长纯电动汽车的续航里程。

  12. Analysis on Handling Stability Simulation of SUV at the condition of Braking based on CarSim software%防抱死制动系统对SUV车辆操控稳定性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱崇敬; 郭朋彦; 张瑞珠; 冯金泉; 马付屹

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the phenomenon that Sport Utility Vehicles will lose its stability and the steering ability will become bad in case of Emergency Braking, CarSim software is applied to establish full vehicle dynamic model in which the whole driving process of Emergency Braking condition is simulated, preliminary finding ABS system has a big influence on handling stability at this condition. For further validating, the collaborative simulation model is set up combining Carsim with Simulink, the numeric changes of slip angle, yaw and offset can be plotted, which reflect handling stability most under the input of braking pressure. After analyzing and making comparisons about testing data, the goal of improving handling stability by installing anti-lock braking system to SUV in case of emergency braking is determined. Finally the purpose of driving safely can be met.%针对SUV车辆在制动情况下出现的操纵性和稳定性变差现象,在CarSim软件中建立了SUV车辆动力学模型,在对开的路面对行驶的紧急制动工况进行了仿真,初步发现防抱死系统对该工况下车辆操纵稳定性的影响最大,为进一步验证,与Simulink结合建立了整车联合仿真模型,将Carsim中SUV制动过程中的制动压力导出至Simulink模型作制动仿真测试,进一步描绘出车轮侧偏角、横移角速度和偏移位移等影响操纵稳定性的参数数值变化曲线,通过分析对比,确定了紧急制动条件下为SUV车辆加装防抱死系统能达到提高操纵稳定性的目标,最终达到安全驾驶的目的。

  13. Improvement of control strategy in hybrid brake system of electric vehicle%电动汽车混合制动系统控制策略的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 俞剑波; 王润才

    2013-01-01

    针对电动汽车混合制动系统,通过对整车制动动力学和ECE R13法规的分析,理论上确定了混合制动系统的安全制动区域.在此区域内,以充分回收车辆制动能量为目标,在满足ECE R13制动法规和整车制动稳定性的前提下,对于前后轴机械制动力分配固定的混合制动系统,提出了一种电动机制动力与摩擦制动力分配的优化方法.以工作模式切换点的坐标及制动力分配曲线的斜率为优化对象进行优化.此外,基于制动力分配影响因素多变的特点,设计了一种3参数输入的制动力分配模糊控制策略.分别建立新的制动控制策略模型嵌入到ADVISOR2002中进行仿真分析,从而验证改进控制策略的有效性.结果表明2种新的控制策略能够有效改善电动汽车的制动能量回收率.%The safe area of braking force distribution was established theoretically by analyzing braking dynamics and the ECE R13 rule for hybrid braking system of electric vehicles. In the safe area, to obtain maximum energy of regenerative braking and meet the requirements of ECE R13 and braking stability, an optimization method of motor regenerative braking force and friction braking force distribution was proposed for the hybrid braking system with friction braking force distribution to front and rear axle. The point coordinate of switching operation mode and the rake ratio of braking force distribution were optimized. According to the changeable effect factors of braking force distribution, a novel control strategy of braking force distribution was designed based on fuzzy logic with three parameters-input. The new models of braking control strategy were simulated in ADVISOR2002 to verify the improved control strategy. The results show that the two new control strategies can effectively improve the rate of braking energy recovery in electric vehicle.

  14. Research on control strategy of regenerative braking system based on HEV%HEV再生制动控制策略的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇秋飞; 朱伟; 赵云飞; 吴叶青

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative braking is not only a significant characteristic of EV, but also can improve its economic efficiency. The constraints are analyzed in the course of braking energy recovery. Then by designing the vehicle structure and the control strategy of regenerative braking system to resolve or weaken the problem that limits the braking energy recovery, meeting the design' s objective. At last, the test is done on the road, and the result indicates: 25% power can be recovered, and the mileage is prolonged.%制动能量回收是电动汽车的一个重要特性,也是电动汽车能实现经济性的重要方面.分析了制动能量回收过程中的限制因素,然后通过对整车系统结构以及再生制动控制策略的设计,削弱并解决了这些因素对制动能量回收的限制,以达到设计目的.最后进行道路试验,试验结果表明:在多模式驱动下该新型混合动力的再生制动系统可以回收总能量的25%,延长了续驶里程.

  15. Safety design and matching analysis of electronic hydraulic brake system%电子液压制动系统的安全设计与匹配分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东海; 何仁

    2015-01-01

    The design of the electronic hydraulic brake system in general is lack of theoretical guidance. In this experiment, the structure and working principle of the electronic hydraulic brake system were analyzed in detail. Then the matching design method for the electronic hydraulic brake system based on safety feature was proposed on the basis of establishment of the mathematical model, including the design of power supply based on the hardware failure protection, the design of emergency brake circuit based on power supply failure protection, the design of the inlet and outlet valves based on the emergency braking requirements. The effectiveness of mathematical model was validated through the experiments, and the braking performance of electronic hydraulic brake system in both the common brake and hardware failure was analyzed. The hardware in loop test results showed that the booster response time of electronic hydraulic brake system was reduced when compared with the conventional hydraulic brake system under the normal braking. The electronic hydraulic brake system could control the wheel slip ratio in high adhesion road, low adhesion road and docking the road very well under emergency braking. Also, after using the accumulator brake vigorously for five times, the accumulator pressure was not less than the minimum system pressure in the case of electrical failure indicating that the design of accumulator met the requirements. In addition, the booster response time increased in the case of accumulator failure showing that although the motor pressure rated was higher than the system maximum working pressure but it had low flow rate. Furthermore, in the accumulator and the motor failure cases, the electronic hydraulic brake system still could provide part of the braking intensity which was higher than design required 3 m/s2 braking deceleration. Conclusions from the research included the accumulator should guarantee to complete several intensive braking under the

  16. Optimization Design of Control Strategy with Electro+EHB Braking System%电-液复合制动系统的控制策略多目标优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉芳; 吴炎花

    2013-01-01

    Based on the design of electric car with electric + EHB braking system, the design put forward the control strategy of ideal braking force distribution. The constraint conditions of braking were analysed as: the constraint of braking regulations, the constraint of motor characteristics, braking stability and braking comfortable. And the optimum design was made by ISIGHT software. The dynamics and control models were established by SIMLINK software, then the Shanghai typical city bus driving cycle was selected. Compared with the parallel braking control strategy, the ideal braking force distribution strategy can not only greatly enhance the braking energy recovery efficiency, but also greatly improve braking efficiency and comfort.%研究电动汽车电机制动+EHB复合制动系统性能优化问题,提出理想制动力分配控制策略.分析制动时各环节的约束条件:制动法规的约束、电机特性的约束、制动稳定性的约束以及制动舒适性的约束条件,然后运用ISIGHT软件进行优化设计.再运用SIMLINK软件建立动力学和控制模型,选取上海典型城市公交循环工况,进行仿真.与并行制动控制策略比较,优化后的理想制动力分配策略不仅很大程度上提高制动能量回收效率,而且大大提高制动效能和制动平顺性.

  17. Modeling and design of cooperative braking in electric and hybrid vehicles using induction machine and hydraulic brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In mixed-mode braking applications, the electric motor / generator (M/G and hydraulic pressure valve are controlled to meet the driver’s braking demand. Controlling these braking elements is achieved by modulating the current generated by the M/G and adjusting the fluid pressure to the wheel brake cylinders. This paper aims to model and design combined regenerative and hydraulic braking systems which, comprise an induction electric machine, inverter, NiMH battery, controller, a pressure source, pressure control unit, and brake calipers. A 15 kW 1500 rpm induction machine equipped with a reduction gear having a gear ratio of 4 is used. A hydraulic brake capable to produce fluid pressure up to 40 bar is used. Direct torque control and pressure control are chosen as the control criteria in the M/G and the hydraulic solenoid valve. The braking demands for the system are derived from the Federal Testing Procedure (FTP drive cycle. Two simulation models have been developed in Matlab®/Simulink® to analyze the performance of the control strategy in each braking system. The developed model is validated through experiment. It is concluded that the control system does introduce torque ripple and pressure oscillation in the braking system, but these effects do not affect vehicle braking performance due to the high frequency nature of pressure fluctuation and the damping effect of the vehicle inertia. Moreover, experiment results prove the effectiveness of the developed model.

  18. Stability analysis of automotive disc brake system with random parameters%随机参数汽车盘式制动器的稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕辉; 于德介

    2014-01-01

    针对不确定性参数汽车制动器噪声的抑制问题,基于随机参数分析理论,将响应面法与有限元复特征值技术相结合,提出了一种随机参数汽车制动器系统稳定性的分析方法。该方法用随机参数对制动器系统的不确定性进行描述,系统的摩擦系数、制动压力、制动盘厚度、制动片厚度和支撑背板的厚度参数分别采用随机变量表示;为提高分析效率,建立了包含随机变量的制动器不稳定特征值的响应面近似模型,进而根据系统特征值的随机特性对系统稳定性进行分析。用该方法对某车的浮钳盘式制动器系统进行研究,采用蒙特卡洛方法分析了随机参数正态分布假设下系统特征值的概率统计特性和参数灵敏度。结果表明:通过修改制动器支撑背板的厚度以提高支撑刚度,可有效改善制动器系统的稳定性,减小制动噪声的产生。%To suppress the brake noises of an automotive disc brake system with uncertain parameters ,a stability analysis method of automotive brake systems is presented in this paper .The essential idea of this method is to combine the RSM (Re-sponse Surface Method) and complex eigenvalue analysis techniques with random parameters introduced to describe such uncer-tainties in the brake system as friction coefficients ,brake pressure ,disc thickness ,pad thickness and backplate thickness .In order to improve the analysis efficiency ,RSM is used to build up the approximation models to express the functional relation-ships between the unstable eigenvalues and the system parameters ,which makes it available to study the stability of the brake system according to the random characteristics of the unstable eigenvalues .The stability analysis of a float caliper disc brake system is carried out by the proposed method with the random parameters assumed to follow normal distributions .The statisti-cal characteristics and the sensitivities

  19. Design and Analysis of Hydraulic System of Disc Brake for Downward Belt Conveyor%下运带式输送机盘式制动器液压系统设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灿杰; 贾跃虎; 刘志奇

    2011-01-01

    通过分析下运带式输送机制动工况的特点以及盘式制动器的优点,设计出适合各制动工况要求的新型盘式制动器液压系统.该液压系统具有松闸、保压、正常停车制动、超速制动、紧急制动和系统突然断电制动等功能.建立了系统的数学模型,将数学模型线性化后推导出了系统传递函数,分析了各元件参数对系统响应性的影响,为设计压力精细调节的制动器提供了理论基础.%The characteristics of braking condition of downward belt conveyor and advantages of disc brake were analyzed. A new hydraulic system of disc brake which met each braking condition requirement was designed. This hydraulic system have functions of loose braking, the normal parking braking, emergency braking and suddenly lose power braking. The mathematical model of this hydraulic system was established. The transfer function of this hydraulic system was deduced by the mathematical model linearization. The influences of the parameters to the response of the system were analyzed. The research work lays theory foundation for the design of brake with pressure fine adjustment.

  20. Study on the Integrated Control for Vehicle Stability Based on Two-wheeled Motor Regenerative Braking System%基于双轮式电机再生制动车辆稳定性集成控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆樟; 许广举; 孟杰; 焦洪宇

    2014-01-01

    Taking two-wheeled motor front drive electric vehicle regenerative braking system as the research object, the regenerative braking system coordinated controller was developed by integrating the dual-motor regenerative braking, hydraulic brake and the stability system. The vehicle braking mode and the allocation of braking torque were determined according to the vehicle's braking demand, vehicle status and energy storage system state, and the stability control torque was provided by the two-wheeled motor regenerative braking system according to the real-time vehicle stability condition. The results show that, compared with the motor unilateral independent control strategy, the integrated coordinated controller has better stability effect on vehicle braking in the process of turning.%以双轮式电机前驱电动汽车制动系统为研究对象,把双电机再生制动、液压制动、稳定性控制集成在一起,开发了再生制动系统协调控制器。根据车辆制动需求、车辆状态、系统储能状态等确定车辆制动模式及分配制动力矩,并根据车辆实时稳定性状况由双轮式电机再生制动提供车辆稳定性控制力矩。仿真和试验结果表明,在车辆转弯制动工况中采用所述集成协调控制器比采用电机单边独立控制稳定性控制效果更好。

  1. Effectiveness of forward collision warning and autonomous emergency braking systems in reducing front-to-rear crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of forward collision warning (FCW) alone, a low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system operational at speeds up to 19mph that does not warn the driver prior to braking, and FCW with AEB that operates at higher speeds in reducing front-to-rear crashes and injuries. Poisson regression was used to compare rates of police-reported crash involvements per insured vehicle year in 22 U.S. states during 2010-2014 between passenger vehicle models with FCW alone or with AEB and the same models where the optional systems were not purchased, controlling for other factors affecting crash risk. Similar analyses compared rates between Volvo 2011-2012 model S60 and 2010-2012 model XC60 vehicles with a standard low-speed AEB system to those of other luxury midsize cars and SUVs, respectively, without the system. FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB reduced rear-end striking crash involvement rates by 27%, 43%, and 50%, respectively. Rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with injuries were reduced by 20%, 45%, and 56%, respectively, by FCW alone, low-speed AEB, and FCW with AEB, and rates of rear-end striking crash involvements with third-party injuries were reduced by 18%, 44%, and 59%, respectively. Reductions in rear-end striking crashes with third-party injuries were marginally significant for FCW alone, and all other reductions were statistically significant. FCW alone and low-speed AEB reduced rates of being rear struck in rear-end crashes by 13% and 12%, respectively, but FCW with AEB increased rates of rear-end struck crash involvements by 20%. Almost 1 million U.S. police-reported rear-end crashes in 2014 and more than 400,000 injuries in such crashes could have been prevented if all vehicles were equipped with FCW and AEB that perform similarly as systems did for study vehicles.

  2. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.

  3. Muzzle brakes and their performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Sirpal

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available A criteria for the usefulness of a muzzle brake on any equipment is discussed and applied to existing weapons. Efficiencies of the existing muzzle brakes are also calculated. Design considerations for a muzzle brake are summarized.

  4. Braking Energy Recovery System for Electric Vehicle%电动汽车制动能量回收系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 孙泽昌; 卓桂荣; 程鹏

    2012-01-01

    In order to further improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicles, thus to improve the driving range economy, a braking energy recovery system for electric vehicles with simple structure, high reliability and fail-safe function was developed. Meanwhile, considering performance parameters of motor and battery, the efficient regenerative braking control strategy with strong portability was developed. Based on the proposed system and control strategy, hardware-in-loop tests were accomplished. Test results showed that friction braking force and regenerative braking force could be well integrated and braking energy recovery efficiency was high. Finally, experimental data of a FCV on CYC Japan-1015 proved the performance and feasibility of the proposed system. Braking energy recovery efficiency reached to 59. 15%.%为进一步提高电动汽车的能量利用效率以改善其续驶里程,开发了一套电动汽车制动能量回收系统.系统结构简单,可靠性高,并具有机械制动备份功能.同时,考虑到电动汽车电动机和电池性能参数,开发了高效的再生制动控制策略,算法具有较强的移植性.采用硬件在环的方式对系统的控制效果和制动能量回收效率进行了仿真测试.结果表明,再生制动力和摩擦制动力可以很好地协调运作,同时有效地回收制动能量.最后,在燃料电池汽车上进行转鼓实验,很好地完成了Japan-1015循环工况,能量回收效率高达59.15%.

  5. 汽车EPB系统控制原理研究%Researches on Control Principles of Automotive Electric Parking Brake EPB System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰

    2016-01-01

    汽车电子技术的不断进步,令驻车制动系统即手制动系统从过去机/液式的,逐渐变成电子式的。电子驻车制动可在行车前自动释放或在熄火后自动拉紧,省去了忘记解除驻车制动或“坡起”溜车等情况的困扰与风险;由于电子驻车制动系统即EPB系统的结构较为复杂,需要对其控制原理进行分析研究,本文主要包括EPB的组成及工作原理等。%With the automobile’s and electrical technology constantly development, the parking brake system is changing from the primary mechanical, hydraulic into electrical. Electric parking brake (EPB) system is able to release it before ignoring or strain it after stopping the engine automatically, and cuts the dififculties and dangerous rates of forgetting to be released or the slide on the slope; Because of the automotive EPB frame is so complex, the electrical brake system needs to analysis. This thesis is mainly contains the EPB structures and working principles.

  6. Sistem Pendingin Paksa Anti Panas Lebih (Over Heating pada Rem Cakram (Disk Brake Kendaraan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Dewanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the vehicle brakes are not usually equipped with a special cooling system, so that the release of heat into the air occurs naturally. When used continuously, the brakes can suffer damage as a result of the occurrence of over-heating. This condition is potentially causing a fatal accident. Physically, the over-heating often occurs in type disc brake, because the heat transfer surface is less proportionately, especially for high braking loads. This research aims to develop a brake disc with an active cooling system to prevent overheating. The system is applied to a simulated model of disc brakes empirically. The test was conducted at several levels of constant disc speed and breaking force. The results of this research indicate that at various braking load, the development of disc brakes with an active cooling system in the form of water vapor that is sprayed, can control the brake temperature rise and prevent over-heating.

  7. Towards A Good ABS Design for More Reliable Vehicles on the Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Ghenai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, better driving also means betterbraking. To this end, vehicle designersmust find allfailuresduring the design phase of antilock braking systems which play animportant roleinautomobilessafety.However, mechatronic systems are so complex and failures can be badly identified. So it is necessary topropose a design approach of an antilock braking system which will be able to avoid wheels locking duringbraking and maintain vehicle stability. This paper describes this approach, in which we model thefunctional and the dysfunctional behavior of an antilock braking system using stopwatch Petri nets

  8. 纯电动轻型卡车再生制动系统的仿真与控制策略%Modeling and simulation of regenerative braking system for pure electric light truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋百玲; 周学升; 李佳; 王兴; 程崇; 孙世磊

    2015-01-01

    为保证纯电动轻型货车在具有最佳制动力分配的前提下多回收制动能量,仿真模拟了双能量源再生制动系统,设计了理想制动力分配再生制动控制策略。以东风EQ5030轻型货车为原型,根据纯电动轻型货车对能量和功率的双重要求,组成超级电容+蓄电池的双能量源储能结构。利用Matlab/Sumilink软件,建立再生制动系统仿真模型。在典型的道路循环工况下,对两种控制策略进行仿真对比。结果表明:本文设计的理想制动力分配再生制动控制策略比传统并联再生制动控制策略能量回收率提高了37.33%,增加了汽车的续驶里程。%A dual-energy-source regenerative braking-system simulation model was established to ensure an electric light-truck recover braking-energy as much as possible within a best braking force distribution. A dual energy source regenerative braking system was simulated to design an ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy. A light truck named Dongfeng EQ5030 was taken as the prototype with a super capacitor being introduced into a pure electric-vehicle energy-storage-system to meet the demand of energy and power for a pure electric vehicle light truck. An ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy was designed. A simulation model of regenerative braking system was established using the Matlab/Sumilink software to simulate and contrast two different control strategies under typical road cycle. The results show that the energy recovery rate increases by 37.33% than that of the traditional paralel control strategy for the ideal braking force distribution of regenerative braking control strategy designed. It causes electric cars increase travel distance.

  9. 热镀锌张力辊电机气动抱闸系统的改造%Reformation of Pneumatic Brake System in Tension Roller Motor of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑耀东; 陈林

    2012-01-01

    Against the problem of the tension roller brake system motor's frequent abnormal braking in the production line of hot dip galvanizing, the brake system s working principle and structural characteristics were analyzed. It is found that the main reasons causing this fault is failure of closing switches induction position, which result from the brake head bushings seal leakage. By improving the design and transformation of brake system's structure, the problem of the brake sensor is solved, and the resulting problem of abnormal downtime is avoided as well.%针对热镀锌生产线中张力辊电机抱闸系统频繁出现非正常制动故障的问题,从抱闸系统的工作原理和结构特点方面进行分析,发现抱闸头轴套密封处漏气造成接近开关感应位置失效是此故障的主要原因,采用铁片在外端固定接近开关来代替原来的密封盖后,解决了该故障问题.

  10. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  11. Dynamic Research on Full Power Hydraulic Wet Braking System of 300 t Mining Truck%300t矿用自卸车全液压湿式制动系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平; 杨务滋; 彭国普; 罗春雷

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new set of full power hydraulic wet braking system, which has multi-stage braking function and better energy-saving effect, and uses a particular oil circuit for cooling. Dynamic research has been done by its AMESim model establishment and simulation. Results indicate that the dynamic response time of running brake and loading brake is respectively about 0. 03s and 0.035s, and time of emergency brake under the normal braking pressure is approximately 0.03s, and the capacity of braking accumulator can meet running brake at least five times. A conclusion is drawn that both dynamic characteristics of the multi-stage brake system and accumulator parameters meet brake reliability requirements of mining truck, which is very valuable for the development and optimization of a new type of full power hydraulic wet braking system.%提出了一套新型的全液压湿式制动系统,该系统具有多级制动功能,节能效果良好,采用独特的油路冷却湿式制动器.在建立该系统的AMESim仿真模型的基础上,对其进行了动态性能研究,研究结果表明:行驶制动与制动锁定的动态响应时间分别约为0.03 s、0.035 s;在正常制动压力下,紧急制动的动态响应时间也约为0.03s;制动蓄能器的容量至少能够满足5次行驶制动.因此该多级制动系统的动态性能与蓄能器的参数均能满足自卸车制动可靠性的设计要求,为开发新型全液压湿式制动系统和优化其性能参数提供了重要依据.

  12. 地铁微机控制直通电空制动系统研究%Research on Direct Acting Electro-pneumatic Braking System with Microcomputer Control of Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丰萍; 陈振华; 李玉庆

    2014-01-01

    介绍了地铁车辆微机控制直通电空制动系统的组成、制动模式和防滑控制功能。着重研究了制动过程中制动力计算与分配及不同阶段的制动响应。研究结果可为微机控制直通电空制动系统在性能检测试验台研制及我国地铁车辆应用检修中提供帮助。%This paper discusses the structure, braking mode and anti-skid control of direct acting electro-pneumat-ic braking system with microcomputer control. It mainly researches the braking force calculation, distribution, and the braking response at different stages in braking process. The results may provide some reference for test bench development of direct acting electro-pneumatic braking system and practical repairing of metro vehicles.

  13. Brzdové systémy motorových vozidel

    OpenAIRE

    Brychta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deal with the current state in construction and development trends of cars brake systems. The introduction shows the development and reason for using of brake systems for trucks. Furthermore, the general division and current trends in brake systems, such as EBS - Electronic Braking System with subsystems: EPB - Electro - Pneumatic Brake, ABS - Anti-lock Braking System, ASR - Anti-Slip Regula-tion, ESP - Electronic Stability Program, EBD - Electronic Brakeforce Distributio...

  14. Catecholamines, cardiac natriuretic peptides and chromogranin A: evolution and physiopathology of a 'whip-brake' system of the endocrine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-09-15

    In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used

  15. Research on New Automobile Power Hydraulic Braking System by Vibratory Energy%新型振动能量主缸助力式汽车液压制动系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李滟泽; 丁志华

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种新型振动能量回收式液压减振系统,研究了一种振动能量主缸助力式汽车液压制动系统,油液在储液罐、减振器、蓄能器和制动液压元件之间循环流动.所述的振动能量助力式汽车液压制动系统能回收部分汽车的振动能量转化为液压能用于汽车助力制动,减小制动踏板力,降低驾驶疲劳度,缩短制动滞后时间,提高汽车制动安全性能.所述振动能量回收式液压减振系统申报了国家发明专利(CN102152778A),振动能量助力式汽车液压制动系统申报了国家实用新型专利(ZL 2011 20101080.1).%A new vibratory energy-recovery hydraulic damping system is introduced, and an automobile power hydraulic braking system by vibratory energy is researched. The oil is circulated between storage tank, energy accumulator, vibratum dampers and hydraulic components. The braking system can recycle some vibratory energy and convert to hydraulic energy which is used for automobile power braking system.It can reduce brake pedal force, lower fatigue of drive, shorten retardation time of braking, and enhance safety of braking. The vibratory energy-recovery hydraulic damping system has reported the national invention patent (CN102152778A), and the vibratory energy power-assisted automobile hydraulic braking system also has reported the national practical new patent(ZL 2011 2 0101080.1).

  16. 自行车碟刹制动距离测试系统的设计与实现%Design and implementation of bicycle disc braking distance test system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦群; 杨成忠

    2012-01-01

    随着碟刹的使用越来越普及,刹车的可靠性测试显得尤为重要,而国内市场上尚没有针对碟刹的测试系统.针对这一问题,设计了一套自行车碟刹制动距离测试系统.首先建立了自行车的刹车模拟装置,然后在模拟装置上安装了拉力传感器和速度传感器对其进行实时监测,传感器信号由数据采集卡采集并上传至上位机,上位机软件分析数据后下发命令控制模拟装置的刹车过程,并实时显示拉力值、速度值和制动距离等.通过多次制动距离测试,求平均值,确定了碟刹的制动距离,最后进行了试验验证.研究结果表明,该测试系统能够较准确地测量出自行车的制动距离,并且性能稳定,简单易操作,实用性强,具有良好的实际应用价值.%As the bicycle disc brake is getting more and more popular,the reliability testing is very important. But in the domestic market, there is no test system for the disc brake. Aiming at this problem,a system was designed to test the braking distance of the bicycle disc brake. The bicycle simulator was firstly created to simulate bicycle braking. Then a tension sensor and a speed sensor were installed on the braking simulator. The tension sensor was used to indirectly measure the power of gripping on the handlebar when the bicycle simulator was braking. The speed sensor was used to measure the speed of the inertial disc throughout the braking process. The signals of the two sensors were collected by the data acquisition card. The data of the sensors from the data acquisition card was gotten and analyzed, the commands were sent to control of the braking process, the data was real-time displayed,including tension value, velocity,the braking distance and so on. The braking distance of a bicycle disc brake was determined by the average of multiple test results. Finally the verification experiment was done in a factory producing Bicycle disc brakes. The results indicate that the

  17. Evaluation and dynamic forecast of reliability on vehicle brake system based on time-dependent theory%基于时变理论的车辆制动系统可靠性评估及动态预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石博强; 唐歌腾

    2014-01-01

    为了研究整车制动系统的使用可靠性,以某越野车的盘式制动器为研究对象,针对制动系统在使用过程中会受到温度、车速、磨损等随时间变化的不确定性因素的影响,建立了基于时变理论的制动系统可靠性评估及动态预测模型,并应用模糊综合评判对各不确定性因素的影响程度进行了定量化,最后对此款越野车的制动系统可靠性进行了动态预测。结果表明,模型制动距离预测误差为2.1%,误差较小,该模型预测结果有效可行;同时该模型又可对未来t时刻的制动系统可靠性进行预测,可为整车制动安全性的主动预警提供有效参考数据。%As one of the most important sub-systems ensuring vehicle’s driving safety, the brake system, whose work reliability greatly determines the safety of car running in a large extent, is usually taken as an important object in studies of vehicle’s braking reliability. While for brake system, the use reliability is related to the allowable braking distance, braking deceleration and other relevant parameters prescribed by travel safety regulations. The intention of this paper is to establish a model of evaluation and dynamic forecast on brake system’s reliability based on time-dependent theory. Therefore the vehicle’s braking performance was studied to analyze the use reliability of brake system and the uncertain factors (such as temperature, speed and wear) which can cause the fluctuation of braking performance and exist in brake system’s whole lifetime were also analyzed. In addition, the impact extent of uncertain factors was quantified by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method in this paper as well. Combined with the study of vehicle braking distances under different conditions, the model can not only assess the reliability of brake system in current time, but also dynamically predict that in future time. The evaluation and dynamic forecast model was

  18. Regenerative Braking Algorithm for an ISG HEV Based on Regenerative Torque Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wen-yong; WANG Feng; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A novel regenerative braking algorithm based on regenerative torque optimization with emulate engine compression braking (EECB) was proposed to make effective and maximum use of brake energy in order to improve fuel economy. The actual brake oil pressure of driving wheel which is reduced by the amount of the regenerative braking force is supplied from the electronic hydraulic brake system. Regenerative torque optimization maximizes the actual regenerative power recuperation by energy storage component, and EECB is a useful extended type of regenerative braking. The simulation results show that actual regenerative power recuperation for the novel regenerative braking algorithm is more than using conventional one, and life-span of brake disks is prolonged for the novel algorithm.

  19. Low-impact friction materials for brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...

  20. 重型内燃牵引车双回路制动系统的设计和研究%Design and Research of Two-Circuit Braking System in Heavy Motor Tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜

    2015-01-01

    介绍了双回路气制动系统在内燃牵引车如何有效地应用。该系统通过使用液压元件和气压元件,保证当一个制动回路失灵后,第二个制动回路能正常工作。同时在两套管路中设置比例阀,分别调节前后制动器分泵压力,使每个车轮有合适的制动力,充分利用整车附着力,使得工程车辆既能达到最大的制动力,保证整车安全可靠性。气源通过气制动控制系统与制动泵相连接,能够实现牵引的挂车制动的远程集中控制。同时利用重型卡车成熟的气制动控制元件和叉车成熟的液压制动执行元件,满足了港口牵引车的制动安全性、结构的紧凑性,又能够实现牵引的挂车制动的远程集中控制,具有很好的拓展性。%This article introduces the effective implication of two-circuit braking system in internal combustion tractor. This system uses hydraulic components and pneumatic components to make sure the second circuit braking system is in working or-der when the first fails. Meanwhile, proportional valves are installed in both circuits to adjust the pressure of front and rear brakes. Therefore, each wheel has appropriate brake force. By taking advantages of friction, the vehicle can achieve the maxi-mum braking force which ensures safety and reliability. Air source is connected with the brake pump through air braking con-trol system, thus to realize the remote centralized control of the braking of trailer. Moreover, it applies mature air brake com-ponents of heavy truck and mature hydraulic components of forklift truck. So that it satisfies braking safety and structural com-pactness, which has favorable expansibility.

  1. Design and Simulation of Electronically Controlled Brake System for Heavy Off-Road Vehicle%重型越野汽车电控制动系统的设计与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张堃; 黄茂; 刘保国; 虎忠

    2014-01-01

    For reducing the braking response time and improving the braking performance of heavy off-road vehicle, an electronically controlled brake system ( EBS) for pneumatic braking is designed. Based on the perform-ance parameters of target vehicle and EBS control algorithm with Matlab/Simulink as simulation platform, models for target vehicle and control alroithm are built to simulate the braking performance of EBS designed in different working conditions, which are then compared with the test data of conventional ABS system, verifying the rationality of sys-tem designed. The results show that the EBS designed has obvious advantages in reducing brake response time and enhancing braking safety.%为缩短重型越野汽车的制动响应时间,提高制动性能,设计了基于气压制动的电控制动系统( EBS)。依据目标车型的性能参数及EBS控制算法,以Matlab/Simulink为仿真平台,建立了目标车型的整车模型及控制算法模型。仿真研究了所设计的EBS系统在不同工况下的制动性能,并通过与常规ABS制动系统试验数据的对比,验证了系统设计的合理性。结果表明,所设计的EBS系统在减少制动响应时间和提高制动安全性方面具有明显的优势。

  2. 飞机数字化全电刹车系统的设计%Design of Aircraft Digital Electric Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建洪; 漆云海; 李建海; 辛庆伟

    2014-01-01

    设计的飞机全电刹车系统,以四无刷直流电机驱动四滚珠丝杠布局的机电作动机架,取代了原来液压刹车的活塞阀门作动机架,电机通过传动装置驱动滚珠丝杠松刹刹车盘实现飞机的刹车。在硬件设计上,刹车控制器的CPU采用TI公司的电机及运动控制专用DSP2407,以满足对控制系统的性能要求;4台无刷直流电机的换相信号由可编程逻辑器件完成;对电机的驱动采用了MOSFET与栅极驱动芯片IR2130组成的功率驱动电路,实现了无刷直流电机的高效驱动。%The structure and aircraft electric braking system was presented. The piston and valve actuated housing for hy-draulic braking system was replaced by electro-mechanical actuated housing, which consisted of four motors and four ball screws. The ball screw, driven by the motor through gearing, put pressure to braking carbon stack. The CPU of digital con-troller used DSP TMS320F2407, which was designed for motor and motion control applications. The control signal for brushless DC motor was produced by programmable logic device. The motor driving circuit comprised by MOSFET IR 2130 was used to drive the motor efficiently.

  3. 气压式电子驻车制动电磁阀控制特性%Characteristics of solenoid valve in electronic parking brake system control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涤; 王洪亮; 皮大伟; 石秉良; 李楠

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the automatic control of a pneumatic parking brake system,the charging and discharging characteristics of the parking control valves and its control method is studied. Analysing the structure and working principle of a heavy duty car parking brake system,this paper designs an overall scheme of the pneumatic electronic parking brake system. The mechanical properties of the spring brake cylinder is analyzed. The charging and discharging characteristics of the electromagnetic valve is studied and compared with the traditional manual valve. The control method of the pulse width modulation( PWM) is analyzed. The relationship between the inflation rate and the PWM duty ratio of the control valve is studied. The experimental results show that the solenoid valve can preserve pressure according to the demand and can adjust the aeration rate of the solenoid valve by changing the PWM signal duty ratio.%为实现气压式驻车制动系统的自动控制,研究了驻车控制阀的充放气特性及控制方法.通过分析重型车驻车制动系统的结构及工作原理,设计了气压式电子驻车制动系统的总体方案. 分析了弹簧制动缸的力学性能,对电磁阀的快速充放气特性进行了研究,并与传统手动阀做了比较. 分析了脉冲宽度调制( Pulse width modulation,PWM)的控制方法,研究了驻车制动系统控制阀在PWM控制下占空比与充气速率的关系. 实验结果证明电磁阀可按需求保压并且可通过改变PWM信号占空比调节电磁阀充气速率.

  4. Design of Online Detection System for Natural Frequency of Brake Discs%制动盘固有频率在线检测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚志刚; 周亚男; 蒋忠翰; 张昌福

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain the natural frequency of brake discs rapidly and accurately,an online detection system is designed and developed in this paper.The system is composed of sensors,data acquisition hardware,data acquisition and analysis software module,online detection software module and controlled circuit.The design principle and the implementation method of the system are introduced.The application results show that the detection system has good performances and can detect the natural frequency of brake discs rapidly and accurately,and display the judgment results intuitively.%为了快速准确的完成对制动盘固有频率的检测,开发了一套在线检测系统。该系统由传感器、数据采集硬件、数据采集及分析软件模块、在线检测软件模块及控制电路构成。详细介绍了系统的设计,论述了系统的检测原理和实现方法。应用结果表明:本系统性能稳定,能快速准确地完成对制动盘固有频率的在线检测,并直观给出制动盘合格性的判定结果。

  5. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... braking force is measured by a performance-based brake tester which meets the requirements of...

  6. The Application of Hydraulic Braking-system for Light Proof Tire Vehicle%全液压制动系统在轻型防爆胶轮车上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞萍

    2013-01-01

    介绍了轻型防爆胶轮车的制动系统,着重介绍了全液压制动系统的组成、特点,详细分析了全液压制动系统各元部件在设计过程中的选型,实践证明,全液压制动系统在轻型防爆胶轮车上的应用是可行及可靠的.%The braking systems in light type vehicle with the rubber wheeles are introduced, introduced the instructures and features of the hydraulic braking system, details how to select the parts in the design. Application shows that the application of hydraulic braking system in light type vehicle with the rubber wheeles is reasonable and reliable.

  7. 飞机数字电传防滑刹车系统污染控制方法研究%Study on the Pollution Control Method for Aircraft Digital Telex Antiskid Brake System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠平; 亢敏; 韩亚国; 赵文庆

    2015-01-01

    The work principles, using requirements and pollution control requirements for high precision electro⁃hydraulic servo valve were discussed from a view of solving oil pollution problem synthetically in braking control system. The pollution control methods and ways were proposed. Through controlling pollution in the aspects of design, utility and maintenance of the braking control system, braking wheels and hydraulic tubes, holding brake pressure in air and braking failures caused by hydraulic oil pollution could be effec⁃tively avoided.%从刹车系统污染综合治理角度出发,论述了飞机刹车控制系统中高精度电液伺服阀的工作原理、选用要求及污染度控制要求,提出了飞机刹车系统油液污染控制的方法和途径。通过在刹车系统、刹车机轮、刹车管路的设计、使用、维护等方面进行污染控制,能够有效避免飞机刹车系统在使用中由于污染问题导致着陆过程中出现空中带压、刹车失效现象。

  8. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  9. LQG Control of Acceleration/Braking System Based on Wheelbase Preview%预瞄信息空气悬架汽车在加速/制动工况下的LQG控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘公宇; 黄宇

    2012-01-01

    A mathematic model of one second vehicle about acceleration/braking system based on air suspension is established. By applying wheelbase preview control to forecast the road surface roughness at the front wheel, the optimal controller based on wheelbase preview control theory is designed. Then the simulation is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show that the performance of the active air suspension acceleration/braking system with a LQG controller based on wheelbase preview can effectively suppress vehicle vibration compared with the passive air suspension acceleration/braking system; and compared with the optimal air suspension acceleration/braking system, the active air suspension acceleration/braking system does well in improving the ride comfort of acceleration/braking system.%建立了基于空气悬架的1/2车辆加速/制动系统模型,通过轴距预瞄在后轮处提前预测路面不平度;设计了基于轴距预瞄控制算法的加速/制动最优控制器;进行了白噪声仿真分析.仿真结果表明:与被动空气悬架加速/制动系统相比,基于轴距预瞄控制的主动空气悬架加速/制动系统能有效降低车辆振动.与最优控制空气悬架加速/制动系统相比,质心加速度和后轮对应处的车身加速度、悬架动行程、轮胎动载均有显著减小,较好的改善了车辆在加速/制动时的平顺性和操纵稳定性.

  10. Simulation analysis of hydraulic regenerative braking system for pure electric vehicle based on AMESim%基于AMESim的纯电动汽车液压再生制动系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐耀挺; 宁晓斌; 王秋成

    2012-01-01

    为提高纯电动汽车制动时的再生制动能量回收率与汽车起步加速的动力性能,通过比较各种再生制动能量回收方案与储能方式,提出了在纯电动汽车的蓄电池回收制动能量的基础上加设液压制动能量回收系统.应用PID控制,在ECE-15循环工况下进行了仿真,并分析了整车的动力性能与能量的回收利用率.研究结果表明,在纯电动汽车上利用液压再生制动系统能够显著地提高整车的起步加速能力,并增加汽车的续驶里程28%左右.%In order to increase the regenerative braking energy recovery and the dynamic performance of vehicle start and acceleration in the stage of brake,the hydraulic braking energy recovery system was used with the storage battery braking energy recovery system after comparing kinds of regenerative braking recovery plan and energy storage method. The system was used to do simulation and analysis in vehicle dynamic performance and energy recovery efficiency under the PID control and ECE-15 cycle. The system simulation and analysis results show that, using hydraulic regenerative braking system in pure electric vehicle.it can significantly improve the ability of vehicle's start-acceleration and increase the vehicle driving range around 28%.

  11. Study on the Optimum Service Braking System for Low-speed Goods Vehicle%低速货车配备行车制动系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马恩; 杨博竣

    2016-01-01

    Current condition of service braking system for low-speed goods vehicle in China are discussed. Service brake safety properties of low-speed goods vehicle are affected directly by service brake system. To ex-plore the optimum designs of service braking system for low-speed goods vehicle, tests were carried out in ac-cordance with GB7258-2012 safety specifications for power-driven vehicles operating on roads. Research and practice in a long period proves the optimum designs are service manual hydraulic braking system for load less than one ton low-speed goods vehicle, but are service power pneumatic braking system for load more than one ton low-speed goods vehicle.%论述了我国低速货车配备行车制动系统的现状,低速货车行车制动系统直接影响其行车安全,试验按照强制性国家标准GB7258-2012《机动车运行安全技术条件》进行,经过研究人员长期研究和实践证明,得到最佳方案是:载重量小于1t的低速货车配备行车人力液压制动系统;载重量大于1t的低速货车配备行车动力气压制动系统。

  12. Optical classification for quality and defect analysis of train brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glock, Stefan; Hausmann, Stefan; Gerke, Sebastian; Warok, Alexander; Spiess, Peter; Witte, Stefan; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an optical measurement system approach for quality analysis of brakes which are used in high-speed trains. The brakes consist of the so called brake discs and pads. In a deceleration process the discs will be heated up to 500°C. The quality measure is based on the fact that the heated brake discs should not generate hot spots inside the brake material. Instead, the brake disc should be heated homogeneously by the deceleration. Therefore, it makes sense to analyze the number of hot spots and their relative gradients to create a quality measure for train brakes. In this contribution we present a new approach for a quality measurement system which is based on an image analysis and classification of infra-red based heat images. Brake images which are represented in pseudo-color are first transformed in a linear grayscale space by a hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) space. This transform is necessary for the following gradient analysis which is based on gray scale gradient filters. Furthermore, different features based on Haralick's measures are generated from the gray scale and gradient images. A following Fuzzy-Pattern-Classifier is used for the classification of good and bad brakes. It has to be pointed out that the classifier returns a score value for each brake which is between 0 and 100% good quality. This fact guarantees that not only good and bad bakes can be distinguished, but also their quality can be labeled. The results show that all critical thermal patterns of train brakes can be sensed and verified.

  13. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cutting out of secondary brake systems; (B) Inoperative or otherwise defective handbrakes or parking... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake... § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. Beginning on January 1, 2002,...

  14. 直流无刷电机再生制动系统试验台的设计与验证%Design and Verification of Brushless DC Motor Regenerative Braking System Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋妮; 王广萍; 李仲兴; 张德望; 顾剑波

    2011-01-01

    基于再生制动理论,以电动汽车用轮毂电机为主体,搭建了直流无刷电机再生制动试验台.以回收能量最大化为目标,提出了相应的再生制动控制策略.结合电机的输出特性和工作原理,利用SIMULINK软件建立了再生制动系统模型.通过模型仿真和试验台试验结果的对比分析,验证了再生制动试验台设计方案的可行性和控制策略的合理性.%Basod on theory of regenerative braking, with electric vehicle hub motor as subject, a brushless DC motor regenerative braking test bench is built. To maximize energy recovery, regenerative braking control strategy is proposed in the paper. In accordance with output characteristic and working principle of motor,regenerative braking system is established with software SIMULINK.By modeling simulation and contrastive analysis of the test result, feasibility of design program of regenerative braking test bench and rationality of control strategy are validated.

  15. Theoretical approach of disc brake system optimum design for drilling rigs%钻机盘式刹车系统优化设计的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕瑞典; 伍开松; 罗井泉

    2001-01-01

    The applied forces to braking disc and braking plier for discbrake system of drilling rigs are analyzed.Then the basic relationships of the consuming energy on the friction faces, forces and other factors are deduced.The expressions of energy transformation for disc brake system of drilling rigs are derived on the basis of the principle of energy conservation. By further analysis of the operating requirements of the disc brake system and main failure forms during braking periods, the theoretical curves of temperature change and consuming power changes are proposed.At case the optimum design model of the disc brake system for drilling rigs is established, and also some things related to the model are discussed.%分析了钻机盘式刹车系统中刹车盘和刹车钳的受力状态,导出了其受力和摩擦面上耗散功率等因素之间的基本关系式。根据能量守恒原理又推导了钻机盘式刹车系统的能量转换表达式。通过进一步分析盘式刹车系统的使用要求和刹车过程中失效的主要形式,提出了刹车盘摩擦表面温度变化的理想曲线和耗散功率变化的理想曲线。建立了钻机盘式刹车系统的优化设计模型,并进行了分析讨论。

  16. 新型高性能提升机智能电液制动系统的研究%Intelligent Electro-Hydraulic Braking System of New High Performance Hoister

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史世杰; 张根现; 马星河

    2011-01-01

    The high performance intelligent electro-hydraulic hoist braking system further improves the safety of large mine hoist braking performance.Using modern electro-hydraulic control theory,the system is made up of high performance disc brakes,brake on-line monitor system,constant deceleration,hydraulic station,constant deceleration cabinet and the speed measurement equipment.When emergency braking,the system can always brake as the pre-set deceleration speed,not change along with load or working conditionIt not only improves the safety and reliability of mine hoist,but also improves production efficiency.%为进一步提高大型矿井提升机安全制动性能,运用现代电液控制理论,设计了由高性能盘形制动器、制动器在线监控系统、恒减速度液压站、恒减速度电控柜,以及测速装置组成的智能电液制动系统。该系统在紧急制动时,能使制动减速不随负载、工况变化而变化,始终按预先设定的减速度值进行制动,既可提高矿井提升机的安全可靠性,又提高生产效率。

  17. 电动汽车再生制动系统仿真与分析%The simulation and analysis of electric vehile brake system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凯

    2016-01-01

    According to vehicle dynamics theory, The deeply theoretical researching and simulation are completed. the braking system is also analyzed entirely and thoroughly,including in the principle of energy recovery. the conformation of the regenerative-friction system、controltheory,innuencing factors and so on.Creating simulation data and curves show that regenerative braking distribution control strategy can assure high effcient energy recover.Gives some suggestion for the experiments and tests.%以电动汽车为研究对象,对其再生制动系统进行了深入的理论分析和仿真研究。从能量回馈的原理、再生-摩擦制动系统的结构、控制理论、影响因素等几个方面入手。对制动系统进行了全面、详细、深入的剖析,搭建了仿真模型。在此基础上进行了一系列仿真数据和曲线进行分析,为实车综合控制策略的制定提供参考。

  18. 车辆制动能量回收模拟系统设计与仿真%Design and Simulation of Vehicle Braking Energy Recovery Analog System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡普; 林慕义; 王连新; 郑鑫

    2016-01-01

    目前国内液压节能汽车试验平台结构复杂,管路繁多,液压泵/马达、飞轮等的动态参数不确定,无法满足多种工况下的实验配合问题。新型车辆制动能量回收模拟系统,使用电液比例控制系统代替传统的液压泵/马达,可实现能量回收过程多种复杂工况的动态模拟。设计车辆制动能量回收模拟系统,运用MATLAB/Simulink软件,建立了车辆制动能量回收模拟系统的仿真模型,通过仿真得到了该模拟系统在充、放液过程中的动态特性,并设计了试验台架,为后续车辆制动能量回收系统的实验研究提供了平台。%At present, domestic hydraulic energy⁃saving automobile test platform structure is complex, the pipe is various, and the hydraulic pump/motor, flywheel and other dynamic parameters are uncertainty, so it can not meet the experiments with a variety of conditions. In the new type of vehicle braking energy recovery simulation system, the electro⁃hydraulic proportional control system was used to replace the traditional hydraulic pump/motor. It could realize dynamic simulations of a variety of complex working conditions in energy recovery process. The system of vehicle braking energy recovery was designed, and the simulation model of this system was es⁃tablished by using MATLAB/Simulink software. The dynamic characteristics of the simulation system during charging and discharging hydraulic fluid were figured out, and the test bench was designed initially. It provides platform for subsequent experimental verification of vehicle braking energy recovery simulation system.

  19. 东风EQ1166G车制动系统介绍及常见故障排除%Introduction of DongFeng EQ1166G brake system and its common trouble shooting.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋显斌; 王涛

    2001-01-01

    介绍了EQ1166G车制动系统部分制动阀类的功用,针对制动系统较容易出现的故障,进行分析判断,找出引起故障的原因,结合实际提出故障排除的具体方法。%Use of brake valves for brake system in DongFeng EQ1166G isintroduced and its common troubles are analyzed、 diagnosed and removed

  20. 120阀内孔径对制动系统性能的影响%The effect of the 120 valve apeture to the brake system performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 魏伟

    2012-01-01

    使用基于气体流动理论的列车制动系统数值仿真方法定量分析了120阀的紧急阀Ⅲ孔径、局减阀上的局减孔孔径、加缓风缸向列车管充气孔孔径对单编万吨列车制动、缓解特性的影响.仿真结果表明:紧急阀Ⅲ孔径对列车的紧急制动特性有明显的影响.该孔径在2.3 ~2.7 mm范围内能够保证在常用制动时不发生紧急作用,同时紧急作用也能正常发生,并且该孔径越大,其制动波速越慢,在紧急制动时,该孔径由2.35 mm增大到2.65 mm,其制动波速由283.2 m/s降低到244.2 m/s,降低了14.2%;局减阀上局减孔孔径对常用制动时的制动波速有明显的影响,孔径越大,其常用制动的制动波速越快,在减压100 kPa时,孔径为1.5 mm时比0.5 mm时制动波速增大了77.4%;加缓风缸向列车管充气孔的大小对缓解波速有明显的影响,该孔径越大,缓解波速越快,在减压100 kPa之后缓解的过程中,随着该孔径由0.5 mm增大到1.5mm,缓解波速增大了53.1%,小减压量制动后缓解时,该孔径大小对缓解波速影响较小.该结论为新阀的设计提供了参考.%The influence of emergency valve III hole, the local reduction valve hole, and the acceleration release cylinder hole to the train pipe on brake system characteristics was simulated with the train braking system numeri cal simulation method which based on air flow theory. The results show that the emergency valve III hole's size has obvious influence to the emergency brake characteristic of train; the hole size in the range of (2. 3 ~ 2.7) mm ensure the emergency application valve does not work in normal brake; the emergency valve III hole is big ger, its brake propagation speed is slower, the hole increases from 2. 35 mm to 2. 65 mm and its brake propagation speed changed from 283. 6 m/s to 244. 2 m/s, reduced by 14. 2% when it works; the size of the local re duction holes has influence to the service application brake

  1. Heat distribution in disc brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  2. Reliability Design of the City Rail Train Brake System Based on the Axis Control%基于轴控的城轨列车制动系统的可靠性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文文; 姚恩涛; 游有鹏; 王辉

    2013-01-01

    压电比例阀是一种新型气动阀,轴控是以列车单轴作为基本控制对象.为提高系统的可靠性,从系统架构出发,分析了轴控制动系统的冗余设计方案;以制动单元为对象,建立了车控制动单元和轴控制动单元的广义随机Petri网(GSPN)的可靠性模型,对两个系统稳态的可靠性进行了对比,为制动系统的进一步完善提供了可靠的数学模型.%The piezoelectric proportional valve is a new type of pneumatic valve, axle control regards the single axle as the basic control object. From the architecture of the system, the redundant design of the axle control brake system is analyzed to improve the system reliability. Based on the brake unit, the reliability model of the vehicle control and axle control brake system of generalized stochastic Petri net( GSPN) is established and the reliability of the system steadiness is compared, which provides reliable mathematical model to improve the brake control system.

  3. 刹车系统的摩擦自激振动和控制%FRICTION-INDUCED SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION AND CONTROL OF A BRAKE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾尚帅; 丁千

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear dynamics and control of friction-induced vibration in a brake system are investigated. Adopting the LuGre friction model, the dynamical equations of a 2-DOF disc brake system are derived by considering the friction force between the disc and the pad. The critical speed of Hopf bifurcation of the equilibrium is obtained through stability analysis. The design method based on differential geometry and linear quadratic optimal control for SISO nonlinear system controller is used to reduce the chatter phenomena during deceleration-type braking by postponing the critical speed of Hopf bifurcation. At last, the influences of the controller and the system parameters are analyzed. The simulation result shows that the method based on differential geometry and linear quadratic optimal is effective to control the self-excited vibration.%研究刹车系统的摩擦自激振动和控制问题。采用LuGre模型计算摩擦力,建立了两自由度盘式刹车系统的动力学模型。通过平衡点的稳定性分析,给出Hopf分岔失稳的临界速度。应用基于微分几何法和线性二次型最优控制相结合的方法,设计单输入单输出的非线性系统控制器,以便通过推迟系统的分岔临界速度,减少减速型刹车过程中的摩擦颤振,避免刹车啸叫。最后分析了控制器和系统参数对控制效果的影响。仿真表明,该控制器能有效的抑制刹车系统中的摩擦自激振动。

  4. Research on Recovering System of Braking Energy in Hydraulic Excavator%液压挖掘机制动能量的回收系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文海; 郑辉; 邓斌; 刘桓龙

    2013-01-01

    针对传统液压挖掘机回转系统能量损失严重的问题,提出并设计一套液压挖掘机回转制动能量回收系统.分析该系统工作原理,以及液压蓄能器的参数匹配,通过AMESim软件建立模型,并进行仿真分析.仿真结果表明:该回转制动能量回收系统使挖掘机回转系统的节能效率达到50%左右,蓄能器进行能量回收的效率达到66.9%,回收能量再利用效率为50.3%,实现了节能减排的目的.%The paper proposes a recovering system of swing braking energy, which is designed to reduce the energy loss in hydraulic excavators swing system. Furthermore, the principle of the recovering system and the parameters of hydraulic accumulator are introduced. The simulation model is built by AMESim, Simulation results shown that the hydraulic excavator equipped with the recovering system of swing braking energy can save about 50% energy compared with the traditonal hydraulic excavator. The energy recovery efficiency can reach to 66. 9% with the hydraulic accumulator. The recovery energys utilization efficiency also can achieve 50. 3%. Thus, the recovering system meets the goal of energy-saving and emission-reduction.

  5. 防抱死刹车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Run time adaptation of UMTS services to available resources; Self-learning fuzzy sliding-mode control for antilock braking systems; Simulated and experimental study of hydraulic anti-lock braking system using sliding-mode PWM control;Sliding mode control on electro-mechanical systems; SMB block copolymers, or the power of nanostructuration; The study of the stiction free magnetic recording head with DLC pad -the optimization of DLC pad and ABS design

  6. Modeling and Analysis on Braking Hydraulic System for LHD Based on Automation Studio%基于Automation Studio地下铲运机制动液压系统建模分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 韩飞

    2016-01-01

    该文以CY-6型地下铲运机的重要单元之一制动液压系统为研究对象,该系统采用的是SAHR型制动器系统,其为全液压单回路式的制动形式,分析其工作原理,并对动作执行机构及所受载荷进行研究,在此基础之上,应用Automation Studio仿真分析软件搭建整机制动液压系统的仿真分析模型,对其动态工作过程进行仿真分析,获取了系统的充液过程和制动过程的性能曲线和相关参数,为实现该种车辆制动液压系统的优化设计获得理论参考和技术支撑,具有一定的工程应用价值。%In this paper, CY-6-type LHD braking hydraulic system as the research object, the system uses the SAHR type braking system, which is single-loop hydraulic braking system. Analyze the working principle of the system, and the action actuator and suffered payload. On this basis, the application of Automation Studio simulation software to build a model of braking hydraulic system. Simulation dynamic working process. And get the performance curve of filling process and the braking system and related parameters. To achieve optimal design this kind of vehicle hydraulic steering system to obtain a theoretical reference and technical support, with some engineering value.

  7. Design of a Disk Brake for Belt Conveyor Hydraulic Control System Design%一种带式输送机盘式制动器液压控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹秀洪

    2013-01-01

      文中基于盘式制动器设计了一个液压控制系统,该系统的设计是针对带式运输机在运输过程中的控制问题设计的,所以它的稳定性能和反映能力都占有绝对的优势。文中简单的介绍了液压系统遇到松闸过程、保压过程、正常停车、超速制动、紧急制动和系统突然断电等情况时的运行状况。%  Based on the design of disk brake on a hydraulic control system, the system design is for the belt conveyor in the transportation process control design, so its stability properties and screening ability has the absolute advantage. This paper introduces the hydraulic system of brake loosing process, encountered pressure, normal parking, overspeed braking, emergency braking and system failure, when the running state airport.

  8. Analysis of the Temperature Thresholds of Medium-sized T ruck’s Drum Brake System Based on Simulative Continuous Brake in the Continuous Long Dow nhill%模拟长下坡连续制动的中型货车鼓式刹车系统温度阈值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛刚; 胡立伟; 孙亚南; 祁首铭; 李耀平

    2015-01-01

    Medium‐sized trucks need to be braked constantly when they are driven in the continuous long dow nhill and large trucks are more frequent .Because of the frequent braking ,the temperature of the braking system will rise sharply and the thermal fade will happen .This article analyzes the tem‐perature changes of full loaded medium‐sized trucks’ braking friction surface ,top of the brake shoe , inside of the brake shoe based on the data of the relevant experiment .It deduces the relationship be‐tween the highest temperatures of the three parts considering safety and comes to the conclusion that the temperature of the three parts will be higher when the trucks have the bigger initial velocities .It can prevent traffic accidents from happening by reminding the drivers before the thermal fade .%中型货车在连续长下坡路段行驶通常需不断制动,大型载重车辆制动更为频繁。由于频繁制动,会导致刹车系统温度急剧上升,从而出现热衰退现象。文中依据模拟中型货车满载状态连续长下坡鼓式制动器制动实验,通过实验数据分析,中型货车满载状态连续长下坡时鼓式制动器摩擦片表面、制动蹄顶部和制动蹄内侧3个部位的温度变化规律,推导出摩擦片失效温度与制动蹄顶部及内侧危险温度阈值之间对应关系,得到当初速度不断上升的过程中,摩擦片表面失效温度和制动蹄顶部和内侧的拟合危险温度阈值在一定范围内也同时上升的结论,在热衰退出现之前向驾驶员发出温度预警,有效控制因刹车系统热衰退导致交通事故的发生。

  9. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  10. 城市公交车机电复合制动能量回收系统研究%Study on Electro-mechanical Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹政耀; 陈晓东; 金佳骏

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the city bus characteristics of low speed operation and frequent start and stop conditions,an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed in this paper,which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function.The system was designed and the braking simulation validated its feasibility.The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy,improve the starting performance of the bus and it will be applied to city bus engineering in the future.%城市公交车辆运行工况复杂,需频繁启停,大量的能量浪费于车辆的制动。针对该现象,提出了采用高速飞轮和蓄电池组合的机电复合制动能量回收及二次牵引理论;进行了系统设计和制动工况仿真实验,验证了方案的可行性。实验证明:该系统能有效地回收利用城市公交车制动能量,改善起步性能,并具有成本低、易实现的特点。

  11. 基于AMESim的100%低地板轻轨车制动系统仿真研究%Simulation Research of 100%Low Floor Light Rail Vehicle Braking System Based on AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志超; 倪文波

    2016-01-01

    100%低地板轻轨车是目前城市轨道交通系统中发展十分迅速的交通形式。由于它采用低地板结构,导致车下空间狭小,需采用体积较小的液压制动系统。针对应用最普遍的2M1T模块的100%低地板轻轨车制动系统进行研究,在提出制动系统方案的基础上运用AMESim软件完成制动系统建模,选择超员载荷工况下的最大常用制动和紧急制动两种制动工况进行仿真分析,仿真结果验证了该方案的正确性,可对100%低地板轻轨车制动系统的研究与开发提供参考。%100%low floor light rail vehicle is a transportation form which is developed very rapidly in urban rail transit systems. Due to its structure with low floor, the space underneath is narrow, so 100%low floor light rail vehicle has to use hydraulic braking system, which has smaller volume.The research on the widely used 100%low floor light rail vehicle braking system which was consis-ted of 2M1T was carried out.On the basis, the scheme of braking system was proposed, the braking system was modeled by using AMESim software.Then full service braking and emergency braking in overcrowding load condition were chosen to be simulated and an-alyzed.The correctness of the scheme was verified by simulation results.The simulation results can provide reference for research and development of 100%low floor light rail vehicle braking system.

  12. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  13. Regenerative braking control technology for wheel-side electric driving system%轮边电力驱动系统再生制动控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞永明; 兰皓; 蒋佳; 李生博; 吴昊; 金晓林

    2011-01-01

    轮边电力驱动系统中的再生制动系统主要涉及制动能量分配控制技术和再生制动能量回收控制技术.轮边电力驱动工程机械采用双向DC/DC变换器,结合电压电流双闭环控制实现超级电容的储能,从而控制再生制动能量的回收.通过MATLAB建模仿真表明,在满足安全制动的前提下,能够实现最大化的能量回收.%The regenerative braking system of wheel-side electric driving system mainly comprises the control technologies for braking energy distribution and regenerative energy recovery. To control the regenerative braking energy recovery, a bi-directional DC/DC converter, together with a double closedloop voltage-current control, is applied for super-capacitor energy storage of relevant construction machinery. By employing MatlabTM modeling and simulation, it is indicated that the energy recovery maximization could be realized to meet the demand on braking safety.

  14. 轻型电动汽车新型制动能量回收系统的研究%Research of a new brake energy recovery system of the light electric car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新彦; 赵培; 桂天; 张胜文; 李忠国

    2013-01-01

      针对目前电动汽车制动能量回收效率偏低的问题,采用制动能量回收与利用并举的方法,以长安奔奔mini为样车,设计了一种新型制动能量回收系统,使再生制动时一部分电流为车载电池充电,一部分电流经整流转换后提供给开启的车用电器;建立该系统的动力学模型,得到了再生制动时功率Pe 与电机转速n的对应关系;并搭建了该新型制动能量回收系统的模拟实验平台,采用并行制动控制策略,测得了再生制动时回收利用的功率及其电机转速的时间历程曲线,通过计算得出了回收利用的制动能量及其效率.实验结果表明:当电机(2830 r· min-1)开始制动时,新型制动能量回收系统的效率提高了5.01%,验证了该设计方案的可行性与有效性.%In order to solve the problem of the low efficiency of braking energy recovery systems , a method of re-covering and utilizing braking energy was used to design a new braking energy recovery system based on the Chang'an Benben mini car .One part of the electric current was used for the recharge of the battery , while the other part of the current supplied the electrical devices of the car after current rectifier .The dynamic model of the new braking energy recovery system was established , the corresponding relations of the regenerative braking pow-er ( Pe ) and the motor speed ( n) with time were obtained and the simulative experiment device of the new bra-king energy recovery system was developed .The power and corresponding rotating speed of the electric engine with time were measured by the experiment with parallel control strategy , and then the energy and the efficiency of regenerative braking were calculated .The experimental results show that when the motor begins to brake from the speed of 2 830 r· min -1 , the efficiency of the new braking energy recovery system is increased by 5.01%compared with that of

  15. 无模型自适应控制在飞机防滑刹车中的应用%Application of Model Free Control Technology on the Aircraft Anti-skid Brake Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时伟; 刘文胜; 陈建群

    2012-01-01

    Considering the complexity and nonlinear of aircraft antiskid braking system, by analyzing the principle of aircraft anti -skid braking system, an aircraft anti-skid brake control algorithm based on model free adaptive control is presented. Not need to establish accurate dynamic model, the method can achieve optimal slip ratio control by using the information of braking system input and output. Simulation results show that the control scheme based on model free adaptive control achieve stable slip rate within five seconds, and provides a new way of improving the efficiency of the aircraft brake.%针对飞机防滑刹车系统的复杂性和非线性,在分析滑移率控制式飞机防滑刹车系统的工作原理基础上,提出了一种基于无模型自适应控制的飞机防滑刹车控制算法;该算法无需精确的动力学模型,直接利用输入输出信息实现飞机防滑刹车的最佳滑移率控制;仿真结果表明:采用无模自适应防滑刹车控制算法,在5s之内就能获得稳定的滑移率,为提高飞机刹车的效率提供了一条新的思路.

  16. Auxiliary brakes for trucks : research into the behaviour of a tractor-semi-trailer combination during emergency breaking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijks, A. Blijswijk, W.A.M. van Genugten, J. van Meeke, G.J.M. & Schlösser, L.H.M.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to obtain an insight into various secondary braking systems for goods vehicles. Practical tests were carried out with a tractor- semi-trailer combination. The performance of various split braking systems as well as spring brake actuators are shown. With nearly all of

  17. Study of Hydraulic Regenerative Braking System in Electrical Vehicle%基于CPS的新型电动汽车液压再生制动能量回收系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翎霄

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve efficiency of recovering braking energy in electrical vehicle, a constant pressure hydraulic regenerative braking system with flywheel has been designed after comparing several hydraulic regenerative braking schemes. Then the joint braking and CEC-15 driving condition simulation based are processed. The results of simulation indicate positive correlation between displacement of pump/motor and efficiency of energy recovering under a certain value of displacement and driving range of electrical has been prolonged by 24%.%针对纯电动汽车能量利用率低的问题,提出对电动汽车进行制动能量回收,通过比较多种液压制动能量回收方案与储能方式,认为定压源飞轮液压再生制动系统较合理,且对该系统分别进行汽车联合制动工况和城市循环工况仿真,分析系统制动能量回收利用率和节能效果,仿真结果显示,泵/马达排量在一定范围内,制动能量回收效率与排量大小呈正相关,续驶里程能提高24%左右。

  18. Clutches and brakes design and selection

    CERN Document Server

    Orthwein, William C

    2004-01-01

    FRICTION MATERIALSFriction CodeWearBrake FadeFriction MaterialsNotationReferencesBAND BRAKESDerivation of EquationsApplicationLever-Actuated Band Brake: Backstop DesignExample: Design of a BackstopNotationFormula CollectionReferencesEXTERNALLY AND INTERNALLY PIVOTED SHOE BRAKESPivoted External Drum BrakesPivoted Internal Drum BrakesDesign of Dual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesDual-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design ExamplesDesign of Single-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum BrakesSingle-Anchor Twin-Shoe Drum Brake Design Exam

  19. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness.

  20. Evaluation strategy of regenerative braking energy for supercapacitor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhongyue; Cao, Junyi; Cao, Binggang; Chen, Wen

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%.

  1. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...

  2. Optimization method of frictional braking force distribution for integrated system of electromagnetic and frictional braking of car%轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统摩擦制动力分配优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何仁; 赵强; 胡东海

    2015-01-01

    分析了轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统的结构与工作原理,推导了轿车前后轴利用附着系数的计算公式。以 ECE R13制动法规与电磁制动器设计要求为约束条件,以轿车前后轴实际利用附着系数与理想状态制动强度差值的平方和最小为目标函数,以 MATLAB 优化工具箱为计算工具,建立了轿车电磁与摩擦制动集成系统摩擦制动力分配优化方法,计算了不同工况下的摩擦制动力分配最优值。计算结果表明:当制动强度分别为0.1、0.2、0.3、0.4、0.5、0.6、0.7、0.8时,优化前的目标函数值分别为0.03、0.05、0.07、0.07、0.08、0.07、0.06、0.04,优化后的的目标函数值分别为0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.00、0.01、0.01,优化后,目标函数值明显减小,轿车前后轴利用附着系数曲线更靠近理想曲线,且均在 ECE R13制动法规控制曲线的下方,因此,提出的优化方法满足ECE R13制动法规的要求,轿车制动稳定性得到提高。%The structure and working principle of integrated system of the electromagnetic and frictional braking for car were analyzed.The calculation formula of utilization adhesion coefficient for front and rear axles was derived.The ECE R13 braking regulation and the design requirement of electromagnetic braking were taken as constraint conditions,the minimum square sum of differences between the actual curve of utilization adhesion coefficient and the braking strength of ideal condition for front and rear axles was taken as objective function,MATLAB optimization toolbox was employed,the optimization method of frictional braking force distribution for the integrated system of electromagnetic and frictional braking was established,and the optimal values of frictional braking force distribution under different conditions were calculated. Calculation result indicates when the braking strength is 0

  3. 复合式制动气室性能在线检测系统设计%Disquisition of Performance On-line Detection System for Brake Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁霞; 罗哉

    2012-01-01

    设计并实现复合式制动气室性能在线检测系统,弥补国内对复合式制动气室性能在线检测研究存在的不足.引入伺服加载机构,突破以往检测中推杆行程限位装置加载速度不可控的局限,实现限位装置的加载速度精确可调;应用高速数据采集卡和计算机控制技术,提高系统的采集速度和测量精度.可对多类型的复合式制动气室驻车制动腔静特性、行车制动腔静特性、开始释放压力等性能进行在线测试和分析.通过试验分析表明检测系统能真实准确的对复合式制动气室的性能进行在线检测,检测周期小于2min/个,其测量精度达到实际应用的要求,并采用R&R法客观的分析检测系统,已达到新设备的验收条件.%The on-line detection system for brake chamber was designed and realized, which made up for the domestic deficiency of on-line detection research for brake chamber. Servo-loading mechanism was introduced in the design of test system to break through the limitation of which previous test can not control the load speed of brake chamber and to achieve load speed precisely and adjustably. Using high-Speed data collection card and computer control technology to improve the sampling speed and the measuring accuracy of the system. It can test as well as analysis the static characteristic of parking brake chamber, static characteristic of service brake chamber and hold-off pressure on-line. Through the test and analysis shows that, the detection system can true accurate the performance of complex braking gas chamber by on-line detection, which the period less than 2 min, the measuring precision has met the practical requirement. Using the R&R method to objectively analysis the detection system, has reached the conditions of the new equipment successfully.

  4. CCBII制动机系统模式追踪与多故障诊断技术%Mode Tracking and Multiple Faults Diagnosis of CCBII Brake System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志武; 宾睿; 杨迎泽; 刘伟荣

    2014-01-01

    由于CCBII制动机具有多种工作模式,工况复杂,工作部件繁多且耦合性强等特点,经常有多故障并发。传统的故障诊断技术难以对其进行多故障诊断。本文在基于解析冗余关系的诊断技术上,引入差分进化算法进行多故障检测与定位。首先构建制动机各工作模式模型,并推导系统的扩展全局解析冗余关系以获得模式转变特征表和系统故障特征表,再引入一致性向量比较特征表,实现系统的模式追踪。当模式追踪失败后,构建候选故障假设集,对每个候选故障设计基于差分进化算法参数估计器,通过比较候选故障参数的平均适应函数值,定位同时发生的多个故障,实现制动机系统多故障实时在线检测。最后通过仿真实验和实际应用验证本文方法的有效性。%Due to the fact that the CCBII brake system is characterized by multiple operation modes,complex working environments and mutiple number of components with strong coupling,multiple faults may often hap-pen simultaneously.It is difficult to carry out multiple faults diagnosis for the CCBII brake system using the traditional fault diagnosis techniques.In this paper,the differential evolution algorithm was introduced into the diagnosis technique based on the analytical redundancy relations to implement multiple faults detection and lo-cation.Firstly,the models of working modes were established and the augmented global analytical redundancy relations(AGARRs)for the system were deduced to obtain the mode-change signature matrix and fault signa-ture matrix.Mode tracking was done by comparing the two signature matrixes with coherence vectors.Once mode tracking failed,the candidate fault assumption sets were established correspondingly.Furthermore,fault parameter estimators were designed on the basis of the differential evolution algorithm.Multiple faults were i-dentified among the hypothesis sets by calculating the

  5. Design of brake pedal displacement measuring system based on Hall sensor%基于霍尔传感器的制动踏板行程测量系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东辉; 吴初娜

    2012-01-01

    To solve the requirements of collecting the brake pedal displacement data in the driving simulator and locate the brake pedal position accurately,a brake pedal displacement measuring system which consists of two Hall sensors,seven small magnets,one SCM control system was presented,its working principle and realizing method were introduced.The Hall effect principle was used to locate the brake pedal position.The pulse signal was detected and output by Hall sensors,and was sent to the SCM control system after phase reverse and demodulation.The SCM calculated the brake pedal displacement based on the pulse signal.The result proves that the measurement error of the system is less than ±3%,and the measuring performance is stable.It also has the advantages of small dimension and low cost.It can fulfill the requiring of measuring the brake pedal displacement.9 figs,6 refs.%为了解决驾驶模拟器中对制动踏板行程的数据采集需求,使其能精确判断出制动踏板所处的位置,设计了一种由2个霍尔传感器、7个小磁块和1个单片机控制系统组成的制动踏板行程测量系统,并介绍了其原理与实现方法。采用霍尔效应原理来测量制动踏板的行程,通过霍尔传感器感应到磁块后输出脉冲信号,将脉冲信号进行反向和相位解调处理后输入单片机控制系统;单片机控制系统根据脉冲信号计算得到制动踏板行程。结果表明,该测量系统的测量误差小于等于±3%,测量性能稳定,且具有体积小、成本低等优点,可以满足对制动踏板行程进行测量的需要。

  6. A mechanical brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a railway vehicle that accounts for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Chan Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for a railway vehicle provides an effective platform for testing the braking performance under various dangerous braking conditions. However, in general, four-brake calipers are required to implement a mechanical brake system for one car. In this article, we implement a brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system only with one brake caliper and three air tanks accounting for hysteresis and pneumatic cylinder dynamics, ultimately saving installation space and reducing financial budget costs. Since the brake caliper has a high nonlinearity, such as hysteresis resulting from friction and from the precompressed spring of the brake cylinder, we measured the hysteresis of the brake caliper clamping force for a mechanical brake system using loadcells, based on which a mathematical model was constructed for the hysteresis of the clamping force between the brake pad and the disk. Moreover, the pneumatic cylinder dynamics are identified and are implemented in three air tanks, together with hysteresis nonlinearity. The proposed brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation system is applied to the wheel-slide protection simulation of a railway vehicle with an initial speed of 80 km/h and demonstrated experimentally accounting for the hysteresis and brake cylinder dynamics.

  7. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing: Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. This testing was conducted on a five-axle combination vehicle with tractor brakes meeting the Reduced Stopping Distance requirement rulemaking. This report provides a summary of the testing activities, the results of various analyses of the data, and recommendations for future research. Following a complete brake rebuild, instrumentation, and brake burnish, stopping tests were performed from 20 and 40 mph with various brake application pressures (15 psi, 25 psi, 35 psi, 45 psi, 55 psi, and full system pressure). These tests were conducted for various brake conditions at the following GVWs: 60,000, 80,000, 91,000, 97,000, 106,000, and 116,000 lb. The 80,000-lb GVWs included both balanced and unbalanced loads. The condition of the braking system was also varied. To introduce these defects, brakes (none, forward drive axle, or rear trailer axle) were made inoperative. In addition to the stopping tests, performance-based brake tests were conducted for the various loading and brake conditions. Analysis of the stopping test data showed the stopping distance to increase with load (as expected) and also showed that more braking force was generated by the drive axle brakes than the trailer axle brakes. The constant-pressure stopping test data

  8. Recovering system of swing braking energy in hydraulic excavator%液压挖掘机回转制动能量回收系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管成; 徐晓; 林潇; 王守洪

    2012-01-01

    为了回收液压挖掘机在回转阶段的制动能量,提出一种基于回转马达进/出口压力差自动识别回转过程所处阶段,决策能量回收的全液压自动控制回转制动能量回收系统.引入一正态分布函数,以蓄能器压力状态(SOP)、液压泵出口压力以及负流量反馈压力为输入信号,根据负载的实时需求功率,提出一种以复合恒功率-负流量动力控制决策发动机和蓄能器主辅动力源的能量分配方法,保证回转机构的正常高效运转.仿真结果表明,当回转系统作为单独执行机构时,采用该回收系统的液压挖掘机,能够实现高达50.0%的再生制动能量用于驱动回转的能量回收利用效率,在相同工况下比同吨位液压挖掘机节能16.3%,不影响操作习惯和操作性能.%In order to recover the braking energy from the hydraulic excavator during swing phase,an automatic hydraulic-controlled braking energy recovery system was proposed which can automatically identify the swing stage by the pressure difference between inlet and outlet of the swing pump and determining distribution algorithm of the recovering energy. One normal school function was introduced. State of pressure (SOP) of the accumulator, the outlet pressure of the hydraulic pump and the feedback pressure from negative-flow control were considered as input signals. According to the real-time required power of the load, the energy distribution algorithm was proposed based on the comprehensive constant-power negative-flow control between the main power source and the auxiliary power source (that is engine and accumulator) , which ensures the normal operation of the swing mechanism. Simulation results show that the hydraulic excavator equipped with the swing recovery system can achieve 16. 3% energy saving compared with the baseline under the same working condition, and the overall chain efficiency from the total braking energy to the terminal swing mechanism is as

  9. Design of Energy Recovery Strategy and Simulation Analysis of Rotary Drill Hydraulic Braking System%牙轮钻机静液压制动系统仿真分析及能量回收方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐九龙; 张志壮; 赵静一; 王智勇; 唱荣蕾

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic braking is used on rotary drill, to avoid the impact on the pump caused by the system pressure fluctuations is necessary, and the kinetic or potential energy can be recycled for use of the rotary drill when braking.Through the calculation and simulation analysis of the hydraulic braking system, the pressure relief valve of parameters of the closed pump was adjusted, and the system pressure impact was reduced.Energy recovery strategy of the braking system was proposed, and the mathematical model was es-tablished and the energy recovery system was simulation analyzed.The relationship of the pressure increasing of the accumulator gas chamber along with time was obtained, and the relationship between the size of the throttle opening and the braking time was revealed. The efficiency of energy recovery braking system was calculated.The correctness of the using of hydraulic braking system on rotary drill and the feasibility of energy recovery strategy are verified.Energy recovery is implemented which tranforms the kinetic or potential ener-gy of the rotary drill to pressure energy of the accumulator, and a reference for energy recovery braking system on large vehicle is pro-vided.%牙轮钻机采用静液压制动,需要避免系统压力波动对泵产生的冲击,同时钻机的动能或者势能可以回收再利用。通过对静液压制动系统的计算与仿真分析,对闭式泵高压溢流阀参数进行调整,减小系统压力冲击;提出了制动系统能量回收方案,并对能量回收系统进行了数学建模与仿真分析,获得了蓄能器气腔压力随时间的增长关系,揭示了节流阀开度大小与制动时间的关系;对制动系统能量回收效率进行了计算。证明了牙轮钻机采用静液压制动系统的正确性以及能量回收方案的可行性,实现了将钻机动能或者势能转换为蓄能器压力能的能量回收,为大型车辆制动系统能量回收提供了参考。

  10. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & amp; Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  11. Extended-Kalman-filter-based regenerative and friction blended braking control for electric vehicle equipped with axle motor considering damping and elastic properties of electric powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    Because of the damping and elastic properties of an electrified powertrain, the regenerative brake of an electric vehicle (EV) is very different from a conventional friction brake with respect to the system dynamics. The flexibility of an electric drivetrain would have a negative effect on the blended brake control performance. In this study, models of the powertrain system of an electric car equipped with an axle motor are developed. Based on these models, the transfer characteristics of the motor torque in the driveline and its effect on blended braking control performance are analysed. To further enhance a vehicle's brake performance and energy efficiency, blended braking control algorithms with compensation for the powertrain flexibility are proposed using an extended Kalman filter. These algorithms are simulated under normal deceleration braking. The results show that the brake performance and blended braking control accuracy of the vehicle are significantly enhanced by the newly proposed algorithms.

  12. Brake Stops Both Rotation And Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Johnny W.; Fleck, Vincent J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Combination of braking and positioning mechanisms allows both rotation and translation before brake engaged. Designed for use in positioning model airplane in wind tunnel. Modified version used to position camera on tripod. Brake fast and convenient to use; contains single actuator energizing braking actions against both rotation and translation. Braking actuator electric, but pneumatic actuator could be used instead. Compact and lightweight, applies locking forces close to load, and presents minimal cross section to airflow.

  13. 纯电动汽车电液复合制动系统联合仿真%Co-simulation Study of Electro-hydraulic Compound Brake System of Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 陈燎; 盘朝奉

    2014-01-01

    The study described the braking energy recovery system principle and structure. And then, according to the stroke simulator,high-pressure accumulator and hydraulic principles were established AMEsim based model,simulink-based vehicle dynamics model to establish a vehicle,motor,super capacitors and DC / DC converter models. The joint simulation of AMEsim-Simulink model was estab-lished based on all the above established model. In the vehicle initial condition of 36 km/ h,the brake pedal force size 30 N(small strength brake),50 N(small and medium strength brake)was simula-ted,and the simulation results were analyzed. In city conditions(low intensity brake),brake energy recovery rate was about 40% ,and the results showed the recovery effect is better.%介绍了制动能量回收系统的原理和结构,然后根据行程模拟器、高压蓄能器和液压泵的原理分别建立了以上部件基于 AMEsim 的模型,并应用 Simulink 建立了车辆整车动力学模型和电机、超级电容、DC / DC 变换器模型。以此为基础建立了 AMEsim-Simulink 联合仿真模型。在车辆初始行驶速度为36 km/ h 的工况下,分别选取制动踏板力为30 N(小强度制动)和50 N (中小强度制动)进行仿真,并对仿真结果进行了分析。结果表明:在城市工况下(小强度制动),制动能量回收率在40%左右,回收效果较好。

  14. Improvement of Wheeled Excavator JYL621E's Travelling and Braking System%JYL621E型轮式挖掘机行走制动系统改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 邹俊辉

    2013-01-01

    该文针对公司产品JYL621E在试验中出现的坡道不能起步和制动缓慢的问题,通过对JYL621E行走制动伺服控制系统进行分析,找出问题症结所在,并提出合理改进意见,经试验证明改进措施有效,问题得以解决,提高了主机的安全性能,进一步完善了产品.%This paper aimed at the problems of JYL621E appeared in test including can't start in ramp and brake slow,found out the reasons through analysis about its travelling and braking servo control system,gave reasonable suggestions proved effective for improvement,improved the safety performance of the product.

  15. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  16. Simulation and analysis of electric vehicle regenerative braking system with multiplex power supply%复合电源电动车再生制动系统的仿真与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚思良; 盘朝奉; 陈昆山; 陈龙; 马跃超

    2013-01-01

    针对以蓄电池为单一车载电源的纯电动汽车存在着功率密度低、能量密度低、使用寿命短等缺点,将超级电容引入到纯电动汽车的储能系统中,组成了超级电容—蓄电池的复合电源结构.在MATLAB/SIMULINK环境下建立复合电源储能系统和驱动系统的仿真模型.基于搭建的实验平台参数,以可能多地利用电机再生制动力、最大程度实现制动能量的回收为目的制定制动力分配控制策略,根据标准市区循环工况进行再生制动仿真实验.结果表明,此再生制动系统回收了24%的制动能量,可以很好地弥补了蓄电池的低功率密度和低能量密度等缺陷,提高车载能量的利用率和车辆的动力性能,延长电动车的续驶里程.%Because storage battery used for driving the electric vehicle only has low power density, low energy density and other disadvantages, supercapacitor was applied to the energy storage system in battery electric vehicle to form a multiple energy supply system with battery. The multiple energy supply system model and driving system model were established via simulation environment of MATLAB/SIMULINK. In order to use more motor regenerative braking force and maximize braking energy recovery module, the braking force distribution control strategy was developed based on experiment platform parameter. The regenerative simulation test was conducted according to the power demands under standard urban driving cycle. The result shows that the regenerative braking system can recycled 24% braking energy. The multiple energy supply system can make up for the low power density, low energy density and other defects of car battery very well. It can improve the energy utilization ratio and the dynamic performance of the vehicle, and extend the driving range of electric cars.

  17. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  18. 液压蓄能式车辆制动能量回收系统的AMESim仿真研究%Simulation Study of Hydraulic Regenerative Braking Energy System of Vehicles by AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天豪; 刘海朝; 祝昌洪

    2011-01-01

    The simulation model of hydraulic recovery braking energy system was built using AMESim. The energy loss and the factors affecting the braking performance were simulated. The simulation results show that in the braking process, energy loss made by vehicle resistance accounts for 16% of the total vehicle kinetic energy which is the main aspect of energy loss; the method to improve the efficiency of energy recovery is to increase the accumulator pre-charge pressure or to decrease the volume of accumulator; there is little influence on the energy recovery efficiency when changing the hydraulic pump/motor displacement, but it has a significant impact on the vehicle's starting and braking time.%建立车辆液压蓄能式制动能量回收装置的AMESim仿真模型,对其工作过程中的能量损耗情况和制动性能的影响因素进行仿真研究.仿真结果表明:能量回收制动过程中,由于车辆行驶阻力造成的损失占车辆总动能的16%,是能量损失的主要方面;提高能量回收效率的办法是提高蓄能器预充气压力或减小蓄能器体积;改变液压泵/马达排量对提高能量回收效率的影响不大,但可显著影响车辆的起动和制动时间.

  19. 基于 LabVIEW 的电动汽车制动能量回收测试系统%Braking Energy Recovery Test System of Electromobile Based on LabVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周全

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use the virtual instrument technology to design the test system in upper monitor for the brake ener-gy recovery whit automobile which can realize the test with or without braking energy recovery of electric vehicles , and obtain the test curve on recovery effect.Moreover, it can get the continue driving mileage, the total mileage in braking energy recovery. Therefore, it has certain practical significance.%采用虚拟仪器技术,设计了基于LabVIEW的电动汽车制动能量回收的上位机测试系统,可实现对电动汽车在有、无制动能量回收时进行测试,得到回收效果测试曲线,及制动回收对续驶里程及总里程的估算等功能,具有一定的实际意义。

  20. Research on the On-site Training Exam System of Automotive Braking Machine%机车制动机现场培训考试系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2015-01-01

    针对目前普遍存在机车司机培养时间短、 经验不足, 对机车操纵的熟练程度及对现象判断的准确性不高的问题, 采用气动技术、 依据流体力学理论, 设计开发了机车制动机现场培训考试系统. 经过在乘务员培训中的应用, 取得明显的效果, 提高了乘务员的制动机操作水平和对列车管判断的准确性.%The on-site training exam system of automotive braking machine was devised and developed with the pneumatic technology on the basis of liquid mechanics theory aimed at the problems such as short time of cultivation for the locomotive drivers, insufficient experience, and unskilled degree of controlling the locomotive, low accuracy to the estimation of the phenomenon. It was applied in the training of steward and achieved distinct effect, enhanced the level for steward to operate braking machine and judge the train braking pipe accurately.

  1. Analysis of the stability of PTW riders in autonomous braking scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonidis, Ioannis; Kavadarli, Gueven; Erich, Schuller; Graw, Matthias; Peldschus, Steffen

    2012-11-01

    While fatalities of car occupants in the EU decreased remarkably over the last decade, Powered Two Wheelers (PTWs) fatalities still increase following the increase of PTW ownership. Autonomous braking systems have been implemented in several types of vehicles and are presently addressed by research in the field of PTWs. A major concern in this context is the rider stability. Experiments with volunteers were performed in order to find out whether autonomous braking for PTWs will produce a greater instability of the rider in comparison to manual braking. The PTW's braking conditions were simulated in a laboratory with a motorcycle mock-up mounted on a sled, which was accelerated with an average of 0.35 g. The motion of the rider was captured in autonomous braking scenarios with and without pre-warning as well as in manual braking scenarios. No significant differences between the scenarios were found with respect to maximum forward displacement of the volunteer's torso and head (pautonomous braking at low deceleration will not cause significant instabilities of the rider in comparison to manual braking in idealized laboratory conditions. Based on this, further research into the development and implementation of autonomous braking systems for PTWs, e.g. by extensive riding tests, seems valuable.

  2. 基于微粒群算法的汽车底盘控制系统集成优化%Simultaneous optimization design of vehicle chassis integrated control system based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显贵; 陈无畏; 罗善明; 钟铭恩

    2015-01-01

    interferences between the mechanical structure and control system of vehicle chassis system and to further enhance the overall performance of vehicle, the method of simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis system based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm is presented in this paper. According to the fundamental principle of vehicle dynamics, a half car mode of active suspension system and anti-lock braking systems established at first. Then the linear quadratic gauss controller of the active suspension system and sliding mode controller of anti-lock braking system are designed. Taking controllers designed for active suspension system and anti-lock braking system as bottom controllers, the upper coordinated control logic of the systems is put forward and the upper PID coordinated controller is designed on the basis of analyzing the coupling conflict between active suspension system and anti-lock braking system. Finally, a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm was adopted for simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis integrated control system, because the traditional design method of a vehicle system is always to design control parameters following structure parameters and it can not obtain the global optimal performances for the system. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, the simultaneous optimization program is developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MATLAB environment while the mechanical structure and control parameters of chassis control system are set as optimization variables and the overall vehicle dynamics performance is set as objective function. Simulation result shows that the pitching angular acceleration of vehicle is reduced and vehicle riding comfort performance is improved after optimized. Braking distance and dynamic load of front and rear wheels of vehicle are also reduced significantly which indicating vehicle

  3. Squeal analysis of ventilated disc brake using ansys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Naser, Ahmed; Allam, Essam; Abouel-seoud, Shawki [Automotive and Tractors Engineering Department., Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, Ibrahim; Allam, Sabry [Automotive and Tractors Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    It is well-known that automobile brakes can generate several kinds of noises. Among them is squeal, a noise in the 1-15 kHz range. It is commonly accepted that brake squeal is initiated by instability due to the friction forces, leading to self excited vibrations. To predict the onset of brake instability, a modal analysis of the prestressed structure can be performed on an improved dynamic finite element model of ventilated disc brake with friction coupling. An unsymmetric stiffness matrix is a result of the friction coupling between the brake pad and disc; this may lead to complex eigenfrequencies. The complex eigenvalue method (Unsymmetric solver) used to analyse mode shapes associated with the predicted natural frequency. Creating the element of Matrix27 between the ventilated disc and pad was very important in studying the squeal of the coupled ventilated disc brake. The results demonstrated that the FEM for the coupled ventilated rotor and pad showed a good interaction between the non-linear contact and the linear modal analysis. Furthermore, the unsymmetric solver showed that the modes of the coupled disc-pad contained two types of mode. The first type was normal mode, which did not contain an imaginary part while the second type was complex mode that contained real and imaginary parts. Moreover, complex eigenvalue analysis predicted always more unstable modes than the number of squeal frequencies that really occur in the brake system. The maximum squeal index was observed at mode 16 and at frequency of 4083 Hz with instability of 480 sec-1. However; the tendency of instability (TOI) for the system at contact stiffness of 1 GN/m was 59 that gave the lowest instability of the system.

  4. Squeal analysis of ventilated disc brake using ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Naser, Ibrahim Ahmed, Essam Allam, Sabry Allam, Shawki Abouel-seoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile brakes can generate several kinds of noises. Among them is squeal, a noise in the 1-15 kHz range. It is commonly accepted that brake squeal is initiated by instability due to the friction forces, leading to self excited vibrations. To predict the onset of brake instability, a modal analysis of the prestressed structure can be performed on an improved dynamic finite element model of ventilated disc brake with friction coupling. An unsymmetric stiffness matrix is a result of the friction coupling between the brake pad and disc; this may lead to complex eigenfrequencies. The complex eigenvalue method (Unsymmetric solver used to analyse mode shapes associated with the predicted natural frequency. Creating the element of Matrix27 between the ventilated disc and pad was very important in studying the squeal of the coupled ventilated disc brake. The results demonstrated that the FEM for the coupled ventilated rotor and pad showed a good interaction between the non-linear contact and the linear modal analysis. Furthermore, the unsymmetric solver showed that the modes of the coupled disc-pad contained two types of mode. The first type was normal mode, which did not contain an imaginary part while the second type was complex mode that contained real and imaginary parts. Moreover, complex eigenvalue analysis predicted always more unstable modes than the number of squeal frequencies that really occur in the brake system. The maximum squeal index was observed at mode 16 and at frequency of 4083 Hz with instability of 480 sec-1. However; the tendency of instability (TOI for the system at contact stiffness of 1 GN/m was 59 that gave the lowest instability of the system.

  5. Analysis of brake condition and parameter matching of hybrid energy storage system for hybrid electric vehicles%混合动力车制动工况分析与储能装置参数匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟达; 王言子; 项昌乐; 刘辉

    2014-01-01

    为提高混合动力系统整体性能,实现高效能量回收,分析某重型越野车辆驾驶循环工况中制动过程的功率与能量分布,从制动能量回收率与电机参数出发讨论对储能装置的性能要求。提出电池组-超级电容复合储能装置的参数匹配方法,针对21 t级试验样车混合动力系统进行实例计算,论证锂离子电池组与超级电容组成的复合储能装置的性能。实例计算与道路试验结果表明:匹配的复合储能装置符合车辆整体性能与制动能量回收的要求,体积、重量满足总体设计约束;匹配超级电容后,储能装置的瞬时功率能力大幅提升,可显著提高车辆的制动能力和制动能量回收率。%According to the driving cycle of heavy off-road vehicles, the brake power and energy permutation is analyzed, and the performance requirement for the hybrid energy storage system( HESS) is achieved based on the brake energy recovery rate and motor parameters. The parameter matching method for the HESS is proposed and by which the instance calculation for the hybrid propulsion system of 21 tons class vehicles is carried out, and the performance of the HESS with Li-ion cells and ultra capacitors is discussed too. The instance calculation and the test results indicate that the designed HESS can meet the requirement of the total performance of the HEV and the brake energy recovery, the volume and weight answer for the restriction of the top design of the HEV. The designed HESS with ultra capacitors can increase the transient power volume greatly and the brake performance and the brake energy recovery rate are enhanced remarkably.

  6. Magnetic Braking Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Taam, R E

    2003-01-01

    We present a description for the angular momentum loss rate due to magnetic braking for late type stars taking into account recent observational data on the relationship between stellar activity and rotation. The analysis is based on an idealized two component coronal model subject to constraints imposed on the variation of the coronal gas density with rotation period inferred from the observed variation of X-ray luminosity, L_x, with rotation rate, Omega, (L_x \\propto Omega^2) for single rotating dwarfs. An application of the model to high rotation rates leads to a gradual turnover of the X-ray luminosity which is similar to the saturation recently observed in rapidly rotating dwarfs. The resulting angular momentum loss rate, \\dot J, depends on Omega in the form \\dot J \\propto Omega^beta where beta ~ 3 for slow rotators and ~ 1.3 for fast rotators. The relation at high rotation rates significantly differs from the power law exponent for slowly rotating stars, depressing the angular momentum loss rate without...

  7. Thermal Modeling of Disc Brake Rotor in Frictional Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Belhocine; Ghazaly, Nouby Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyze the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  8. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  9. Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    This proof-of-concept research was performed to explore the feasibility of using real-world braking data from commercial motor vehicles to make a diagnosis of brake condition similar to that of the performance-based brake tester (PBBT). This was done by determining the relationship between pressure and brake force (P-BF), compensating for the gross vehicle weight (GVW). The nature of this P-BF relationship (e.g., low braking force for a given brake application pressure) may indicate brake system problems. In order to determine the relationship between brake force and brake application pressure, a few key parameters of duty cycle information were collected. Because braking events are often brief, spanning only a few seconds, a sample rate of 10 Hz was needed. The algorithm under development required brake application pressure and speed (from which deceleration was calculated). Accurate weight estimation was also needed to properly derive the braking force from the deceleration. In order to ensure that braking force was the predominant factor in deceleration for the segments of data used in analysis, the data was screened for grade as well. Also, the analysis needed to be based on pressures above the crack pressure. The crack pressure is the pressure below which the individual brakes are not applied due the nature of the mechanical system. This value, which may vary somewhat from one wheel end to another, is approximately 10 psi. Therefore, only pressures 15 psi and above were used in the analysis. The Department of Energy s Medium Truck Duty Cycle research has indicated that under the real-world circumstances of the test vehicle brake pressures of up to approximately 30 psi can be expected. Several different types of data were collected during the testing task of this project. Constant-pressure stopping tests were conducted at several combinations of brake application pressure (15, 20, 25, and 30 psi), load conditions (moderately and fully laden), and speeds (20 and

  10. Braking Performance of a Biomimetic Squid-Like Underwater Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Mahbubar Rahman; Sinpei Sugimori; Hiroshi Miki; Risa Yamamoto; Yugo Sanada; Yasuyuki Toda

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the braking performance of the undulating fin propulsion system ofa biomimetic squid-like underwater robot was investigated through free run experiment and simulation of the quasi-steady mathematical model.The quasi-steady equations of motion were solved using the measured and calculated hydrodynamic forces and compared with free-run test results.Various braking strategies were tested and discussed in terms of stopping ability and the forces acting on the stopping stage.The stopping performance of the undulating fin propulsion system tured out to be excellent considering the short stopping time and short stopping distance.This is because of the large negative thrust produced by progressive wave in opposite direction.It was confirmed that the undulating fin propulsion system can effectively perform braking even in complex underwater explorations.

  11. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with... stop under normal operating conditions. Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes are not to be actuated... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 56.14101 Section 56.14101...

  13. Mountain Braking Test Venue Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    resistance, and engine braking. The following equation shows this relationship: PB = W ∙ V ∙ ϴ - PA – PRR – PE. (1) The engine braking power...vehicle rolling resistance is due to tires and can be characterized as: PRR = CRR ∙ W ∙ V ∙ CT / 375 (HP), (3) where CRR is the tire-road interface...resistance is proportional to tire load results in the following equation: PRR = (0.0002455 ∙ V2 + 1.784 ∙ V) ∙ W/80,000 (HP). (4) The power absorbed

  14. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  15. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  16. Analysis to Regenerative Braking System Based on Maximum Energy Recuperation%基于最大化能量回收策略的再生制动系统分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    The author elaborates the basic principle of regenerative breaking, the hydraulic braking decoupling principle and the control strategy to realize maximum energy recovery through the typical regenerative breaking system.%阐述再生制动的基本原理;通过典型的再生制动系统结构,说明再生制动与液压制动解耦原理.以及实现最大化能量回收的控制策略。

  17. 纯电动汽车电—液复合制动系统控制算法的多边界条件优化设计%Optimization Design of EV Electro—Hydraulic Composite Braking System Control Algorithm with Multi—boundary Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉芳; 周丽丽

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of pure EV power system, an optimization design method of brake force control algorithm of electro-hydraulic composite brake system with multi - boundary conditions was proposed. And based on the analysis of boundary conditions, including the braking strength requirements, ECE regulations, and motor/battery characteristics etc, a reasonable range of brake force distribution ratio was achieved. And braking force distribution approach between the front and rear axles was brought out by considering such factors as the braking strength of demand and using frequency of the various adhesion coefficient roads. And the simulation analysis verifies the rationality and effectiveness of the brake force distribution algorithm.%根据纯电动汽车动力系统的特点,提出电—液复合制动系统控制算法的多边界条件优化设计方法.基于对制动强度需求、ECE法规和电机/蓄电池特性等多边界条件的分析,得出制动力分配比例的合理取值范围,以此为基础,提出根据制动强度需求和不同附着系数路面的使用频率等因素确定前后轴制动力分配系数的方法.仿真分析验证了制动力分配算法的有效性和合理性.

  18. Composite Energy Storage Control System Application on the Rig Braking Energy Recovery%复合储能控制系统在钻机制动能量回收中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董兴华; 栾苏; 魏培静; 李洪波; 刘晶晶; 乌买尔·达吾提

    2016-01-01

    石油钻机在工作过程中由于制动能量无法回收利用,造成了能量的巨大浪费。采用储能单元可以在电机制动时回收能量,在电机负载增加时作为辅助动力源进行电能补充。然而,这类设备的储能单元易损坏、整体采购成本高,不利于在石油钻井行业推广应用。鉴于此,对钻机原有电控系统进行扩展,加入控制单元和储能单元,提出制动能量回收利用方案和复合储能单元的改良设计,并设计了该系统的控制策略、保护策略和储能单元的模糊控制。通过实际应用证明该系统可以改善电能的质量和降低生产成本,对制动能量的有效回收利用效果明显。最后指出该复合储能控制系统在石油钻井行业的应用前景十分广阔。%The unrecoverable braking energy of oil rig during operation often results in huge waste of energy. The energy storage unit can recover the energy during braking and supply as an auxiliary power source when the mo⁃tor load increases. However, the energy storage units are easily damaged and the overall procurement costs are high, which makes it not preferable to promote application in the oil drilling industry. In view of this, the original rig electric control system can be extended to integrate the control unit and the storage unit. The braking energy re⁃covery program and a modified design of composite energy storage unit have been proposed. The system’s control strategy, protection strategy and the energy storage unit fuzzy control have been designed. The practical application shows that the system can improve the quality of electricity and reduce production costs, presenting efficient recov⁃ery of braking energy. The developed composite energy storage control system has a broad application prospects in the oil drilling industry.

  19. Contact Thermal Analysis and Wear Simulation of a Brake Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Békési

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental test and a coupled contact-thermal-wear analysis of a railway wheel/brake block system through the braking process. During the test, the friction, the generated heat, and the wear were evaluated. It was found that the contact between the brake block and the wheel occurs in relatively small and slowly moving hot spots, caused by the wear and the thermal effects. A coupled simulation method was developed including numerical frictional contact, transient thermal and incremental wear calculations. In the 3D simulation, the effects of the friction, the thermal expansion, the wear, and the temperature-dependent material properties were also considered. A good agreement was found between the results of the test and the calculations, both for the thermal and wear results. The proposed method is suitable for modelling the slowly oscillating wear caused by the thermal expansions in the contact area.

  20. IDEAL BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN THE AXLES OF THE TWO-AXLE VEHICLE SERVICE BRAKE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Podryhalo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The obtained analytical expressions allow us to evaluate the stability of two-axle vehicles at various slowdowns. An analytical expression for calculating the ideal according to condition stability ensuring of a two-axle vehicle at service brake applications of brake force distribution allows to offer automatic control devices for brake force adjucement. With decellerationg growth of the two-axle vehicle at service braking the braking force acting on the front axle should decrease relative to the brake force on the rear axle.

  1. 汽车ABS试验台传感器与系统灵敏度的确定%Determination of Sensors and System Sensitivity in the Motor Vehicle ABS Test-bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙仁云

    2001-01-01

    According to the test parameters requirement on an Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) test-bed of the motor vehicle,some sensors are selected and arranged in its test system.It is elementary task to select sensors optimally in this research.In this paper,a selection and computing method of five sensors in the test-bed are expounded.The test system sensitivities are made sure on the basis of the sensors connected with instruments.The result of a debug has shown that the method is reasonable.%依据汽车防抱死制动装置(简称ABS)试验台测试参数的要求,在测试系统中需要布置和选择相应的测量传感器,合理选择测量传感器是该试验台研制过程中的一项基本任务。详细阐述试验台使用的五个传感器的选择和计算方法,并根据传感器后接的二次仪表确定测试系统灵敏度。从调试结果可以看出,上述方法是合理的。

  2. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BRAKE REACTION TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Reaction time is the time taken to respond to a stimulus or change in the environment. It is a method to assess the time taken from the perception of a stimulus followed by mental processing for a motor response. Reaction time in various day to day activities as in driving a car is very important. Brake reaction time (BRT is the time taken for the driver to respond to visualize an object and to press the brake pedal. It is affected by many features like age, gender, neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Study has been undertaken to compare the BRT in male and female drivers and to analyze the effect of sex difference on Brake reaction time. MATERIALS & METHODS Male and female subjects between the age group of 25 – 35 years with driving license were included. Study is conducted in a stationary car. An in-house built; braking timer is fixed to the electric circuit of the braking system in the car. This device is wirelessly connected to the reaction time software installed in the laptop. The subject is instructed to press the brake pedal when the light changed from red to green in the laptop screen. 5 readings are taken and the mean BRT is recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS & RESULTS Statistical analysis done with unpaired student t test indicates that the BRT was more in the females than the males and was statistically significant (p value - 0007. CONCLUSION Gender difference has a significant effect on BRT and reaction time in female is longer than for the males.

  3. PROTOBINARY EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC BRAKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Z.; Kratter, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of stars are in multiple systems, especially binaries. Such objects form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be strongly magnetized. Most previous studies of binary formation have either ignored magnetic fields or focused on the initial core fragmentation into binary seeds. Here I focus on the effects of the magnetic field on the orbital evolution of the protobinary during the main accretion phase, after a pair of stellar seeds have formed. By simulating a 'seed' binary system with the sink particle treatment, we show that magnetic field plays a crucial role in removing the gas angular momentum and shrinking the binary separation. Through magnetic braking, strong magnetic field is very effective in suppressing the formation of circumstellar disks and circumbinary disk along with its spiral arm structures. The magnetic field can also be responsible for the population of the low mass-ratio binaries in the observed distribution. The magnetically-braked material will have equal chance of being accreted onto either binary seed, instead of the preferential accretion onto the secondary when magnetic field is absent. Furthermore, large field mis-alignment helps to produce rotationally-supported circumbinary disks even for relatively strong magnetic fields, by weakening the magnetically-dominated structure close to the binary. Hence to explain the observed properties of binaries, the magnetic effects deserve more careful considerations in the larger context of binary formation in future studies.

  4. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  5. 重载列车制动管路对制动性能的影响%Influence of braking pipe on braking performance for heavy haul train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏伟; 杜念博

    2011-01-01

    应用流体动力学理论,建立了重载列车制动管路模型与分配阀模型,求解了制动管路和边界点的动力学方程,仿真计算了制动过程中的制动系统性能,分析了列车主管和支管长度对制动系统性能的影响。分析结果表明:当列车主管长度由13.24 m增大为17.24 m时,在常用制动下,列车管路减压时间增大了30.75%,制动缸升压时间增大了20.45%,主管长度对常用制动的影响要强于对紧急制动的影响;当列车支管长度由0.50 m增大到5.00 m时,在常用制动下,列车管路减压时间增大了6.63%,制动缸升压时间增大了5.22%,支管长度对常用制动和紧急制动影响程度差别不大。列车制动管路长度增大降低了列车制动管路减压速度与制动缸升压速度;列车主管长度对制动性能的影响要明显大于列车支管长度的影响,车辆位置距机车越远影响越明显。%With fluid dynamics theory,the models of braking pipe and distributing valve for heavy haul train were built,the equations of braking pipe and boundary point were solved,the braking system performances in braking process were simulated,and the influence of the lengths of main pipe and branch pipe on the braking performances was analyzed.Analysis result shows that under common braking,when the length of main pipe increases from 13.24 m to 17.24 m,the decompression time of braking pipe increases by 30.75%,and the boost time of braking cylinder increases by 20.45%.The influence of main pipe on common braking is even stronger than that of main pipe on emergency braking.Under common braking,when the length of branch pipe increases from 0.50 m to 5.00 m,the decompression time of braking pipe increases by 6.63%,and the boost time of braking cylinder increases by 5.22%.The influence of branch pipe on common braking is almost same for that of branch pipe on emergency braking.The increase length of braking pipe reduces the decompression speed of braking pipe

  6. 基于AVR单片机的飞机刹车控制盒仿真器的控制系统%Design of Control System for Aircraft Brake Control Box Emulator Based on AVR Microcontroller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒名佳; 谢利理; 汪楚锟

    2012-01-01

    对于现代航空刹车数字控制盒的性能及功能要求,提出基于AVR单片机的仿真器控制系统的实现.本系统以AVR单片机为控制核心,通过模数转换器采集刹车电流信号,检测各通道的故障信号.通过控制真实负载和模拟通道的转换完成仿真实验,并实时上传数据作记录.%A new type of the actuator control system based on AVR microcontroller is proposed for the performance and the function of the modern aircraft braking digital box. AVR microcontroller is adopted as the control core, through ADC converter collecting braking current signal, the fault signals of every channel are detected. Simulation is completed by controlling the real load and transforming the analog channels. Meanwhile, the test data are uploaded and recorded in real time

  7. 运行中动车组制动系统故障原因分析及处理%An Analysis on The Fault Causes in Braking System of Bullet Train During Operatqion and Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹凤伟

    2015-01-01

    Since the 6th national railway speed upgrade in April 18th 2007 and the first time to run multiple units at the speed of 200km/h in China,the CRH series which is called "Harmony",in general has become a symbol marking that China' railway has stepped on the club of high-speed railway.As for multiple units,the braking system is related to safety,and it is also an important factor for railway speed upgrade.The speed-up of railway need high-power traction and besides, the braking capacity shall be completely powerful.%我国铁路自2007年4月18日进行第六次大提速,并在国内首次开行时速200km动车组以来,统称为"和谐号"的CRH系列动车组即成为我国铁路迈入高速铁路俱乐部的象征.对于动车组来说,制动系统既关系到安全问题,也是列车提速的重要因素.列车的提速,除了要有大功率牵引外,还必须有足够强大的制动能力.

  8. 高速动车组制动系统用中继阀改型设计分析%Redesign and Analysis of Relay Valve for High-speed Electric Multiple Unit Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元清; 程国军; 庄国明; 汪枫

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the pressure surge of brake system and the characteristic curve between AC pressure and BC pressure when brake pressure is high, this paper proposes that relay valve are redesigned and developed for its fast dynamic response and stability. Reduc-ing effective action area and changing throttle hole diameter are introduced to improve the dynamic performance by designing calculation, utilizing AMESim simulation software and testing verification. It aslso contributes to the new design and optimization of pneumatic valve.%为改善高速列车制动系统中出现的BC压力较大时压力波动的现象,避免AC压力和BC压力特性曲线交叉现象,开展中继阀优化设计,提高中继阀的跟随性和稳定性。通过设计计算,利用AMESim软件进行仿真分析以及实物试验对比验证分析,得出改变中继阀AC腔的作用面积和节流孔孔径可以提高中继阀动态性能。同时,为气动阀类产品的设计优化提供指导意义。

  9. Chain of impact of the development of hot spots and hot rubbing in disk brakes of passenger cars; Wirkungskette der Entstehung von Hotspots und Heissrubbeln in Pkw-Scheibenbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarda, Angelo

    2009-07-01

    Aspects coupled with brake comfort represent challenges with the development of brake systems. During the brake process, so-called hot spots on the surface of brake disks are developed under certain conditions. These hot spots result in an irregular thermal expansion and deformation of the brake disk. This results in vibrations impacting the comfort and being known as 'hot rubbing'. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the most important results from extensive benchmark tests and supplies experimentally secured realizations to the chain of impact of the development of hot spots and 'hot rubbing' in a disc brake.

  10. Friction Wear Property of Brake Materials by Copper-based Powder Metallurgy With Various Brake Speeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiu; GAO Hong-xia; WEI Xiu-lan

    2004-01-01

    The experiment is conducted on MM-1000 friction test machine, which tests friction wear property of copper-based brake materials by powder metallurgy at different brake speeds. It shows that the coefficient of friction and wear volume are greatly influenced by brake speed. When the brake speed is 4000 r/min, which is a bit higher, the material still has a higher coefficient of friction with 0.47. When the brake speed is over 4000r/min, the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. When the brake speed is 3000r/min, the material's wear is in its minimum. That is to say no matter how higher or lower the brake speed is the wear volume is bigger relatively. With the brake speed of the lower one it mainly refers to fatigue wear; while of higher one it mainly refers to abradant and oxidation wear.

  11. 基于VC++和ADAMS/Car的汽车制动性能仿真分析系统%Simulation and analysis of automotive braking system based on VC++ and ADAMS/Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 孙虎; 杨波; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    To speed up the virtual development of the automobile braking system, VC++6.0 programming environment and the Junction of ADAMS are applied to execute the batch files based on the ADAMS/ CAR software,and the simulation and analysis system for automotive braking system is developed as well. Then a friendly convenient and the flexible man-machine conversation interface are developed by VC++ foreground.When the software is used,the user only is required to input the vehicle parameters and set the simulation parameters, which will be obtained from the backstage of the system and transformed to the ADAMS operating commands and encapsulated in acar.cmd file.ADAMS will automatically create a virtual model and simulate after executing the acar.cmd file, so that the data of the simulation is got.With the application of the system the modeling efficiency for virtual model is improved,which reduce the work load on study and design of braking system greatly.%为了提高汽车制动系统的虚拟研发速度,利用VC++6.0的编程环境和ADAMS可执行批处理文件的功能,以ADAMS/CAR软件为基础平台,开发了汽车制动性能仿真分析系统.通过VC++前台开发出友好、方便、易用的人机交互界面,用户在使用此软件时,只需在此界面中输入整车结构参数及仿真设置参数,系统在后台获取这些参数并转换为需要对ADAMS进行的操作命令后封装入acar.cmd文件中,ADAMS调用此文件后即可自动实现整车虚拟模型建立及计算仿真,并获取仿真试验数据.设计人员利用此系统,可提高虚拟模型的建模效率,大大减少汽车制动系统研究与设计的工作量.

  12. Braking, Wheeled Vehicles. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-20

    shields removed, inspect the internal brake components, perform a camshaft rotation test and record the measurement obtained. c. If with non-removable...preceding 24 months, perform a camshaft rotation test and record the measurement. (2) When proof of wheel removal is not provided, remove brake drum(s...adjustment. Reject the vehicle if: • The adjustment is not within the manufacturer’s specifications. 15. Brake Camshafts Procedure: With

  13. BRAKE TEST OF SiCp/A356 BRAKE DISK AND INTERPRETATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhiyong; HAN Jianmin; LI Weijing; WANG Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    Material properties are obvious different between aluminum matrix composites and iron and steel materials. After the brake disk braked at the same speed, the average temperature of the aluminum brake disk is 1.5 times as high as one of iron and steel brake disk, the thermal expansion value of the aluminum brake disk is 2 times as big as one of iron and steel brake disk. Mechanical property of the material decreases with the temperature increasing generally during braking, on the other hand, the big thermal stress in the brake disk happens because the material expansion is constrained. Firstly, the reasons of the thermal stress generation and the fracture failure of brake disks during braking are analyzed qualitatively by virtue of three-bar stress frame and sandwich deformation principles in physic, and then the five constraints which cause the thermal stress are summarized. On the base of the experimental results on the 1:1 emergency brake test, the thermal stress and temperature fields are simulated; The behavior of the fracture failure is interpreted semi-quantitatively by finite element analysis. There is the coincident forecast for the fraction position in term of the two methods. In the end, in the light of the analysis and calculation results, it is the general principles observed by the structure design and assembly of the brake disk that are summarized.

  14. Verification of pneumatic railway brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowiak, Tadeusz

    2010-03-01

    The article presents a survey of diverse methods for validation of pneumatic train brake modelling. Various experimental measurements of railway pneumatic brakes were made chiefly on a test stand at Poznań University of Technology; other test stands and some results have been taken from the literature. The measurements, some of them unconventional, were performed on separate pneumatic elements, brake devices, the brake pipe and fragments thereof. Mechanical devices were also included. The experimental measurement results were used for the verification of numerical models and for the determination of parameters. The latter was partially performed using an optimisation method.

  15. Plugging Braking of Two-PMSM Drive in Subway Applications with Fault-Tolerant Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. obed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM is commonly used as traction motors in the electric traction applications such as in subway train. The subway train is better transport vehicle due to its advantages of security, economic, health and friendly with nature. Braking is defined as removal of the kinetic energy stored in moving parts of machine. The plugging braking is the best braking offered and has the shortest time to stop. The subway train is a heavy machine and has a very high moment of inertia requiring a high braking torque to stop. The plugging braking is an effective method to provide a fast stop to the train. In this paper plugging braking system of the PMSM used in the subway train in normal and fault-tolerant operation is made. The model of the PMSM, three-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI controlled using Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation technique (SVPWM, Field Oriented Control method (FOC for independent control of two identical PMSMs and fault-tolerant operation is presented. Simulink model of the plugging braking system of PMSM in normal and fault tolerant operation is proposed using Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results for different cases are given.

  16. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  17. Design and Application of Hydraulic Brake System for Mega-watt Graded Wind Turbine%兆瓦级风力发电机组液压制动系统的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董连俊

    2015-01-01

    阐述了风力发电机组液压制动系统的工作原理,针对兆瓦级风力发电机组对液压制动系统的高集成化、高可靠性的要求,对液压制动系统进行深入研究探讨;针对现场实际应用中容易出现的问题进行了分析,并提出相应的解决方案。%For the purpose of high integration and high reliability, this paper introduces principle of hydraulic brake system for wind turbine, and conducts in-depth research of this system. According to problems during application, proposes corresponding resolving scheme.

  18. Development and Analysis of Train Brake Curve Calculation Methods with Complex Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Vincze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient method using simulation for developing and analyzing train brake curve calculation methods for the on-board computer of the ETCS system. An application example with actual measurements is also presented.

  19. XJ250修井机液压盘式刹车液压控制系统仿真分析%Simulation Analysis of the Hydraulic Control System of the Hydraulic Disc Brake on the X J250 Workover Rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张连业; 吴文秀; 刘威

    2012-01-01

    Taking as the object of study the hydraulic control system of the hydraulic disc brake on the XJ250 workover rig, the mathematical model on the basis of global flow and hydraulic cylinder piston motion equation was established by analyzing the structure of the control system. The AMESim simulation model for the hydraulic control system of the braking system was constructed and the model parameters and simulation parameters were set. The var- iation of the typical sine curve hydraulic source signal and excitation electromagnetic valve signal was used to carry out a simulation study of the response system of the operating brake hydraulic control system. The sudden opening of the step switch signal was used to conduct a simulation analysis of the urgency brake hydraulic system response. The hydraulic dynamic response curve of the main valve port of the hydraulic control system in the process of operating brake and urgency brake was derived. The simulation result is in agreement with the practical operation. The simulation analysis offers a reference for the improvement of the performance of the hydraulic control system of the workover rig disc brake.%以XJ250修井机液压盘式刹车的液压控制系统为研究对象,通过分析液压盘式刹车的液压控制系统结构,建立了基于全局流量与液压缸活塞运动方程的数学模型;构建了液压控制系统的AMESim仿真模型,设置了模型参数及仿真参数。以典型的正弦曲线液压源信号及激励电磁阀信号变化仿真研究工作制动液压控制系统响应性能,以阶跃开关信号突然开启模拟分析紧急制动液压系统响应。得到了工作制动及紧急制动过程中液压控制系统主要阀口处液压动态响应曲线,仿真结果与实际运行情况相符。该仿真分析为修井机液压盘式刹车液压控制系统性能的改进与完善提供了参考。

  20. 制动力作用下车辆-车站结构耦合系统分析%Analysis method for a vehicle structure coupled system under braking force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 夏禾; 程潜; G.De Roeck

    2011-01-01

    研究制动力作用下车辆-结构耦合系统的分析方法.以刚体动力学方法建立车辆子系统模型,以振型叠加法建立结构子系统模型,以给定的制动加速度时程、简化的Kalker蠕滑理论和轮轨密贴假定分别定义纵向、横向和竖向轮轨间相互作用力,采用时程积分和时间步内的力一运动状态迭代方式求解运动方程.作为算例,研究了深圳地铁4号线、6号线列车制动于深圳北站时车辆-结构动力耦合系统的动力响应,并对车站结构关键郎位的振动状态做出了分析和评价.%The analysis method for a vehicle-structure coupled system under braking force was studied. The vehicle subsystems were modeled using the rigid-body dynamics method, the structure subsystems were modeled with the modal superposition method. The longitudinal, lateral and vertical wheel-rail interacting forces were defined with the given braking acceleration time-history, the simplified Kalker creep theory and the wheel-rail osculation assumption,respectively. The equations of motion of the system were solved using the time-history integral method and the force-motion state iterations within time steps. As a case study, the dynamic responses of the vehicle-structure coupled system for Shenzhen North Station under brakings of Metro Line 4 and Line 6 trains were computed, and the vibration properties of some key structural parts of the station building were analyzed and evaluated.

  1. Analysis and Design of Circular Plate MR Fluids Brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan; Lin Chang-Hua; Li Hui; Zhou Jing

    2004-01-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluids brake is a device to achieve brake by shear force of MR fluids. A MR rotary brake has the property that its braking torque changes quickly in response to an external magnetic field. In this study, the design method of the circular plate MR fluids brake is investigated theoretically. The equation of the torque transmitted by the MR fluids in the brake is derived to provide the theoretical foundation in the design of the brake. Based on this equation, after mathematically manipulated, the calculations of the volume, thickness and width of the MR fluids within the circular plate MR fluids brake are yield.

  2. Braking indices of pulsars obtained in the presence of an effective force

    CERN Document Server

    Magalhaes, N S; Frajuca, C

    2016-01-01

    Braking indices of pulsars present a scientific challenge as their theoretical calculation is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study regarding such calculation which adapts the canonical model (which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles) basically by introducing a compensating component in the energy conservation equation of the system. This component would correspond to an effective force that varies with the first power of the tangential velocity of the pulsar's crust. We test the proposed model using data available and predict braking indices values for different stars. We comment on the high braking index recently measured of the pulsar J1640-4631.

  3. Vibration control of an artificial muscle manipulator with a magnetorheological fluid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, H.; Midorikawa, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, proposed applications of robots require them to contact human safely. Therefore, we focus on pneumatic rubber artificial muscle. This actuator is flexible, light, and has high-power density. However, because the artificial muscle is flexible, it vibrates when there is a high load. Therefore, we paid attention to the magnetorheological (MR) fluid. We propose a control method of the MR brake considering energy of the manipulator system. By this control method, MR brake dissipates energy leading to vibration of the manipulator. In this paper, we calculated the energy and controlled the MR brake. And, we deliberated the proposal method by simulation using the dynamic model of the manipulator, and experiment.

  4. Braking indices of pulsars obtained in the presence of an effective force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, N. S.; Okada, A. S.; Frajuca, C.

    2016-10-01

    Braking indices of pulsars present a scientific challenge as their theoretical calculation is still an open problem. In this paper, we report results of a study regarding such calculation which adapts the canonical model (which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles) basically by introducing a compensating component in the energy conservation equation of the system. This component would correspond to an effective force that varies with the first power of the tangential velocity of the pulsar's crust. We test the proposed model using data available and predict braking indices values for different stars. We comment on the high braking index recently measured of the pulsar J1640-4631.

  5. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  6. Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrenoud Alain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine particulate matter originating from traffic correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. An important source of traffic particles is brake wear of cars which contributes up to 20% of the total traffic emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential toxicological effects of human epithelial lung cells exposed to freshly generated brake wear particles. Results An exposure box was mounted around a car's braking system. Lung cells cultured at the air-liquid interface were then exposed to particles emitted from two typical braking behaviours („full stop“ and „normal deceleration“. The particle size distribution as well as the brake emission components like metals and carbons was measured on-line, and the particles deposited on grids for transmission electron microscopy were counted. The tight junction arrangement was observed by laser scanning microscopy. Cellular responses were assessed by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (cytotoxicity, by investigating the production of reactive oxidative species and the release of the pro-inflammatory mediator interleukin-8. The tight junction protein occludin density decreased significantly (p Conclusion These findings suggest that the metals on brake wear particles damage tight junctions with a mechanism involving oxidative stress. Brake wear particles also increase pro-inflammatory responses. However, this might be due to another mechanism than via oxidative stress.

  7. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  8. 公交客车制动能量回收系统起步仿真研究%Bus Braking Energy Recovery System Simulation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷允朝

    2015-01-01

    建立公交客车液压蓄能器回收起步数学模型,并在MATLAB/Simulink进行了仿真分析,结果表明:在水平良好道路上,以40km/h下的制动车速,蓄能器回收的能量使得公交客车起步行驶了20.96m。%Bus hydraulic accumulator started recycling mathematical model is established, In MATLAB/Simulink simulation analysis. The results show that:In horizontal well on the road, At 40 km/h speed is braking, Bus started driving the 20.96 m by accumulator recycling of energy.

  9. Impact of Brake Pad Structure on Temperature and Stress Fields of Brake Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing ABAQUS finite element software, the study established the relationship between a brake pad structure and distributions of temperature and thermal stress on brake disc. By introducing radial structure factor and circular structure factor concepts, the research characterized the effect of friction block radial and circumferential arrangement on temperature field of the brake disc. A method was proposed for improving heat flow distribution of the brake disc through optimizing the position of the friction block of the brake pad. Structure optimization was conducted on brake pads composed of 5 or 7 circular friction blocks. The result shows that, with the same overall contact area of friction pair, an appropriate brake pad structure can make the friction energy distribute evenly and therefore lowers peak temperature and stress of the brake disc. Compared with a brake pad of 7 friction blocks, an optimized brake pad of 5 friction blocks lowered the peak temperature of the corresponding brake disc by 4.9% and reduced the highest stress by 10.7%.

  10. Effect of surface texture and working gap on the braking performance of the magnetorheological fluid brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Li, Dong Heng; Li Song, Wan; Chao Xiu, Shi; Zhi Meng, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the surface textures of braking disc on the braking performance is experimentally investigated under the conditions of different working gaps and applied currents. For this purpose, a new configuration of magnetorheological fluid brake (MRB) with adjustable working gap is developed to improve the manufacturing accuracy and cost, and to reduce the problem of replacing the braking disc. In addition, the braking discs with three types of surface texture are designed and machined. Based on the test bed developed for the proposed MRB, a series of experiments are carried out on the manufactured prototype and the results are presented to obtain the relationship among the surface texture of the braking disc, applied current, working gap and the braking performance. The results show that the braking torque is significantly influenced by the working gap and surface texture of the braking disc, and the maximum braking torque is obtained on the conditions of 0.25 mm working gap and the braking disc with square surface texture.

  11. Electronic Brake-Force Distribution Control Methods of ABS-Equipped Vehicles During Cornering Braking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-ye; LIU Zhao-du; MA Yue-feng; QI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    Based on the dynamics of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking,the electronic brakeforce distribution (EBD) control methods of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking are proposed.According to the dynamics and the tire model under tire adhesion limit,the stability acceptance criteria of vehicles during cornering braking are proposed.According to the stability acceptance criteria and the ABS control,the EBD control methods of ABS-equipped vehicles during cornering braking are implemented by adjusting the threshold values of tires slip independently.The vehicle states during cornering braking at two typical initial velocities of the vehicle are analyzed by the EBD control methods,whose results indicate the EBD control methods can improve the braking performances of the vehicle during cornering braking comparing with the ABS control.

  12. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For rotorcraft with wheel-type landing gear, a braking device must be installed that is— (a) Controllable by the pilot... torque when starting or stopping the rotor; and (2) Hold the rotorcraft parked on a 10-degree slope on...

  13. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes. For rotorcraft with wheel-type landing gear, a braking device must be installed that is— (a) Controllable by the... torque when starting or stopping the rotor; and (2) Hold the rotorcraft parked on a 10-degree slope on...

  14. 制动盘模态分析及其在生产线检测系统上的应用%Modal Analysis of Brake Disc and Its Application to Production-line Inspection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚志刚; 叶方标; 蒋忠翰; 张昌福; 周亚男

    2014-01-01

    为确定制动盘固有频率的容差范围,首先对其进行了试验模态分析和有限元模态分析,二者固有频率的误差小于2%,各对应阶次模态振型一致。在此基础上,利用有限元概率设计方法对影响制动盘固有频率的各结构设计变量进行了灵敏度分析,计算了制动盘固有频率的变化范围。结果表明,制动盘盘体直径、散热辐条宽度与高度、盘体内圈厚度、盘体外圈长度与厚度和沟槽深度等尺寸对低阶固有频率具有显著影响。表明有限元概率设计技术为在线检测系统各阶固有频率容差的设定提供了有效手段。%For determining the tolerance ranges of the natural frequencies of brake disc, firstly both experi-mental modal analysis and finite element modal analysis are conducted with relative errors of natural frequency re-sults less than 2% and the mode shapes of each corresponding order well coincide. On this basis, the sensitivities of natural frequency to the structural design variables of brake disc are analyzed by using finite element probability de-sign method with the natural frequency ranges of brake disc calculated. The results show that the disc diameter, the width and height of ventilated blades, the thickness of inner disc, the length and thickness of outer disc, and the groove depth have significant effects on lower-order natural frequencies. The finite element probability design tech-nique provides an effective means for the setting of tolerances of natural frequencies in online inspection system.

  15. Tribomaterial factors in space mechanism brake performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, H. M.

    1990-01-01

    The asbestos/phenolic pads of Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) brakes are unsuitable for use in long life space mechanisms because their friction decreases on extended sliding in high vacuum. Dehydration of the material and accumulation of wear debris in the conforming interface of this tribosystem induces the permanent friction changes. Other polymer and some ceramic based materials exhibit similar frictional torque behavior due to the development of minimal contact patches by the interfacial debris. In contrast, high friction occurs when other ceramics form many small contacts throughout fine debris beds. Generating this latter interfacial structure during run-in ensures that the in-vacuo friction remains stable thereafter. Such materials with low wear rates are potential candidates for friction elements in SSRMS and similar mechanisms.

  16. 混合动力挖掘机回转制动能量回收系统建模与试验研究%Modeling and experimentalresearch on rotary braking energy recovery system of hybrid excavator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌盛; 何清华; 龚俊; 赵喻明; 李赛白

    2016-01-01

    为了回收液压挖掘机回转阶段的制动能量,对挖掘机典型作业工况及能耗进行分析,设计一种以液压马达+电机为回收方式、超级电容为储能元件的回转制动能量回收方案。构建回转制动能量回收系统中发动机、电机、回收马达、超级电容等关键元件数学模型,在对回转运动状态确认与能量回收模式切换、回收电机力矩输出控制和超级电容SOC判断的基础上,建立能量回收系统的仿真模型,以挖掘机实际载荷谱为输入对系统能量回收效果进行仿真分析。搭建挖掘机回转制动能量回收系统试验平台,对该试验系统的能量回收效果和回转驱动性能进行试验研究。研究结果表明:该能量回收方案可行,在不影响挖掘机回转驱动性能的同时,平台回转制动能量回收效率可达到40%以上。%In order to recover the braking energy from the hydraulic excavator during rotary phase, the typical working condition and energy losses were analyzed, and a rotary braking energy recovery program for hybrid excavator was proposed based on hydraulic motor and electric motor as recovery method and capacitor as energy storage element. The mathematical model of key components such as engine, electric motor, hydraulic motor and capacitor was established. For the rotary braking energy recovery system, the simulation model was established based on rotary motion state recognition and energy recovery mode switching, electric motor torque output control and capacitor SOC judgment, and the effect of energy recovery system was analyzed by simulation based on the actual load spectrum of hydraulic excavator as input signal. At last the recovery effect and rotary drive performance was studied by building test platform of rotarybrakingenergyrecoverysystem. The results showthatnotonlytherecoveryprogramisfeasible,buttherotary braking energy recovery efficiency can reach above 40%without affecting

  17. TWO DESIGNS OF THE ELECTROMECHANICAL BRAKE EMBEDDED INTO AN ASYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Solencov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the braking devices is increasing due to the intensification of manufacturing, increase in the moving masses, speeds of movement and frequency of braking. During a short time period the braking device needs to convert a significant amount of mechanical energy into heat energy and transfer it into the environment without compromising the operability of both devices and machines in general. For electric actuators braking a normally closed mechanical brake is frequently used. When disconnecting the motor from the network the brake friction surfaces are closed and prevent rotation, and when the motor is switched on, they are opens under the action of the electromagnet, electro-hydraulic pusher, special electric motor, mechanical or pneumatic device. In the case of joint implementation of the asynchronous motor and the mechanical brake, the drive of quick stop is more compact and convenient. Such devices are further called asynchronous motors with electromechanical braking systems henceforth. The large number of requirements as well as different conditions of operation cause a large variety of designs of such motors. One of the major shortcomings of the functioning of well-known design is the periodic wear of the friction linings and the need for frequent replacement of them. The solution to this problem is the use of asynchronous motor with recessed combo braking device. However, for some mechanisms that do not require a smooth stop of the motor shaft and that have a speed of rotation of the motor shaft less than 1500 rpm, more simple and cheap solution would be the use of an electromechanical braking device with an air gap compensation. Due to wear of the friction linings the air gap of the electromagnet increases. Due to the compensation of the air gap of the electromagnet these devices make it possible to rub the material of the friction lining longer. The current designs of the electromechanical braking device with

  18. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    CERN Document Server

    Čadež, A; Barbieri, C; Calvani, M; Naletto, G; Barbieri, M; Ponikvar, D

    2015-01-01

    Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "inst...

  19. 液压同步系统和液压制动系统在行走马达上的应用%Application of Hydraulic Synchronization System and Hydraulic Brake System on Walking Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帅君; 赖雨薇; 刘会涛; 高伟航; 张庆勇; 苏伟民

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of loop was introduced in which hydraulic synchronization and hydraulic brake could be realized. How to realize synchronization and braking functions was illustrated through example. And the loop has simple structure, practicality and safety utmostly.%介绍一种可同时实现液压同步和液压制动的回路,通过具体实例说明如何实现同步和制动的功能,并且最大可能实现结构简单、经济实用和安全可靠。

  20. Pneumatic brake control for precision stopping of heavy-duty vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bu, Fanping; Tan, Han-Shue

    2007-01-01

    Precision stopping is an important automated vehicle control function that is critical in applications such as precision bus docking, automated truck or bus fueling, as well as automatic intersection, or toll booth stopping. The initial applications of this technology are most likely to be applied to heavy-duty vehicles such as buses or trucks. Such applications require specific attention to brake control since the characteristics of a typical pneumatic brake system of a heavy vehicle is inhe...

  1. Frictional Performance and Temperature Rise of a Mining Nonasbestos Brake Material during Emergency Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By simulating emergency braking conditions of mine hoisters, tribological experiments of a mining nonasbestos brake material sliding on E355CC steel friction disc investigated a pad-on-disc friction tester. It is shown that, under combined influence of braking velocity and pressure, the lubricating film and micro-convex-apices on wear surface would have complex physicochemical reactions which make the instant friction coefficient rise gradually while the instant surface temperature rises first and then falls. With the antifriction effect from lubricating film and the desquamating of composite materials, the mean friction coefficient decreases first, then rises, and decreases again with the increasing of initial braking velocity. And with the existence of micro-convex-apices and variation from increment ratio of load and actual contacting area, it rises first and then falls with the increasing of braking pressure. However, the mean surface temperature rises obviously with the increasing of both initial braking velocity and braking pressure for growth of transformed kinetic energy. It is considered that the friction coefficient cannot be considered as a constant when designing brake devices for mine hoisters. And special attention should be paid to the serious influence of surface temperature on tribological performance of brake material during emergency braking.

  2. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall...

  3. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... developed. As applied to an automatic or electro-pneumatic brake with speed governor control, an application... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous...

  4. Effects of Magnetic Braking and Tidal Friction on Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, A J

    2009-01-01

    Tidal friction is thought to be important in determining the long-term spin-orbit evolution of short-period extrasolar planetary systems. Using a simple model of the orbit-averaged effects of tidal friction Eggleton, Kiseleva & Hut (1998), we analyse the effects of the inclusion of stellar magnetic braking on the evolution of such systems. A phase-plane analysis of a simplified system of equations, including only the stellar tide together with a model of the braking torque proposed by Verbunt & Zwaan (1981), is presented. The inclusion of stellar magnetic braking is found to be extremely important in determining the secular evolution of such systems, and its neglect results in a very different orbital history. We then show the results of numerical integrations of the full tidal evolution equations, using the misaligned spin and orbit of the XO-3 system as an example, to study the accuracy of simple timescale estimates of tidal evolution. We find that it is essential to consider coupled evolution of th...

  5. Applications of magnetorheological brakes in manual control of lifting devices and manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chciuk, M [University of Zielona Gora, 65-246 Zielona Gora, ul. Podgorna 50 (Poland); Milecki, A; Myszkowski, A [Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan, ul. Piotrowo 3 (Poland)], E-mail: andrzej.milecki@put.poznan.pl

    2009-02-01

    The article is aimed to design and testing of joystick with force feedback used in direct, human control of lifting device. The paper starts with the basic description of designed and tested by us MR rotary brake. Some initial laboratory investigations results of such brakes are presented. The usage of MR brakes in 2 axis joystick is proposed. Such, built by as joystick, is described. It was used as Human-Machine Interface in active control of lifting device. The designed and built 2 axis manipulator with electrohydraulic drive is described. In the paper, the based on PC with input/output card, control system of mentioned above joystick with MR brake and manipulator is described. Finally the control algorithm is proposed.

  6. Energy-Regenerative Braking Control of Electric Vehicles Using Three-Phase Brushless Direct-Current Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking provides an effective way of extending the driving range of battery powered electric vehicles (EVs. This paper analyzes the equivalent power circuit and operation principles of an EV using regenerative braking control technology. During the braking period, the switching sequence of the power converter is controlled to inverse the output torque of the three-phase brushless direct-current (DC motor, so that the braking energy can be returned to the battery. Compared with the presented methods, this technology can achieve several goals: energy recovery, electric braking, ultra-quiet braking and extending the driving range. Merits and drawbacks of different braking control strategy are further elaborated. State-space model of the EVs under energy-regenerative braking operation is established, considering that parameter variations are unavoidable due to temperature change, measured error, un-modeled dynamics, external disturbance and time-varying system parameters, a sliding mode robust controller (SMRC is designed and implemented. Phase current and DC-link voltage are selected as the state variables, respectively. The corresponding control law is also provided. The proposed control scheme is compared with a conventional proportional-integral (PI controller. A laboratory EV for experiment is setup to verify the proposed scheme. Experimental results show that the drive range of EVs can be improved about 17% using the proposed controller with energy-regeneration control.

  7. Adaptive Brake By Wire: From Human Factors to Adaptive Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Spadoni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Brake By Wire is replacing the traditional mechanical control systems with ECUs and it is raising the need to reproduce feelings of eliminated static mechanical components (i.e. hydraulic fluids, pumps and cylinders). Thanks to electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces (i.e. active pedal) it is possible to reproduce such feelings and, therefore, arbitrarily change their features. In this way it will be possible to customize the pedal feelings and the veh...

  8. Structure Topology Optimization of Brake Pad in Large- megawatt Wind Turbine Brake Considering Thermal- structural Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. F.; Yin, J.; Liu, Y.; Sha, Z. H.; Ma, F. J.

    2016-11-01

    There always exists severe non-uniform wear of brake pad in large-megawatt wind turbine brake during the braking process, which has the brake pad worn out in advance and even threats the safety production of wind turbine. The root cause of this phenomenon is the non-uniform deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect between brake pad and disc while braking under the conditions of both high speed and heavy load. For this problem, mathematical model of thermal-structural coupling analysis is built. Based on the topology optimization method of Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization, SIMP, structure topology optimization of brake pad is developed considering the deformation caused by thermal-structural coupling effect. The objective function is the minimum flexibility, and the structure topology optimization model of brake pad is established after indirect thermal- structural coupling analysis. Compared with the optimization result considering non-thermal- structural coupling, the conspicuous influence of thermal effect on brake pad wear and deformation is proven as well as the rationality of taking thermal-structural coupling effect as optimization condition. Reconstructed model is built according to the result, meanwhile analysis for verification is carried out with the same working condition. This study provides theoretical foundation for the design of high-speed and heavy-load brake pad. The new structure may provide design reference for improving the stress condition between brake pad and disc, enhancing the use ratio of friction material and increasing the working performance of large-megawatt wind turbine brake.

  9. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Choi, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass.

  10. A smart accelerometer-based braking system for baby strollers%一种基于加速度传感器的婴儿车智能刹车系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷志; 王俭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a smart braking system for the baby stroller by using the MEMS accelerometer. The system has a micro controller as its core and relies on solar energy as its power supply. Based on the message sent out by the accelerometer, the control system can avoid the stroller from slipping away on the slope due to guardians' neglect. The experiment results of the prototype show that the design principle of the system is correct, responsive and reliable.%提出一种利用MEMS加速度传感器技术的坡度敏感的婴儿车智能刹车系统方案。系统以微控制器为核心,依靠太阳能提供动力,能够根据传感器给出的路面坡度情况,自动采取刹车措施以避免婴儿车在坡度路面因监护人疏忽而滑离的危险。样机的试验结果表明,坡度敏感的智能刹车系统原理正确、反应灵敏、运行可靠。

  11. Hunting Plan Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Morgan Brake...

  12. Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

  13. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  14. 一体式电液复合制动系统轮缸压力的精细调节%Wheel cylinder pressure fine regulation for integrated electro-hydraulic brake system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 孙泽昌; 邹小琼; 王猛

    2015-01-01

    Wheel cylinder pressure fine regulation was studied for electro‐hydraulic brake system with an integrated master cylinder .Pressure regulation process and system structural characteristics were analyzed .The impact of brake disc gap on pressure regulation was studied ,pressure control dividing point of non‐linear and linear region was determined ,using the ladder method and interpolation table method to estimate cylinder pressure ,also the impact of w heel cylinder piston hysteresis characteris‐tics on linear region was considered ,and then the segmented‐ladder‐lookup fine regulation strategy was developed .Hardware in the loop simulation bench was built using xPC target to verify the pres‐sure regulation performance by sine target pressure test and comparisons of single increase‐decrease interpolation table strategy and the proposed one .Test results show that the wheel cylinder pressure could keep up with the target curve ,and the proposed system structure and pressure regulation meth‐od could meet the pressure control requirements .%针对基于一体式主缸的电液复合制动系统,进行了轮缸压力的精细调节研究,分析了一体式复合制动系统轮缸压力调节过程及其结构特点。探讨了制动间隙对盘式制动器轮缸压力调节的影响,确定了轮缸压力控制的非线性区及线性区,采用阶梯估算和基本插值数表的方法对轮缸压力进行估计,并考虑了线性区轮缸活塞运动迟滞特性对插值数表的影响,综合上述因素制定了分段阶梯查表的轮缸压力精细调节策略。采用xPC target搭建了硬件在环仿真台架,进行了正弦曲线跟随和与单一增/减压数表法的对比试验。试验结果表明:轮缸压力能够实时跟随目标曲线变化,所提出的结构及控制方法能够满足轮缸压力精细调节的控制需求。

  15. Human-simulated intelligent control of train braking response of bridge with MRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhou, Hongli; Wu, Yueyuan; Wang, Xiaojie

    2016-04-01

    The urgent train braking could bring structural response menace to the bridge under passive control. Based on the analysis of breaking dynamics of a train-bridge vibration system, a magnetorheological elastomeric bearing (MRB) whose mechanical parameters are adjustable is designed, tested and modeled. A finite element method (FEM) is carried out to model and optimize a full scale vibration isolation system for railway bridge based on MRB. According to the model above, we also consider the effect of different braking stop positions on the vibration isolation system and classify the bridge longitudinal vibration characteristics into several cases. Because the train-bridge vibration isolation system has multiple vibration states and strongly coupling with nonlinear characteristics, a human-simulated intelligent control (HSIC) algorithm for isolating the bridge vibration under the impact of train braking is proposed, in which the peak shear force of pier top, the displacement of beam and the acceleration of beam are chosen as control goals. The simulation of longitudinal vibration control system under the condition of train braking is achieved by MATLAB. The results indicate that different braking stop positions significantly affect the vibration isolation system and the structural response is the most drastic when the train stops at the third cross-span. With the proposed HSIC smart isolation system, the displacement of bridge beam and peak shear force of pier top is reduced by 53.8% and 34.4%, respectively. Moreover, the acceleration of bridge beam is effectively controlled within limited range.

  16. Constraining the Braking Indices of Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z F; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H; Du, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of long term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index $n$ of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of $n$ of nine magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in a range of $1\\sim$41. Six magnetars have smaller braking indices of $13$ for other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with $13$ within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. We point out that there could be some connections between the magnetar's anti-glitch event and its braking index, and the magnitude of $n$ should be taken into account when explaining the event. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if th...

  17. A global strategy based on experiments and simulations for squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinou, J.-J.; Loyer, A.; Chiello, O.; Mogenier, G.; Lorang, X.; Cocheteux, F.; Bellaj, S.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent experimental and numerical investigations on industrial railway brakes. The goal of the present study is to discuss the relevance of the mechanical modeling strategy for squeal prediction. Specific experimental set-ups based on transient and controlled braking tests are designed for this purpose. Measurements are performed on it to investigate the dynamic behavior of TGV squeal noise and its squeal characterization through experiments. It will be demonstrated that it is possible to build consistent and efficient finite element models to simulate squeal events in TGV brake systems. The numerical strategy will be presented, including not only the modeling of the TGV brake system and the stability analysis, but also the transient nonlinear dynamic and computational process based on efficient reduced basis. This complete numerical strategy allows us to perform relevance squeal prediction on industrial railway brakes. This study comes within the scope of a research program AcouFren that is supported by ADEME (Agence De l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie) concerning the reduction of the squeal noise generated by high power railway disc brakes. experiments with an evolution of the rotational speed of the disc: these tests are called "transient braking tests" and correspond to real braking tests, experiments with a controlled steady rotational speed (i.e. dynamic fluctuations in rotational speed are not significant): these tests are called "controlled braking tests". In the present study, the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) [20] is used to study the time-history responses of the TGV brake system. So, a brief basic theory of the wavelet analysis that transforms a signal into wavelets that are well localized both in frequency and time is presented in this part of the paper. Considering a function f(t), the associated Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) corresponds to a wavelet transform given by W(a,b

  18. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  19. Evaluation of Wear in Aftermarket Brake Pads for Enhancing Braking Performance in a Passenger Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zaki Bahrom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the high demands from the independence automotive service centers; there are many aftermarket brake pads available at spare parts shops and sold at reasonable prices. Several types of brake pads are available in the market such as semi-metallic and Non-Asbestos brake pads. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the wear of after-market brake pad performance under the normal driving conditions (highway and non-highway. Three types of aftermarket brake pads that mainly used and sold by independent service shop were selected in this study.  The data of the wear in thicknesses losses and weight percentage losses were recorded. The results show that brake pad of non- Asbestos Organic type gives the highest wear loss and create a lot of dust. For semi-metallic brake pad type, the result shows the lowest mass loss. Therefore, it is important to select the suitable type of after-market brake pads in order to get balance between cost and quality.

  20. Hybrid Cars Braking System Regeneration Efficiency Simuink Software Simulation%混合动力汽车制动系统再生效率Simuink软件仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈心赤; 张楠

    2014-01-01

    利用Simuink软件构建了混合动力汽车制动系统再生效率数学模型,在Simuink环境下就不同关键参数对于再生效率的影响进行了仿真实验。仿真结果显示:汽车外部阻力消耗的能量比例最大,变速机构次之,通过排量控制曲线优化混合动力汽车变量泵/马达工作区间,可以有效提高液压混合动力系统能量再生效率,有积极的应用前景。%Use Simuink software constructs the hybrid cars braking system regeneration efficiency mathematical model, in Simuink environment is different key parameters on the efficiency of the regeneration effect on the simulation results, the simulation results show that: the automobile external resistance energy consumption proportion is the largest, variable speed mechanism is the second smallest, and through the displacement control curve optimization hybrid cars variable pump/motor work interval, can effectively improve the hydraulic hybrid system energy regeneration efficiency, have a positive application prospect.

  1. Thediscusses of the braking system of the locomotive signal data collection and processing mode%机车制动系统信号的采集和处理方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏; 刘泉

    2013-01-01

      随着我国铁路事业的高速发展,对机车的安全性要求也越来越高。有效的数据采集是确保机车安全可靠运行的保障之一,同时也是机车故障诊断系统的重要组成部分。准确的采集机车运行时的状态信息,对机车的安全运行至关重要。简要探讨了机车制动系统信号的数据采集和处理方式。%with the rapid development of railroad ,It is more and more high security requirement to locomotive .The ffective data collec-tion is to ensure the security of the safe and reliable operation of the locomotive ,it is also an important part of the locomotive fault diag-nosis diagnosis system .Locomotive running state information of accurate collecting for the safe operation of the locomotive is very impor-tant .The paper discusses the braking system of the locomotive signal data collection and processing mode .

  2. 基于瞬态分析法的轮盘制动系统摩擦自激振动研究%Study on Friction-induced Self-excited Vibration of a Wheel-disc Brake System Using Transient Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄盼盼; 陈光雄; 莫继良

    2014-01-01

    There are two analysis methodologies available for predicting brake squeal using the finite element method, namely,complex eigenvalue analysis method and dynamic transient analysis method. Not all the unstable frequency ob-tained using complex eigenvalue analysis method can be observed in experiments,while transient analysis method is able to predict real unstable frequency in theory. A transient dynamic model of a wheel-disc brake system of EMU was estab-lished to study friction-induced self-excited vibration of the brake system,in which the friction coupling between brake pads and disc was imposed. Results show that the value of the dominant vibration frequency of the contact force between the brake pad and disc is consistent with that of the normal vibration of the brake pad. The dominant vibration frequency obtained by the transient analysis method is very close to the value of the unstable frequency obtained by the complex ei-genvalue method.%在制动噪声的有限元分析方法中,复特征值方法预测得到的不稳定频率过于保守,而瞬态分析方法在理论上可以得到较为真实的不稳定频率。考虑制动闸片与制动盘接触点间的摩擦力耦合作用,基于建立的高速动车轮盘制动系统的有限元模型,采用瞬态分析法对高速动车轮盘制动系统进行摩擦自激振动分析,并与复特征值分析法得到结果的进行比较。结果表明,接触面间法向接触力的振动主频与闸片法向振动的主频一致;制动系统瞬态动力学分析得到的振动主频与其复特征值分析得到的不稳定频率基本相符。

  3. Analysis of Testing and Matching of Braking Energy Recovery System of Hydraulic Energy Storage Type Buses%液压蓄能式公共汽车制动能量回收系统匹配与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲金玉; 王儒; 任传波; 韩尔睴; 刘林

    2014-01-01

    针对城市公共汽车运行的特殊工况,设计并研制了一种新型液压蓄能式制动能量回收系统,介绍了该制动能量回收系统的组成和工作原理,对液压系统主要部件参数进行了分析与匹配。通过台架和实车道路试验,结果表明:所设计的液压蓄能式制动能量回收系统在满足汽车运行安全的前提下,具有较高的制动能量回收率,对改善汽车的燃油经济性具有积极作用。%Aimed at the special condition of the city buses operation,a new type of hydraulic energy storage type braking energy recovery system was designed and developed.The composition and working principle of the brake energy recovery system was intro-duced,and the main components of the hydraulic system parameters were analyzed and matched.Finally,by the bench and vehicle re-fitting test,the results show that the design of the new hydraulic energy storage type braking energy regeneration system improved the braking energy recovery rate under the premise of safety operation,has positive effect on fuel economy improvement of automobile.

  4. On the safety of braking mine up-haulage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murzin, V.A.; Samusia, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments conducted on several mine up-haulage devices to analyze breakdowns due to the operator who quickly turned on the brake showed that sudden braking may really invoke maximum brake application on the machine winding much earlier than preventive braking and may lead to shutdown. It was concluded that in the Safety Regulations or Engineering Regulations that use of the handbrake should be more clearly outlined to preclude breakdown. One method of prevention is to develop and use a diagram showing build-up and magnitude of the braking moment when using the manual brake.

  5. Control strategy for electro-mechanical braking based on curves of ECE regulations and ideal braking force%基于ECE法规和Ⅰ曲线的机电复合制动控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽君; 姬芬竹; 杨世春; 徐斌

    2013-01-01

    具有再生制动功能的电动汽车制动系统与传统燃油汽车的摩擦制动系统不同,在回收部分制动能量的同时其制动稳定性会发生变化.在保证安全制动距离的前提下,制动能量回收率的提高受到制动稳定性的制约和限制.针对电制动和常规摩擦制动组成的机电复合制动系统,建立了电制动力、电制动力矩和电池充电功率计算模型.考虑到电机转矩特性和电池充电功率限制,以最大化回收制动能量为目标,设计3种不同的机电复合制动控制策略.通过在ADVISOR软件中建立嵌入式仿真模块对制动能量回收率、电池荷电状态和纯电动模式的续驶里程进行了仿真计算和分析.计算结果表明:Ⅰ曲线和ECE(Economic Commissionof Europe safety regulations)法规边界线都不是理想的制动力分配曲线,所提出的制动力分配曲线OABCD综合性能较好,制动能量回收率达到59.56%,且一个循环的荷电状态变化很小,仅降低了4.29%.实车试验表明能量回收能够提高续驶里程.%The braking system of electric vehicle with regenerative braking is different from friction braking system of conventional fuel vehicle. Regenerative braking system makes braking stability of electric vehicles change when it recovers braking energy of vehicles. The improvement of braking energy recovery ration was restricted by the braking stability under the precondition of safe braking distance. Aiming at the electromechanical hybrid braking system composed of electric braking and conventional friction braking, the calculation models of electric braking force, electric braking torque and battery charging power were established. In view of the motor torque characteristics and battery charging power limit, three kinds of control strategies for e-lectro-mechanical hybrid braking were designed for recovering the maximal braking energy. The baking energy recovery ration, state of charge and driving range in

  6. Application of AMESim and MATLAB on Modeling and Study of Megawatt Wind Turbine Brake System Hydraulic Locking Device%AMESim与MATLAB在兆瓦级风力发电机制动系统液压锁紧装置建模及研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫利文; 艾存金; 王福山; 谢辉

    2015-01-01

    作为一个兆瓦级风力发电机制动系统,除制动装置外,在适当的位置还应设有风轮的锁定装置,以确保在正常制动系统失效情况下风机在不会突发的再次启动。针对该问题文章设计了一套液压锁紧装置,并分别采用AMEsim和MATLAB软件对其进行了研究与分析,并比较了两种分析软件在液压系统研究中的不同。%As a megawatt wind turbine braking system,in addition to the braking device,there should also have a locking device in the ap-propriate position,In order to ensure not burst start again during normal braking system failure. Aiming at this problem, we designed a set of hydraulic locking device,used AMESim and MATLAB software to research and analysis the hydraulic locking device,compared the differ-ence between two of them in the research of hydraulic system.

  7. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is t...

  8. A new strategy for transient stability using augmented generator control and local dynamic braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsey, J.; Jiang, H.; Habetler, T. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Qu, Z. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A decentralized automatic control strategy for significantly improving the transient stability of a large power system is introduced. The strategy combines local dynamic braking and a straightforward augmentation of the existing turbine / governor control system that uses only local feedback. The brake resistor, which employs thick film, metal oxide technology, has no inductance and is of very low resistance, allowing its use during fault to show a generator`s acceleration. Simulation results using the 39 Bus New England system show that the strategy dramatically increases the global stability of a power system. (author) 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 弹性盘型制动闸片装置振动特性研究%On Vibration Characteristics of Elastic Disc Brake Pad Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宽; 张济民

    2013-01-01

    设计了一种新型的具有弹性的盘型制动闸片装置,建立了低速的轨道车辆弹性盘型制动的数学模型,与无弹性的制动闸片进行了单轴制动特性的动态仿真比较.仿真结果表明,具有弹性的闸片制动时同样能够保证车辆的制动性能;在制动盘或闸片摩擦面有缺陷时,弹性闸片能有效降低闸片与制动盘间摩擦力引起的振动.该设计为盘型制动系统的设计及分析提供了新的思路.%A new elastic disc brake pad device is designed, and a mathematical model on low speed railway vehicle e-lastic disc brake is established to compare with the non-elastic brake pad by single wheel-set braking simulation. The result shows that the elastic brake pad can guarantee the vehicle braking performance as same as the non-elastic brake pad. When the disc or the friction surface of brake pad has some defects, elastic brake pad can effectively reduce the friction and the vibration between the brake pad and the brake disc. The design has been proved to be correct and rational, it will provide new ideas for the design and analysis of the disc brake system.

  10. On the potential of uncertainty analysis for prediction of brake squeal propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Brake squeal is a source of significant warranty-related claims for automotive manufacturers because it is annoying and is often perceived by customers as a safety concern. A brake squeal analysis is complex due to changing environmental and operating conditions, high sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly tolerances as well as the not so well understood role of nonlinearities. Although brake squeal is essentially a nonlinear problem, the standard analysis tool in industry is the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) which may under-predict or over-predict the number of unstable vibration modes. A nonlinear instability analysis is more predictive than CEA but is still computationally too expensive to be used routinely in industry for a full brake finite element model. Also, although the net work analysis of a linearised brake system has shown potential in predicting the origin of brake squeal, it has not been extensively used. In this study, the net work of an analytical viscously damped self-excited 4-dof friction oscillator with cubic contact force nonlinearity is compared with the instability prediction using the CEA and a nonlinear instability analysis. Results show that both the net work analysis and CEA under-predict the instability because of their inability to detect the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation. Then, the uncertainty analysis is applied to examine if it can improve instability prediction of a nonlinear system using linear methods and its limitations. By applying a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to parameters of the oscillator, suitable candidates for an uncertainty analysis are identified. Results of uncertainty analyses by applying polynomial chaos expansions to net work and CEA correlate well with those of the nonlinear analysis, hence demonstrating the potential of an uncertainty analysis in improving the prediction of brake squeal propensity using a linear method.

  11. Influence of Friction Drive Lift Gears Construction on the Length of Braking Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONKWIC Poul

    2015-01-01

    The friction drive elevators the influence of the braking distance has very high significance to meet certain safety regulations and comfort. During the emergency braking the delay for the system a frame and a cabin should be within the range from 0.2 to 9.81 m/s2. However, there are no specialist literatures regarding the issues connected with emergency braking of elevating devices either. The results of the own empirical research work are presented regarding the influence of design changes on the working parameters of the friction drive elevator gears. ASG100, KB160, PP16, PR2000UD and CHP2000 types of safety progressive gears are analyzed. ASG100, KB160, PP16, PR2000UD type progressive gears are already produced by European manufacturers. CHP2000 type gears are established as the alternative option for the already existing solutions. The unique cam system has been used in the CHP 2000 gears. The cam leverage gives the chance to unblock, in a very easy way, the clamed gears after braking. Thus, it is a key aspect to perform laboratory tests over the braking process of a newly created solution. The proper value of the braking distance has a significant influence on the value of delay in terms of binding standards. The influence of loading on the effective braking distance and the value of the falling elevator cabin speed are analyzed and the results are presented. The results presented are interesting from lift devices operation and a new model of CHP 2000 progressive gear point of view.

  12. Thermal analysis of both ventilated and full disc brake rotors with frictional heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhocine A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In automotive engineering, the safety aspect has been considered as a number one priority in development of a new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirements. Instead of having air bags, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, one of the most critical systems in a vehicle is the brake system. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyze the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake discs and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor. The analysis also gives us the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  13. Analysis and solution of SS4B braking system high-speeed electric air valve%SS4B型机车制动机高速电空阀故障分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石峰; 刘泉; 万建兵

    2013-01-01

    In this paper ,the principle of SS4B braking system high-speed electric air valve action is introduced ,analysis was carried out to analysis the reason ,running of high-speed locomotive electro-pneumatic valve often appears failure ,it was showed that impu-rities have great influence on high -speed valve failure ,improve air quality ,reduce the presence of impurities ,can effectively reduce the occurrence of high speed valve fault .%  对SS4B型制动机高速电空阀动作的原理做了相关介绍,对在段运行机车高速电空阀经常出现故障的原因进行了分析,研究表明:杂质对高速阀故障的出现有很大的影响,改善空气管路的质量,减少杂质的出现,能有效地减少高速阀故障的发生。

  14. Study of Dual-redundancy Brushless DC Motor in Electric Aircraft Braking System%飞机刹车用双余度无刷直流电动机的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金行; 全兴源; 戴志勇; 曹杨

    2012-01-01

    A study of dual redundant brushless DC motor in electric aircraft braking system was given. Based on Ansoft, the motor magnetic circuit was analyzed. The structure parameters were optimized. With the mathematical model of brushless DC motor, the simulation performance was shown. The key technologies of Commutation were analyzed. As shown of experiment, the design is reasonable and correct. Key words; dual redundant brushless DC motor; finite element analysis; performance simulation ; key developing technologies%以全电飞机刹车用双余度无刷直流电动机为研究对象,借助Ansoft软件对电机磁路进行分析计算,优化结构参数,并对其进行性能仿真.重点论述了确保无刷余度电机性能最优的调试关键技术.经过样机性能测试与设计相符,满足使用要求.

  15. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  16. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Zybtsev, Y.; I. Marmut

    2011-01-01

    The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed) as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  17. A Review of a Study on Disc Brake Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry, disc brake noise has become an issue of growing concern to the automotive industry and customers. In this paper, the types of disc brake noise have been discussed. Ajter that, the theories and models that have been proposed as an explanation of brake squeal are reviewed. On the basis of these theories and models, some example simulations of disc brake squeal which use the Finite Element method and mathematical model have been introduced.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVII, I--CATERPILLAR STARTING (PONEY) ENGINE (PART I), II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF DIESEL ENGINE STARTING ENGINES AND BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) GENERAL DESCRIPTION, (2) OPERATION, (3) COMBUSTION SPACE AND VALVE ARRANGEMENT (STARTING ENGINES), (4) TYPES OF BRAKES, AND (5) DOUBLE…

  19. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  20. Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges in 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges conducted from October 2001 to February 2002

  1. Central Mississippi Refuges: Yazoo, Panther Swamp, Hillside, Morgan Brake & Bathews Brake: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yazoo, Hillside, Panther Swamp, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs covers refuge activities during 2001. The report begins with a...

  2. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  4. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  5. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  6. Composite braking control strategy of pure electric bus based on brake driving intention recognition%基于制动驾驶意图辨识的纯电动客车复合制动控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵轩; 马建; 汪贵平

    2014-01-01

    To research braking force distribution ratio of composite braking system for pure electric bus,a composite braking control strategy based on brake driving intention recognition was presented.A double-layer brake driving intention recognition model based on hidden Markov theory was set up and identified by using road experiment data.Based on recognized driving intention and vehicle speed,the distribution ratios of braking forces for front and rear wheels, ECE regulation, motor characteristics, slip ratios, battery characteristics, super capacitor characteristics and transmission system characteristics were taken as constraint conditions,the braking force distribution strategy of composite braking system was proposed,and the control strategy of composite braking system was simulated by Simulink software under 9 operating conditions.Simulation result shows that friction braking system and motor regenerative braking system can work coordinately and steadily under various operating conditions when the braking control strategy is applied,and braking energy can be recovered as much as possible under the premise of ensuring braking safety.Energy recovery efficiency is highest under slight brake when vehicle speed was low,and the efficiency can reach to 43 .84%.Energy recovery efficiency is lowest under emergency brake when vehicle speed is high,and the efficiency is only 0. 89%. 2 tabs,21 figs,23 refs.%为了研究纯电动客车复合制动系统制动力分配比例,提出了基于制动驾驶意图辨识的复合制动控制策略。基于隐形马尔科夫理论建立了双层制动驾驶意图辨识模型,运用道路试验数据对模型进行辨识验证。基于辨识出的驾驶意图和车速,以前后轮制动力分配比例、ECE 法规、电机特性、滑移率、蓄电池特性、超级电容特性与传动系统特性为约束条件,制定了复合制动系统制动力分配策略,在9种工况下,应用Simulink对复合制动系统进行建

  7. Analysis of Braking Characteristic for Tire Rotary-drum Machine%轮胎转鼓试验设备制动特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓东; 侯勇; 张绍国

    2012-01-01

    制动系统是转鼓试验设备重要的安全部件,通过分析制动系统的材料属性,建立了制动系统的简化模型.对盘式制动器在不同制动压力下的紧急制动过程进行仿真模拟,深入分析了制动系统在不同工作负荷下制动装置摩擦表面的应力、温度场分布情况以及有效的制动时间.对比不同工况下的计算结果,得到了制动盘和刹车片的应力和温度场分布规律,并且分析了制动压力与制动时间之间的关系.结果表明制动压力越大,制动时间越短,但制动系统温升越明显,相关结论为指导设备制动系统参数的合理选定提供了理论依据.%Braking system is an important safety component for the rotating, drum test equipment, through the analysis on the material properties of the braking system, the model of braking system was es-tablishea\\Emergency braking process of the disc brake was simulated under different pressure,and then friction surface stress, temperature field distribution and effective braking time of brake system in different workload stress were further analyzedAccording to the calculation results ,stress and temperature field distribution for braking disc and pad were obtained,and relationship between braking pressure and braking time was analyzed.The results show that as the braking pressure enhanced, the braking time is shorter,however, the temperature rise for braking system is more obvious.Conclusion provides a theoretical basis for brake system rational parameter selection.

  8. 防抱死刹车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A Study on Chemical Resistance of PC/ABS Alloy for Instrument Panel;A study on safety design procedure for automotive active safety system;Anti-lock brake system control for buses based on fuzzy logic and a sliding-mode observer;Application of Fuzzy Control Algorithms for Electric Vehicle Antilock Braking/Traction Control Systems;Compatibilization of NYLON 6 nanocomposites/ABS blends using functionalized metallocene polyolefin elastomer……

  9. Hillside, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Reforestation Plan for 1992-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan addresses the history of reforestation at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge and its two satellite refuges, Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge and...

  10. BRAKING PROCESS OF ENDURO AND HIGHWAY-TOURIST MOTORBIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł SKRZYPCZYK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of an emergency, head of the motorcycle has a split second to decide what to do defensive maneuver. The most common choice is the braking maneuver. Starting motorcycle braking is associated with the selection of additional brake, which uses a driver. It is here to choose to use the front brake, rear or both simultaneously. The paper presents the study of the effects of such decision on the braking process. Tests were carried out for enduro and highway-tourist motorbikes.

  11. A HIGH BRAKING INDEX FOR A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, R. F.; Ferdman, R. D.; Kaspi, V. M.; Tendulkar, S. P. [Department of Physics and McGill Space Institute, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Gotthelf, E. V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Guillot, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Keane, E. F. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Pivovaroff, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550-9234 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tomsick, J. A. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We present a phase-coherent timing solution for PSR J1640–4631, a young 206 ms pulsar using X-ray timing observations taken with NuSTAR. Over this timing campaign, we have measured the braking index of PSR J1640–4631 to be n = 3.15 ± 0.03. Using a series of simulations, we argue that this unusually high braking index is not due to timing noise, but is intrinsic to the pulsar's spin-down. We cannot, however, rule out contamination due to an unseen glitch recovery, although the recovery timescale would have to be longer than most yet observed. If this braking index is eventually proven to be stable, it demonstrates that pulsar braking indices greater than three are allowed in nature; hence, other physical mechanisms such as mass or magnetic quadrupoles are important in pulsar spin-down. We also present a 3σ upper limit on the pulsed flux at 1.4 GHz of 0.018 mJy.

  12. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with... surface-operated equipment at underground mines when an MSHA inspector has reasonable cause to...

  13. Massive star models with magnetic braking

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, Georges; Maeder, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields at the surface of a few early-type stars have been directly detected. These fields have magnitudes between a few hundred G up to a few kG. In one case, evidence of magnetic braking has been found. We investigate the effects of magnetic braking on the evolution of rotating ($\\upsilon_{\\rm ini}$=200 km s$^{-1}$) 10 M$_\\odot$ stellar models at solar metallicity during the main-sequence (MS) phase. The magnetic braking process is included in our stellar models according to the formalism deduced from 2D MHD simulations of magnetic wind confinement by ud-Doula and co-workers. Various assumptions are made regarding both the magnitude of the magnetic field and of the efficiency of the angular momentum transport mechanisms in the stellar interior. When magnetic braking occurs in models with differential rotation, a strong and rapid mixing is obtained at the surface accompanied by a rapid decrease in the surface velocity. Such a process might account for some MS stars showing strong mixing and low surfa...

  14. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

    2008-02-01

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

  15. NAC Off-Vehicle Brake Testing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Project Officer ( TIPO ) US Army National Automotive Center (NAC) Warren, MI Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...May 2007 FinalR1 UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release Leo Miller, Technology Insertion Project Officer ( TIPO ) NAC Off-vehicle Brake Testing

  16. Analysis of torque transmitting behavior and wheel slip prevention control during regenerative braking for high speed EMU trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Xu, Guo-Qing; Zheng, Chun-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The wheel-rail adhesion control for regenerative braking systems of high speed electric multiple unit trains is crucial to maintaining the stability, improving the adhesion utilization, and achieving deep energy recovery. There remain technical challenges mainly because of the nonlinear, uncertain, and varying features of wheel-rail contact conditions. This research analyzes the torque transmitting behavior during regenerative braking, and proposes a novel methodology to detect the wheel-rail adhesion stability. Then, applications to the wheel slip prevention during braking are investigated, and the optimal slip ratio control scheme is proposed, which is based on a novel optimal reference generation of the slip ratio and a robust sliding mode control. The proposed methodology achieves the optimal braking performance without the wheel-rail contact information. Numerical simulation results for uncertain slippery rails verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  17. 汽车制动器摩擦试验机测试系统的研究现状及展望%Research Status of Automotive Brake Friction Testing Machine Test System and Its Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晨; 梁军战

    2015-01-01

    汽车作为一种现代交通工具,其重要性毋庸置疑。随着汽车保有量的日益增多,汽车的安全问题引起了社会的广泛关注。介绍了汽车制动器摩擦试验机工作原理及特性,对其测试系统各种信号采集方式和数据存储方式的优缺点进行了总结及分析。为了解决目前信号采集误差大、数据不准确和系统稳定性不高等问题,结合汽车制动器摩擦试验机测试系统的研究现状,提出了诸多研究热点,可为汽车制动器摩擦试验机测试系统研究与开发提供参考。%Car is used as a modern transportation means its importance is beyond al doubt. Along with the steep increase of its own ̄ers,the problems of the cars’ s safety atlracts people's extra atlention. This paper not only introduces the working principle and char ̄acteristics of automotive brake friction testing machine ,but also does summarise and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the signal acquisition method and data storage in the test system. Based on its research status,it puts forward many effective meas ̄ures to solve the problems,such as the wide error limit and low stability. The foundation is laid for its fest.

  18. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  19. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability wer...

  20. Comparison of Regenerative Braking Efficiencies of MY2012 and MY2013 Nissan Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS is the best solution presently available to dramatically improve the energy economy of passenger cars. The paper presents an experimental analysis of the energy flow to and from the battery of a MY 2012 and a MY 2013 Nissan Leaf covering the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS. The two vehicles differ for the integration of the electric drivetrain component, plus a different use of the electric motor and the regenerative brakes, in addition to a different weight. It is shown that while the efficiency propulsive power to vehicle / power from battery are basically unchanged, at about 87-89 %, the efficiency power to the battery / braking power to vehicle are significantly improved from values of about 70-80 % to values of 72-87 %. The analysis provides a state-of-the-art benchmark of the propulsion and regenerative braking efficiencies of electric vehicles.

  1. Structural optimization of an asymmetric automotive brake disc with cooling channels to avoid squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas; Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried; Hagedorn, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Brake squeal is still a major issue in the automotive industry due to comfort complaints of passengers and resulting high warranty costs. Many measures to avoid squeal have been discussed in the engineering community reaching from purely passive measures like the increase of damping, e.g. by the application of shims, to the active or semiactive suppression of squeal. While active measures can be effective but are elaborate and therefore more expensive, passive measure are less complex in most cases. This leads to the necessity to develop passive, economic and robust measures to avoid squeal. Asymmetry of the brake rotor has been proposed to achieve this goal and the resulting split of all double eigenfrequencies of the brake rotor has lately been shown to stabilize the system.

  2. Thermomechanical behavior of dry contacts in disc brake rotor with a grey cast iron composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhocine Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analysis the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disc and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on the calculation code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles. The thermal-structural analysis is then used coupling to determine the deformation established and the Von Mises stresses in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory compared to those found in the literature.

  3. Fuzzy Control Strategy of Battery Management for PHEV during Regenerative Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhumu Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analyzing the structure of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV and its operation during regenerative braking, a fuzzy control strategy of battery management is proposed. Firstly, the state of charging is estimated by establishing the mathematical relationship between open circuit voltage and the internal resistance model. Secondly, the fuzzy logic controller is designed in regenerative braking system. Finally, by modeling and simulation in ADVISOR, it is shown that the rate of energy recovery with the fuzzy control strategy is increased by 12.3, 18.3 and 7.6%, respectively in three different driving cycles, compared with the benchmark control strategy in the same driving cycles.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Temperature Field in a Disc Brake at Different Cover Angle of the Pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grześ Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an influence of the cover angle of the pad on temperature fields of the components of the disc brake is studied. A three-dimensional finite element (FE model of the pad-disc system was developed at the condition of equal temperatures on the contacting surfaces. Calculations were carried out for a single braking process at constant deceleration assuming that the contact pressure corresponds with the cover angle of the pad so that the moment of friction is equal in each case analysed. Evolutions and distributions of temperature both for the contact surface of the pad and the disc were computed and shown.

  5. Potential wells with a unique brake orbit. Counterexamples to a conjecture by H. Seifert

    CERN Document Server

    Giambo', R; Piccione, P

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of real-analytic natural Hamiltonian systems - i.e. where H(q,p)=T(q,p)+V(q) in the 2N-dimensional real space, where N is any integer greater than 1 - with non critical energy levels E for the potential V such that the sublevel E of V is homeomorphic to the N-dimensional disk, and that only one brake orbit of energy E exists. A famous conjecture formulated by H. Seifert in 1948 claimed the existence of at least N distinct brake orbits for this situation.

  6. Product Quality Improvement Using FMEA for Electric Parking Brake (EPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, C. D.; Gruber, G. C.; Tişcă, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most frequently used methods to improve product quality is complex FMEA. (Failure Modes and Effects Analyses). In the literature various FMEA is known, depending on the mode and depending on the targets; we mention here some of these names: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Process, or analysis Failure Mode and Effects Reported (FMECA). Whatever option is supported by the work team, the goal of the method is the same: optimize product design activities in research, design processes, implementation of manufacturing processes, optimization of mining product to beneficiaries. According to a market survey conducted on parts suppliers to vehicle manufacturers FMEA method is used in 75%. One purpose of the application is that after the research and product development is considered resolved, any errors which may be detected; another purpose of applying the method is initiating appropriate measures to avoid mistakes. Achieving these two goals leads to a high level distribution in applying, to avoid errors already in the design phase of the product, thereby avoiding the emergence and development of additional costs in later stages of product manufacturing. During application of FMEA method using standardized forms; with their help will establish the initial assemblies of product structure, in which all components will be viewed without error. The work is an application of the method FMEA quality components to optimize the structure of the electrical parking brake (Electric Parching Brake - E.P.B). This is a component attached to the roller system which ensures automotive replacement of conventional mechanical parking brake while ensuring its comfort, functionality, durability and saves space in the passenger compartment. The paper describes the levels at which they appealed in applying FMEA, working arrangements in the 4 distinct levels of analysis, and how to determine the number of risk (Risk Priority Number); the analysis of risk factors and established

  7. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices

  8. 电动汽车制动能量回收最大化影响因素分析%Maximum Braking Energy Recovery of Electric Vehicles and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛; 孙泽昌; 卓桂荣; 程鹏

    2012-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the principle and energy flow of regenerative braking, relations among braking power, regenerative braking power and braking energy recovery efficiency are revealed. Analysis results show that motor, battery and hydraulic brake system are main factors to affect braking energy recovery, of which, the influences of layout of brake pipes are specially introduced. Under ideal and typical braking condition, the potential of braking energy recovery and braking energy recovery efficiency of front-axis electric drive vehicles can be calculated, but the results are not satisfactory. A comparative study shows that dual-axis electric drive vehicles can achieve optimal performances on the potential of braking energy recovery, braking efficiency and braking energy recovery efficiency.%对再生制动的原理和能量流动进行了分析,并讲述了制动功率、再生制动功率、制动能量回收效率等之间的关系和计算方法.从分析中得出电机、蓄电池、液压制动系统是影响制动能量回收的主要因素,并重点分析了制动管路布置型式对制动能量回收的影响.针对典型的理想制动工况,计算出前轴电驱动汽车在制动能量回收方面的潜力和制动能量回收效率,但结果并不理想.通过对比发现,双轴电驱动汽车无论是在制动能量回收潜力还是在制动能量回收效率以及制动效能方面都有能力达到最优.

  9. Pedestrian Collision Avoidance System based on Automatic Brake and Steering Avoidance%基于自动刹车与回避转弯的行人主动避撞系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚韬睿; 马钧

    2015-01-01

    Collision avoidance system shows great potential to reduce the frequency and severity of traffic accidence through warning the drivers and even controlling vehicles automatically ahead of crashes. However, in current stage, it is mainly used to detect moving vehicles, but rarely used to detect penetrations. This paper presented an innovative idea about how to achieve pedestrian collision avoidance system, it mainly introduced environment recognition and driving state analysis ,satety judgement ,system control and other key techniques, combing sensing, situation analysis, decision making and vehicles controlling. The highlight of this system is that it can make a decision on whether it is necessary to control the vehicle and decide to brake automatically or avoid steering when controlling in a short time ahead of crashes, , and it can be still reliabe at a relatively high speed(up to 50km/h).%主动避撞系统可以在碰撞发生前通过警告驾驶员甚至自动控制车辆来减少交通事故的频率与严重性,但目前阶段主要用于侦测运动车辆,很少用于侦测行人。文章阐述了一套新颖的行人主动避撞系统的实现思路,可以主动避免与行人的碰撞,主要介绍了该系统的环境识别、行驶状态分析,安全状态判断与系统控制等关键技术。本系统的亮点是能够在瞬间决定是否执行车辆控制以及执行控制时采用自动刹车还是规避转向,并且能够在较高的车速时保持这套方法的可靠性。

  10. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability were simulated. It shows that differential brake can amend turning shortage of automobile brake and improve its braking stability, but the effect of automobile mass on its braking stability is great. So the distribution mode of braking force and the effect of mass change should be considered while differential brake is applied.

  11. A double modal synthesis approach for brake squeal prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteil, M.; Besset, S.; Sinou, J.-J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper is devoted to propose a new efficient reduction method for predicting the stability analysis of a brake system subjected to friction-induced vibration. The finite element brake system under study is composed of a disc and a pad. The contact is modeled by introducing contact elements at the friction interface with the classical Coulomb law and a constant friction coefficient. It will be demonstrated that it is possible to build efficient reduced finite element models by developing a reduced model based on a Double Modal Synthesis (i.e. a classical modal reduction via Craig & Bampton plus a condensation at the frictional interface). Special attention is being conducted to validate the convergence of the reduced model especially on the approximation of the unstable modes with respect to real and imaginary parts. This complete numerical strategy based on Double Modal Synthesis allows us to perform relevance squeal prediction of unstable vibration modes. It is demonstrated that the numerical results via the Double Modal Synthesis are in good agreement with those of the classical Craig & Bampton method.

  12. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  13. Metro Vehicle Braking Control and Longitudinal Impact%地铁车辆制动控制与纵向冲击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍了地铁车辆的两个评价指标:稳定性和舒适度。列车纵向冲动是列车运行质量的关键影响因素,分析了列车减速度和纵向冲击率对于稳定性和舒适度的影响。研究地铁列车制动减速度与列车冲击率之间的关系,提出了针对地铁制动系统空气制动和复合制动的制动控制方法,通过优化制动控制策略提高了稳定性和舒适度。%This paper introduces two evaluation indexes of metro vehicles which mainly refer to stability and comfort.The longitudinal impact of train is a key influencing factor.This paper analyses the effect of train deceleration rate and longitudinal impact on the stabili-ty and comfort,studies the relationship between braking deceleration rate and impact for the metro vehicles and then proposes the bra-king controlling method of air braking and composite braking for metro braking system.The optimization of braking control is able to improve the stability and comfort.

  14. Research on automatic braking control system for large civil aircraft%基于CRM的酒店管理信息系统的分析与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晶

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the hotel industry, to ensure that the hotel in the fierce market competition to be able to profit, and put forward the hotel management information system based on CRM design. This paper expounds the basic principle and characteristics of CRM, analyzes the needs of the hotel management information system, based on the CRM based hotel management information system for the modular design. At last, the flow chart of the system design is given, and the design of the two important modules of the website module and the background management module is given. Theoretical and practical application shows that the hotel management information system based on CRM can improve the efficiency of the hotel more than 20%, and can promote the hotel’s profitability, and achieve the expected research objectives.%为了提高酒店行业的效率,保证酒店在激烈的市场竞争中能够盈利,提出了基于CRM的酒店管理信息系统的设计方案。本文阐述了CRM的基本原理和特点,对酒店管理信息系统的需求进行了分析,在此基础上对基于CRM的酒店管理信息系统进行了模块化的设计。最后给出了系统设计的流程图,并给出了网站模块、后台管理模块两个重要模块的设计。理论和实际应用表明,基于CRM的酒店管理信息系统能提高酒店效率20%以上,并能对酒店的盈利有很大的促进,达到了预期的研究目标。

  15. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  16. 基于盐化工自动包装系统的缝包机刹车装置设计%A Sack Closer Brake Device Design Based on the Salt and Chemical Automatic Packaging System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊祁; 张伟东

    2016-01-01

    In view of the present domestic automatic salt sewing machine without brakes ,causeing sewing tail wire is too long and not beautifull, and sewing line may be winding roller, we designed a cutting knife brakes. This device can make motor pulley braking at the moment of sack closer cutting off the line. Thus, it will greatly shorten the sewing stern line.%针对目前国内全自动食盐缝包机没有刹车装置而导致缝包尾线过长、缝包不美观、缝包线可能缠绕辊道的问题,设计了一个缝包机皮带轮抱刹刹车装置,该装置可以在缝包机切刀动作的一瞬间,对缝包机电机皮带轮实行点动刹车,从而大幅度缩短缝包尾线。

  17. Analysis of Failure Causes and the Criticality Degree of Elements of Motor Vehicle’s Drum Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ćatić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the paper gives the basic concepts, historical development of methods of Fault Tree Analysis - FTA and Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis - FMECA for analysis of the reliability and safety of technical systems and importance of applying this method is highlighted. Failure analysis is particularly important for systems whose failures lead to the endangerment of people safety, such as, for example, the braking system of motor vehicles. For the failure analysis of the considered device, it is necessary to know the structure, functioning, working conditions and all factors that have a greater or less influence on its reliability. By formation of the fault tree of drum brakes in braking systems of commercial vehicles, it was established a causal relation between the different events that lead to a reduction in performance or complete failure of the braking system. Based on data from exploitation, using FMECA methods, determination of the criticality degree of drum brake’s elements on the reliable and safe operation of the braking system is performed.

  18. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  19. Electro-pneumatic Transition of Train Braking System with Bang-Bang and PID Compound Control%列车制动“电-空”转换的Bang-Bang与模糊PID复合控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昱; 刘钊; 程海鹰

    2013-01-01

    The Electric-Pneumatic (EP) transition transforms the electric signal into pressure air accordingly which is the key of the brake system. But the EP transition is nonlinear, time-varying and easy to be disturbed, which make the EP transition control difficult. An EP transition unit with high-speed valves is designed which utilizes the bang-bang control method and fuzzy PID control. This compound control method makes the unit self-adaptive to different work conditions. Then the mathematic model of the electric-pneumatic transmission is built and analyzed. A series of tests indicates the compound controller makes the EP transfer fast-response and high accurate. Furthermore, the service life of the high speed on-off valves can be prolonged greatly.%列车气制动过程中的EP(电-空)转换完成电气指令到空气压力的转换,是实现精确制动的关键环节.EP转换具有非线性、时变和多因素干扰等特点,但它的实时性要求又很高,导致控制难度较大.采用环境适应能力更强的高速开关电磁阀组成EP转换单元,提出一种结合Bang-Bang控制思想与模糊PID(比例积分微分)控制的复合控制器,能自动适应不同工况.建立了EP转换的数学模型并进行分析,并构建了制动试验台进行大量试验.采用复合控制方法和高速开关阀的EP系统具有转换精度高,响应速度快等优点,还能延长器件的使用寿命.

  20. Investigation of the coatings applied onto brake discs on disc-brake pad pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kiliçaslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While braking, according to the severity of it, thermal, metallurgical, constructive and tribological occurrences emerge on the brake disc-pad interface. In this study, NiCr was sprayed as bonding layer onto the discs, one ofwhich was coated with Al2O3-TiO2 by plasma spray and the other was coated with NiCr-Cr3C2 by High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF. In addition, the discs were tested with inertia dynamometer according to SAE’s J2522 testing procedure. The measurements showed that although the pads of the coated discs were exposed to higher braking temperatures, friction coefficient of the disc coated with NiCr- Cr3C2 was obtained 6 % higher compared to the original disc.

  1. Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.

  2. Automotive brake squeal analysis with rotating finite elements of asymmetric disc in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jaeyoung

    2017-04-01

    The new finite element brake squeal model is proposed where the finite elements of a real brake disc rotate in time. Contact nodal forces between the rotating disc and stationary pads are allocated to the moving contact area at every time step. When the proposed model is applied to an asymmetric automotive brake disc, it becomes the periodic time-varying brake system. The stability boundary of the discrete time-varying system is numerically calculated by the Floquet theory. Also, the quasi-static linearized eigenvalue analysis is conducted to show that the unstable modes repeatedly appear at the short interval of the disc rotation angle. The results are consistent with the angle-dependent local phenomenon of squeal termed squeal periodicity in the squeal experiment. In the nonlinear time-domain analysis, the squeal vibration increases and then decays in time for the rotating mode shape functions. It demonstrates that the rotation of an asymmetric disc can change the nonlinear squeal behavior as well as the linear stability character drastically.

  3. Design and preliminary validation of a tool for the simulation of train braking performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca Pugi; Monica Malvezzi; Susanna Papini; Gregorio Vettori

    2013-01-01

    Train braking performance is important for the safety and reliability of railway systems. The availability of a tool that allows evaluating such performance on the basis of the main train features can be useful for train system designers to choose proper dimensions for and optimize train’s subsystems. This paper presents a modular tool for the prediction of train braking performance, with a par-ticular attention to the accurate prediction of stopping distances. The tool takes into account different loading and operating conditions, in order to verify the safety require-ments prescribed by European technical specifications for interoperability of high-speed trains and the corresponding EN regulations. The numerical results given by the tool were verified and validated by comparison with experi-mental data, considering as benchmark case an Ansaldo EMU V250 train-a European high-speed train-currently developed for Belgium and Netherlands high-speed lines, on which technical information and experimental data directly recorded during the preliminary tests were avail-able. An accurate identification of the influence of the braking pad friction factor on braking performances allowed obtaining reliable results.

  4. Petal Brake Hypersonic Entry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exploration plans will realize significant performance advantages with aerocapture and aerobraking of large, heavy payloads for Mars, Titan, and the gas...

  5. 混合动力履带车辆机电复合制动力分配策略研究%Study on Electric-mechanical Combined Braking Distribution Strategy of Hybrid Electrical Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆含; 魏曙光; 魏巍; 马晓军

    2016-01-01

    For the achievement of the braking stability of dual-motor hybrid tracked vehicle with elec-tric-mechanical combined braking system,the braking moment distribution method is proposed based on fuzzy principle. First,the fuzzy controller of braking moment distribution coefficient with accelerate pedal signal and drive velocity as input was designed. And the constraint of electric brake was taken into account for the improvement of matching performance. Then,the electrical drive system,mecha-nical brake system and vehicle dynamical real-time model were set up with the braking process simula-ted in different braking intensities. The simulation results indicate that the combined braking fuzzy con-trol system can recover some braking energy and realize stable braking.%为解决双侧电驱动履带车辆复合制动问题,提出一种机械、电气制动力模糊分配控制策略,通过制定以踏板信号和车辆行驶速度为输入的模糊规则在线实时分配电气、机械制动比例,并考虑电制动实际存在的约束,提高车辆复合制动匹配效果。其次,建立了整车驱动电机系统、机械制动系统以及车辆动力学实时仿真模型,进行了多种制动强度下的驾驶员在环的控制原型仿真试验,仿真结果表明复合制动系统能够在有效回收制动能量的同时,实现平稳制动。

  6. Tribological properties of nonasbestos brake pad material by using coconut fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, A. L.; Pinca-Bretotean, C.; Utu, D.; Josan, A.

    2017-01-01

    In automotive industry, the brake system is influenced by a large number of variables including geometry of components, materials of brakes, components interaction and many operating condition. Organic fiber reinforced metallic friction composites are increasingly being used in automotive brake shoes, disc and pads, linings, blocks, clutch facings, primarily because of awareness of health hazards of asbestos. Current trend in the research field of automotive industry is to utilization of different wastes as a source of raw materials for composite materials. This will provide more economical benefit and also environmental preservation by utilize the waste of natural fibre In this paper it has performed a tribological study to determine the characteristics of the friction product by using coconut natural fibred reinforced in aluminium composite. In this sense, two different laboratory formulation were prepared with 5% and 10% coconut fibre and other constitutes like binder, friction modifiers, abrasive material and solid lubrificant using powder mettallurgy. These dnew materials for brake pads are tested for tribological behaviour in a standard pin on disc tribometer. To know the wear behavior of composite materials will determine the parameters that characterize there tribological properties.

  7. Calculation and Adjustment of Auxiliary Shaft Hoist Braking Torque%副井提升机制动力矩的计算与调整

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁先亮; 冯庆平; 孙雨生

    2012-01-01

    The main cause of the problem that the deceleration of hoist emergency braking exceeds the standard is the high close brake pressure of brake. Based on the relevant provisions in "Coal Mine Safety Regulation", the paper deduced the inequality to calculate the close brake pressure, so as to calculate the range of identified close brake pressure and debug the brake system. The result can avoid the problem that the deceleration of hoist emergency braking exceeds the standard.%提升机紧急制动减速度超标,主要原因是制动器贴闸压力过高造成的.依据《煤矿安全规程》的相关规定,演绎出计算贴闸压力的不等式,由不等式计算出贴闸压力的取值范围,在取值范围内确定贴闸压力的大小,按确定贴闸压力的大小对制动系统进行调试,其结果就可以避免紧急制动减速度超标的问题.

  8. SEE SAW BASED REGENERATIVE POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Tribhuwan Singh; Shahzad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Research related to electrical vehicles is gaining importance due to the energy crisis. Using regenerative braking when braking, improves the efficiency of an electric vehicle as it recovers energy that could go to waste if mechanical brakes were used. A novel regenerative braking system for neighborhood electric vehicles was designed, prototyped and tested. The proposed system utilizes a seesaw system to capture energy whereas the conventional systems regenerate to the batteries. The user ha...

  9. SEE SAW CREATED RECREATING POWER SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Singh*, Saha Ali

    2016-01-01

    Research related to electrical vehicles is gaining importance due to the energy crisis. Using regenerative braking when braking, improves the efficiency of an electric vehicle as it recovers energy that could go to waste if mechanical brakes were used. A novel regenerative braking system for neighborhood electric vehicles was designed, prototyped and tested. The proposed system utilizes a seesaw system to capture energy whereas the conventional systems regenerate to the batteries. The user ha...

  10. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  11. THE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING CIRCULATION VELOCITY OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英林; 侯春生

    1997-01-01

    By rational hypothesis of fluid flow pattern, applied the law of conservation of energy and integrated the laboratory test results, finished the prediction by the theoretical model of circulation velocity of hydraulic brake which is important parameter. Thus provide the theoritical basis for hydraulic brake of belt conveyor whose research has just been started.

  12. Ileal brake activation: Macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, M. van; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Aam, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of t

  13. Characterisation of motorcyclist's upper body motion during braking manoeuvre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannis, S.; Kavadarli, G.; Fraga, F.; Rooij, L. van; Schuller, E.; Peldschus, S.

    2010-01-01

    Motorcycle braking experiments with volunteers were performed in lab, to study the body posture and reactions of the motorcyclists during braking with the aim of providing input for human modelling. Human motion capture methods were employed for the kinematics and the recorded data was further analy

  14. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications.

  15. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The steering axle of a three-axle dolly which is steered by a co-driver; (5) Loaded house moving... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A commercial motor vehicle may be equipped with a device to reduce the front wheel braking effort (or in the case...

  16. Ileal brake activation: macronutrient-specific effects on eating behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avesaat, van M.; Troost, F.J.; Ripken, D.; Hendriks, H.F.; Masclee, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Activation of the ileal brake, by infusing lipid directly into the distal part of the small intestine, alters gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inhibits food intake. The ileal brake effect on eating behavior of the other macronutrients is currently unknown.Objective:The objective of this

  17. Antiskid control of railway train braking based on adhesion creep behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jianyong; Chen, Zhongkai

    2012-05-01

    In modern trains wheelset skidding leads to the deterioration of braking behavior, the degradation of comfort, as well as a boost in system hazards. Because of the nonlinearity and unknown characteristics of wheelset adhesion, simplifications are widely adopted in the modeling process of conventional antiskid controllers. Therefore, conventional antiskid controllers usually cannot perform satisfactorily. In this paper, systematic computer simulation and field tests for railway antiskid control system are introduced. The operating principal of antiskid control system is explained, which is fundamental to the simulation of antiskid brakes, and the simulation model is introduced, which incorporates both the adhesion creep curve and a pneumatic submodel of antiskid control system. In addition, the characteristics of adhesion curves and the simulation target are also provided. Using DHSplus, the pneumatic submodel is created to analyze the performance of the different control strategies of antiskid valves. Then the system simulation is realized by combining the kinematical characteristics of railway trains and the pneumatic submodel. The simulation is performed iteratively to obtain the optimized design of the antiskid control system. The design result is incorporated in the hardware design of the antiskid control system and is evaluated in the field tests in Shanghai Subway Line 1. Judging by the antiskid efficiency, the antiskid braking performance observed in the field tests shows the superiority of the optimized design. Therefore, the proposed simulation method, especially in view of its ease of application, appears to be a useful one for designing railway antiskid control systems.

  18. Tribology of a Combined Yaw Bearing and Brake for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos

    A common goal among many countries worldwide is to increase the share of renewable energy in the overall energy supply. As response to such an aspiration, wind energy is becoming more and more cost effective through improved technology and increased size of wind turbines. One of the subsystems...... disc brake is typically included as an independent system. However, the increasing size of wind turbines makes roller element bearings an economically costly option. Moreover, the additional brake system increases complexity and consequently adds further production and maintenance costs. One...... that are affected by the tendency for building larger units, is the yaw system of horizontal axis wind turbines. State of the art wind turbine yaw systems consist of either a large roller element bearing or a corresponding segmented sliding bearing that connects the wind turbine nacelle and tower. An additional...

  19. STATISTIC, PROBABILISTIC, CORRELATION AND SPECTRAL ANALYSES OF REGENERATIVE BRAKING CURRENT OF DC ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nikitenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Defining and analysis of the probabilistic and spectral characteristics of random current in regenerative braking mode of DC electric rolling stock are observed in this paper. Methodology. The elements and methods of the probability theory (particularly the theory of stationary and non-stationary processes and methods of the sampling theory are used for processing of the regenerated current data arrays by PC. Findings. The regenerated current records are obtained from the locomotives and trains in Ukraine railways and trams in Poland. It was established that the current has uninterrupted and the jumping variations in time (especially in trams. For the random current in the regenerative braking mode the functions of mathematical expectation, dispersion and standard deviation are calculated. Histograms, probabilistic characteristics and correlation functions are calculated and plotted down for this current too. It was established that the current of the regenerative braking mode can be considered like the stationary and non-ergodic process. The spectral analysis of these records and “tail part” of the correlation function found weak periodical (or low-frequency components which are known like an interharmonic. Originality. Firstly, the theory of non-stationary random processes was adapted for the analysis of the recuperated current which has uninterrupted and the jumping variations in time. Secondly, the presence of interharmonics in the stochastic process of regenerated current was defined for the first time. And finally, the patterns of temporal changes of the correlation current function are defined too. This allows to reasonably apply the correlation functions method in the identification of the electric traction system devices. Practical value. The results of probabilistic and statistic analysis of the recuperated current allow to estimate the quality of recovered energy and energy quality indices of electric rolling stock in the

  20. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  1. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  2. Design optimization of a magnetorheological brake in powered knee orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have been utilized in devices like orthoses and prostheses to generate controllable braking torque. In this paper, a flat shape rotary MR brake is designed for powered knee orthosis to provide adjustable resistance. Multiple disk structure with interior inner coil is adopted in the MR brake configuration. In order to increase the maximal magnetic flux, a novel internal structure design with smooth transition surface is proposed. Based on this design, a parameterized model of the MR brake is built for geometrical optimization. Multiple factors are considered in the optimization objective: braking torque, weight, and, particularly, average power consumption. The optimization is then performed with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and the optimal design is obtained among the Pareto-optimal set considering the trade-offs in design objectives.

  3. Non-linear 2-DOF model and centre manifold theory to study limit cycle oscillations caused by drum-brake judder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ming-gang; HUANG Qi-bai; WANG Yong; XU Zhi-sheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the research on the laws of systematic-parameter dependent variation in the vibration amplitude of drum-brake limit cycle oscillations (LCO). We established a two-degree non-linear dynamic model to describe the low-frequency vibration of the drum brake, applied the centre manifold theory to simplify the system, and obtained the LCO amplitude by calculating the normal form of the simplified system at the Hopf bifurcation point. It is indicated that when the friction coefficient is smaller than the friction coefficient at the bifurcation point, the amplitude decreases; whereas with a friction coefficient larger than the friction coefficient of bifurcation point, LCO occurs. The results suggest that it is applicable to suppress the LCO amplitude by changing systematic parameters, and thus improve the safety and ride comfort when applying brake. These findings can be applied to guiding the design of drum brakes.

  4. 动车组电空制动协调控制优化研究%Research on Optimization of Electro-pneumatic Braking Cooperative Control for EMU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琴跃; 包世炯; 谭喜堂; 王东响

    2013-01-01

    分析现有动车组电空制动控制系统中的制动力分配策略,针对动车与拖车电空制动力施加不均的问题,提出一种电空制动协调控制优化策略。采用动车电制动优先的控制原则,并根据载重反比分配拖车与动车所需施加的空气制动力。以 CRH2型动车组中一动一拖为基本单元,利用Matlab/Simulink软件对列车在不同制动工况进行仿真,结果表明,基于载重反比分配制动力的电空制动协调优化控制策略可有效提高列车制动效率,减小动车与拖车的车轮踏面磨损。%On analysis of the braking force distribution strategy in existing Electric Multiple Unit(EMU) electro-pneumatic braking control system, an optimization strategy of electro-pneumatic braking cooperative control is proposed, which aims at solving the imbalance problem of the motor car and trailer car’s electro-pneumatic braking. It uses electro-pneumatic braking priority control principle in EMU, and distributes air braking force of motor car and trailer car in inverse ratio on the basic of load. By modeling the EMU electro-pneumatic cooperative braking control and braking force distribution optimized algorithm while taking one motor car and one trailer car in CRH2 EMU as the basic unit, the Matlab/Simulink software is used to simulate different braking condition. The results indicate that the electro-pneumatic cooperative braking control optimization strategy which based on the load inverse-proportion for braking force distribution has the significant effect on improving brake efficiency, reducing wheel tread wear of the motor car and the trailer car.

  5. Simulation study of the plasma brake effect

    CERN Document Server

    Janhunen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The plasma brake is a thin negatively biased tether which has been proposed as an efficient concept for deorbiting satellites and debris objects from low Earth orbit. We simulate the interaction with the ionospheric plasma ram flow with the plasma brake tether by a high performance electrostatic particle in cell code to evaluate the thrust. The tether is assumed to be perpendicular to the flow. We perform runs for different tether voltage, magnetic field orientation and plasma ion mass. We show that a simple analytical thrust formula reproduces most of the simulation results well. The interaction with the tether and the plasma flow is laminar when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tether and the flow. If the magnetic field is parallel to the tether, the behaviour is unstable and thrust is reduced by a modest factor. The case when the magnetic field is aligned with the flow can also be unstable, but does not result in notable thrust reduction. We also fix an error in an earlier reference. According to...

  6. The new Mercedes-Benz decompression valve engine brake (DVB); Die neue Dekompressionsventil-Motorbremse (DVB) von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T.; Holloh, K.D.; Fleckenstein, G.; Juergens, R.

    1995-07-01

    During recent years there has been a continuing increase in the demands for higher braking performance of commercial vehicle engines. Mercedes-Benz developed the engine brake with continuously open decompression valve (`Konstantdrossel`) and introduced it into series production in 1989 as an option. For the use on engines developed by Mercedes-Benz for foreign markets and for further improvements of vehicle safety investigations were made to increase the engine braking power even more. The further increase of braking power had to be achieved while retaining the additional decompression valve in the cylinder head. For this, the decompression valve was no longer kept open during the whole working cycle (continueously open decompression valve), but only for a short period from just before compression TDC to about 90 .. 120 crank angle after compression TDC (pulsed decompression valve). The hydraulic actuating system which opens and closes the decompression valves was developed in cooperation with Mannesmann-Rexroth GmbH, Lohr, Germany. The engine braking performance attainable with this system is shown in comparison to other known engine braking systems. The effects of the engine braking system on the downhill performance of commercial vehicles compared to other continuous braking systems are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den letzten Jahren sind generell die Forderungen nach hoeherer Motorbremsleistung immer weiter gestiegen. Mercedes-Benz entwickelte die Konstantdrossel-Motorbremse und fuehrte sie 1989 in die Serie ein. Fuer den Einsatz an von Mercedes-Benz fuer aussereuropaeische Maerkte entwickelten Motoren und zur weiteren Erhoehung der Fahrzeugsicherheit wurde nach weiteren Moeglichkeiten zur Steigerung der Motorbremsleistung gesucht. Die Steigerung sollte unter Beibehaltung des zusaetzlichen Dekompressionsventils ermoeglicht werden. Dies wurde dadurch erreicht, dass das Dekompressionsventil nicht mehr waehrend des gesamten Arbeitsspiels konstant offen gehalten

  7. 泵控电液混合驱动系统在板料折弯机上的应用研发%The application and exploration of pump-control electro-hydraulic driving system in press brake for sheet metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振光; 汪立新; 温峰虎; 雷斌华; 茅问宇

    2013-01-01

    The electric and hydraulic principles of the pump-control electro-hydraulic driving system have been introduced in the text, as well as the advantages of pump-control press brake comparing with the conventional one. It is pointed out that the application of pump-control electro-hydraulic driving system is more widely, which has a broad marketing prospect.%介绍了泵控电液混合驱动系统的电气原理、液压原理,以及与传统折弯机相比泵控折弯机的诸多优点,指出泵控电液混合驱动系统的应用将越来越广泛,具有广阔的市场前景.

  8. 49 CFR 232.211 - Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class III brake tests-trainline continuity... § 232.211 Class III brake tests-trainline continuity inspection. (a) A Class III brake test shall be... configuration of the train has changed in certain ways. In particular, a Class III brake test shall be...

  9. 飞机电刹车驱动器设计与研究%Design and Research of Aircraft Electric Braking Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢世杰; 林辉; 戴志勇

    2012-01-01

    以飞机全电刹车为研究背景,介绍了飞机电刹车系统的组成.设计了以飞机直流电为驱动电源、无刷直流电动机作动器为控制对象的飞机电刹车驱动器.借助MATLAB,对电刹车驱动器进行仿真.仿真结果和实验结果表明,刹车驱动器设计合理,性能优良.%The components of aircraft electric braking system was described. The electric braking drive was designed with the DC power of aircraft as drive power and the brushless DC motor actuator as contrd object. The electric braking drive was simulated by MATLAB. The electric performance of aircraft electric braking drive was proven by simulation results and experimental results.

  10. Signal Processing for MoC brake rattle noise of moving vehicles using prony analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Kwak, Yun Sang; Park, Jun Hong [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To verify the possibility of generating rattling noise from a motor on caliper brake system, a test was conducted using a caliper excited with vibrations similar to that in a vehicle running on actual roads; this test was conducted using a quiet shaker installed in an anechoic room. After several hours of external excitation, the test assembly was loosened, and the frequency of rattling noise generation increased. A microphone was used to record the generated noise. The measured signals were analyzed by conventional spectrum analysis. Since the noise is generated as an impact response, the advantages of employing Prony analysis was discussed, and the results were compared to those obtained using conventional fast Fourier transforms. The accuracy of Prony analysis was through endurance tests on different brake systems.

  11. Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Datong; YE Ming; LIU Zhenjun

    2007-01-01

    The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter/generator (ISG),which is varied with desired braking deceleration and vehicle speed,is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration,maximum braking force of ISG,engine braking force and state of charge (SOC) of battery.Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative braking force of ISG.To recover the vehicle's kinetic energy maximally,braking shift rules for a mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with automatic manual transmission (AMT) are brought forward and effects of transmission ratios are considered.A test-bed is built up and regenerative braking tests are carried out.The results show that power recovered by the braking shift rules is more than that recovered by the normal braking control rules.

  12. THE MOMENT OF UNSAFETY FOR DRIVING IN CONDITIONS OF POOR VISIBILITY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE EVALUATION OF VEHICLE BRAKING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarayev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigation of a car collision with a pedestrian under limited visibility condi-tions. For this purpose an expert has to analyze the accident details and determine the critical time at which the car driver must take an action to avoid the collision. The analysis is complicated due to the fact that the vehicle is equipped with an anti-blocking braking system and does not leave a braking trace on the pavement. In this case, a relevant expert analysis technique does not exist. The development of such techniques as the basis of this scientific work is given.

  13. MODIFICATION OF FLAKE REINFORCED FRICTION BRAKE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the recent development trend and need of the friction brake material, the flake reinforced friction brake material has been made out by adjusting the recipe and techniques. The two-dimensional flake vermiculite is selected as the reinforced stuffing of the material; the modified resin is used as the basal bed of the material. The tests manifest that the properties of mechanics are high, the friction coefficients are suitable and stable,and especially in high temperatures the wear is low. It is an excellent friction brake material.

  14. A model of heat dissipation for MR based brake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, A; Noack, V; Maas, J [Hochschule Ostwestfalen-Lippe - University of Applied Sciences, Control Engineering and Mechatronics, Liebigstrasse 87, D-32657 Lemgo (Germany)], E-mail: ansgar.wiehe@hs-owl.de

    2009-02-01

    In contrast to conventional brakes actuators based on magnetorheological fluids (MRF) offer an advantage in short term, peak load decelerating. The dissipation of a high amount of energy in a short period of time results in a thermal destruction of conventional brakes. Due to the volume based energy dissipation of MR actuators, instead of the surface based energy dissipation of conventional brakes, the rise of temperature and the distribution of energy shows significant advantages. In this paper a design rule for special peak load MR actuators is derived. Furthermore the simplified model, which is the basis of the design rule, is compared to several simulation models, with different levels of detail.

  15. STUDY KOMPARASI LOST FOAM DAN KONVENSIONAL CASTING PRODUK DISC BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoso, Sumeru; -, Suyitno

    2014-01-01

    Disc brake component is a vital component with gray cast iron base material, it’s also fast lasting wearing part, so it has be replaced often. The disc brake replacement component in a local market is being supplied by the small scale local metal casting industries have the same quality as the genuine part.Disc brake making process is utilizing casting method inserting RCS core between drag and coup, than metal molten poured inside mold. The problem of this method is the product result often ...

  16. Thermomechanical Simulation of Wear and Hot Bands in a Disc Brake by Adopting an Eulerian Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid, Asim; Strömberg, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper frictional heating of a disc brake is simulated while taking wear into account. By performing thermomechanical finite element analysis, it is studied how the wear history will influence the development of hot bands. The frictional heat analysis is based on an Eulerian formulation of the disc, which requires significantly lower computational time as compared to a standard Lagrangian approach. A real disc-pad system to a heavy truck is considered, where complete three-dimensional ...

  17. Tuning the Brake While Raising the Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meder, David; Haagensen, Brian Numelin; Hulme, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    to stop to bank the current balance. Within each gambling round, the accumulation of gains gradually increased reaction times for "continue" choices, indicating growing uncertainty in the decision to continue. Neural activity evoked by "continue" choices was associated with growing activity...... and connectivity of a cortico-subcortical "braking" network that positively scaled with the accumulated gains, including pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), inferior frontal gyrus, caudate, and subthalamic nucleus (STN). The influence of the STN on continue-evoked activity in the pre-SMA was predicted...... a paradigm where subjects experienced increasing potential rewards coupled with increasing risk, this study addressed two unresolved questions in the field of decision-making: First, we investigated an "inhibitory" network of regions that has so far been investigated with externally cued action inhibition...

  18. Comparisonal Analysis of Manuevering and Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the possibility of avoiding a traffic accident considering a car driver who is fallen in a dangerous situation. In such a case, the driver can choose one of the following ways: hard braking or one of the types of maneuvering, including turning off, turning with straightening or changing a line regarding road surface type (dry asphalt, wet asphalt or snowy asphalt. The article also proposes formulas for calculating road distance the car travels till dead stop. Moreover, the tables display theoretical values taking into account various car speeds and road surfaces. The pictures help with determining the most suitable type of action in light of road and weather conditions as well as car speed. The pictures clearly show the dependence of road length on movement speed. At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Flatness-based model inverse for feed-forward braking control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Edwin; Fehn, Achim; Rixen, Daniel

    2010-12-01

    For modern cars an increasing number of driver assistance systems have been developed. Some of these systems interfere/assist with the braking of a car. Here, a brake actuation algorithm for each individual wheel that can respond to both driver inputs and artificial vehicle deceleration set points is developed. The algorithm consists of a feed-forward control that ensures, within the modelled system plant, the optimal behaviour of the vehicle. For the quarter-car model with LuGre-tyre behavioural model, an inverse model can be derived using v x as the 'flat output', that is, the input for the inverse model. A number of time derivatives of the flat output are required to calculate the model input, brake torque. Polynomial trajectory planning provides the needed time derivatives of the deceleration request. The transition time of the planning can be adjusted to meet actuator constraints. It is shown that the output of the trajectory planning would ripple and introduce a time delay when a gradual continuous increase of deceleration is requested by the driver. Derivative filters are then considered: the Bessel filter provides the best symmetry in its step response. A filter of same order and with negative real-poles is also used, exhibiting no overshoot nor ringing. For these reasons, the 'real-poles' filter would be preferred over the Bessel filter. The half-car model can be used to predict the change in normal load on the front and rear axle due to the pitching of the vehicle. The anticipated dynamic variation of the wheel load can be included in the inverse model, even though it is based on a quarter-car. Brake force distribution proportional to normal load is established. It provides more natural and simpler equations than a fixed force ratio strategy.

  20. Friction and wear studies on the temperature dependence of brake-pad materials containing brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddoumy Fatima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brake pad materials for automobile applications are basically polymer matrix composites. Various reinforcing constituents used in brake pads are organic, metallic and ceramic fillers which play among others an important role on the mechanical and thermal properties, and the wear resistance at high temperature. Friction and wear depend on various parameters such as the micro-chemical structure of the pad and of the metallic counter-face, the rotation speed, the pressure, and the contact surface temperature (M.G. Jacko 1983. This latter parameter can be locally as high as 600 up to 1.500 ∘C depending on the brake type (M.G. Jacko 1983; Blau 2001. Thermal models have been developed to study interface effects at contacting surfaces (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Frictional energy can be dissipated through different mechanisms such as oxidation, rise in temperature, formation of wear particles, entropy changes associated to viscoelastic and viscoplastic deformation, and noise generation (Eddoumy, Addiego et al. 2011. Studies of friction brake show that more than 95% of the dissipated energy is transformed into heat (Kasem, Thevenet et al.; Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. Thermal analysis is therefore a primordial step in the study of brake systems since it provides thermo-mechanical properties (Majcherczak, Dufrenoy et al. 2007. The influence of the addition of metallic fibers on the performance of organic friction composites has been investigated using friction tests (Qu, Zhang et al. 2004. Benefits or limitations of the different fibers have been reported, however the issues of thermo-mechanical properties or effect of temperature on friction and wear behavior were not yet investigated (Bijwe, Kumar et al. 2008. No effort was done to correlate the thermo-mechanical and thermal properties with the friction and wear behavior. An important prerequisite is to get a good understanding on how brake materials behave. However, a link

  1. The Calculation and Verification of the High Speed Train Braking Curve%高速列车制动曲线的计算与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张友兵; 张波

    2012-01-01

    分析了列车运行过程中的受力情况,给出了制动过程中减速度的计算方法,并采用正向、反向两种迭代方式计算列车制动曲线,两种方式计算出的制动曲线一致,证明了计算制动曲线的方法是正确的.在反向迭代计算制动曲线时,缩小距离步长,可以提高制动曲线的精确度,选择合适的距离步长,不但能保证精确度,而且可以满足时效性.通过仿真得出,在平直道上,CRH2型高速列车在初始速度为300km/h时,紧急制动距离为2 780m,最大常用制动距离为4 628m,符合国家规定.分析了制动过程中列车减速度与速度的关系.最后,分析了制动初始速度与制动距离的关系,发现制动初始速度越大,制动距离越长,且制动距离非线性增大.%In CTCS-3 train control system, the on-board equipment uses the target distance and continuous speed control mode to control the train. In order to ensure the train safety, the on-board equipment must calculate the braking curve based on the movement authority and adjust the train speed in real time. In this paper, the forces which are applied to the train are analyzed, and the calculation method of deceleration when the train is braking is given. The train braking curves are calculated by using forward and reverse iterative methods. The methods of calculating the train braking curve are proved to be correct. In the process of reversely and iteratively calculating the braking curve,narrowing the distance step can improve the accuracy of the braking curve,selecting the appropriate distance length not only can ensure the accuracy of the braking curve but also can meet the timeliness of calculating the braking curve, and The simulation result proves that the emergency braking distance of CRH2 high-speed trains is 2 780 m,the max normal braking distance is 4 628 m if the initial speed of the train is 300 km/h and the train is running on the flat and straight line. These results comply with the

  2. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  3. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge Public Use Development Plan - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Mathews Brake NWR involves setting station public use goals, project a positive attitude, welcome and orient visitors, develop key resources awareness,...

  4. Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  5. Fishing Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  6. Fishery Management Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Mathew's Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the refuge and area office...

  7. Fishery Management Plan for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office...

  8. Crayfish survey at Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Crayfish sampling on Morgan Brake NWR for vernal crawfish and other species was done for 3 days at five sites. Data are present on species of crawfish and amphibians...

  9. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  10. Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge Public Use Development Plan - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan for Morgan Brake NWR involves setting station public use goals, project a positive attitude, welcome and orient visitors, develop key resources awareness,...

  11. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  12. FES-Assisted Walking with Spring Brake Orthosis: Simulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jailani; Tokhi, M.O.; Gharooni, S. C.; B.S.K.K Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of bipedal locomotion to generate stimulation pulses for activating muscles for paraplegic walking with wheel walker using functional electrical stimulation (FES) with spring brake orthosis (SBO). A new methodology for paraplegic gait, based on exploiting natural dynamics of human gait, is introduced. The work is a first effort towards restoring natural like swing phase in paraplegic gait through a new hybrid orthosis, referred to as spring brake orthosis (SBO...

  13. OPTIMAL EMERGENCY VEHICLE BRAKING CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Olmos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic friction model for the tire-road interface is used in an optimal control scheme for emergency braking ofvehicles. The controller sets a target relative velocity curve that the vehicle must track in order to achieve braking inminimum time. It is shown that this curve corresponds to the solution of a minimum time optimal control problem.The final goal of the control is to improve the safety levels in highway transportation.

  14. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  15. 混合动力汽车再生制动的归类及其应用%Classification and Its Application of Regenerative Braking for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖福祥; 杜家益; 张彤

    2011-01-01

    According to different braking control strategies, the regenerative braking systems of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are classified into three categories: series braking with the best braking effect, series braking with the maximum energy regeneration rate and parallel braking, which are then analyzed respectively. A control strategy is put forward based on SOC, vehicle speed and the position of braking pedal, and is applied to a typical parallel HEV. The test results show that the braking control strategy proposed can recovery more braking energy with better braking feeling on the premise of safety assurance.%按不同的制动控制策略,将混合动力汽车再生制动系统分为具有最佳制动效果的串联制动、具有最佳能最回收率的串联制动和并联制动3种类型,并分别对它们进行了分析.提出了基于SOC、车速和制动踏板位置,动态地控制冉生制动转矩的控制策略,并将其应用于一款并联混合动力汽车上.测试结果表明:所制定的制动控制策略,可在保证安伞的前提下,更多地回收制动能量,并有较好的制动感觉.

  16. A Novel Approach for Combat Vehicle Mobility Definition and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    solutions. Some of the major applications include washing machines , rice cookers, image processing applications , anti-lock brake controls , and steering...soft computing decision-making process. Control theory uses fuzzy logic to develop approximation- decision making techniques to control vague or...constraints and the expert if-then rules to assess a set of variables of a system. Many practical applications and systems have used fuzzy logic

  17. 电动汽车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of performance results from Future Truck 2001;Analytical Calculation of Air-Gap Magnetic Field Distribution and Instantaneous Characteristics of Brushless DC Motors;Application of Fuzzy Control Algorithms for Electric Vehicle Antilock Braking/Traction Control Systems;Application Studies of Electric Double Layer Capacitor System for Fuel Cell Vehicle;Arbin High Power Electric Vehicle Battery Testing System (EVTS) “Advanced Technology Reaching Deep Into the Future”……

  18. Wear Modalities and Mechanisms of the Mining Non-asbestos Composite Brake Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jiusheng; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Zhencai; Tong, Minming; Lu, Yuhao; Peng, Yuxing

    2013-08-01

    The mining brake material is generally made of composite materials and its wear has important influences on the braking performance of disc brakes. In order to improve the braking reliability of mine hoisters, this paper did some tribological investigations on the mining brake material to reveal its wear modalities and mechanisms. The mining non-asbestos brake shoe and 16Mn steel were selected as braking pairs and tested on a pad-on-disc friction tester. And a SEM was used to observe the worn surface of the brake shoe. It is shown that the non-asbestos brake material has mainly five wear modalities: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, cutting wear, fatigue wear and high heat wear. At the front period of a single braking the wear modality is mainly composed of some light mechanical wear such as abrasive, cutting and point adhesive. With the temperature rising at the back period it transforms to some heavy mechanical wear such as piece adhesive and fatigue. While in several repeated brakings once the surface temperature rises beyond the thermal-decomposition point of the bonding material, the strong destructive high heat wear takes leading roles on the surface. And a phenomenon called friction catastrophe (FC) occurs easily, which as a result causes a braking failure. It is considered that the friction heat has important influences on the wear modalities of the brake material. And the reduction of friction heat must be an effective technical method for decreasing wear and avoiding braking failures.

  19. Braking index of isolated pulsars. II. A novel two-dipole model of pulsar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, N. J.; Stone, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    The magnetic dipole radiation model is currently the best approach we have to explain pulsar radiation. However, a most characteristic parameter of the observed radiation, the braking index nobs , shows deviations for all the eight best studied isolated pulsars, from the simple model prediction ndip=3 . The index depends upon the rotational frequency and its first and second time derivatives but also on the assumption that the magnetic dipole moment and inclination angle and the moment of inertia of the pulsar are constant in time. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 91, 063007 (2015)], we showed conclusively that changes in the moment of inertia with frequency alone cannot explain the observed braking indices. Possible observational evidence for the magnetic dipole moment migrating away from the rotational axis at a rate α ˙ ˜0.6 ° per 100 years over the lifetime of the Crab pulsar has been recently suggested by Lyne et al. In this paper, we explore the magnetic dipole radiation model with constant moment of inertia and magnetic dipole moment but variable inclination angle α . We first discuss the effect of the variation of α on the observed braking indices and show they all can be understood. However, no explanation for the origin of the change in α is provided. After discussion of the possible source(s) of magnetism in pulsars, we propose a simple mechanism for the change in α based on a toy model in which the magnetic structure in pulsars consists of two interacting dipoles. We show that such a system can explain the Crab observation and the measured braking indices.

  20. A statistical approach to estimate the LYAPUNOV spectrum in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The estimation of squeal propensity of a brake system from the prediction of unstable vibration modes using the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) in the frequency domain has its fair share of successes and failures. While the CEA is almost standard practice for the automotive industry, time domain methods and the estimation of LYAPUNOV spectra have not received much attention in brake squeal analyses. One reason is the challenge in estimating the true LYAPUNOV exponents and their discrimination against spurious ones in experimental data. A novel method based on the application of the ECKMANN-RUELLE matrices is proposed here to estimate LYAPUNOV exponents by using noise in a statistical procedure. It is validated with respect to parameter variations and dimension estimates. By counting the number of non-overlapping confidence intervals for LYAPUNOV exponent distributions obtained by moving a window of increasing size over bootstrapped same-length estimates of an observation function, a dispersion measure's width is calculated and fed into a BAYESIAN beta-binomial model. Results obtained using this method for benchmark models of white and pink noise as well as the classical HENON map indicate that true LYAPUNOV exponents can be isolated from spurious ones with high confidence. The method is then applied to accelerometer and microphone data obtained from brake squeal tests. Estimated LYAPUNOV exponents indicate that the pad's out-of-plane vibration behaves quasi-periodically on the brink to chaos while the microphone's squeal signal remains periodic.