WorldWideScience

Sample records for antiknock ratings

  1. Antiknock additives for engine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletaeva, O. [Ufa State Petroleum Technological Univ., Ufa (Russian Federation); Movsumzade, E. [Institute of Education of Indigenous Small-Nambered Peoples of the North RAE, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining gasoline with necessary quality and quantity is an actual problem. To increase fuel resources in the development are involved heavy oil, shale gas with further obtaining synthetic oil. Here is presented an analysis of processing technologies of natural and synthetic oil obtained in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, wherein focus is on octane number of gasoline fraction. Due to the low octane number, resolution of questions related to improving the detonation resistance, does not lose its relevance to the present day. Represented a quantum-chemical studies of some antiknock agents in the purpose by quantum chemistry methods to identify trends to increase the octane number of compounds and gasoline when they are added. (orig.)

  2. Antiknock quality and ignition kinetics of 2-phenylethanol, a novel lignocellulosic octane booster

    KAUST Repository

    Shankar, Vijai

    2016-06-28

    High-octane quality fuels are important for increasing spark ignition engine efficiency, but their production comes at a substantial economic and environmental cost. The possibility of producing high anti-knock quality gasoline by blending high-octane bio-derived components with low octane naphtha streams is attractive. 2-phenyl ethanol (2-PE), is one such potential candidate that can be derived from lignin, a biomass component made of interconnected aromatic groups. We first ascertained the blending anti-knock quality of 2-PE by studying the effect of spark advancement on knock for various blends 2-PE, toluene, and ethanol with naphtha in a cooperative fuels research engine. The blending octane quality of 2-PE indicated an anti-knock behavior similar or slightly greater than that of toluene, and ethylbenzene, which could be attributed to either chemical kinetics or charge cooling effects. To isolate chemical kinetic effects, a model for 2-PE auto-ignition was developed and validated using ignition delay times measured in a high-pressure shock tube. Simulated ignition delay times of 2-PE were also compared to those of traditional high-octane gasoline blending components to show that the gas phase reactivity of 2-PE is lower than ethanol, and comparable to toluene, and ethylbenzene at RON, and MON relevant conditions. The gas-phase reactivity of 2-PE is largely controlled by its aromatic ring, while the effect of the hydroxyl group is minimal. The higher blending octane quality of 2-PE compared to toluene, and ethylbenzene can be attributed primarily to the effect of the hydroxyl group on increasing heat of vaporization. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  3. Ratings War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSYZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Credit ratings are a conflicting issue for Chinese enterprises. While keen on achieving a. high rating, which translates as global recognition, when international rating firms publish their findings, the results are more often than not unsatisfactory. Much easier is obtaining a high rating in the domestic context. But the local ratings also give little satisfaction, since no domestic rating firm is yet qualified for international standards. A typical example happened recently in the banking sector.

  4. Interest Rates, Exchange Rates and Macroeconomic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfettin ERDOĞAN; Karacan, Rıdvan; Alpaslan, Barış

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the fact that a change in exchange rates has an impact on main economic indicators and therefore on macroeconomic performance. The aim of this paper is to study the implications of the relationship between exchange rates and changes in short-term interest rates on macroeconomic performance in the Turkish economy. The results of this study show that monetary policy shocks may affect financial sector and real sector through exchange rates.

  5. Raters & Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Winifred A.; Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The first article in this section, "Rating Scales and Shared Meaning," by Winifred A. Lopez, discusses the analysis of rating scale data. The second article, "Rating Scale Categories: Dichotomy, Double Dichotomy, and the Number Two," by Mark H. Stone, argues that dichotomies in rating scales are more useful than multiple ratings. (SLD)

  6. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  7. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  8. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  9. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  10. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  11. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  12. Bayesian Generalized Rating Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Helgi Sigurðarson 1985

    2014-01-01

    A rating curve is a curve or a model that describes the relationship between water elevation, or stage, and discharge in an observation site in a river. The rating curve is fit from paired observations of stage and discharge. The rating curve then predicts discharge given observations of stage and this methodology is applied as stage is substantially easier to directly observe than discharge. In this thesis a statistical rating curve model is proposed working within the framework of Bayesian...

  13. Interest Rates and Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Coopersmith, Michael; Gambardella, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is an extension of the work of one of us (Coopersmith, 2011) in deriving the relationship between certain interest rates and the inflation rate of a two component economic system. We use the well-known Fisher relation between the difference of the nominal interest rate and its inflation adjusted value to eliminate the inflation rate and obtain a delay differential equation. We provide computer simulated solutions for this equation over regimes of interest. This paper could be of ...

  14. Forward Rate Curve Smoothing

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrow, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the forward rate curve smoothing literature. The key contribution of this review is to link the static curve fitting exercise to the dynamic and arbitrage-free models of the term structure of interest rates. As such, this review introduces more economics to an almost exclusively mathematical exercise, and it identifies new areas for research related to forward rate curve smoothing.

  15. Vibrato rate adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromey, Christopher; Carter, Neisha; Hopkin, Arden

    2003-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to document the acoustic changes that occur as singers attempt to increase or decrease their vibrato rate to match target stimuli. Eight advanced singing students produced vowels with vibrato in three registers, both naturally and while attempting to match faster or slower rate stimuli. Slower rates were associated with lower intensity and less steady vibrato. Faster rates involved increased vibrato extent in the chest register and increased intensity in the head register. Singers whose spontaneous vibrato rates were naturally either slower or faster tended to also be relatively slower or faster when matching target rates. This ability to modify rate may have beneficial effects on the artistic quality of the voice for performance. PMID:12825649

  16. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  17. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  18. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  19. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...... obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...

  20. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...... five crowns to funds with the lowest costs and one crown to funds with the highest costs. We investigate the ability of the atpRating to predict the future performance of a fund. We find that an investor who has invested in the funds with the lowest costs within an investment category would have...... obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain...

  1. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support......The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...

  2. Seeking Universal Credit Ratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Amid the EU’s ongoing sovereign debt crisis,the current international credit rating system has been accused of aggravating the world’s economic woes.Recently,Guan Jianzhong,Chairman of the Board and President of the Beijing-based Dagong Global Credit Rating Co.Ltd.,spoke to Beijing Review reporter Yu Yan about reforms in the current international credit rating system and Dagong’s role.Dagong is the first non-Western rating agency to assess the world’s sovereign credit and risks.

  3. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J;

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  4. Interest rates mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Kanevski, M; Pozdnoukhov, A; Timonin, V

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with the analysis and mapping of Swiss franc interest rates. Interest rates depend on time and maturity, defining term structure of the interest rate curves (IRC). In the present study IRC are considered in a two-dimensional feature space - time and maturity. Geostatistical models and machine learning algorithms (multilayer perceptron and Support Vector Machines) were applied to produce interest rate maps. IR maps can be used for the visualisation and patterns perception purposes, to develop and to explore economical hypotheses, to produce dynamic asses-liability simulations and for the financial risk assessments. The feasibility of an application of interest rates mapping approach for the IRC forecasting is considered as well.

  5. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  6. Rate of Speed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Rate of spread was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  7. Exciton laser rate equations

    OpenAIRE

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-01-01

    The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  8. The ratings game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  9. National ART Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  10. Interest rates and inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Coopersmith

    1981-01-01

    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  11. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems. PMID:12284289

  12. On thermonuclear reaction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hans J. Haubold; Mathai, Arak Mathai

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the cases of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are als...

  13. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Zakynthinaki

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise. Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women.

  14. Interest rates factor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwook; Kim, Min Jae; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-07-01

    Interdependence of the interest rates of the US, the UK, and Japan is analyzed in this work by means of spectral analysis and network methods. A predominant effective factor in the interest rate market is which country floats a bond issue, and a minor effective factor is time to maturity of bonds. Power-law cross-correlation among different countries is analyzed by the detrended cross-correlation analysis method. Long-range cross-correlation is found between the first factors of interest rate, while there is no cross-correlation between some of the second factors. The tail dependency is indicated by tail indices from Archimedean copulas, including an empirical copula. In contrast to other pairs, the US-UK first factor pair has tail dependencies in both the upper-tail and lower-tail. Dynamic properties of interest rate are modeled by a stochastic volatility model. The properties of mean reverting and volatility clustering are observed and reflected in this model. The proposed simulation method combines the dependence structures and the factor dynamics model; it simultaneously describes the interest rates of different countries.

  15. Time rate collision matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations

  16. Sampling Rate Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Vitasek

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this article is conversion of the signal with given sampling frequency to signal with another sampling rate. The task is to change the sampling rate from fvz3=500Hz to fvz4=360Hz. There are two methods; in the text are called Method A and Method B. The Method B has two approximations, first and second order. The basic idea of Method A is to find the least common multiple. It has to use integrator (low-pass filter, cut frequency is half of original signal) and decimator (low-pass ...

  17. Weather Balloon Ascent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2016-05-01

    The physics of a weather balloon is analyzed. The surprising aspect of the motion of these balloons is that they ascend to great altitudes (typically 35 km) at a more or less constant rate. Such behavior is not surprising near the ground—say for a helium-filled party balloon rising from street level to the top of the Empire State building—but it is unexpected for a balloon that rises to altitudes where the air is rarefied. We show from elementary physical laws why the ascent rate is approximately constant.

  18. Gas system failure rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, T; Steerneman, AGM

    2005-01-01

    Gasunie buys and sells gas. This paper is about calculating the failure rate of the gas transport system of Gasunie in the Netherlands. The pipes in the network are connected at certain stations which may operate at degraded levels due to technical problems. The transport system, modelled as an opti

  19. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W;

    2011-01-01

    studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  20. Variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  1. Urban Unemployment Rate Declines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Nine million new jobs are to be created in 2005,according to the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. For the first time in five years, the jobless rate dropped in 2005, and the labor market is seeing a slight rebound.

  2. Exciton laser rate equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  3. Exchange Rate Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John Williamson

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current theory of how a floating exchange rate is determined, dividing the subject into what determines the steady state and what determines the transition to steady state. The inadequacies of this model are examined, and an alternative “behavioral” model, which recognizes that the foreign exchange market is populated by both fundamentalists and chartists is presented. It is argued that the main importance of understanding the foreign exchange market for development s...

  4. Measuring readmission rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, M.; Clarke, A.

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the feasibility of extracting data on readmissions and readmission rates from Körner data for use as health service indicators. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of inpatient Körner data for January 1988 to April 1989. SETTING--Three districts in North East Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of readmissions after index discharge for all acute specialties combined and by specialty (general medicine, general surgery, gynaecology, trauma and orthopaedics, and geriatri...

  5. Interest Rate Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Gottvald, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this Thesis deals with interest rate risk measurement and management in a bank. After the introduction, risks are defined separately in competence of ALM and risk management department, followed by objectives of ALM unit including historical development. Described methods of measuring and managing risk are partly basis for a case study in which the repricing gap model and consequently band BPV have been used. The main aim of the study is to compare the open interest position with...

  6. Airline Quality Rating 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R.

    1991-01-01

    In today's competitive airline industry, it's crucial that an airline do all it can to attract and retain customers. One of the best ways to do this is by offering a quality service to consumers. Perceptions of service quality vary from person to person, but an enduring element of service quality is the consistent achievement of customer satisfaction. The satisfying of customer service needs keeps them loyal and helps establish a base for new customers. An Airline Quality Rating scale is p...

  7. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many...... prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  8. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many...... prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...

  9. Exchange Rate in Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China announced the reform of its decade-old RMB exchange rate regime last July, linking the RMB to a basket of currencies rather than the U.S. dollar alone, and allowing the RMB to appreciate 2 percent against the U.S. currency. Since then, different viewpoints on the new regime have been voiced. The People's Bank of China, the central bank, said in a statement in late March that it would further improve the system, broadening the foreign exchange market, increasing the flexibility of the RMB exchange r...

  10. Emission rate measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckat, S.

    1980-09-01

    The development and application of an emission rate measuring device for gaseous components is explored. The device contains absorption fluid from a supply container that moistens a cylindrical paper sleeve. A newer model is provided with a direct current motor requiring less electricity than an older model. The hose pump is modified to avoid changing it and the filter sleeve is fastened more securely to the distributor head. Application of the measuring devices is discussed, particularly at the Cologne Cathedral, where damage to the stone is observed.

  11. Sampling Rate Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vitasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is conversion of the signal with given sampling frequency to signal with another sampling rate. The task is to change the sampling rate from fvz3=500Hz to fvz4=360Hz. There are two methods; in the text are called Method A and Method B. The Method B has two approximations, first and second order. The basic idea of Method A is to find the least common multiple. It has to use integrator (low-pass filter, cut frequency is half of original signal and decimator (low-pass filter, cut frequency is half of final signal. At first the zero samples are pasted, these are filtered by low-pass filter and then the computed samples are selected. The method B is not so exacting for computation, because the integrate factor is smaller, than in the method A. Of course, there are used integrate filters (low-pass filter. The first order approximation selects the nearer sample of both border samples. The second order approximation interpolates samples by line. Selected sample is therefore more accurate.

  12. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  13. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  14. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  15. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  16. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  1. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  2. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  3. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  4. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  5. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  6. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  7. Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Saúl Lizondo

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Real Exchange Rate Targets, Nominal Exchange Rate Policies, and Inflation Thh paper examines the implications of some nominal exchange rate policies aimed or attaining a given real exchange rate target. A policy rule that sets the rate of nominal depreciation as a function of the departures of the real exchange rate from its target level is unable to achieve the target. In contrast, a policv rule that sets the change in the rate of depreciation as a function of those departures may lead the economy to the target, under certain conditions. However, this policy could also lead the economy to a process of accelerating inflation.

  8. Interest Rate Determination in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Poddar; Mangal Goswami; Juan Sole; Victor Echévarria Icaza

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand how interest rates are formed in Lebanon, by focusing on the pass-through from benchmark rates, prevailing liquidity conditions, and the main characteristics of the Lebanese economy, notably its open capital account, fixed exchange rate, high government borrowing requirement, large public debt, and high degree of deposit dollarization. We find that international interest rates are an important element in the determination of interest rates in Lebanon. In particu...

  9. Forward Rate Unbiasedness Hypothesis in the Tunisian Exchange Rate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dhekra Azouzi; Rohit Vishal Kumar; Chaker Aloui

    2011-01-01

    Based on a linear framework, this paper aims to examine the relationship between future spot rates and forward exchange rates using USD-TND data, thanks to traditional regressions and to the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) in order to check if the Unbiasedness Forward Exchange Rate (UFER) hypothesis is satisfied and if the forward premiums contain valuable information useful to forecast the subsequent path that will be taken by spot exchange rates. The empirical analysis reveals that the...

  10. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  11. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  12. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  13. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  14. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. PMID:26686485

  15. EXCHANGE RATE - REGIMES AND POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Lučić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate of one currency is the price of the currency expressed in units of other currency. It is formed by the interaction of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. Given that the exchange rate has a direct impact on the competitiveness of a country in terms of features of its exports and imports, in its balance of payments, and indirectly the overall economic and social development, in addition to acting in market principles - supply and demand in the formation of the equilibrium exchange rate, exchange rate is subject to different, stronger or weaker, more or less, forms of intervention. In the search for the optimal exchange rate policy of the national currency, the monetary authorities are positioned between the two extremes - the complete abandonment of the exchange rate to the market laws of supply and demand, or fixing the exchange rate for any of the selected anchor currency.

  16. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn S;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...... and reduced HRV despite significant weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The increase in nightly heart rate in conjunction with a decrease in parameters of parasympathetic activity suggests that liraglutide may affect sympathovagal balance....

  17. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218

  18. The foreign exchange rate rate exposure of nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Moebert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984) we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  19. Pairwise Comparisons Rating Scale Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Koczkodaj, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that incorrect data are entered into a pairwise comparisons matrix for processing into weights for the data collected by a rating scale. Unprocessed rating scale data lead to a paradox. A solution to it, based on normalization, is proposed. This is an essential correction for virtually all pairwise comparisons methods using rating scales. The illustration of the relative error currently, taking place, is discussed.

  20. Variations in Microcredit Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kneiding, Christoph; Rosenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Global differences in microcredit interest rates are dramatic. The global average is about 35 percent, but the average in Uzbekistan is above 80 percent, and in Sri Lanka it is around 17 percent. Small loan sizes are the most commonly cited reason why microcredit rates are higher than normal bank rates. Microcredit is a "high-touch" business, and microfinance institutions (MFIs) have to pr...

  1. Reading Sri Lanka's suicide rate.

    OpenAIRE

    Widger, Tom

    2014-01-01

    By the final decade of the twentieth century, rates of suicide in Sri Lanka ranked among the highest in the world. However, in 1996 the suicide rate began to fall and was soon at its lowest level in almost 30 years. This decline poses problems for classic sociological theories of suicide and forces us to question some fundamental assumptions underlying social scientific approaches to the suicide rate. Drawing from sociological, medical epidemiological, historical, and anthropological secondar...

  2. Supervising interest rate risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jose A.

    2004-01-01

    This Economic Letter reviews the Basel Capital Accord's stated principles on interest rate risk. In brief, the principles strongly support the idea that banks' internal risk assessments should, whenever possible, form the basis for supervisory oversight of their interest rate risk profiles. The principles suggest supervisory guidelines for assessing the adequacy of interest rate risk management systems, such as focusing on banks' internal control functions and stress-testing results.

  3. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  4. Credit Ratings and Debt Crises.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bussière; Ristiniemi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of credit rating agencies in sovereign debt crises. Using a panel of 53 emerging and developing countries with annual data going back to 1977, the paper shows that credit ratings are not very good predictors of debt distress events once tested against a simple benchmark model with standard macroeconomic variables. Next, the paper turns to higher frequency data for a subset of countries to analyze the link between credit ratings and bond spreads. The results indica...

  5. Delphi Rating on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Aniruddha M.; Shiffman, Richard N

    2003-01-01

    We designed an application to allow respondents to rate components of clinical guidelines on the Internet. Twenty-three invited experts completed the rating followed by a satisfaction survey using a 5-level Likert scale. The experts felt that Web data entry was convenient, acceptable and easily accessible. We conclude that Web-based Delphi rating for consensus development is a convenient and acceptable alternative to the traditional paper-based method.

  6. Forward Rate Unbiasedness Hypothesis in the Tunisian Exchange Rate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhekra Azouzi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a linear framework, this paper aims to examine the relationship between future spot rates and forward exchange rates using USD-TND data, thanks to traditional regressions and to the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM in order to check if the Unbiasedness Forward Exchange Rate (UFER hypothesis is satisfied and if the forward premiums contain valuable information useful to forecast the subsequent path that will be taken by spot exchange rates. The empirical analysis reveals that the UFER hypothesis is rejected and that the forward premium is a crucial tool, at short term, to detect the future movements of spot exchange rates. A potential enrichment of such a paper will rely on a non linearframework.

  7. Can you Trust Online Ratings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Julie; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Do user populations differ systematically in the way they express and rate sentiment? We use large collections of Danish and U.S. reviews to investigate this question, and we find evidence of important systematic differences: first, positive ratings are far more common in the U.S. data than in th...

  8. Rate Gyroscopic Wellbore Survey System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Limin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The rate gyroscopic wellbore survey system as a new type of survey instruments adopts the inertial-grade rate gyro and quartz flexible accelerometers to compose a gyrocompassing system, transiting data to surface instrument by single core cable. The azimuth, inclination and tool-face angle can be computed from these data by surface computer.

  9. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  10. Failure Rates in Introductory Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2007-01-01

    It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses...

  11. Credit Rating Gaps in Japan: Differences between Solicited and Unsolicited Ratings, and "Rating Splits"

    OpenAIRE

    Naoto Shimoda; Yuko Kawai

    2007-01-01

    Credit ratings have become an indispensable part of the fundamental information infrastructure of credit markets. Credit ratings cover a wide range of issuers including governments, governmental organizations, municipalities, nonfinancial companies and financial institutions, and also cover securitized products. For users, credit ratings are readily available tools to grasp the credit quality of securities (or issuers), as they rank, in the simple form of letter symbols, the ability of issuer...

  12. The Logic of Collective Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of participatory rating mechanisms on online sales platforms has had substantial impact on firms' sales and profits. In this note, we develop a dynamic model of consumer influences on ratings and of rating influences on consumers, focussing on standard 5-star mechanisms as implemented by many platforms. The key components of our social influence model are the consumer trust in the `wisdom of crowds' during the purchase phase and indirect reciprocity during the rating decision. Our model provides an overarching explanation for well-corroborated empirical regularities. We quantify the performance of the voluntary rating mechanism in terms of realized consumer surplus with the no-mechanism and full-information benchmarks, and identify how it could be improved.

  13. The present rate of Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Turatto, M

    2000-01-01

    We present and discuss the most recent determination of the rate of Supernovae in the local Universe. A comparison with other results shows a general agreement on the gross values but still significant differences on the values of the rates of various SN rates in different kinds of galaxies. The rate of SNe, used as a probe of Star Formation, confirms the young progenitor scenario for SNII+Ib/c. The increasing diversity of SNe reflects also in the SN yields which may affect the chemical evolution of the Galaxy but, because of the limited statistics, we cannot estimate the contributions of the new subtypes yet. It is also expected that in a few years observational determinations of the SN rates at various look-back times will be available.

  14. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S;

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  15. Supernova rates and stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Mannucci, F

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the results about the nature of type Ia Supernovae that can be derived by studying their rates in different stellar populations. While the evolution of SN photometry and spectra can constrain the explosion mechanism, the SN rate depends on the progenitor system. We review the current available data on rates as a function of parent galaxy color, morphology, star formation rate, radio luminosity and environment. By studying the variation of the rates with the color of the parent galaxy, a strong evidence was established that type Ia SNe come from both young and old stars. The dependence of the rates with the radio power of the parent galaxy is best reproduced by a bimodal distribution of delay time between the formation of the progenitor and its explosion as a SN. Cluster early-type galaxies show higher type Ia SN rate with respect to field galaxies, and this effect can be due either to traces of young stars or to differences in the delay time distribution.

  16. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p ...) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p

  17. Market-Oriented Interest Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The People's Bank of China,the central bank,just took a major step in the market-oriented reform of interest rates,but it's difficult to say how far the govemment can go with the reform. The central bank cut deposit and lending interest rates by 0.25 percentage points and extended the floating range of the rates,in the hope of curbing the downward trend in economic growth.This is a strong signal to the market:The govemment is resolute in maintaining stable economic growth.

  18. Evaluating China's Exchange Rate Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Xiao Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ In 1994 China established a de facto currency peg.1 The dollar-RMB exchange rate was fixed at 8.28.The People's Bank of China(PBC) allowed the rate a narrow band of around .01 to .02 percent in which it could shift daily.The exchange rate program did not become newsworthy until U.S.Treasury Secretary John Snow's visit in 2003.In fact as a study by Frankel and Wei (2007)showed, the RMB's forward was actually selling at a discount against the dollar prior to Secretary Snow's visit to China and his subsequent report, signaling that investors were anticipating RMB depreciation.

  19. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations.

  20. Stochastic analysis of nucleation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    We show that approximating the Becker-Döring equations with a Langevin equation results in multiplicative noise, which in turn leads to a family of possible Fokker-Planck equations according to the Ito-Stratonovich dilemma. Using a simple and general model for the attachment and detachment rates, we find that the Ito choice approximates the nucleation rate best and also coincides with the Fokker-Planck equation resulting from the common way to Taylor expand the original set of rate equations. PMID:26986388

  1. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  2. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  3. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  4. Copiea - excretion rates of salamaders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA This dataset is associated with the following...

  5. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  6. NOC rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    These catalogues list all items that will be available for the National Olympic Committees through the Rio 2016 Rate Card portal. They contain also the terms and conditions for all the NOC's purchases.

  7. Partner rate card: Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Welcome to the London 2012 Partner Rate Card catalogue, the easy way to order the products, services and facilities you will need to deliver hospitality programmes at the Olympic Hospitality Centre and showcasing facilities at the Olympic Park.

  8. Japan's High Saving Rate Reaffirmed

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dekle; Lawrence H. Summers

    1991-01-01

    Compared to the U.S. national accounts, the Japanese accounts understate consumption and government spending, and therefore overstate the national saving rate. Recently, Hayashi has recalculated Japan's national saving according to the American Department of Commerce definition and found that from the mid-1970s until today, Japan's national saving rate is nearly halved. In this paper, we argue that Hayashi's adjustments to the Japanese income accounts are exaggerated, and present measures of ...

  9. Exchange Rate Regimes and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Luca Antonio

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of fixed versus flexible exchange rate regimes on location choices of firms and on the degree of specialization of countries. In a two-country two-differentiated-good monetary model, demand, supply, and monetary shocks arise after wages are set and prices are optimally chosen. The exchange rate performs then an adjustment role for firms located in the country relatively specialized in the good they produce, but it constitutes a factor of disturbance for the...

  10. The Galactic Nova Rate Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Shafter, A W

    2016-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, a reliable estimate of the Galactic nova rate has remained elusive. Here, the overall Galactic nova rate is estimated by extrapolating the observed rate for novae reaching $m\\leq2$ to include the entire Galaxy using a two component disk plus bulge model for the distribution of stars in the Milky Way. The present analysis improves on previous work by considering important corrections for incompleteness in the observed rate of bright novae. Several models are considered to account for differences in the assumed properties of bulge and disk nova populations. The simplest models, which assume uniform properties between bulge and disk novae, predict Galactic nova rates between $\\sim$50 to as many as $\\sim$100 per year, depending on the assumed incompleteness at bright magnitudes. Models where the disk novae are assumed to be more luminous than bulge novae are explored, and predict nova rates up to 30% lower, in the range of $\\sim$35 to $\\sim$70 per year. An average of the most p...

  11. Measuring verification device error rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A verification device generates a Type I (II) error when it recommends to reject (accept) a valid (false) identity claim. For a given identity, the rates or probabilities of these errors quantify random variations of the device from claim to claim. These are intra-identity variations. To some degree, these rates depend on the particular identity being challenged, and there exists a distribution of error rates characterizing inter-identity variations. However, for most security system applications we only need to know averages of this distribution. These averages are called the pooled error rates. In this paper the authors present the statistical underpinnings for the measurement of pooled Type I and Type II error rates. The authors consider a conceptual experiment, ''a crate of biased coins''. This model illustrates the effects of sampling both within trials of the same individual and among trials from different individuals. Application of this simple model to verification devices yields pooled error rate estimates and confidence limits for these estimates. A sample certification procedure for verification devices is given in the appendix

  12. Smoking rates low in southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Gallup survey confirms that smoking rates in the US are declining and that smoking rates are lower in the Southwest than the US as a whole (1. Nationally, the smoking rate fell to 19.7% in 2013 from 21.1% in 2008. Among the Southwest states California ranked second (15.0%, Colorado ninth (17.4%, and Arizona tenth (17.5%. Only New Mexico was above the Nation's average at 20.0%. Utah remains the state with the lowest percentage of smokers, 12.2 percent, and Kentucky the highest, 30.2 percent. Nine of the 10 states with the lowest smoking rates have outright bans on smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars, with California allowing for ventilated rooms. Bans are significantly less common in the 10 states with the highest smoking rates. Kentucky, West Virginia, and Mississippi -- the states with the three highest smoking rates -- do not have statewide smoking bans. In addition, these three ...

  13. Conditioned inhibition and reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Kwok, Dorothy W S; Andrew, Benjamin J

    2014-07-01

    We investigated conditioned inhibition in a magazine approach paradigm. Rats were trained on a feature negative discrimination between an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) reinforced at one rate versus a compound of that CS and a visual stimulus (L) reinforced at a lower rate. This training established L as a conditioned inhibitor. We then tested the inhibitory strength of L by presenting it in compound with other auditory CSs. L reduced responding when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a high rate, but had less or even no inhibitory effect when tested with a CS that had been reinforced at a low rate. The inhibitory strength of L was greater if it signaled a decrease in reinforcement from an already low rate than if it signaled an equivalent decrease in reinforcement from a high rate. We conclude that the strength of inhibition is not a linear function of the change in reinforcement that it signals. We discuss the implications of this finding for models of learning (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) that identify inhibition with a difference (subtraction) rule.

  14. GROWTH RATE OF ARABIAN FOALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are treated as one of the most noble horse breed in the world. It isalso one of the oldest breed known as a root of many other breeds. Opposite toThoroughbred horses Arabian ones are very healthy, easy to keep with low fodderdemand. They are still incredibly resistant to environmental conditions. Growth anddevelopment of foals is also very interesting because it is more similar to growth ofprimitive than to noble foals. The object of this study was to analyse the growth rateof Arabian foals bred in Poland. 382 foals born in Bialka Stud in 1983-2003 weretaken under consideration. The height at withers, girth and cannon circumferencemeasured at 1 day and 6 and 18 months of life were analysed. On this base thegrowth rate was calculated. Horses were divided into different groups accordingtheir year of birth, sex, coat colour and sire and dam lines. The statistical differencesbetween particular groups were evaluated. It was stated that year of birth affectedsignificantly the growth rate of Arabian foals. Colts were characterized bysignificantly higher growth rate of cannon circumference. Horses of different coatcolour did not differ in growth rate of any parameter. Affiliation to particular sireand dam lines had some effects on growth rate of Arabian foals.

  15. Event Rates for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V

    2001-01-01

    Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.

  16. High rate manure supernatant digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anne Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-01-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7h imposing a maximum organic load of 400g COD L-1 reactor d-1. The reactors re...

  17. Rate calculation with colored noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Thomas; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-01-01

    The usual identification of reactive trajectories for the calculation of reaction rates requires very time-consuming simulations, particularly if the environment presents memory effects. In this paper, we develop a new method that permits the identification of reactive trajectories in a system under the action of a stochastic colored driving. This method is based on the perturbative computation of the invariant structures that act as separatrices for reactivity. Furthermore, using this perturbative scheme, we have obtained a formally exact expression for the reaction rate in multidimensional systems coupled to colored noisy environments.

  18. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  19. Photoionization rates for helium: update

    CERN Document Server

    Sokół, Justyna M

    2014-01-01

    The NIS He gas has been observed at a few AU to the Sun almost from the beginning of the space age. To model its flow an estimate of the loss rates due to ionization by solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) flux is needed. The EUV irradiance has been measured directly from mid 1990-ties, but with high temporal and spectral resolution only from 2002. Beforehand only EUV proxies are available. A new method of reconstruction of the Carrington rotation averaged photoionization rates for neutral interstellar helium (NIS He) in the ecliptic at 1 AU to the Sun before 2002 is presented. We investigate the relation between the solar rotation averaged time series of the ionization rates for NIS He at 1 AU derived from TIMED measurements of EUV irradiance and the solar 10.7 cm flux (F10.7) only. We perform a weighted iterative fit of a nonlinear model to data split into sectors. The obtained formula allows to reconstruct the solar rotation averages of photoionization rates for He between ~1947 and 2002 with an uncertainty ran...

  20. Variable gas leak rate valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  1. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  2. Vehicle crashworthiness ratings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; Mach, T; Neiger, D; Graham, A; Ramsay, R; Pappas, M; Haley, J

    1994-08-01

    The paper reviews the published vehicle safety ratings based on mass crash data from the United States, Sweden, and Great Britain. It then describes the development of vehicle crashworthiness ratings based on injury compensation claims and police accident reports from Victoria and New South Wales, the two most populous states in Australia. Crashworthiness was measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Injury severity was based on 22,600 drivers injured in crashes in the two states. Injury risk was based on 70,900 drivers in New South Wales involved in crashes after which a vehicle was towed away. Injury risk measured in this way was compared with the "relative injury risk" of particular model cars involved in two car crashes in Victoria (where essentially only casualty crashes are reported), which was based on the method developed by Folksam Insurance in Sweden from Evans' double-pair comparison method. The results include crashworthiness ratings for the makes and models crashing in Australia in sufficient numbers to measure their crash performance adequately. The ratings were normalised for the driver sex and speed limit at the crash location, the two factors found to be strongly related to injury risk and/or severity and to vary substantially across makes and models of Australian crash-involved cars. This allows differences in crashworthiness of individual models to be seen, uncontaminated by major crash exposure differences. PMID:7916859

  3. Collision rates and new physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This talk provides an introduction to event rates in a variety of collisions available for high energy physics experiments. Comparison is made between different beams as sources for the same physics. Specific examples are Higgs and supersymmetry searches. Attention is paid to initial states with e+e, eγ, eq, qq, gg, W+W-, bb and t anti t. 27 references

  4. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish stud...

  5. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Aug 30,2016 Blood ... was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  6. Forecasting for dynamic line rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiorri, Andrea; Nguyen, Huu-Minh; Alessandrini, Stefano;

    2015-01-01

    Rating (DLR) is a technology used to dynamically increase the ampacity of electric overhead transmission lines. It is based on the observation that the ampacity of an overhead line is determined by its ability to dissipate into the environment the heat produced by Joule effect. This in turn is dependent...

  7. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  8. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  9. Interest Rate Derivatives : An analysis of interest rate hybrid products

    OpenAIRE

    Chimanga, Taurai

    2011-01-01

    The globilisation phenomena is causing an increasing interaction between different markets and sectors. This has led to the evolution of derivative instruments from ”single asset” instruments to complex derivatives that have underlying assets from different markets, sectors and sub-sectors. These are the so-called hybrid products that have multi-assets as underlying instruments. This article focuses on interest rate hybrid products. In this article an analysis of the application of stochastic...

  10. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; VanSant, Kaitlyn [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 8040 USA; Newmiller, Jeff [DNV GL, 2420 Camino Ramon, Suite 300 San Ramon CA 95483 USA

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  11. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for...

  12. Loading Rate for Modulus of Rupture Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUMing; ZHANGYong-fang

    1996-01-01

    Relationship among load rate,strain rate and stress rate for modulus of ruptue test,the way of applying load with stress rate using both hydraulic compression testing machine and nechanical compression testing machine have been described.The test results are identical with selected strain rate loading and stress rate loading.

  13. Improving the RPC rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Iuppa, R; Liberti, B; Paolozzi, L; Pastori, E; Santonico, R; Toppi, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper has the purpose to study the rate capability of the Resistive Plate Chamber, RPC, starting from the basic physics of this detector. The effect of different working parameters determining the rate capability is analysed in detail, in order to optimize a new family of RPCs for applications to heavy irradiation environments and in particular to the LHC phase 2. A special emphasis is given to the improvement achievable by minimizing the avalanche charge delivered in the gas. The paper shows experimental results of Cosmic Ray tests, performed to study the avalanche features for different gas gap sizes, with particular attention to the overall delivered charge. For this purpose, the paper studies, in parallel to the prompt electronic signal, also the ionic signal which gives the main contribution to the delivered charge. Whenever possible the test results are interpreted on the base of the RPC detector physics and are intended to extend and reinforce our physical understanding of this detector.

  14. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  15. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  16. Intuitive understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    perceptions of positive test results and PPV when mammography is used in a symptomatic population versus an asymptomatic mass screening population.  Methods 59 attendees at a general practitioner (GP) conference in Scandinavia and 45 multi-national MBA students enrolled in a Danish University were surveyed...... cancer prior to mammography and estimates of the probability of breast cancer given the positive result (the PPV) for each woman. Open-ended questions followed. Results GPs and MBAs overestimated the base rates of cancer. Among women with symptoms, breast cancer incidence (base rate) is about .15......; on average GPs estimated .36 and MBAs .42. In mass screening populations breast cancer incidence is estimated as MBAs .21. Both groups underestimated the diagnostic PPV and overestimated the screening PPV, meaning they underestimated how differently cancer...

  17. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  18. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  19. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  20. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  1. Excitation rates of heavy quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, C.A.G.; Santangelo, E.M.; Ducati, M.B.G.

    1985-06-01

    We obtain the production rates for c, b, and t quarks in deep-inelastic neutrino- (antineutrino-) nucleon interactions, in the standard six-quark model with left-handed couplings. The results are obtained with the most recent mixing parameters and we include a comparison between quark parametrizations. The excitations are calculated separately for each flavor, allowing the understanding of the role of threshold effects when considered through different rescaling variables.

  2. Exchange Rate Choices of Microstates

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick A. Imam

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we first explain why most microstates (countries with less than 2 million inhabitants) have gained independence only in the last 30 years. Despite the higher costs and risks microstates face, their ability to better accommodate local preferences combined with a more integrated world economy probably explains why the benefits of independence have risen. We explain why microstates at independence have chosen either dollarization, currency board arrangements, or fixed exchange rate...

  3. Diamond gamma dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond detectors for X and gamma dose rate monitoring have been fabricated and tested in the 1 mGy/h to 1 kGy/h range. They show excellent performances in terms of sensitivity and linearity. Radiation hardness measurement under 60-Co gamma rays have demonstrated long term stability for integrated doses up to 500 kGy. (authors)

  4. The Exchange Rate Exposure Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Söhnke M.; Bodnar, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Based on basic financial models and reports in the business press, exchange rate movements are generally believed to affect the value of nonfinancial firms. In contrast, the empirical research on nonfinancial firms typically produces fewer significant exposures estimates than researchers ex-pect, independent of the sample studied and the methodology used, giving rise to a situation known as “the exposure puzzle”. This paper provides a survey of the existing research on the exposure phenomenon...

  5. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  6. Tree migration-rates: narrowing the gap between inferred post-glacial rates and projected rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    Full Text Available Faster-than-expected post-glacial migration rates of trees have puzzled ecologists for a long time. In Europe, post-glacial migration is assumed to have started from the three southern European peninsulas (southern refugia, where large areas remained free of permafrost and ice at the peak of the last glaciation. However, increasing palaeobotanical evidence for the presence of isolated tree populations in more northerly microrefugia has started to change this perception. Here we use the Northern Eurasian Plant Macrofossil Database and palaeoecological literature to show that post-glacial migration rates for trees may have been substantially lower (60-260 m yr(-1 than those estimated by assuming migration from southern refugia only (115-550 m yr(-1, and that early-successional trees migrated faster than mid- and late-successional trees. Post-glacial migration rates are in good agreement with those recently projected for the future with a population dynamical forest succession and dispersal model, mainly for early-successional trees and under optimal conditions. Although migration estimates presented here may be conservative because of our assumption of uniform dispersal, tree migration-rates clearly need reconsideration. We suggest that small outlier populations may be a key factor in understanding past migration rates and in predicting potential future range-shifts. The importance of outlier populations in the past may have an analogy in the future, as many tree species have been planted beyond their natural ranges, with a more beneficial microclimate than their regional surroundings. Therefore, climate-change-induced range-shifts in the future might well be influenced by such microrefugia.

  7. Rates for the competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion panel consisted of Bruce Ander of Pamco Atlas, Ian Watson, Chair of the Ontario Chamber of Commerce Energy Committee, and Ken Snelson, Principal of Snelson International Energy. Ian Watson shared his membership's views on the future supply of electric power under a competitive energy system in Ontario, stressing the need for the government to instruct Ontario Hydro to bring forward a transmission rate to the Ontario Energy Board in 1997, and for legislation to allow independent buyers and sellers to contract with one another to use that transmission rate outside the control of Ontario Hydro. He also expressed concern about Ontario Hydro's anti-competitive load retention rate which was an obvious bid to retain its major customers. Ken Snelson reported on a review of the effects of competition on Canada's long-term energy outlook. He predicted that in a competitive market with full retail access, customers can expect a lot more choice; independent producers also will have many more options for selling power

  8. Gauge independence of tunneling rates

    CERN Document Server

    Plascencia, Alexis D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the gauge dependence of the effective action at zero and finite temperature, it is shown that it leads to tunneling and nucleation rates that remain independent of the choice of gauge-fixing. Taking as a starting point the path integral that defines the transition amplitude from a false vacuum to itself, a careful treatment of the boundary conditions and the gauge-fixing allows to show that decay rates are exactly determined by the effective action evaluated at a generalized bounce configuration. The latter is a solution to the quantum equations of motion, with boundary conditions fixed by the false vacuum. The resulting tunneling rate is gauge-independent, as the Nielsen identities imply that the explicit gauge dependence in the effective action is exactly cancelled by the gauge dependence of the solution. This holds for any election of gauge-fixing that leads to an invertible Faddeev-Popov matrix. The result is nonperturbative and model-independent, and also clarifies how to incorporate radiative co...

  9. Response rate and reinforcement rate in Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Carpenter, Joanne S

    2011-10-01

    Four experiments used delay conditioning of magazine approach in rats to investigate the relationship between the rate of responding, R, to a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the rate, r, at which the CS is reinforced with the unconditioned stimulus (US). Rats were concurrently trained with four variable-duration CSs with different rs, either as a result of differences in the mean CS-US interval or in the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US. In each case, R was systematically related to r, and the relationship was very accurately characterized by a hyperbolic function, R = Ar/(r +c). Accordingly, the reciprocal of these two variables-response interval, I (= 1/R), and CS-US interval, i (= 1/r) - were related by a simple affine (straight line) transformation, I = mi+b. This latter relationship shows that each increment in the time that the rats had to wait for food produced a linear increment in the time they waited between magazine entries. We discuss the close agreement between our findings and the Matching Law (Herrnstein, 1970) and consider their implications for both associative theories (e.g., Rescorla & Wagner, 1972) and nonassociative theories (Gallistel & Gibbon, 2000) of conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Global warming and interest rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socio-economical growth of our country will yield unavoidably a sustained growth on the energy demand, particularly on the electricity demand. If the expected assumptions are fulfilled, the needed power needed to cover the electrical demand between 1997 and 2020 will almost triple, and the natural gas consumption by the generating facilities and CO2 emissions in that sector will multiply by five. If the emissions of other sector grow at the same rate as those of the electric sector the level of the emissions in our country will be equivalent to those of the developed countries at present. It is imperative to put limits to the growth of those emissions. In order to avoid that limiting of the emissions to be just a declaration, it is necessary to find and implement mechanisms that will lead to that goal. In the electric sector, and in order to promote the use of energy sources free of those emissions, the possible measures are: Application of an emission tax of U$ 10 (or higher) per ton of CO2 and use of the resulting funds to cause a decrease in the interest rate applied to electric generation projects which do not emit greenhouse gases. Contributions by the countries responsible for the present level of CO2 in the atmosphere to lower the incidence of the initial capital costs on the generation costs for the same type of projects (via low rate loans or subsidies). Being active any one of these two mechanisms (or both), will provoke those clean generation sources to compete successfully and will allow them to be a valuable tool to effectively diminish the growth of the emissions of those gases from the electric sector. Besides, a tax of such magnitude would not provoke an important increase on the electric energy prices. If any mechanism is implemented which intends to effectively diminish the CO2 emissions, the first important project to be completed is the completion of the Atucha II power station. (author)

  11. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  12. Dose and dose rate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods are discussea of measuring dose rate or dose using a scintillation counte. A plastic scintillator based on polystyrene with PBD and POPOP activators and coated with ZnS(Ag) was chosen for the projected monitor. The scintillators were cylindrical and spherical in shape and of different sizes; black polypropylene tubes were chosen as the best case for the probs. For the counter with different plastic scintillators, the statistical error 2σ for natural background was determined. For determining the suitable thickness of the ZnS(Ag) layer the energy dependence of the counter was measured. Radioisotopes 137Cs, 241Am and 109Cd were chosen as radiation sources. The best suited ZnS(Ag) thickness was found to be 0.5 μm. Experiments were carried out to determine the directional dependence of the detector response and the signal to noise ratio. The temperature dependence of the detector response and its compensation were studied, as were the time stability and fatigue manifestations of the photomultiplier. The design of a laboratory prototype of a dose rate and dose monitor is described. Block diagrams are given of the various functional parts of the instrument. The designed instrument is easiiy portable, battery powered, measures dose rates from natural background in the range of five orders, i.e., 10-2 to 103 nGy/s, and allows to determine a dose of up to 10 mGy. Accouracy of measurement in the energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV is better than +-20%. (E.S.)

  13. Deposit Reserve Rate No Panacea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark; A.DeWeaver

    2006-01-01

    To rein in runaway investment, China's central bank, the People's Bank of China (PBOC), took several measures in mid-June, including the most dramatic step of raising the deposit reserve rate by 0.5 percentage point According to Mark A. DeWeaver, who manages Quantrarian Asia Hedge, a fund that invests in Asian equities, the PBOC's measures may lower money supply growth in the short term; that is, the effect of these measures "may be only temporary." He believes that "attempts to slow money supply growth ...

  14. Hypernatremia: Correction Rate and Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Nur; Yasir Khan; Saadia Nur; Hassan Boroujerdi

    2014-01-01

    Severe hypernatremia is defined as serum sodium levels above 152 mEq/L, with a mortality rate ≥60%. 85-year-old gentleman was brought to the emergency room with altered level of consciousness after refusing to eat for a week at a skilled nursing facility. On admission patient was nonverbal with stable vital signs and was responsive only to painful stimuli. Laboratory evaluation was significant for serum sodium of 188 mmol/L and water deficit of 12.0 L. Patient was admitted to medicine intensi...

  15. A Respiration Rate Body Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Avbelj; Aleksandra Rashkovska; Roman Trobec

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new body sensor for extracting the respiration rate based on the amplitude changes in the body surface potential differences between two proximal body electrodes. The sensor could be designed as a plaster-like reusable unit that can be easily fixed onto the surface of the body. It could be equipped either with a sufficiently large memory for storing the measured data or with a low-power radio system that can transmit the measured data to a gateway for further processing. We explo...

  16. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  17. Power law in website ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Lande, D. V.; Snarskii, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the practical work of websites popularization, analysis of their efficiency and downloading it is of key importance to take into account web-ratings data. The main indicators of website traffic include the number of unique hosts from which the analyzed website was addressed and the number of granted web pages (hits) per unit time (for example, day, month or year). Of certain interest is the ratio between the number of hits (S) and hosts (H). In practice there is even used such a concept as...

  18. GDP growth rate and population

    OpenAIRE

    Kitov, Ivan O.

    2005-01-01

    Real GDP growth rate in developed countries is found to be a sum of two terms. The first term is the reciprocal value of the duration of the period of mean income growth with work experience, Tcr. The current value of Tcr in the USA is 40 years. The second term is inherently related to population and defined by the relative change in the number of people with a specific age (9 years in the USA), (1/2)*dN9(t) /N9(t), where N9(t) is the number of 9-year-olds at time t. The Tcr grows as the squa...

  19. Rate and Power Allocation for Discrete-Rate Link Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Gjendemsjø, Anders; Holm, Henrik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Gesbert, David; Hole, Kjell J; Orten, Pål

    2007-01-01

    Link adaptation, in particular adaptive coded modulation (ACM), is a promising tool for bandwidth-efficient transmission in a fading environment. The main motivation behind employing ACM schemes is to improve the spectral efficiency of wireless communication systems. In this paper, using a finite number of capacity achieving component codes, we propose new transmission schemes employing constant power transmission, as well as discrete and continuous power adaptation, for slowly varying flat-fading channels. We show that the proposed transmission schemes can achieve throughputs close to the Shannon limits of flat-fading channels using only a small number of codes. Specifically, using a fully discrete scheme with just four codes, each associated with four power levels, we achieve a spectral efficiency within 1 dB of the continuous-rate continuous-power Shannon capacity. Furthermore, when restricted to a fixed number of codes, the introduction of power adaptation has significant gains with respect to ASE and pro...

  20. Rate processes in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction-rate theory and experiment are given a critical review from the engineers' point of view. Rates of heavy-particle, collision-induced reaction in gas phase are formulated in terms of the cross sections and activation energies of the reaction. The effect of cross section function shape and of excited state contributions to the reaction both cause the slope of Arrhenius plots to differ from the true activation energy, except at low temperature. The master equations for chemically reacting gases are introduced, and dissociation and ionization reactions are shown to proceed primarily from excited states about kT from the dissociation or ionization limit. Collision-induced vibration, vibration-rotation, and pure rotation transitions are treated, including three-dimensional effects and conservation of energy, which have usually been ignored. The quantum theory of transitions at potential surface crossing is derived, and results are found to be in fair agreement with experiment in spite of some questionable approximations involved

  1. Metal loss growth rate distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, Erika S.M.; Olivier, Joao H.; Souza, Ricardo D. de; Addor, Pedro N. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Significant efforts have been dedicated in recent decades to the development of damage tolerance criteria and ILI tool technology and, by combining both, operators can nowadays determine their system's integrity condition at the time of inspection with considerable accuracy. However, to accomplish proper integrity management it is also necessary to estimate the damage progression over time. As corrosion is one of the most time-dependent threats to pipeline integrity, aging systems' operational reliability and cost-effectiveness mostly rely on the accuracy of their corrosion growth-rate estimations. The diversity of mechanisms acting concomitantly along a single pipeline, and the inherent stochastic nature of the corrosion process makes its mechanistic modeling a complex task. This paper introduces the use of exploratory statistical analysis combined with segmentation strategies to produce representative corrosion rates of metal-loss anomaly populations reported by ILI. The procedure could provide input suitable for both deterministic and probabilistic FFP analysis: for the latter, proper computational tools to process best fitting distributions being required. Three case studies, where diverse segmentation principles have been applied, are presented to illustrate methodology application. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  3. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United States Department of... Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period...

  4. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    This study examines the performance of the professional analysts in the Blue Chip Financial Forecasts vis-à-vis set of competing econometric benchmarks, including shrinkage versions that adjust for in-sample over-fit in improving out-of-sample performance. The individual participants perform...... the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...... document predictability in the survey forecast errors, which exhibit substantial variability across different economic episodes, and propose a new adjustment that can substantially improve the performance of the survey participants....

  5. Collision Rate Monitors for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Burger, S; Byrd, J M; Chow, K; Dutriat, C; Jolliot, M; Lefèvre, T; Matis, H S; Monroy, M; Talanov, V; Turner, W C; Ratti, A; Renet, S

    2007-01-01

    Collision rate monitors are essential in bringing particle beams into collision and optimizing the performances of a collider. In the case of LHC the relative luminosity will be monitored by measuring the flux of small angle neutral particles produced in the collisions. Due to the very different luminosity levels at the four interaction regions (IR) of LHC two different types of monitors have been developed. At the high luminosity IR (ATLAS and CMS) fast ionization chambers will be installed while at the other two (ALICE and LHC-b) solid state polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors will be used. The ionization chambers are being developed by LBNL while the CdTe monitors are being developed by CERN and CEA-LETI.

  6. Power law in website ratings

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, D V

    2010-01-01

    In the practical work of websites popularization, analysis of their efficiency and downloading it is of key importance to take into account web-ratings data. The main indicators of website traffic include the number of unique hosts from which the analyzed website was addressed and the number of granted web pages (hits) per unit time (for example, day, month or year). Of certain interest is the ratio between the number of hits (S) and hosts (H). In practice there is even used such a concept as "average number of viewed pages" (S/H), which on default supposes a linear dependence of S on H. What actually happens is that linear dependence is observed only as a partial case of power dependence, and not always. Another new power law has been discovered on the Internet, in particular, on the WWW.

  7. A Comprehensive Rail Rate Index for Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sparger, Adam; Prater, Marvin E.

    2012-01-01

    Several annual rail rate indices depict changes in the prices paid for rail service. Although accurate for general analyses, each of these indices falls short in capturing the three major components of total railroad grain rates: tariff rates, fuel surcharges, and secondary railcar market costs. Bids in the secondary grain railcar market can affect whether the actual rate paid by shippers is above or below the published tariff rate. The seasonality of rates inherent in grain transportation is...

  8. Interbank interest rates as term structure indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Malz, Allan M.

    1998-01-01

    Interbank fixed income claims are a rich but neglected source of information on the term structure of interest rates and interest rate expectations. The first half of this paper describes the information content of two types of over-the-counter interest rate derivatives, forward rate agreements and interest rate swaps. Interbank interest rates and derivatives lend themselves well to a particular technique for fitting zero-coupon curves. The second half of this paper present this technique, al...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Geographic Rate Averaging and Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  10. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  11. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  12. Hypernatremia: Correction Rate and Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe hypernatremia is defined as serum sodium levels above 152 mEq/L, with a mortality rate ≥60%. 85-year-old gentleman was brought to the emergency room with altered level of consciousness after refusing to eat for a week at a skilled nursing facility. On admission patient was nonverbal with stable vital signs and was responsive only to painful stimuli. Laboratory evaluation was significant for serum sodium of 188 mmol/L and water deficit of 12.0 L. Patient was admitted to medicine intensive care unit and after inadequate response to suboptimal fluid repletion, hemodialysis was used to correct hypernatremia. Within the first fourteen hours, sodium concentration only changed 1 mEq/L with a fluid repletion; however, the concentration dropped greater than 20 mEq/L within two hours during hemodialysis. Despite such a drastic drop in sodium concentration, patient did not develop any neurological sequela and was at baseline mental status at the time of discharge.

  13. 75 FR 69145 - Postal Rate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Postal Rate Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... constitute international law. Id. More specifically, the UPU Postal Operations Council establishes inward land rates.\\3\\ Such rates are based on a percentage of each member's inward land rate in 2004. Id. at...

  14. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  15. 23 CFR 650.707 - Rating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rating factor. 650.707 Section 650.707 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Discretionary Bridge Candidate Rating Factor § 650.707 Rating factor. (a) The.... ER15OC02.010 The lower the rating factor, the higher the priority for selection and funding. (b) The...

  16. FLOTATION RATE CONSTANT MODEL FOR FINE COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuMaixi; CaiZhang; TaoYoujun; KuangYali

    1996-01-01

    The density of fine coal has a major effect on the value of its floxation rate constant. The collector dose can increase the flotation rate of fine coal, especially for low ash coal, but the effect for gangue is not notable. The flotation rate of gangue is mainly governed by the water entrainment. A coal flotation rate constant model has been developed.

  17. 7 CFR 905.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 905.235 Section 905.235 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Assessment Rates § 905.235 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2007, an assessment rate of $0.0072 per 4/5 bushel carton or equivalent is established for Florida citrus...

  18. 7 CFR 917.258 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 917.258 Section 917.258 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 917.258 Assessment rate. On and after March 1, 2009 an assessment rate of...

  19. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2005, an assessment rate of $0.27 per...

  20. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate. On and after March 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.0175 per...

  1. 38 CFR 3.273 - Rate computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate computation. 3.273 Section 3.273 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... of rates due to changes in the maximum annual pension rate or rate of income following the...

  2. Factors influencing variation in dentist service rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D; Milgrom, P; Fiset, L

    1990-01-01

    In the previous article, we calculated dentist service rates for 200 general dentists based on a homogeneous, well-educated, upper-middle-class population of patients. Wide variations in the rates were detected. In this analysis, factors influencing variation in the rates were identified. Variation in rates for categories of dental services was explained by practice characteristics, patient exposure to fluoridated water supplies, and non-price competition in the dental market. Rates were greatest in large, busy practices in markets with high fees. Older practices consistently had lower rates across services. As a whole, these variables explained between 5 and 30 percent of the variation in the rates. PMID:2118182

  3. 47 CFR 64.1900 - Nondominant interexchange carrier certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... such services in compliance with its geographic rate averaging and rate integration obligations... certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate integration requirements. 64.1900 Section 64.1900 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  4. ESTIMATING TRUCK RATES FOR REFRIGERATED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, J. B.; Farris, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Food companies and analysts often need transportation rate data to explore market opportunities. In some cases, it may not be practical or necessary to obtain actual rates for all routes under consideration. This study provides analysis of truck rate patterns and alternative rate-estimating equations. The original objective was to provide shipping cost estimates for a national beef-marketing model involving 30 regions of the United States. The data set is 254 rates for refrigerated shipments ...

  5. Credit ratings in the Japanese bond market

    OpenAIRE

    Yamori, Nobuyoshi; Nishigaki, Narunto; Asai, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Recently, credit ratings have been enhancing the influence on issuers as well as the national economy. This paper explains the historical development and several current features of the Japanese bond market, and discusses why credit ratings gained a significant role in the 1990s. We also present empirical research on credit ratings in the Japanese bond market, and discuss how foreign raters tend to assign lower credit ratings than Japanese ones, but that the relative ratings among raters end ...

  6. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing locality rates and special... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special...

  7. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It...

  8. Jobs with the Highest Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had the highest rates of suicide for their gender. Among women, the highest rate was seen in ... overburdened, which can lead to depression," Manevitz added. Companies need assistance programs that look for work stresses ...

  9. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  10. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  11. 76 FR 6762 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION... Agriculture (USDA), announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period ending... Common to Insured and Guaranteed Telecommunications Loans, Sec. 1737.70(e) explains the...

  12. Parkinson's Rates Rising Among American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159464.html Parkinson's Rates Rising Among American Men Smoking is known ... MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Rates of Parkinson's disease may be on the rise for U.S. ...

  13. Monetary policy with state contingent interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Teles; Isabel Correia; Bernardino Adão

    2004-01-01

    What instruments of monetary policy must be used in order to implement a unique equilibrium? This paper revisits the issues addressed by Sargent and Wallace (1975) on the multiplicity of equilibria when policy is conducted with interest rate rules. We show that the appropriate interest rate instruments under uncertainty are state- contingent interest rates, i.e. the nominal returns on state-contingent nominal assets. A policy that pegs state-contingent nominal interest rates, and sets the ini...

  14. Essays on Unemployment and Real Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In the first essay, Persistence in Swedish Unemployment Rates, we study if there is no or weak tendency in unemployment rates to revert back to previous levels. Persistence is caused by: natural rate shocks, long unemployment cycles, and spill-over from cyclical to permanent unemployment. We find evidence of high persistence. The results suggest that the quick rise of unemployment rates during 1992-1994 was caused by large permanent and cyclical shocks in combination with spill-over effects. ...

  15. Equity Valuation Under Stochastic Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Realdon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an equity valuation model that employs risk-neutral valuation under stochastic interest rates along the lines of Ohlson and Feltham (1999). Closed form valuation formulae for equities are presented in a discrete time setting whereby the short term interest rate is modelled by a quadratic term structure model. Earnings are driven by mean reverting return on equity (ROE). The term strcture of interest rates, and in particular the variance of the future short rates, is found ...

  16. The Credit Rating Industry: Competition and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dittrich, Fabian

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of credit rating economics and draws conclusions on the nature of regulation. It starts with an overview of the credit rating industry and introduces a framework that structures multiple rating agency functions. At the heart of the credit rating business model lies the reputation mechanism, which is analyzed in detail. Despite several frictions in the process that give rise to entry barriers and market power, the quality assuring function of the re...

  17. CPI Overruns Deposit Reserve Rate Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The People's Bank of China has announced its intention to raise the deposit reserve rate again,less than one month after the last rate increase, this means that the deposit reserve rate has increased a total of ten times this year. However, this time the central bank increased the deposit reserve rate by a full 1 percent, a bigger increase than the last nine adjustments of 0.5 percent.

  18. The RMB Exchange Rate Keeps Increasing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In July 2005, the People's Bank of China officially announced that it would adopt a manageable floating exchange rate, adjusted according to a basket of currencies based on market supply and demand. On that day, the exchange rate of the RMB to the U.S. Dollar increased by 21 percent, and since then the RMB exchange rate has gradually turned to a more flexible exchange rate convention, rather than focusing on the Dollar only.

  19. Nuclear reaction rates and the primordial nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. We investigate the effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight. We have studied these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. We find that using these new reaction rates results in only a littl...

  20. Transition rates in proton - Rydberg atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinceanu, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for energy and angular momentum transfer processes in proton - Ryderg atom collisions were performed and the corresponding rates are reported.The relevance of these rates in the context of cosmological recombination is discussed. The rates are contrasted with the similar rates in electron - Rydberg atom collisions. This work has been supported by National Science Foundation through grants for the Center for Research on Complex Networks (HRD-1137732) and Research Infrastructure for Science and Engineering (RISE) (HRD-1345173).

  1. Effects of Sequence Partitioning on Compression Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Alagoz, B. Baykant

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, a theoretical work is done for investigating effects of splitting data sequence into packs of data set. We proved that a partitioning of data sequence is possible to find such that the entropy rate at each subsequence is lower than entropy rate of the source. Effects of sequence partitioning on overall compression rate are argued on the bases of partitioning statistics, and then, an optimization problem for an optimal partition is defined to improve overall compression rate of a...

  2. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  3. 75 FR 40853 - Postal Rate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Postal Rate Changes AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Under a 2006 postal reform law, a new approach to implementing rate changes for market dominant postal products, which include First- Class Mail, was adopted. In general, the new approach envisions annual rate...

  4. Have Floating Rates Been a Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, David

    1983-01-01

    Floating exchange rates have not lived up to all expectations, but neither have they performed as badly as some critics have suggested. Examined are the impact of floating rates on balance of payments adjustment, domestic economic policy, and inflation and the claim that floating rates have displayed excessive fluctuations. (Author/RM)

  5. 78 FR 69711 - Change in Postal Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., Priority Mail International (PMI) prices increase by an average of 1.1 percent. The existing price structure of PMI Flat Rate, Retail, Commercial Base, and Commercial Plus price categories do not change, except for the establishment of PMI Flat Rate Commercial Base and PMI Flat Rate Commercial Plus...

  6. 7 CFR 1435.101 - Loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The national average loan rate for raw cane sugar produced from domestically grown sugarcane is: 18... the loan rate per pound of raw cane sugar for each of the crop years 2009 through 2012. (c) Loan rates... to raw cane sugar or beet sugar on the basis of the expected production of raw sugar or beet...

  7. 2011 Cohort Graduation and Dropout Rate Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    To align with new federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) regulations for graduation rate calculations, the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) is reporting a new graduation rate beginning with the 2011 graduating class (also known as the 2011 cohort). The four-year cohort rate (includes all students who started 9th grade in 2007-2008 plus…

  8. Modeling helicity dissipation-rate equation

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    Transport equation of the dissipation rate of turbulent helicity is derived with the aid of a statistical analytical closure theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. It is shown that an assumption on the helicity scaling with an algebraic relationship between the helicity and its dissipation rate leads to the transport equation of the turbulent helicity dissipation rate without resorting to a heuristic modeling.

  9. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  10. 7 CFR 906.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 906.235 Section 906.235 Agriculture... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Rules and Regulations § 906.235 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2004, an assessment rate of $0.12 per 7/10-bushel carton or equivalent is established for oranges...

  11. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  12. International convergence of capital market interest rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.G. Fase; P.J.G. Vlaar

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and

  13. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan...

  14. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... application of daily compounding in determining interest accruing after December 31, 1982. Because...

  15. 7 CFR 930.133 - Compensation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compensation rate. 930.133 Section 930.133 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.133 Compensation rate. A compensation rate of $250 per meeting shall be paid to the public member and to the alternate public member when attending Board meetings. Such compensation is a...

  16. Uncertain discount rates in climate policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consequences in the distant future - such as those from climate change--have little value today when discounted using conventional rates. This result contradicts our 'gut feeling' about such problems and often leads to ad hoc application of lower rates for valuations over longer horizons - a step facilitated by confusion and disagreement over the correct rate even over short horizons. We review the theory and intuition behind the choice of discount rates now and, importantly, the impact of likely variation in rates in the future. Correlated changes in future rates imply that the distant future should be discounted at much lower rates than suggested by the current rate, thereby raising the value of future consequences - regardless of opinions concerning the current rate. Using historic data to quantity the likely changes and correlation in changes in future rates, we find that future valuations rise by a factor of many thousands at horizons of 300 years or more, almost doubling the expected present value of climate mitigation benefits relative to constant 4% discounting. Ironically, uncertainty about future rates reduces the ratio of valuations based on alternate choices of the current rate

  17. Atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m{sup -2}s{sup -1} was obtained, which is lower than mean {sup 36}Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  18. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  19. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  20. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  1. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  2. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantee except the normal fluctuations in approved variable interest rate loans. (b) Insured loans. (1... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rates. 1980.423 Section 1980.423 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.423 Interest rates. (a)...

  3. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This...

  4. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of electrical equipment must meet the requirements of 46 CFR 111.01-15. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230...

  5. Knowledge Workers' Perceptions of Performance Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.

    2004-01-01

    One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…

  6. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  7. Feedback Functions, Optimization, and the Relation of Response Rate to Reinforcer Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, Jack J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment arranged a series of inverted U-shaped feedback functions relating reinforcer rate to response rate to test whether responding was consistent with an optimization account or with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate such as linear system theory's rate equation or Herrnstein's hyperbola. Reinforcer rate…

  8. Discussing Problems of Chinese Interest Rate liberalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝民; 陈金贤

    2002-01-01

    The level of Chinese interest rate liberalization is very low. The interest rate liberalization reform is an inevitable choice under the general trend of economic globalization in the world. Meanwhile, interest rate liberalization is indispensable for Chinese economic development and financial stabilization. The interest rate liberalization reform should follow a certain principles and satisfy a certain requirements, otherwise the financial order will be in a state of chaos and the negative influence on economy will appear. The interest rate liberalization reform needs a good economic environment and a series of relative reforms.

  9. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  10. Self-rated health and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frank Krarup; Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-rated health in middle-aged and elderly Danes using both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Global and (age) comparative self-rated health are examined and compared. METHODS: This study is interview based and comprises data...... on 11,294 Danes aged 45-102 with more than 1,900 participants aged 90 years and older. RESULTS: As expected, global self-rated health declines with age in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. In contrast, comparative self-rated health either increases or remains stable with age in cross......-sectional analyses while in longitudinal analyses there is a slight decline in comparative self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: The age-trajectory of global self-rated health is similar in individuals and populations. For comparative self-rated health, however, the individual on average experiences a slight decline...

  11. Sawdust discharge rate from aerated hoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Chen; Zhulin Yuan; Chien-Song Chyang; Fu-Xiong Zhuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the discharge rate of sawdust from an aerated hopper as an important parameter in many industrial processes involving the handling of other granular materials. Numerical experiments are conducted by means of an Eulerian-Eulerian approach coupled with the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF). Emphasis is given to the effects of particle size, hopper outlet width, hopper half angle, aeration height and air flow rate. The results show that the discharge rate is significantly affected by hopper outlet width, particle size and air flow rate, but is not sensitive to the hopper half angle and aeration height: increasing hopper outlet width or air flow rate increases discharge rate, while increasing particle size decreases discharge rate. Close agreement between numerical predictions and experimental results is obtained.

  12. 钢管混凝土结构构件抗爆性能的试验研究%Experimental Study on Antiknock Performance of Concrete Filled Steel Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建英; 刘玉存; 刘天生

    2011-01-01

    对建筑结构构件存在巨大潜在破坏危险的爆炸冲击现象,开展了钢管混凝土结构构件在爆炸荷载作用下的动力响应试验研究.以相同管径3种不同壁厚的钢管混凝土简支构件为试验对象,分别进行了3个不同药量的炸药起爆,测量了爆炸冲击波压力时程曲线、构件跨中底部的应变时程曲线及构件跨中的最终挠度,对爆炸作用力、套箍系数与构件变形的关系进行了分析.试验表明,提高构件的套箍系数及自振周期,能够提高构件的抗爆能力.%For the fact that there is a huge potential destructive danger of explosion impact on structure components, the dynamic response of concrete filled steel tubes (CFST) subjected to blast load were studied. The tests were conducted to the CFST with the same diameter and different wall thickness. The explosions of different dosages were tested and the pressure-time curve of blast wave, the strain curves in the bottom of component and the final deflection of component were measured. The relation of explosive force, casing hoop steel coefficient and component deformation was analyzed. The results showed that CFST had good ductility and impact resistance, improving the casing hoop steel coefficient of CFST structures can enhance the ability of anti-explosion.

  13. Speaking rate adjustment across changes in talker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Sawusch, James R.

    2002-05-01

    Individuals vary their speaking rate, and listeners use the speaking rate of precursor sentences to adjust for these changes [Kidd (1989)]. Recent work has suggested that speaking rate adjustment may not always be limited to speech from a single talker (Sawusch and Newman, 2000). When a talker change occurs in the midst of a vowel, the durations of both portions of the vowel influence perception of the rate-based contrast. In the present experiments, we examined the effect of talker change on rate normalization for precursor phrases. A male talker produced the sentence, I heard him say the word-at one of three different speaking rates. A female talker then produced a nonword containing a duration-based contrast. We examined whether the male talker's speaking rate would influence perception of the female talker's speech. The results were somewhat surprising. The speaking rate of the first talker did influence perception of the contrast in the second talker. However, the effect was a U-shaped function of speaking rate, rather than the linear function typically demonstrated in the single-voice condition. Several follow-up studies replicated this basic pattern. Implications of this finding for studies of rate normalization will be discussed.

  14. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  15. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK+Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ganeshkumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACK+Rate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF is proposed. DRF sends ACK+Rate whenever there is a change in rate of ±25% than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with ATP.Keywords- Ad hoc network, Ad hoc transport Protocol, Rate based transport protocols, energy consumption, Intermediate node

  16. The relationships between stock market capitalization rate and interest rate: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jaradat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effect of interest rates on the stock market capitalization rate in AmmanStock Exchange (ASE over the period 1999-2008. Based on the multiple linear regression modeland simple regression model, the time series analysis revealed that there is significant and positiverelationship between government prevailing interest rate (R and stock market capitalization rate(S. The study shows that Government development stock rate (D exerts negative influence onstock market capitalization rate (S, also it finds a significant and negative relationship betweengovernment prevailing interest rate (R and Government development stock rate (D. Finally, thisstudy suggests the importance of government intervention to encourage investment in ASE byreducing rate of personal taxation thus, granting incentive for creation of wealth, controllinginterest rate so as to aid the growth of the stock market and improving the regulatory environmentand decreasing red tape.

  17. Modeling inflation rates and exchange rates in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates as well as to construct a model using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK models using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation rate was stable, does not mean that exchange rates and interest rates are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation rates and interest rates react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK model is robust to modelling and forecasting volatility of inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The DCC model is robust to model the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The BEKK model, which forecasted high exchange rate volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for modelling the exchange rates in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC model is also robust to forecast inflation rates in Ghana. PMID:25741459

  18. Dose rate levels around industrial gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose rate levels around two gamma ray sources utilized in a mining corporation have been determined. Both gamma ray sources are 137Cs and are installed in a mining corporation to measure on-line the density of mine products. Dose rate levels were calculated in several sites around the 137Cs sources using two active and several passive thermoluminescent dosemeters. Using the 137Cs' gamma factor dose rates were calculated in all the points. A comparison between the measured and calculated dose rate levels was carried out. Calculated dose rate levels was obtained for three cases: first, assuming the sources were bare, second, assuming the sources inside their shielding and the third, adding an extra shield to reduce the dose rate levels to those similar to local background. (author)

  19. Macroeconomic control of interest rate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鸣; 叶元煦; 何绍元

    2002-01-01

    The macroeconomic control of interest rate is studied using the elastic theory and correlation analysisand the concrete influence of interest rate on the consumption, savings and investment in China are investiga-ted. It is pointed out that although the interest rate mechanisms in China has gone through several adjustmentsand reforms, the results are not yet fully up to expectations. The interest rate does not adjust the national eco-nomic structure, and direct the trend of funds, nor regulate the general social supply and demand and balancethe price and currency in circulation, to achieve a rational distribution of social resources. The interest rate pol-icy of Central Bank does not have much actual influence on the economic departments, and this influence wascontinuously weakened in recent years. Countermeasures are suggested for improving the macro control of inter-est rate.

  20. Variation of OER with dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) has been measured as a function of dose rate from 276 Gy/hr to 0.89 Gy/hr for V-79 cells irradiated at 230C or 370C. As dose rate is decreased, the OER initially increases, from a value of 3.0 to a maximum value of 3.7 to 4.0, at a dose rate between 20 and 60 Gy/hr. The OER subsequently decreases with further dose rate reduction to a minimum value of 2.4 at the lowest dose rate. Similar experiments conducted with cells in nutrient deprived conditions exhibited a monotonic decrease in OER from 3.0 to 1.7 with dose rate reduction. These experimental findings can be understood in terms of the sublethal damage repair capability of cells under different pO2 and nutrient conditions

  1. Loading rates in California inferred from aftershocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narteau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the loading rate in southern California and the change in stress induced by a transient slip event across the San Andreas fault (SAF system in central California, using a model of static fatigue. We analyze temporal properties of aftershocks in order to determine the time delay before the onset of the power law aftershock decay rate. In creep-slip and stick-slip zones, we show that the rate of change of this delay is related to seismic and aseismic deformation across the SAF system. Furthermore, we show that this rate of change is proportional to the deficit of slip rate along the SAF. This new relationship between geodetic and seismological data is in good agreement with predictions from a Limited Power Law model in which the evolution of the duration of a linear aftershock decay rate over short time results from variations in the load of the brittle upper crust.

  2. Antioxidants, metabolic rate and aging in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic rate-of-living theory of aging was investigated by determining the effect of several life-prolonging antioxidants on the metabolic rate and life span of Drosophila. The respiration rate of groups of continuously agitated flies was determined in a Gilson respirometer. Vitamin E, 2,4-dinitrophenol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and thiazolidine carboxylic acid were employed as antioxidants. Results show that all of these antioxidants reduced the oxygen consumption rate and increased the mean life span, and a significant negative linear correlation was found between the mean life span and the metabolic rate. It is concluded that these findings indicate that some antioxidants may inhibit respiration rate in addition to their protective effect against free radical-induced cellular damage.

  3. Punishment and rate of positive reinforcement1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, William C.

    1968-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of several punishment intensities on two responses maintained by contrasting rates of reinforcement. The responses were concurrently reinforced according to two different variable-interval schedules. Because these schedules were independent of one another and programmed different rates of reinforcement, the two responses occurred at dissimilar rates. When responses were simultaneously suppressed by punishment, both rates were reduced proportionately until suppression was virtually complete. In other words, the per cent suppression resulting from punishment was independent of the rate at which the response was reinforced. Phenomena found in single-response studies were duplicated here. Responding tended to increase both within and between punishment sessions at mild and moderate punishment intensities. Cessation of punishment led to a “compensatory” overshooting beyond the prepunished response rate. PMID:5660709

  4. Efficient Implementation of Sample Rate Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Charanjit singh; Manjeet Singh patterh; Sanjay Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Within wireless base station system design, manufacturers continue to seek ways to add value and performance while increasing differentiation. Transmit/receive functionality has become an area of focus as designers attempt to address the need to move data from very high frequency sample rates to chip processing rates. Digital Up Converter (DUC) and Digital Down Converter (DDC) are used as sample rate converters. These are the important block in every digital communication system; hence there ...

  5. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov, Fakhri; Huseynov, Fariz

    2009-01-01

    By using quarterly data from 2001-2007 and applying various approaches, we estimate real equilibrium exchange rate misalignment for Azerbaijani Manat (AZN) and find that AZN is slightly overvalued. Purchasing power parity approach does not explain the equilibrium exchange rate. However using behavioral and permanent equilibrium exchange rate approaches, we find that the relative productivity, terms of trade, trade openness, net foreign assets, government expenditures and oil prices are the ma...

  6. Learning music similarity from relative user ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, D.; Weyde, T.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modelling of music similarity is an increasingly important part of personalisation and optimisation in music information retrieval and research in music perception and cognition. The use of relative similarity ratings is a new and promising approach to modelling similarity that avoids well known problems with absolute ratings. In this article, we use relative ratings from the MagnaTagATune dataset with new and existing variants of state-of-the-art algorithms and provide the firs...

  7. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Popescu, I Antoniu; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min(-1) and 12 Gy min(-1) but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min(-1). Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  8. Dose rate mapping of VMAT treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Antoniu Popescu, I.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Human tissues exhibit a varying response to radiation dose depending on the dose rate and fractionation scheme used. Dose rate effects have been reported for different radiations, and tissue types. The literature indicates that there is not a significant difference in response for low-LET radiation when using dose rates between 1 Gy min-1 and 12 Gy min-1 but lower dose rates have an observable sparing effect on tissues and a differential effect between tissues. In intensity-modulated radiotherapy such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) the dose can be delivered with a wide range of dose rates. In this work we developed a method based on time-resolved Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the dose rate frequency distribution for clinical VMAT treatments for three cancer sites, head and neck, lung, and pelvis within both planning target volumes (PTV) and normal tissues. The results show a wide range of dose rates are used to deliver dose in VMAT and up to 75% of the PTV can have its dose delivered with dose rates  <1 Gy min-1. Pelvic plans on average have a lower mean dose rate within the PTV than lung or head and neck plans but a comparable mean dose rate within the organs at risk. Two VMAT plans that fulfil the same dose objectives and constraints may be delivered with different dose rate distributions, particularly when comparing single arcs to multiple arc plans. It is concluded that for dynamic plans, the dose rate range used varies to a larger degree than previously assumed. The effect of the dose rate range in VMAT on clinical outcome is unknown.

  9. Exchange Rate Regimes and International Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Theptida Sopraseuth

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of exchange rate regimes on international business cycles and focuses on the consequences of membership to the European Monetary System. The volatility puzzle uncovered by Baxter and Stockman [1989, Journal of Monetary Economics 23, 377–401] after assessing the consequences of the Bretton Woods system turns out to be a robust stylized fact: real and nominal exchange rates display a higher volatility under floating rates while the variability of macroeconom...

  10. Securitization Rating Performance and Agency Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Roesch; Harald Scheule

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study, which assesses the historical performance of credit rating agency (CRA) ratings for securitizations before and during the financial crisis. The paper finds that CRAs do not sufficiently address the systematic risk of the underlying collateral pools as well as characteristics of the deal and tranche structure in their ratings. The paper also finds that impairment risk is understated during origination years and years with high securitization volumes when...

  11. DETERMINANTS OF REAL EXCHANGE RATE IN ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. P.Nandeeswara Rao; Tassew Dufera Tolcha

    2016-01-01

    Real exchange rate has direct effects on trade particularly on international trade and has indirect effects on productions and employments, so it is crucial to understand the factors which determine its variations. This study analyses the main determinants of the real exchange rate and the dynamic adjustment of the real exchange rate following shocks to those determinants using yearly Ethiopian time series data covering the period 1971 to 2010. It begins with a review of literatures on Exchan...

  12. Rates of convergence in active learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanneke, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We study the rates of convergence in generalization error achievable by active learning under various types of label noise. Additionally, we study the general problem of model selection for active learning with a nested hierarchy of hypothesis classes and propose an algorithm whose error rate provably converges to the best achievable error among classifiers in the hierarchy at a rate adaptive to both the complexity of the optimal classifier and the noise conditions. In particular, we state su...

  13. Fear of Floating: Exchange Rate Flexibility Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Many emerging market countries have suffered financial crises. One view blames soft pegs for these crises. Adherents to that view suggest that countries move to corner solutions--hard pegs or floating exchange rates. We analyze the behavior of exchange rates, reserves, and interest rates to assess whether there is evidence that country practice is moving toward corner solutions. We focus on whether countries that claim they are floating are indeed doing so. We find that countries that say th...

  14. The mirage of floating exchange rates

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    This note summarizes some of the highlights of my longer paper with Guillermo Calvo”Fear of Floating.” Many emerging market countries have suffered financial crises. One view blames soft pegs for these crises. Adherents to that view suggest that countries move to corner solutions--hard pegs or floating exchange rates. We analyze the behavior of exchange rates, reserves, and interest rates to assess whether there is evidence that country practice is moving toward corner solutions. We focus on...

  15. RMB Interest Rates Will Continue to Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Lehman Brothers say that the recent 0.27 percentage point rise in RMB interest rates is just for starters, and that China will continue to higher RMB interest rates, They forecast a rise up to 6 percent on a oneyear loan by the end of 2005. Liang Hong,chief economist at the Goldman Sachs investment bank, says that although the rise in RMB interest rates may be minimal,

  16. Migration Turnover Rates in Mountain States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, William J.; Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  17. Migration Turnover Rates in United States Counties

    OpenAIRE

    Israelsen, L. Dwight; Israelsen, Ryan D.; Israelsen, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of migration typically examine migration between countries, or, in the United States, migration between states. Recently, there have been several studies done on the determinants of migration at the county level. The current study introduces a new concept into the migration literature: the migration turnover rate (MTR). The migration turnover rate is similar to an employee turnover rate in that it measures the turnover through in-migration and out-migration of the population of an are...

  18. The Determinants of Country Risk Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Claude Cosset; Jean Roy

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to replicate Euromoney's and Institutional Investor's country risk ratings on the basis of economic and political variables. The evidence reveals that country risk ratings respond to some of the variables suggested by the theory. In particular, both the level of per capita income and propensity to invest affect positively the rating of a country. In addition, high-ranking countries are less indebted than low-ranking countries. It also appears that the ability of t...

  19. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  20. Exchange Rate Regimes, Location, and Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Antonio Ricci

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of fixed versus flexible exchange rates on firms' location choices and on countries' specialization patterns. In a two-country, twodifferentiated-goods monetary model, uncertainty arises after wages are set and prices are optimally chosen. The paper shows that countries are more specialized under flexible than fixed rates, which indicates that the pattern of specialization is not uniquely defined by trade models but also depends on the exchange rate regime....

  1. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and stric

  2. Assessing dose rate distributions in VMAT plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeprang, P.-H.; Volken, W.; Terribilini, D.; Frauchiger, D.; Zaugg, K.; Aebersold, D. M.; Fix, M. K.; Manser, P.

    2016-04-01

    Dose rate is an essential factor in radiobiology. As modern radiotherapy delivery techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) introduce dynamic modulation of the dose rate, it is important to assess the changes in dose rate. Both the rate of monitor units per minute (MU rate) and collimation are varied over the course of a fraction, leading to different dose rates in every voxel of the calculation volume at any point in time during dose delivery. Given the radiotherapy plan and machine specific limitations, a VMAT treatment plan can be split into arc sectors between Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine control points (CPs) of constant and known MU rate. By calculating dose distributions in each of these arc sectors independently and multiplying them with the MU rate, the dose rate in every single voxel at every time point during the fraction can be calculated. Independently calculated and then summed dose distributions per arc sector were compared to the whole arc dose calculation for validation. Dose measurements and video analysis were performed to validate the calculated datasets. A clinical head and neck, cranial and liver case were analyzed using the tool developed. Measurement validation of synthetic test cases showed linac agreement to precalculated arc sector times within  ±0.4 s and doses  ±0.1 MU (one standard deviation). Two methods for the visualization of dose rate datasets were developed: the first method plots a two-dimensional (2D) histogram of the number of voxels receiving a given dose rate over the course of the arc treatment delivery. In similarity to treatment planning system display of dose, the second method displays the dose rate as color wash on top of the corresponding computed tomography image, allowing the user to scroll through the variation over time. Examining clinical cases showed dose rates spread over a continuous spectrum, with mean dose rates hardly exceeding 100 cGy min-1 for conventional

  3. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  4. Does cancer affect the divorce rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete-time hazard regression models were employed to register and census data on 1.4 million Norwegian married couples from 1974-2001 to explore the probability of divorce following cancer illness. Divorce rates for around 215 000 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to divorce rates for persons for whom all the other observed variables were the same. No overall harmful influence of a cancer diagnosis was observed. Most cancer forms resulted in small, immediate declines in divorce rates the first years following diagnosis. Exceptions were significant increases in the divorce rates for persons diagnosed with cervical and testicular cancer.

  5. The OER at low-dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing interest in the treatment of human cancers with multifraction beam therapy at low dose-rates, on the assumption that the OER at low dose-rates is smaller than that at high dose-rates. A comparison has therefore been made of various published values of OER as a function of γ dose-rate for Vicia faba, HeLa cells, P388 cells, hamster cells and chromosome aberrations. The mean value of the OER at low dose-rate was about 20% lower than the mean OER obtained at high dose-rate, although two OER values at low dose-rates were significantly lower than the other reported values. There are technical difficulties associated with maintaining the test systems under hypoxic conditions for long periods of time and the observed decrease in cloning efficiency of hypoxic control cells indicates that cells can be damaged by this treatment alone. It is therefore possible that the high dose-rate OER values would have been reduced if the cells irradiated at high dose-rates under oxic and anoxic conditions had had a pre-treatment period of storage under anoxic conditions. (U.K.)

  6. Spectral Analysis of Sample Rate Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sabraj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of digital sample rate conversion is to bring a digital audio signal from one sample frequency to another. The distortion of the audio signal introduced by the sample rate converter should be as low as possible. The generation of the output samples from the input samples may be performed by the application of various methods. In this paper, a new technique of digital sample-rate converter is proposed. We perform the spectral analysis of proposed digital sample rate converter.

  7. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  8. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  9. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning.

  10. 15 CFR 700.11 - Priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.11 Priority ratings. (a) Levels...

  11. Relationship between Formation Water Rate, Equivalent Penetration Rate and Volume Flow Rate of Air in Air Drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Kexiong; Zhang Laibin; Jiang Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Formation water invasion is the most troublesome problem associated with air drilling. However, it is not economical to apply mist drilling when only a small amount of water flows into wellbore from formation during air drilling. Formation water could be circulated out of the wellbore through increasing the gas injection rate. In this paper,the Angel model was modified by introducing Nikurade friction factor for the flow in coarse open holes and translating formation water rate into equivalent penetration rate. Thus the distribution of annular pressure and the relationship between minimum air injection rate and formation water rate were obtained. Real data verification indicated that the modified model is more accurate than the Angel model and can provide useful information for air drilling.

  12. 10 CFR 903.21 - Completion of rate development; provisional rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Southwestern, and Western Area Power Administrations § 903.21 Completion of rate development; provisional rates... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Completion of rate development; provisional rates. 903.21... the Administrator to coincide with the beginning of the next billing period following the...

  13. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  14. Analysis of the Effect of Interest Rate Corridor Strategy on Common Stock and Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Tetik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is found to find out how interest rate corridor strategy, which is new policy tool implemented by Central Bank of Turkey in 2011, affects financial investment tools, common stocks and Exchange rates. The study separates the time into two periods, the period before interest rate corridor strategy and the period after implementation of interest rate corridor strategy. The effects of the changes in policy interest rate on the common stocks and exchange rate are examined in the framework of structural vector auto regression (SVAR model. The most important finding is that the effect of a change in policy interest rate on common stocks and exchange rate becomes more permanent after interest rate corridor strategy. Another finding is that short term capital flows with speculative move is deterred from after this strategy. Findings are in coincidence with the results of increase in interest rate volatility as Başçı and Kara (2011 suggests.

  15. An Analysis of Energy Consumption on ACK plus Rate Packet in Rate Based Transport Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeshkumar, P

    2009-01-01

    Rate based transport protocol determines the rate of data transmission between the sender and receiver and then sends the data according to that rate. To notify the rate to the sender, the receiver sends ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry. In this paper, through detailed arguments and simulation it is shown that the transmission of ACKplusRate packet based on epoch timer expiry consumes more energy in network with low mobility. To overcome this problem, a new technique called Dynamic Rate Feedback (DRF) is proposed. DRF sends ACKplusRate whenever there is a change in rate of (plus or minus) 25 percent than the previous rate. Based on ns2 simulation DRF is compared with a reliable transport protocol for ad hoc network (ATP)

  16. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  17. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  18. MBS Ratings and the Mortgage Credit Boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashcraft, A.; Goldsmith-Pinkham, P.; Vickery, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study credit ratings on subprime and Alt-A mortgage-backed securities (MBS) deals issued between 2001 and 2007, the period leading up to the subprime crisis. The fraction of highly-rated securities in each deal is decreasing in mortgage credit risk (measured either ex-ante or ex-post), suggesting

  19. 77 FR 2521 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Department of Energy Deputy Secretary of Energy In the matter of: Southwestern Power Administration; Rate... adjust the end-of-month loss energy balance to zero (0) megawatthours and the Customer shall be obliged...-effective Rate Schedule for Hydro Peaking Power to adjust such hourly end-of-month loss energy balance...

  20. Loan Officers’ Gender and Microfinance Repayment Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Marrit; Lensink, Robert; Servin, Roselia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of loan officer characteristics on repayment rates of microfinance borrowers in Mexico applying multilevel analyses, with special attention to the impact of the gender of the loan officer on default rates. The results strongly suggest that loan officers play a cruci

  1. Notes on Exchange Rates and Commodity Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Kenneth W.; Meher Manzur

    2001-01-01

    Brief analytical notes on the interactions between exchange rates and commodity prices. Gold and iron-ore are used as examples of the issues raised. The paper also presents a stylised model to determine the effects of exchange-rate changes on the internal and external prices of commodities. Also included is a simple geometric exposition of the issues.

  2. 29 CFR 779.18 - Regular rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a premium rate paid to the employee, in pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective-bargaining agreement, for work outside of the hours established in good faith by the contract or agreement as... one-half times the rate established in good faith by the contract or agreement for like work...

  3. 78 FR 44459 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... unlawfully high (from the current T-bill rate to the U.S. Prime Rate, as published in the Wall Street Journal... Business Administration's (SBA) Office of Size Standards develops the numerical definition of a small business. See 13 CFR 121.201. The SBA has established a size standard for rail transportation, stating...

  4. 14 CFR 147.11 - Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings. 147.11 Section 147.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Certification Requirements § 147.11 Ratings....

  5. 40 CFR 1033.140 - Rated power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each possible operator demand setpoint or “notch”. See 40 CFR 1065.1001 for the definition of operator... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rated power. 1033.140 Section 1033.140... EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.140 Rated power. This...

  6. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Burattini; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data.

  7. Environmental effects on nuclear decay rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The possible change of nuclear decay rates in different environments has long been an interesting topic due to its importance not only in nuclear physics but also in astrophysics, geological dating, condensed matter physics, etc. The progress in the investigation of variations in nuclear decay rates are reviewed.

  8. 77 FR 36536 - Examination Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... each Bank, as well as individual component ratings for Corporate Governance, Market Risk, Credit Risk... Corporate Governance and Operational Risk. Because of the unique operations of the Bank System's Office of Finance, ratings were assigned only to the areas of Corporate Governance and Operational Risk, based...

  9. Rate Control for MPEG-4 Bit Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振洲; 李桂苓

    2003-01-01

    For a very long time video processing dealt exclusively with fixed-rate sequences of rectangular shaped images. However, interest has been recently moving toward a more flexible concept in which the subject of the processing and encoding operations is a set of visual elements organized in both time and space in a flexible and arbitrarily complex way. The moving picture experts group (MPEG-4) standard supports this concept and its verification model (VM) encoder has adopted scalable rate control (SRC) as the rate control scheme, which is based on the spatial domain and compatible with constant bit rate (CBR) and variable bit rate (VBR). In this paper,a new rate control algorithm based on the DCT domain instead of the pixel domain is presented. More-over, macroblock level rate control scheme to compute the quantization step for each macroblock has been adopted. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve a much better result than the original one in both peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the coding bits, and that the new algorithm is more flexible than test model 5 (TM5) rate control algorithm.

  10. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  11. Regional labour market research on participation rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the methodology of 17 empirical studies in which the participation rate has been estimated with the help of regional data. After defining and pointing our the orientation of regional labour market research on participation rates, three methodological issues dominate the discussi

  12. 42 CFR 21.45 - Rating values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rating values. 21.45 Section 21.45 Public Health... Appointment § 21.45 Rating values. The examination of every candidate for appointment to any grade in the... values for each part of the examination as are prescribed by the Surgeon General. No candidate...

  13. 38 CFR 21.3333 - Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... $860.00 If costs for tuition and fees average in excess of $268.00 per month, rate may be increased by... charges Special restorative training $788.00 If costs for tuition and fees average in excess of $247.00... Monthly rate Accelerated charges Special restorative training $803.00 If costs for tuition and...

  14. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  15. Subnational credit ratings : a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lili; Tan, Kim Song

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys methodological issues in subnational credit ratings and highlights key challenges for developing countries. Subnational borrowing from capital markets has been on the rise owing to fiscal decentralization and demand for infrastructure investments. A prerequisite for accessing capital markets, subnational credit ratings have also emerged as a part of broader reform for fi...

  16. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at its appraised value. The road construction cost used...

  17. 8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DEPOSIT OF AND INTEREST ON CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury...

  18. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  19. Oral Diadochokinetic Rates for Normal Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas; Thanaviratananich, Sangaunsak; Pongjanyakul, Amonrat

    2003-01-01

    Background: The diadochokinetic (DDK) rate represents an index for assessing motor skills. It is commonly used in routine clinical evaluation of diseases of the central nervous system, disturbances of the peripheral sensory motor formations and immaturity of the speech mechanism. "Oral" DDK rates are a popular guideline for the assessment,…

  20. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... your comments more efficiently, please use only one method. The Commission will post all comments on... to a new credit rating terminology, or for private contracts and investment management agreements... example, the Great Depression or the 2008 financial crisis? iv. Should each credit rating level have...

  1. 78 FR 25101 - Credit Ratings Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Credit Ratings Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable... roundtable to discuss various matters related to credit ratings. The roundtable will consist of three panels. The first panel will examine issues in connection with the possibility of developing a credit...

  2. 78 FR 27452 - Credit Ratings Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Ratings Roundtable that was published in the April 29, 2013 Federal Register (78 FR 25101 through 25102... notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 25101 through 25102) that announced a May 14, 2013 roundtable to... COMMISSION Credit Ratings Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. Effects of increased VAT rates for ornamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, F.; Galen, van M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario

  4. 30 CFR 250.1632 - Production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production rates. 250.1632 Section 250.1632 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1632 Production rates. Each...

  5. 38 CFR 3.323 - Combined ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined ratings. 3.323... Combined ratings. (a) Compensation—(1) Same type of service. When there are two or more service-connected compensable disabilities a combined evaluation will be made following the tables and rules prescribed in...

  6. 76 FR 72672 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION...) administers rural utilities programs, including the Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation... the depreciation rates that are used by RUS in its feasibility studies. Sec. 1737.70(e)(2) refers...

  7. 77 FR 65664 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION...) administers rural utilities programs, including the Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation... the depreciation rates that are used by RUS in its feasibility studies. Sec. 1737.70(e)(2) refers...

  8. 77 FR 44571 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Street Journal. Additional information is contained in the Board's decision served on July 25, 2012. To... conservation of energy resources. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 1141 Administrative practice and procedure... the most recent U.S. Prime Rate as Published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will...

  9. Market penetration rates of new energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market penetration rates of 11 different new energy technologies were studied covering energy production and end-use technologies. The penetration rates were determined by fitting observed market data to an epidemical diffusion model. The analyses show that the exponential penetration rates of new energy technologies may vary from 4 up to over 40%/yr. The corresponding take-over times from a 1% to 50% share of the estimated market potential may vary from less than 10 to 70 years. The lower rate is often associated with larger energy impacts. Short take-over times less than 25 years seem to be mainly associated with end-use technologies. Public policies and subsides have an important effect on the penetration. Some technologies penetrate fast without major support explained by technology maturity and competitive prices, e.g. compact fluorescent lamps show a 24.2%/yr growth rate globally. The penetration rates determined exhibit some uncertainty as penetration has not always proceeded close to saturation. The study indicates a decreasing penetration rate with increasing time or market share. If the market history is short, a temporally decreasing functional form for the penetration rate coefficient could be used to anticipate the probable behavior

  10. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312 Section 36.4312 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN... rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that the first adjustment may occur no...

  11. 38 CFR 3.21 - Monetary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monetary rates. 3.21 Section 3.21 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... (title 38, Code of Federal Regulations). The maximum annual rates of improved pension payable under...

  12. The Foreign Exchange Rate Exposure of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Entorf, Horst; Möbert, Jochen; Sonderhof, Katja

    2007-01-01

    Following the well-known approach by Adler and Dumas (1984), we evaluate the foreign exchange rate exposure of nations. Results based on data from 27 countries show that national foreign exchange rate exposures are significantly related to the current trade balance variables of corresponding economies.

  13. Explaining the Transition Between Exchange Rate Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Paul; RUGE-MURCIA, Francisco J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the transition between exchange rate regimes using a Markov chain model with time-varying transition probabilities. The probabilities are parameterized as nonlinear functions of variables suggested by the currency crisis and optimal currency area literature. Results using annual data indicate that inflation, and to a lesser extent, output growth and trade openness help explain the exchange rate regime transition dynamics.

  14. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the impl

  15. 28 CFR 345.53 - Piecework rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piecework rates. 345.53 Section 345.53 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES... rates may be of two major types: individual piecework (in which an individual's pay goes up or...

  16. 75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... requirement inhibits the beneficial effects of competition for shippers (NYNJFFF&BA at 3); that the tariff... shippers can rely on tariff rates to be accurate, complete and in effect for 30 days; in the event of a... exemption for non-vessel-operating common carriers agreeing to negotiated rate arrangements from...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6320 - Usage rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Personal Property Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6320 Usage rate. (a) Usage rate approval. To... be included in the Cooperative Agreement before the recipient incurs these equipment costs. (b)...

  18. CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N G Deshpande

    2003-02-01

    We briefly discuss measurements of angles and of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using (3) relationships in the standard model (SM). Some methods to measure angle using (3) are then discussed. We note that rate for → can be used to set limits on extra dimensions in which standard model particles propagate.

  19. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  20. Information Cascades and Online Rating Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oussama Fadil; Jake Soloff

    2015-01-01

    Through mathematical analysis and simulations, online ratings and their impact on businesses are characterized through two parameters: an inherent and objective restaurant quality factor, and the accuracy of customers' gut feeling about a business. Within this model, it is found that online ratings are seldom accurate mainly because of the low or high accuracy in customers' gut feelings.

  1. 29 CFR 4006.3 - Premium rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Premium rate. 4006.3 Section 4006.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PREMIUMS PREMIUM RATES § 4006.3 Premium... (dealing with premiums for certain terminated single-employer plans), the premium paid for basic...

  2. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and in

  3. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  4. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M;

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0...

  5. Cooling rate calculations for silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, D. P., III; Dyar, M. D.

    1986-03-01

    Series solution calculations of cooling rates are applied to a variety of samples with different thermal properties, including an analog of an Apollo 15 green glass and a hypothetical silicate melt. Cooling rates for the well-studied green glass and a generalized silicate melt are tabulated for different sample sizes, equilibration temperatures and quench media. Results suggest that cooling rates are heavily dependent on sample size and quench medium and are less dependent on values of physical properties. Thus cooling histories for glasses from planetary surfaces can be estimated on the basis of size distributions alone. In addition, the variation of cooling rate with sample size and quench medium can be used to control quench rate.

  6. WHEN ONE MIGHT EXPECT NEGATIVE DISCOUNT RATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Palenik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in economics and psychology, positive discount rate is usually assumed as an axiom. However, there are circumstances which may lead to negative discount rate. This article presents such a phenomenon. Moreover, author presents particular cases of theories and models which imply preference of receiving lower income in later period of time, rather than higher income in earlier period of time (“less later than more earlier”. The described models are as follows: Life Cycle Hypothesis together with Self Control Theory, Construal Level Theory, Model of Patience Formation and Loewenstein’s Anticipation Model. Authors conclude that there is a need of empirical research verifying implications of these models concerning negative discount rate. Authors believe that the problem of negative discount rate deserves more attention, taking into account that in developed countries interest rates are close to zero and it still does not discourage customers from putting money aside.

  7. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    rates will result in maximum effects, 2) that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3) that less than maximum......Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1) that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced...... effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed) is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based...

  8. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d-1, whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d-1; only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  9. Exchange rate regimes and monetary arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ribnikar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a close relationship between a country’s exchange rate regime and monetary arrangement and if we are to examine monetary arrangements then exchange rate regimes must first be analysed. Within the conventional and most widely used classification of exchange rate regimes into rigid and flexible or into polar regimes (hard peg and float on one side, and intermediate regimes on the other there, is a much greater variety among intermediate regimes. A more precise and, as will be seen, more useful classification of exchange rate regimes is the first topic of the paper. The second topic is how exchange rate regimes influence or determine monetary arrangements and monetary policy or monetary policy regimes: monetary autonomy versus monetary nonautonomy and discretion in monetary policy versus commitment in monetary policy. Both topics are important for countries on their path to the EU and the euro area

  10. Subjective Information Measure and Rate Fidelity Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Chenguang

    2007-01-01

    Using fish-covering model, this paper intuitively explains how to extend Hartley's information formula to the generalized information formula step by step for measuring subjective information: metrical information (such as conveyed by thermometers), sensory information (such as conveyed by color vision), and semantic information (such as conveyed by weather forecasts). The pivotal step is to differentiate condition probability and logical condition probability of a message. The paper illustrates the rationality of the formula, discusses the coherence of the generalized information formula and Popper's knowledge evolution theory. For optimizing data compression, the paper discusses rate-of-limiting-errors and its similarity to complexity-distortion based on Kolmogorov's complexity theory, and improves the rate-distortion theory into the rate-fidelity theory by replacing Shannon's distortion with subjective mutual information. It is proved that both the rate-distortion function and the rate-fidelity function ar...

  11. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  12. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  13. Biofuel consumption rates and patterns in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituyi, E. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry; Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Marufu, L.; Huber, B.; Andreae, M.O.; Helas, G. [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry Dept., Mainz (Germany); Wandiga, SO.; Jumba, I.O. [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in rural and urban Kenya to establish biofuel consumption rates and patterns. The survey targeted households, commercial catering enterprises and public institutions such as schools and colleges. Firewood was the main biofuel used, mostly by rural households, who consumed the commodity at average consumption rates in the range 0.8-2.7 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Charcoal was mostly consumed by the urban households at weighted average rates in the range 0.18-0.69 kg cap{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The consumption rates and patterns for these fuels by restaurants and academic institutions, and those for crop residues are also reported. The rates largely depended on the fuel availability but differed significantly among the three consumer groups and between rural and urban households. Other factors which may have influenced consumption rates are discussed. Although good fuelwood sufficiency was reported in the country in 1997, there were increasing difficulties in accessing these resources by most households, a situation having both short- and long-term implications for biofuel consumption rates and patterns. (Author)

  14. Experimental weathering rates of aluminium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical weathering of primary rocks and minerals in natural systems has a major impact on soil development and its composition. Chemical weathering is driven to a large extent by mineral dissolution. Through mineral dissolution, elements are released into groundwater and can readily react to precipitate secondary minerals such as clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Carbonates form from divalent cations (e.g. Ca, Fe and Mg) and CO2, and kaolin clay and gibbsite formation is attributed to the weathering of aluminium-rich minerals, most notably the feldspars. The CarbFix Project in Hellisheidi (SW-Iceland) aims to use natural weathering processes to form carbonate minerals by the re-injection of CO2 from a geothermal power plant back into surrounding basaltic rocks. This process is driven by the dissolution of basaltic rocks, rich in divalent cations, which can combine with injected CO2 to form and precipitate carbonates. This thesis focuses on the dissolution behaviour of Stapafell crystalline basalt, which consists of three major phases (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine) and is rich in divalent cations. Steady-state element release rates from crystalline basalt at far-from-equilibrium conditions were measured at pH from 2 to 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75 C in mixed-flow reactors. Steady-state Si and Ca release rates exhibit a U-shaped variation with pH, where rates decrease with increasing pH at acid condition but increase with increasing pH at alkaline conditions. Silicon release rates from crystalline basalt are comparable to Si release rates from basaltic glass of the same chemical composition at low pH and temperatures ≥25 C but slower at alkaline pH and temperatures ≥50 C. In contrast, Mg and Fe release rates decrease continuously with increasing pH at all temperatures. This behaviour is interpreted to stem from the contrasting dissolution behaviours of the three major minerals comprising the basalt: plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Element

  15. Methods of modelling relative growth rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne Pommerening; Anders Muszta

    2015-01-01

    Background:Analysing and modelling plant growth is an important interdisciplinary field of plant science. The use of relative growth rates, involving the analysis of plant growth relative to plant size, has more or less independently emerged in different research groups and at different times and has provided powerful tools for assessing the growth performance and growth efficiency of plants and plant populations. In this paper, we explore how these isolated methods can be combined to form a consistent methodology for modelling relative growth rates. Methods:We review and combine existing methods of analysing and modelling relative growth rates and apply a combination of methods to Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) stem-analysis data from North Wales (UK) and British Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) yield table data. Results:The results indicate that, by combining the approaches of different plant-growth analysis laboratories and using them simultaneously, we can advance and standardise the concept of relative plant growth. Particularly the growth multiplier plays an important role in modelling relative growth rates. Another useful technique has been the recent introduction of size-standardised relative growth rates. Conclusions:Modelling relative growth rates mainly serves two purposes, 1) an improved analysis of growth performance and efficiency and 2) the prediction of future or past growth rates. This makes the concept of relative growth ideally suited to growth reconstruction as required in dendrochronology, climate change and forest decline research and for interdisciplinary research projects beyond the realm of plant science.

  16. Discussion of material rotation and stress rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of material behavior can be divided into two parts, the analysis of deformation and the underlying physics, though these are intimately related. A significant advance in the analysis of deformation was made when the polar decomposition theorem was introduced, making it possible to separate large deformations into a stretch and a rotation. Consequences of the theorem affect the way rate processes should be characterized. In particular, rate of material rotation is different from vorticity, and the stress rate for finite strains is different from the usual stress rate of Zaremba, Jaumann, and Noll. It is convenient to define a strain rate that is different from the stretching that is the symmetric part of the velocity gradient. These concepts are described in detail in a 1979 paper. Various criticisms of that paper have appeared in the Journal of Applied Mechanics, which are discussed herein. To illustrate the distinction, it is shown that the rate of rotation in a classical vortex does not vanish, though the vorticity is zero. It is also shown that the rate of material rotation recently computed by Nemat-Nasser, which involves an eigenvalue expansion, is equivalent to the one given in the 1979 paper, which makes use of matrix inversion, and it asseverated that the matrix inversion approach is computationally more efficient. 17 refs

  17. VARIATION ANALYSIS ON NATIONAL STANDARD INTEREST RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira Cardia Haddad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to analyse an econometric model for forecasting purposes concerning the interest rate which is adopted as standard reference within the Brazilian economy, namely, the Actual-Selic rate, so as to verify the feasibility of performing short term predictions as to its variations. Thus the major variables that impact the Actual-Selic rate, such as price variations of agricultural and power commodities, national industrial production level, exchange rate and public sector net debt, are detailed. The modern macroeconomic approach describes the relevance of the Central Bank upon achievement of its goals so as to maintain the economic stability, amongst which lies the convergence of verified interest rates with the Selic rate target, as set forth by the Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM. Furthermore, this study poses to explain the relevance in forecasting, with a reasonable level of accuracy, the benchmark interest rate of Brazilian economy. The proposed model may be used to support decision making concerning investment strategies and as an additional tool for the monitoring of the achievement of macroeconomic policy objectives.

  18. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Maxime; Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Odorico, Michaël; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (Sgeo) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (SBET) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale-contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a SBET/Sgeo ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to Sgeo should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to SBET should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%.

  19. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hensley, Jr., William H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Bryan L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  20. Efficient rate control scheme for low bit rate H.264/AVC video coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-cheng; ZHANG Yong-jun; LIU Tao; GU Wan-yi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an efficient rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding in low bit rate environment. In the proposed scheme, an improved rate-distortion (RD) model by both analytical and empirical approaches is developed. It involves an enhanced mean absolute difference estimating method and a more rate-robust distortion model. Based on this RD model, an efficient macroblock-layer rate control scheme for H.264/AVC video coding is proposed. Experimental results show that this model encodes video sequences with higher peak signal-to-noise ratio gains and generates bit stream closer to the target rate.

  1. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der;

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  2. Recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU ShuGui; LI YuanSheng; XIAO CunDe; REN JiaWen

    2007-01-01

    Based on the horizon of β activity and the density profiles, recent accumulation rate at Dome A, Antarctica is calculated to be 0.023 m water equivalent per year. This value is comparative to the accumulation rates deduced from the other inland sites of Antarctica. Clear-sky precipitation (or diamond dust) dominates the total precipitation at Dome A region. We speculate Dome A as a potential site to discover the oldest ice in Antarctica due to its tremendous ice thickness (>3000 m), extremely low accumulation rate, and low ice velocity.

  3. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  4. RMB Exchange Rate Reform: Past and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the deepening of China's financial reform, economic development and the enforcement of market roles, the RMB exchange rate needs to become more flexible and become a more sensitive reflection of the changes in market supply and demand. Under such circumstances, on July 21, the People's Bank of China announced that the previous system where China's RMB was pegged to the U.S. Dollar would be changed to include a basket of foreign currencies, shifting China's exchange rate system into a managed floating exchange rate regime based on market supply and demand.

  5. Quartz angular rate sensor for automotive navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozoe, Toshiyuki; Ichinose, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Syusaku; Hatanaka, Masakazu; Kuroda, Keisuke [Matsushita Electronic Components Co. Ltd. (Japan); Yamamoto, Kohji; Ogata, Motoki; Takeno, Shoichi [Fukui Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd. (Japan); Ishihara, Minoru; Ishii, Tadashi; Umeki, Mitoshi [Nihonn Denpa Kogyo Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Many of the recent automotive navigation systems are introducing an angular rate sensor that detect vehicle yaw in their system due to the advantage of higher accuracy, in addition to a conventional GPS (Global Positioning System) and vehicle speed signals. Though there are a couple of other methods to get a vehicle direction information, the angular rate sensor is the most suitable device as a gyro in accuracy and reliability point of view. Matsushita developed a new compact angular rate sensor using quartz crystal for automotive navigation systems. The sensor's operation is based upon Coriolis force imposed on a vibrating quartz tuning fork. (orig.)

  6. On the World Real Interest Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Eun

    1999-01-01

    This paper characterises the world real interest rate as a common trend in real interest rates in Germany, Japan, and the United States from 1964Q1 to 1996Q2. This single common trend has desirable properties as the world real interest rate and has been moving together with the world real return on the stock market, and the world real fiscal policy variable, suggesting financial integration and empirical support for the effects of fiscal policy. Paradoxically, non-uniqueness of a single commo...

  7. Adaptive rate control on wireless transcoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To guarantee the real-time transmission of a video stream,based on the stochastic optimal control method,a frame layer adaptive rate control algorithm for the wireless transcoder is proposed,which is capable of dynamically determining the transcoder's objective bit rate,according to the bandwidth variation of the wireless channel and the bufier occupancy. Then the transient performance,steady performance,and computational complexity of the algorithm are analyzed.Finally,the experiment results demonstrate that the algorithm can improve the synthetic performance of rate control through the compromise between the end-to-end delay and the playout quality.

  8. Optimal Mutation Rates on Static Fitness Landscpes

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, M

    2000-01-01

    We study the evolution of mutation rates for an asexual population living on a static fitness landscape, consisting of multiple peaks forming an evolutionary staircase. The optimal mutation rate is found by maximizing the diffusion towards higher fitness. Surprisingly the optimal genomic copying fidelity is given by Q = e^(-1/ln(n)) (where n is the genome length), independent of all other parameters in the model. Simulations confirm this theoretical result. We also discuss the relation between the optimal mutation rate on static and dynamic fitness landscapes.

  9. Optimal Mutation Rates in Dynamic Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, M; Nilsson, Martin; Snoad, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of the mutation rate for simple organisms in dynamic environments. A model with multiple fitness coding loci tracking a moving fitness peak is developed and an analytical expression for the optimal mutation rate is derived. Surprisingly it turns out that the optimal mutation rate per genome is approximately independent of genome length, something that also has been observed in nature. Simulations confirm the theoretical predictions. We also suggest an explanation for the difference in mutation frequency between RNA and DNA based organisms.

  10. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  11. Yelp Dataset Challenge: Review Rating Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Nabiha

    2016-01-01

    Review websites, such as TripAdvisor and Yelp, allow users to post online reviews for various businesses, products and services, and have been recently shown to have a significant influence on consumer shopping behaviour. An online review typically consists of free-form text and a star rating out of 5. The problem of predicting a user's star rating for a product, given the user's text review for that product, is called Review Rating Prediction and has lately become a popular, albeit hard, pro...

  12. Recycling-flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make reactor-core-flow rate control excellent in stability, rapid response and transient response without using reactor-core-flow rate measuring signals in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The speed of internal pump is controlled during normal operation by the neutron flux controller (which performs proportional integration for the deviation between the reactor power setting value and the neutron flux feedback signal to output pump speed demand signal). Then, the control is carried out by the combination of the reactor-core-flow rate controller and the neutron flux controller only upon occurrence of transient changes in which reactor parameters vary rapidly. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Adaptive Algorithm for Chirp-Rate Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Djurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirp-rate, as a second derivative of signal phase, is an important feature of nonstationary signals in numerous applications such as radar, sonar, and communications. In this paper, an adaptive algorithm for the chirp-rate estimation is proposed. It is based on the confidence intervals rule and the cubic-phase function. The window width is adaptively selected to achieve good tradeoff between bias and variance of the chirp-rate estimate. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulations and the results show that it outperforms the standard algorithm with fixed window width.

  14. Metabolic rate, heart rate, and tailbeat frequency during sustained swimming in the leopard shark Triakis semifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharold, J; Lai, N C; Lowell, W R; Graham, J B

    1989-01-01

    Heart rate, metabolic rate, and tailbeat frequency were simultaneously recorded from seven leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) during steady swimming at controlled speeds to evaluate the usefulness of heart rate as a measure of field metabolic rate. Heart rate was monitored by acoustic telemetry using a frequency modulated ECG transmitter. Metabolic rate was measured as oxygen consumption in a swimming tunnel respirometer. For instrumented sharks, mean resting oxygen consumption rate and heart rate were 105.3 +/- 35.6 (SE) mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 36.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) beats.min-1, respectively. While swimming at the maximum sustained speed (0.84 +/- 0.03 lengths.s-1) for 30-60 min, these rates were 229.3 +/- 13.2 mg O2.kg-1.h-1 and 46.9 +/- 0.9 beats.min-1. Although a significant linear regression was obtained between metabolic rate and heart rate, a low overall correlation coefficient may result from the existence of separate individual regressions and confounding changes in stroke volume and/or arteriovenous oxygen difference. Heart rate was approximately as closely correlated with oxygen consumption rate as swimming speed was. A significant linear relationship was obtained between tailbeat frequency and swimming speed to speeds of 0.75 lengths.s-1. PMID:2776865

  15. 5 CFR 630.604 - Earning rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following rate: (1) An employee who accepts an appointment to, or occupies, a position for which the agency has prescribed the requirement that the incumbent accept assignments anywhere in the world as...

  16. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  17. Very high count rate gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent improvements in the electronics that amplify and analyze gamma photon-induced pulses have made it possible for HPGe coaxial detectors to accept input rates of one-million, one-MeV gamma photons-per-second and still provide the spectroscopist with spectra that can be analyzed. Data are presented that illustrate peak area variances and changes in counting uncertainty statistics due to the greatly extended count rate range. Software algorithms are presented that allow gain shift and peak resolution to be adjusted automatically on a sample-by-sample basis. Relationships are developed between integrated count rate and the variances of full energy photon peak area and counting uncertainty when using the real time correction mode of pulse processing. Finally, the results of integrating hardware and software into a system are used to illustrate that quantitative gamma spectroscopy over counting rates of one- to one-million counts-per-second are achievable

  18. Uncertainty Analysis for Photovoltaic Degradation Rates (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Hansen, C.

    2014-04-01

    Dependable and predictable energy production is the key to the long-term success of the PV industry. PV systems show over the lifetime of their exposure a gradual decline that depends on many different factors such as module technology, module type, mounting configuration, climate etc. When degradation rates are determined from continuous data the statistical uncertainty is easily calculated from the regression coefficients. However, total uncertainty that includes measurement uncertainty and instrumentation drift is far more difficult to determine. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was chosen to investigate a comprehensive uncertainty analysis. The most important effect for degradation rates is to avoid instrumentation that changes over time in the field. For instance, a drifting irradiance sensor, which can be achieved through regular calibration, can lead to a substantially erroneous degradation rates. However, the accuracy of the irradiance sensor has negligible impact on degradation rate uncertainty emphasizing that precision (relative accuracy) is more important than absolute accuracy.

  19. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L;

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  20. Heart Rate Extraction from Vowel Speech Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelwadood Mesleh; Dmitriy Skopin; Sergey Baglikov; Anas Quteishat

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel non-contact heart rate extraction method from vowel speech signals.The proposed method is based on modeling the relationship between speech production of vowel speech signals and heart activities for humans where it is observed that the moment of heart beat causes a short increment (evolution) of vowel speech formants.The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is used to detect the formant maximum peaks so as to accurately estimate the heart rate.Compared with traditional contact pulse oximeter,the average accuracy of the proposed non-contact heart rate extraction method exceeds 95%.The proposed non-contact heart rate extraction method is expected to play an important role in modern medical applications.

  1. Should Job Rates Affect College Majors?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In November 2011,the Chinese Ministry of Education demanded that colleges to cut classes and reduce recruitment on majors that had post-graduation employment rates lower than 60 percent.These majors could be fazed out altogether over time.

  2. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed. PMID:17436772

  3. Environmental effects on nuclear decay rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The possible change of nuclear decay rates in different environments has long been an interesting topic due to its importance not only in nuclear physics but also in astrophysics, geological dating, condensed matter physics, etc. The progress in the inves

  4. High Strain Rate Characterisation of Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken

    The high strain rate characterisation of FRP materials present the experimenter with a new set of challenges in obtaining valid experimental data. These challenges were addressed in this work with basis in classic wave theory. The stress equilibrium process for linear elastic materials, as fibre......-reinforced polymers, were considered, and it was first shown that the loading history controls equilibrium process. Then the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine was analysed in terms its ability to create a state of constant strain rate in the specimen. The invertible inertial forces in the load train prevented...... for testing fibre-reinforced polymers due to their elastic behaviour and low strain to failure. This is problematic as the High-speed servo-hydraulic test machine closes the gap between quasi-static tests rates and lower strain rates, which are achievable with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar. The Split...

  5. Southern Orthopaedic Association Abstract Publication Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Mark Adam; Petrus, Cara; Barnes, C Lowry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the publication rate of manuscripts presented at the Southern Orthopaedic Association's (SOA) annual meetings. An extensive literature search was performed using Google Scholar and PubMed search engines and all accepted abstracts (posters or podium presentations) presented at an SOA annual meeting from 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. A total of 568 abstracts were presented at SOA meetings between 2005 and 2011. Of these, 234 (41%) were published in the peer-reviewed literature. The publication rate was 66% in 2005 and 28% in 2010. The average time from presentation to peer-reviewed publication was 1.6 ± 0.24 years (range, 2 years in 2006 to 1 year in 2011). The SOA publication rate was comparable with other major orthopaedic conference publication rates, yet more than half of all abstracts remain unpublished. SOA attendees should be aware that approximately 40% of all accepted presentations will go unpublished. PMID:27518291

  6. Distribution and evolution of asteroid rotation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, S. F.; Murray, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the rotational characteristics of more than 300 asteroids are currently available, and it is now clear that the distribution of the rotation rates is nonrandom. A plot of rotation rate against asteroid diameter shows large dispersion but is distinctly V-shaped. The minimum of this curve at about 120 km may separate primordial asteroids from their collision products. There is also evidence that rotation rate depends on type classification, and weak evidence that it may also depend on family membership. Recent bias-free observations suggest that the marked rise of rotation rate with decreasing diameter D for those asteroids with D less than 120 km cannot be completely accounted for by observational-selection effects. A significantly large subset of the small asteroids have exceptionally long rotation periods suggestive of either a different nature and origin or a peculiar history. Models that have been proposed to account for these results are discussed.

  7. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  8. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  9. Understanding High Saving Rate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua He; Yongfu Cao

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the Chinese saving rate based on the flow of funds data. It finds that the most widely adopted view of precautionary saving, which is regarded as the top reason for maintaining a high saving rate in China, is misleading because this conclusion is drawn from the household survey data. In fact, the household saving rate has declined dramatically since the mid-1990s, as is observed from the flow of funds framework.The high national saving rate is attributed to the increasing shares of both government and corporation disposable incomes. Insufficient consumption demand is caused by the persistent decrease in percentage share of household to national disposable income. Governmentdirected income redistribution urgently needs to be improved to accelerate consumption,which in turn would make the Chinese economy less investment-led and help to reduce the current account surplus.

  10. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  11. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Màrio N.

    1996-10-01

    The inflation rate problem of a modern economy shows quite interesting similarities with chemical kinetics and especially with first-order chemical reactions. In fact, capital devaluation during periods of rather low inflation rates or inflation measured over short periods shows a dynamics formally similar to that followed by first-order chemical reactions and they can thus be treated by the aid of the same mathematical formalism. Deviations from this similarity occurs for higher inflation rates. The dynamics of price devaluation for two different types of car, a compact car and a luxury car, has been followed for seven years long and it has been established that car devaluation is a process that is formally similar to a zeroth-order chemical kinetic process disregarding the type of car, if car devaluation is much faster than money devaluation. In fact, expensive cars devaluate with a faster rate than inexpensive cars.

  12. Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159239.html Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC Though a major ... are another group that continues to struggle with obesity. "Obesity remains a public health concern," said Cynthia ...

  13. Five-Star Quality Rating System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS created the Five-Star Quality Rating System to help consumers, their families, and caregivers compare nursing homes more easily and to help identify areas about...

  14. Mutation Rates of STR Systems in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Christensen, Susanne;

    Danish paternity cases in the period 1999 to 2005 were investigated regarding mutation rates in STR loci. STR-typing was performed by the Applied Biosystems AmplfStr Profiler Plus kit in the period 1999 to early 2005, hereafter named the PP9, and by Applied Biosystems AmplfStr Identifier kit...... for the rest of 2005, hereafter named the IDFL. All cases with one to four genetic inconsistencies were manually inspected by two forensic geneticists and statistically analyzed by five statisticians. We found no significant effect of kits and no interaction of kits and STRA loci, but differences in mutation...... rates on different STR loci. In the cases where mutations had occured, we found no interaction between kits, STRA loci or sexes. However, we found differences in the mutation rates between the sexes, meaning that the differences in male and female mutation rates can be assumed constant over STR loci...

  15. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  16. Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159239.html Obesity Rates Rising Among Women: CDC Though a major ... are another group that continues to struggle with obesity. "Obesity remains a public health concern," said Cynthia ...

  17. Graft Take-Rates After Tympanoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine; Glad, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing...... tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function......, technique, graft material, and revision surgery) for tympanoplasty type I were studied. A comparison with the graft take-rates for tympanoplasty types II to IV and/or cholesteatoma was made. RESULTS: A user-friendly ear surgery database with fast data entry and direct import of audiometric data...

  18. Dark count rates in the STIS MAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The dark count rates in the STIS MAMA detectors have been monitored. This report covers the period since the Servicing Mission 4 of May 2009. We find both long-term and short-term variations which for the NUV side we express as a function of date and temperature. The NUV dark rate has declined significantly from its surprisingly high initial rate of 0.014 counts/pixel/s that was seen immediately after SM4. By October, 2012 it had dropped to an average value of about 0.002 counts/pixel/sec The behavior and characteristics of the FUV dark rate remain very similar to that seen in 2004, prior to the STIS side-2 failure and subsequent repair.

  19. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS...

  20. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  1. The planetary rate of sprite events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignaccolo, M.; Farges, T.; Mika, A.;

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new formula to calculate the planetary rate of sprite events, based on observations with sprite detectors. This formula uses the number of detected sprites, the detection efficiency and the false alarm rate of the detector and spatial and temporal effectiveness functions. The role...... of these elements in the formula is discussed for optical and non-optical recordings. We use the formula to calculate an average planetary rate of sprite events of similar to 2.8 per minute with an accuracy of a factor similar to 2 - 3 by use of observations reported in the literature. The proposed formula can...... be used to calculate the occurrence rate of any physical event detected by remote sensing....

  2. Violent Crime Rate California 2006-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the rate of violent crime (crimes per 1,000 population) for California, its regions, counties, cities and towns. Crime and population...

  3. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Uterine Cancer Home Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ...

  4. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  5. Declining death rates reflect progress against cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmedin Jemal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of the "war on cancer" initiated in 1971 continues to be debated, with trends in cancer mortality variably presented as evidence of progress or failure. We examined temporal trends in death rates from all-cancer and the 19 most common cancers in the United States from 1970-2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed trends in age-standardized death rates (per 100,000 for all cancers combined, the four most common cancers, and 15 other sites from 1970-2006 in the United States using joinpoint regression model. The age-standardized death rate for all-cancers combined in men increased from 249.3 in 1970 to 279.8 in 1990, and then decreased to 221.1 in 2006, yielding a net decline of 21% and 11% from the 1990 and 1970 rates, respectively. Similarly, the all-cancer death rate in women increased from 163.0 in 1970 to 175.3 in 1991 and then decreased to 153.7 in 2006, a net decline of 12% and 6% from the 1991 and 1970 rates, respectively. These decreases since 1990/91 translate to preventing of 561,400 cancer deaths in men and 205,700 deaths in women. The decrease in death rates from all-cancers involved all ages and racial/ethnic groups. Death rates decreased for 15 of the 19 cancer sites, including the four major cancers, with lung, colorectum and prostate cancers in men and breast and colorectum cancers in women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Progress in reducing cancer death rates is evident whether measured against baseline rates in 1970 or in 1990. The downturn in cancer death rates since 1990 result mostly from reductions in tobacco use, increased screening allowing early detection of several cancers, and modest to large improvements in treatment for specific cancers. Continued and increased investment in cancer prevention and control, access to high quality health care, and research could accelerate this progress.

  6. A comparison of eastern North American seismic strain-rates to glacial rebound strain-rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas S.; Bent, Allison L.

    1994-01-01

    Glacial rebound strain-rates computed using a simple Laurentide glacial loading model are of the order of 10(exp -9) per year within the region of glaciation and extending several hundred kilometers beyond. The horizontal strain-rates receive approximately equal contributions from horizontal and vertical velocities, a consequence of the spherical geometry adopted for the Earth model. In the eastern United States and southeastern Canada the computed strain-rates are 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than an estimate of the average seismic strain-rate (Anderson, 1986) and approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than predicted erosional strain-rates. The predicted glacial rebound strain-rates are not, in general, oriented in such a way as to augment the observed state of deviatoric stress, possibly explaining why the seismic strain-rates are much smaller than the glacial rebound strain-rates. An exception to this may be seismically active regions in the St. Lawrence valley.

  7. The coalescence rates of double black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Dominik, Michal; Prestwich, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We present the summary of the recent investigations of double black hole binaries in context of their formation and merger rates. In particular we discuss the spectrum of black hole masses, the formation scenarios in the local Universe and the estimates of detection rates for gravitational radiation detectors like LIGO and VIRGO. Our study is based on observed properties of known Galactic and extra-galactic stellar mass black holes and evolutionary predictions. We argue that the binary black ...

  8. Assessing supervisory scenarios for interest rate risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Jose A.; Christensen, Jens H.E.

    2015-01-01

    A new proposal by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision for setting the amount of capital banks must hold against potential losses from interest rate risk uses only a few, very stylized scenarios. Analysis shows the proposed scenarios are extremely unlikely to occur. While they may be appropriate for setting bank capital guidelines, they are much less relevant for everyday risk management. Instead, using a modeling framework with a plausible range of interest rate scenarios would be more...

  9. Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Cashin; Luis Felipe Céspedes;; Ratna Sahay

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether the real exchange rates of commodity-exporting countries and the real prices of their commodity exports move together over time. Using IMF data on the world prices of 44 commodities and national commodity export shares, we construct new monthly indices of national commodity export prices for 58 commodity-exporting countries over 1980-2002. Evidence of a longrun relationship between national real exchange rate and real commodity prices is found for about onethird of...

  10. Commodity Price Volatility Across Exchange Rate Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Cuddington; Hong Liang

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents a new "stylized fact" regarding commodity prices using alternative datasets covering the period from 1880 to 1996: The volatility of real commodity prices, defined as nominal commodity prices deflated by the manufacturing unit value index, is higher under flexible-exchange rate regimes than fixed-exchange rate regimes. Furthermore, changes in exchange regime are associated with changes in the persistence of commodity price shocks. Implications of this finding for open-eco...

  11. Nuclear energy generation rates on magnetar surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhi-Quan; Liu Hong-Lin; Liu Jing-Jing; Lai Xiang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the new screening model, this paper discusses the influence of superstrong magnetic fields on nuclear energy generation rates on the surface of magnetars. The obtained result shows that the superstrong magnetic fields can increase the nuclear energy generation rates by many orders of magnitude. The enhancement may have a significant influence for further study of the magnetars, especially for the cooling, the x-ray luminosity observation and the evolution of the magnetars.

  12. Stock Prices, Exchange Rates and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dor, Eric; Durré, Alain

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to model the relationship between monetary policy and financial asset prices. We develop an aggregative model under forward-looking rational expectations to analyse the optimal monetary policy response to stock prices and exchange rates shocks. We first demonstrate that a model ignoring the impact of equity prices and exchange rates on aggregate demand leads to an overestimation of the optimal policy response to standard shocks. Second, we clearly point out that a correct ...

  13. Modeling the term structure of interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Povala, Pavol; Trojani, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis studies the behavior of yields on government bonds. I focus on three aspects of the yield curve: (i) the link between bond yields and key macro quantities such as consumption growth, (ii) the process of expectations formation about the short term interest rate which, in most developed markets, is the main monetary policy instrument, and (iii) the behavior of interest rate volatilities across different maturities. These research questions share a common goal which is t...

  14. Monetary policy's role in exchange rate behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Faust; Rogers, John H.

    1999-01-01

    While much empirical work has addressed the role of monetary policy shocks in exchange rate behavior, conclusions have been clouded by the lack of plausible identifying assumptions. We apply a recently developed inference procedure allowing us to relax dubious identifying assumptions. This work overturns some earlier results and strengthens others: i) Contrary to earlier findings of "delayed overshooting," the peak exchange rate effect of policy shocks may come nearly immediately after the sh...

  15. China's monetary policy and the exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrotra, Aaron; Sanchez-Fung, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The paper models monetary policy in China using a hybrid McCallum–Taylor empirical reaction function. The feedback rule allows for reactions to inflation and output gaps, and to developments in a trade-weighted exchange rate gap measure. The investigation finds that monetary policy in China has, on average, accommodated inflationary developments. But exchange rate shocks do not significantly affect monetary policy behaviour, and there is no evidence of a structural break in the estimated reac...

  16. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Dubauskas, Gediminas

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes Lithuanian monetary and exchange rate developments. Experiences of the other two Baltic states Estonia and Latvia have been analysed as well. New monetary and financial institutions introduced in all Baltic states faced several problems. One was how to maintain the credibility for new fixed exchange rates in order to preserve positive effect on the economy due to the sharp fall of the inflation. The currency board system has been proposed as a reasonable solution. Central ...

  17. Effects of metabolic rate on protein evolution

    OpenAIRE

    James F Gillooly; Michael W. McCoy; Allen, Andrew P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the modern evolutionary synthesis was first proposed early in the twentieth century, attention has focused on assessing the relative contribution of mutation versus natural selection on protein evolution. Here we test a model that yields general quantitative predictions on rates of protein evolution by combining principles of individual energetics with Kimura's neutral theory. The model successfully predicts much of the heterogeneity in rates of protein evolution for diverse eukaryotes ...

  18. Dose-rate, rbe, and oer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the theories and experimental data dealing with dose-rate effect, relative biological effectiveness (rbe), and oxygen enhancement ratio (oer) for mammalian cells, indicate that neither the theories nor the experimental data themselves are helpful in establishing general rules regarding variations of rbe or oer with dose-rate. There are inconsistencies among the theories which are often at variance with experimental data, which too, are inconsistent among themselves. (orig.)

  19. Exchange Rate, Equity Prices and Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Hau; Helene Rey

    2002-01-01

    We develop an equilibrium model in which exchange rates, stock prices and capital flows are jointly determined under incomplete forex risk trading. Incomplete hedging of forex risk, documented for U.S. global mutual funds, has three important implications: 1) exchange rates are almost as volatile as equity prices when the forex liquidity supply is not infinitely price elastic; 2) higher returns in the home equity market relative to the foreign equity market are associated with a home currency...

  20. Exchange Rates, Equity Prices and Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Harald; Rey, Hélène

    2003-01-01

    We develop an equilibrium model in which exchange rates, stock prices and capital flows are jointly determined under incomplete forex risk trading. Incomplete hedging of forex risk, documented for US global mutual funds, has three important implications: 1) exchange rates are almost as volatile as equity prices when the forex liquidity supply is not infinitely price elastic; 2) higher returns in the home equity market relative to the foreign equity market are associated with a home currency d...

  1. Exchange rates, equity returns and capital flows

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Rey; Harald Hau

    2004-01-01

    We develop an equilibrium model in which exchange rates, stock prices and capital flows are jointly determined under incomplete forex risk trading. Incomplete hedging of forex risk, documented for U.S. global mutual funds, has three important implications: 1) exchange rates are almost as volatile as equity prices when the forex liquidity supply is not infinitely price elastic; 2) higher returns in the home equity market relative to the foreign equity market are associated with a home currency...

  2. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  3. Exchange Rate Expectations Redux and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pierdzioch, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium optimizing two-country model to analyze how the formation of exchange rate expectations shapes the effects of monetary policy shocks in open economies. The model implies that the short-run output effects of permanent monetary policy shocks diminish if 'noise traders' in the foreign exchange market form regressive exchange rate expectations. If the influence of these noise traders is strong enough, a permanent expansionary monetary policy shock can...

  4. ROMANIAN COUNTY RATING MEASUREMENT. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan BĂTRÂNCEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the second wave of financial crisis, namely the sovereign debt crisis, the country’s most affected by this phenomenon are Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland and last year Cyprus joined. Future more the crisis in Greece in 2015 requires local authorities to evaluate constantly their rating in order to prevent bankruptcy. In this paper we conducted a comparative analysis using Altman method and the Stickney method and correlate the scores with ratings agencies Standard & Poor's and Moody's.

  5. An analysis of healthcare providers' online ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Black; Lindsay Thompson; Heidi Saliba; Kara Dawson; Nicole Paradise Black

    2009-01-01

    Background Many websites allow consumers to evaluate their healthcare experience yet scant data exist that explore the type and content of reviews. Objective To evaluate and describe online healthcare provider reviews. Methods We analysed 16 703 ratings on 6101 providers from four US cities. Ratings spanned five categories and an overall provider score. We also performed text analyses of narrative commentary (n = 15 952). Results Providers had a high mean score for each category (3.7...

  6. Collision Rates in Charged Granular Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffler, T. (Thomas); Wolf, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The dissipation rate due to inelastic collisions between equally charged, insulating particles in a granular gas is calculated. It is equal to the known dissipation rate for uncharged granular media multiplied by a Boltzmann-like factor, that originates from Coulomb repulsion. Particle correlations lead to an effective potential that replaces the bare Coulomb potential in the Boltzmann factor. Collisional cooling in a granular gas proceeds with the known t^-2 -law, until the kinetic energy of...

  7. Does Experience Rating Improve Obstetric Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral-Garcia, Sofia; Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We provide an assessment of the introduction of experience rating for medical malpractice insurance using 2002-2009 inpatient discharge records data on deliveries from the Italian Region of Piedmont. Considering experience rating as an increase in medical malpractice pressure, we show that such i...... specification. We show that our results are robust to the different methodologies, and they can be explained in terms of a reduction in the discretion over obstetric decisions ratherthan a change in the risk profile of the patients....

  8. Immigrants' Labor Supply and Exchange Rate Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Nekoei

    2013-01-01

    Are an immigrant's decisions affected in real time by her home country's economy? I examine this question by exploiting exchange rate variations as exogenous price shocks to immigrants' budget constraints. I find that in response to a 10 percent dollar appreciation, an immigrant decreases her earnings by 0.92 percent, mainly by reducing hours worked. The exchange rate effect is greater for recent immigrants, married immigrants with absent spouses, Mexicans close to the border, and immigrants ...

  9. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  10. Evaluation of commercially available heart rate monitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Humen, D P; Boughner, D R

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy and tracking ability of nine commercially available heart rate monitors were assessed. The heart rate of 16 young healthy men was continuously monitored by a single-lead electrocardiograph while they exercised on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Readings were obtained from the devices during exercise. The devices that measured the cardiac electrical potential with a three-electrode system or that incorporated a light transmission device attached to the earlobe were the most accura...

  11. Pricing Credit Derivatives with Rating Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Das, Sanjiv Ranjan; Rangarajan K. Sundaram

    2002-01-01

    We develop a model for pricing risky debt and valuing credit derivatives that is easily calibrated to existing variables. Our approach is based on expanding the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (1990) term-structure model and its extension, the Das-Sundaram (2000) model to allow for defaultable debt with rating transitions. The framework has two salient features, comprising extensions over the earlier work: (i) it employs a rating transition matrix as the driver for the default process, and (ii) the entir...

  12. Exchange Rate and Political Risks, Again

    OpenAIRE

    Clare, Gregory; Ira N. Gang

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effects of exchange rate and political risks on foreign direct investment (FDI) for multinationals. Our strategy is to examine FDI by U.S. firms at two levels: in all industries and on the subset of only firms in manufacturing industries. When investing in developed economies the firms appear to take past and present variation in exchange rates into consideration. When investing in less developed nations the past and present variation does not appear to weigh as heavily as the ...

  13. Rate phenomena in uranium extraction by amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C. F.; McDowell, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Kinetics studies and other rate measurements are reviewed in the amine extraction of uranium and of some other related and associated metal ions. Equilibration is relatively fast in the uranium sulfate systems most important to uranium hydrometallurgy. Significantly slow equilibration has been encountered in some other systems. Most of the recorded rate information, both qualitative and quantitative, has come from exploratory and process-development work, while some kinetics studies have been directed specifically toward elucidation of extraction mechanisms. 71 references.

  14. Deforestation and the Real Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Arcand, Jean-Louis; Guillaumont, Patrick; Guillaumont Jeanneney, Sylviane

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation is a phenomenon that has largely been concentrated in the developing world. We construct a theoretical model of deforestation that focuses on the factors affecting the incentives to transform forested land into agricultural land. We show that: (i) lower discount rates (associated with higher income levels), stronger institutions, and increases in the relative price of timber decrease deforestation; (ii) depreciations in the real exchange rate increase deforestation in developing...

  15. Dielectronic Recombination Rates In Astrophysical Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bachari, F; Maero, G; Quarati, P; Bachari, Fatima; Ferro, Fabrizio; Maero, Giancarlo; Quarati, Piero

    2006-01-01

    In this work we introduce a new expression of the plasma Dielecronic Recombination (DR) rate as a function of the temperature, derived assuming a small deformation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution and containing corrective factors, in addition to the usual exponential behaviour, caused by non-linear effects in slightly non ideal plasmas. We then compare the calculated DR rates with the experimental DR fits in the low temperature region.

  16. Sticky prices and sectoral real exchange rates

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick J. Kehoe; Virgiliu Midrigan

    2007-01-01

    The classic explanation for the persistence and volatility of real exchange rates is that they are the result of nominal shocks in an economy with sticky goods prices. A key implication of this explanation is that if goods have differing degrees of price stickiness then relatively more sticky goods tend to have relatively more persistent and volatile good-level real exchange rates. Using panel data, we find only modest support for these key implications. The predictions of the theory for pers...

  17. The Exchange-Rate Question in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Giavazzi, Francesco

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the arguments for and against monetary unification in Europe, taking into account the recent shift in emphasis in discussions of exchange rate regimes. It discusses the merits of irrevocably fixed versus flexible exchange rates in the light of the literature on international strategic interactions, where inefficiencies arise from countries' incentives to run beggar-thy-neighbor policies. The long run level of inflation is viewed as determined by the 'credibility' of the mon...

  18. Radon-222 dose rates to burrowing mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Potter, E. D.; Vives I Batlle, J.; Barlow, T.S.; Copplestone, D.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of absorbed dose rates as a consequence of exposure of wildlife to natural background radionuclides are required to put results of assessments conducted for releases of radionuclides from licensed sites into context. There have been recent review papers in which estimated dose rates to marine, freshwater and terrestrial wildlife (specifically the ICRP Reference Animals and Plants (ICRP 2008)) from 40K and radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th series have been presented (Beresford et a...

  19. Phase Flow Rate Measurements of Annual Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Yarubi, O.S.; Lucas, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The Annular flow regime makes measurement of the total liquid flow rate difficult. It is even more difficult to measure the individual flow rate of either the oil or the water. In a vertical Perspex tube (i.d. = 50 mm) using a newly-designed flow loop in the University of Huddersfield, annular flow was established and different measurements were carried out. One possible on-line measurement technique to achieve the oil volume fraction measurement is an automated bypass...

  20. Flow rate measurements by means of tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosetti, F. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The application of some sources of diffusion for the flow rate measurement of water or other fluids is here presented. The laminar instantaneous source, obtained in practice with easy devices, is very useful in river or channel measurements. The analysis of the measurements could supply the flow rate and the presence of water losses or recharges. The section of the channel can also be determined by such a method.

  1. Respiratory rate assessment from photoplethysmographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Garde, Ainara; Myers, Dorothy; Scheffer, Cornie; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    We present a study investigating the suitability of a respiratory rate estimation algorithm applied to photoplethysmographic imaging on a mobile phone. The algorithm consists of a cascade of previously developed signal processing methods to detect features and extract respiratory induced variations in photoplethysmogram signals to estimate respiratory rate. With custom-built software on an Android phone (Camera Oximeter), contact photoplethysmographic imaging videos were recorded using the integrated camera from 19 healthy adults breathing spontaneously at respiratory rates between 6 and 40 breaths/min. Capnometry was simultaneously recorded to obtain reference respiratory rates. Two hundred and ninety-eight Camera Oximeter recordings were available for analysis. The algorithm detected 22 recordings with poor photoplethysmogram quality and 46 recordings with insufficient respiratory information. Of the 232 remaining recordings, a root mean square error of 5.9 breaths/min and a median absolute error of 2.3 breaths/min was obtained. The study showed that it is feasible to estimate respiratory rates by placing a finger on a mobile phone camera, but that it becomes increasingly challenging at respiratory rates higher than 20 breaths/min. PMID:25571214

  2. SIS Epidemic Spreading with Heterogeneous Infection Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we aim to understand the influence of the heterogeneity of infection rates on the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic spreading. Specifically, we keep the recovery rates the same for all nodes and study the influence of the moments of the independently identically distributed (i.i.d.) infection rates on the average fraction $y_\\infty$ of infected nodes in the meta-stable state, which indicates the severity of the overall infection. Motivated by real-world datasets, we consider the log-normal and gamma distributions for the infection rates and we design as well a symmetric distribution so that we have a systematic view of the influence of various distributions. By continuous-time simulations on several types of networks, theoretical proofs and physical interpretations, we conclude that: 1) the heterogeneity of infection rates on average retards the virus spread, and 2) a larger even-order moment of the infection rates leads to a smaller average fraction of infected nodes, but the odd-...

  3. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0.......2 to 0.3 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for combi tank systems and in the interval from 0.3 to 0.4 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for preheating systems. Further, calculations showed that by means of an advanced control strategy for the flow rate - for instance if the flow rate is directly proportional...

  4. Crystallized Rate Regions for MIMO Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbah Merouane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering the multiuser SISO interference channel, the allowable rate region is not convex and the maximization of the aggregated rate of all the users by the means of transmission power control becomes inefficient. Hence, a concept of the crystallized rate regions has been proposed, where the time-sharing approach is considered to maximize the sumrate.In this paper, we extend the concept of crystallized rate regions from the simple SISO interference channel case to the MIMO/OFDM interference channel. As a first step, we extend the time-sharing convex hull from the SISO to the MIMO channel case. We provide a non-cooperative game-theoretical approach to study the achievable rate regions, and consider the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG mechanism design with a novel cost function. Within this analysis, we also investigate the case of OFDM channels, which can be treated as the special case of MIMO channels when the channel transfer matrices are diagonal. In the second step, we adopt the concept of correlated equilibrium into the case of two-user MIMO/OFDM, and we introduce a regret-matching learning algorithm for the system to converge to the equilibrium state. Moreover, we formulate the linear programming problem to find the aggregated rate of all users and solve it using the Simplex method. Finally, numerical results are provided to confirm our theoretical claims and show the improvement provided by this approach.

  5. Common features of extraordinary rate theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Baron

    2015-05-28

    We examine the capabilities and foundations of three landmark rate theories: harmonic transition state theory, classical nucleation theory, and the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Each of the three classic rate theories is widely used to predict rates and trends. They are also used "in reverse" to interpret experimental data with no computation at all. Their common foundations include a quasi-equilibrium assumption and dimensionality reduction to a physically meaningful, one-dimensional, and broadly applicable reaction coordinate. Many applications lie beyond the scope of the classic theories, so rare events research has pursued trajectory-based methods that efficiently predict accurate rate constants even when the reaction coordinate and mechanistic details are unknown. Trajectory based rare events methods achieved these ambitious goals, but (by construction) they provide rates rather than mechanistic understanding. We briefly discuss recent efforts to identify reaction coordinates, including methods which provide abstract statistically defined coordinates and those which identify physical collective variables. Finally, we note some natural synergies between existing simulation methods which might help discover simple and powerful quasi-equilibrium theories for the many applications that fall beyond the scope of the classic rate theories.

  6. Electrorheological Effects at High Shear Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Much attention has been given to electrorheological (ER) fluids because of the ER effect, which has been described by a large number of researchers as a notable increase in the apparent viscosity of a fluid upon the application of an electric field. The description of ER effects is, however, not accurate at high shear rates. To clarify the discrepancy, we analyze and compute the apparent viscosity as a function of shear rate for ER fluid flow between rotating coaxial cylinders in the presence of an electric field. The theoretical predictions show that the increase of electric intensity contributes little to the apparent viscosity enhancement at high shear rates, while ER effects for ER fluids with a higher polarization rate still exist and ER devices possess controllability in this regime. Description of the ER effect by the apparent viscosity leads to an unrealistic conclusion that ER effects disappear at high shear rates, because the apparent viscosity of ER fluids approaches the value for Newtonian fluids. Therefore, it is concluded that the proper description of ER effects, i.e., one that holds uniformly for any strain rate when ER effects exist, is manifested by a remarkable increase in the extra stress rather than in the apparent viscosity of ER fluids.

  7. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA. PMID:26643079

  8. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  9. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) serves two primary purposes. It synthesizes information supplied by the other final studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal and shows the actual calculations for BPA's power rates. In addition, the WPRDS is the primary source for certain information used in establishing the power rates. Information developed in the WPRDS includes rate design (including seasonal and diurnal shapes for energy rates, demand, and load variance rates), the risk mitigation tools (Cost Recovery Adjustment Clause (CRAC), along with the [N]ational Marine Fisheries Service [F]ederal Columbia River Power System [B]iological Opinion (NFB) Adjustment, the Emergency NFB Surcharge, and Dividend Distribution Clause (DDC)), development of the Slice rate, and all discounts and other adjustments that are included in the rate schedules and the General Rate Schedule Provisions. The WPRDS also includes the description of the methodology for the Cost of Service Analysis (COSA), and the various rate design steps necessary to establish BPA's power rates. The WPRDS also shows the calculations for inter-business line revenues and expenses, the revenue forecast and, finally, includes a description of all of the rate schedules. The actual rate schedules are shown in ''Administrator's Final Record of Decision (ROD), Appendix A: 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, WP-07-A-02''. The WPRDS also includes the Partial Resolution of Issues, shown in Attachment 1 of the ROD. The Partial Resolution of Issues affected many of the features described in this study. These are noted where appropriate.

  10. The Exchange Rate and Interest Rate Differential Relationship: Evidence from Two Financial Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kui-Wai; Wong, Douglas K T

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the contemporaneous and inter-temporal interaction between real exchange rate and real interest rate differential in the two financial crises of 1997 and 2008 by using data from thirteen countries from different world regions. The empirical result shows that negative contemporaneous relationship exists in most countries. In addition, there is little evidence on a systematic inter-temporal relationship between the real interest rate differential and the real exchange rate, ...

  11. 76 FR 38281 - Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... Office of Personnel Management. Edward M. DeHarde, Program Manager, National Healthcare Operations.... Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community Rated Plans... 3206-AM39 Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: New Premium Rating Method for Most Community...

  12. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  13. Larval developmental rate, metabolic rate and future growth performance in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Jonathan Vaz; Åberg, Madelene; Gjoen, Hans Magnus;

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in salmonids suggest a link between larval developmental rate, metabolic rate, and future growth. However, the connection between growth during exogenous and endogenous feeding is still debated. In the current study, a positive relationship between larval developmental rate, quan...

  14. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  15. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were dete

  16. The Rating Game: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Municipal Bond Credit Rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John E.

    This publication examines the influence of credit ratings on public debt financing and helps to resolve some of the developing controversy concerning this subject. It investigates the rating activities of the two private investment advisory firms--Moody's and Standard & Poor's--and the use of ratings by governmental borrowers, investors,…

  17. Empirical rate equation model and rate calculations of hydrogen generation for Hanford tank waste; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empirical rate equations are derived to estimate hydrogen generation based on chemical reactions, radiolysis of water and organic compounds, and corrosion processes. A comparison of the generation rates observed in the field with the rates calculated for twenty eight tanks shows agreement with in a factor of two to three

  18. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  19. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  20. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison pregnancy rates.

  1. Experimental Mg IX photo recombination rate coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s → 2p (ΔN = 0) and 2s → 3l (ΔN = 1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonances with the strongest one occurring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, AandAS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, AandA, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2(2s2p 3P)7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging. (authors)

  2. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  3. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... for steady-state processes, and the present study aims to demonstrate that the observations in fact unearth a more widespread phenomenon. In this work, two newly proposed back stress formulations are adopted to account for the strain gradient effects in the single slip simple shear case, and characteristic...

  4. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  5. Crowding and eccentricity determine reading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Tillman, Katharine A; Freeman, Jeremy; Su, Michael; Berger, Tracey D; Majaj, Najib J

    2007-10-26

    Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without moving one's eyes. That "visual span" has been measured in various ways, but remains unexplained. Here we show (1) that the visual span is simply the number of characters that are not crowded and (2) that, at each vertical eccentricity, reading rate is proportional to the uncrowded span. We measure rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) reading rate for text, in both original and scrambled word order, as a function of size and spacing at central and peripheral locations. As text size increases, reading rate rises abruptly from zero to maximum rate. This classic reading rate curve consists of a cliff and a plateau, characterized by two parameters, critical print size and maximum reading rate. Joining two ideas from the literature explains the whole curve. These ideas are Bouma's law of crowding and Legge's conjecture that reading rate is proportional to visual span. We show that Legge's visual span is the uncrowded span predicted by Bouma's law. This result joins Bouma and Legge to explain reading rate's dependence on letter size and spacing. Well-corrected fluent observers reading ordinary text with adequate light are limited by letter spacing (crowding), not size (acuity). More generally, it seems that this account holds true, independent of size, contrast, and luminance, provided only that text contrast is at least four times the threshold contrast for an isolated letter. For any given spacing, there is a central uncrowded span through which we read. This uncrowded span model explains the shape of the reading rate curve. We test the model in several ways. We use a "silent substitution" technique to measure the

  6. Rates of projected climate change dramatically exceed past rates of climatic niche evolution among vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Wiens, John J

    2013-08-01

    A key question in predicting responses to anthropogenic climate change is: how quickly can species adapt to different climatic conditions? Here, we take a phylogenetic approach to this question. We use 17 time-calibrated phylogenies representing the major tetrapod clades (amphibians, birds, crocodilians, mammals, squamates, turtles) and climatic data from distributions of > 500 extant species. We estimate rates of change based on differences in climatic variables between sister species and estimated times of their splitting. We compare these rates to predicted rates of climate change from 2000 to 2100. Our results are striking: matching projected changes for 2100 would require rates of niche evolution that are > 10,000 times faster than rates typically observed among species, for most variables and clades. Despite many caveats, our results suggest that adaptation to projected changes in the next 100 years would require rates that are largely unprecedented based on observed rates among vertebrate species.

  7. On the derivation of particle nucleation rates from experimental formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, A; Almeida, J; Kirkby, J; Curtius, J

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric particle formation rates are usually measured at sizes larger than the critical size where nucleation occurs. Due to loss of particles during their growth to the detection threshold, the measured formation rate is often substantially smaller than the nucleation rate. For this reason a correction needs to be applied in order to determine the nucleation rate from the measured formation rate. An analytical formula for the correction factor is provided by Kerminen and Kulmala (2002). Their method was derived for atmospheric nucleation measurements and we show here that it has limited applicability to chamber nucleation studies. The reason for this limitation is that the particle loss rate generally has a different dependency on particle size in other environments. Here we propose an alternative, numerical method that allows precise nucleation rates to be determined in arbitrary experimental environments. The method requires knowledge of the particle size distribution above detection threshold, the par...

  8. Parallel computation of radio listening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzariol, Marc; Gennart, Benoit A.; Hersch, Roger D.; Gomez, Manuel; Balsiger, Peter; Pellandini, Fausto; Leder, Markus; Wuethrich, Daniel; Feitknecht, Juerg

    2000-10-01

    Obtaining the listening rates of radio stations in function of time is an important instrument for determining the impact of publicity. Since many radio stations are financed by publicity, the exact determination of radio listening rates is vital to their existence and to further development. Existing methods of determining radio listening rates are based on face to face interviews or telephonic interviews made with a sample population. These traditional methods however require the cooperation and compliance of the participants. In order to significantly improve the determination of radio listening rates, special watches were created which incorporate a custom integrated circuit sampling the ambient sound during a few seconds every minutes. Each watch accumulates these compressed sound samples during one full week. Watches are then sent to an evaluation center, where the sound samples are matched with the sound samples recorded from candidate radio stations. The present paper describes the processing steps necessary for computing the radio listening rates, and shows how this application was parallelized on a cluster of PCs using the CAP Computer-aided parallelization framework. Since the application must run in a production environment, the paper describes also the support provided for graceful degradation in case of transient or permanent failure of one of the system's components. The parallel sound matching server offers a linear speedup up to a large number of processing nodes thanks to the fact that disk access operations across the network are done in pipeline with computations.

  9. UO2 dissolution rates: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews literature data on UO2 dissolution kinetics and provides a framework for guiding future experimental studies as well as theoretical modeling studies. Under oxidizing conditions, UO2 dissolution involves formation of an oxidized surface layer which is then dissolved by formation of aqueous complexes. Higher oxygen pressures or other oxidants are required at higher temperatures to have dissolution rates independent of oxygen pressure. At high oxygen pressures (1-5 atm, 25-70 C), the dissolution rate has a one-half order dependence on oxygen pressure, whereas at oxygen pressures below 0.2 atm, Grandstaff (1976), but nobody else, observed a first-order dependence on dissolution rate. Most people found a first-order dependence on carbonate concentration; Posey-Dowty (1987) found independence of carbonate at pH 7 to 8.2. Dissolution rates increase with temperature except in experiments involving granitic groundwater. Dissolution rates were generally greater under acid or basic conditions than near neutral pH

  10. Heart Rate Sensor for Freshwater Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, C. L.; Vial, D. P.; Kruger, A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Lee, H. W.; Schroer, H. W.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have long been interested the cardiac activity of mollusks. First, it is important as a basic measure of the animal's metabolism. Further, activities such as feeding and burrowing affect heart rate, as do environmental factors such as water salinity, water temperature, exposure, and predation. We have developed a small, noninvasive sensor for measuring freshwater mussel heart rate. Its working principle is as follows. An infrared (IR) light-emitting diode is placed in contact with the mussel shell. Some of the IR penetrates through the shell, reflects off internal organs, and traverses back. A photodetector detects this IR, and electronics condition the signal. The heartbeat of the animal modulates the IR, allowing one to measure the heart rate. The technique is widely-used in finger heart-rate monitors in humans. The sensors do not have to be positioned above the heart and several locations on the mussel shell work well. The sensor is small (8 mm × 10 mm) and consumes less than 1 mA, and has a simple one-wire interface that allows for easy integration into data acquisition hardware. We present heart rate measurements for the common pocketbook (lampsilis cardium) freshwater mussel.

  11. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  12. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Schippers, S; Brandau, C; Kieslich, S; Müller, A; Wolf, A

    2004-01-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of berylliumlike magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Delta N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Delta N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (+-15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperatu...

  13. Delta count-rate monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A need for a more effective way to rapidly search for gamma-ray contamination over large areas led to the design and construction of a very sensitive gamma detection system. The delta count-rate monitoring system was installed in a four-wheel-drive van instrumented for environmental surveillance and accident response. The system consists of four main sections: (1) two scintillation detectors, (2) high-voltage power supply amplifier and single-channel analyzer, (3) delta count-rate monitor, and (4) count-rate meter and recorder. The van's 6.5-kW generator powers the standard nuclear instrument modular design system. The two detectors are mounted in the rear corners of the van and can be run singly or jointly. A solid-state bar-graph count-rate meter mounted on the dashboard can be read easily by both the driver and passenger. A solid-state strip chart recorder shows trends and provides a permanent record of the data. An audible alarm is sounded at the delta monitor and at the dashboard count-rate meter if a detected radiation level exceeds the set background level by a predetermined amount

  14. Estimating stress heterogeneity from aftershock rate

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the rate of aftershocks triggered by a heterogeneous stress change, using the rate-and-state model of Dieterich [1994]. We show than an exponential stress distribution P(\\tau)~ exp(-\\tau/\\tau_0) gives an Omori law decay of aftershocks with time ~1/t^p, with an exponent p=1-A\\sigma_n/\\tau_0, where A is a parameter of the rate-and-state friction law, and \\sigma_n the normal stress. Omori exponent p thus decreases if the stress "heterogeneity" \\tau_0 decreases. We also invert the stress distribution P(\\tau) from the seismicity rate R(t), assuming that the stress does not change with time. We apply this method to a synthetic stress map, using the (modified) scale invariant "k^2" slip model [Herrero and Bernard, 1994]. We generate synthetic aftershock catalogs from this stress change. The seismicity rate on the rupture area shows a huge increase at short times, even if the stress decreases on average. This stochastic slip model gives a Gaussian stress distribution, but nevertheless produces an aftersho...

  15. Utility-Based Wireless Resource Allocation for Variable Rate Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Tao, Meixia; Ng, Chun Sum

    2007-01-01

    For most wireless services with variable rate transmission, both average rate and rate oscillation are important performance metrics. The traditional performance criterion, utility of average transmission rate, boosts the average rate but also results in high rate oscillations. We introduce a utility function of instantaneous transmission rates. It is capable of facilitating the resource allocation with flexible combinations of average rate and rate oscillation. Based on the new utility, we c...

  16. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population.

  17. Video-rate computational heterodyne holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dillée, Antoine; Lopes, Fernando; Atlan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a versatile computational image rendering software of optically-acquired holograms. The reported software can process 4 Megapixel 8-bit raw frames from a sensor array acquired at a sustained rate of 80 Hz. Video-rate image rendering is achieved by streamline image processing with commodity computer graphics hardware. For time-averaged holograms acquired in off-axis optical configuration with a frequency-shifted reference beam, wide-field imaging of one tunable spectral component is permitted. This software is validated by phase-stepped hologram rendering, and non-contact monitoring of surface acoustic waves by single and dual sideband hologram rendering. It demonstrates the suitability of holography for video-rate computational laser Doppler imaging in heterodyne optical configuration.

  18. Time Rate Gradient Effects and Negative Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksch, Edmond

    2008-03-01

    The Harvard tower Experiment and tests with accurate atomic clocks show that a clock at a high elevation indicates more elapsed time than a clock at a low elevation, both clocks properly measuring time at their locations. This fact mandates that Newton's first law of motion be rewritten to cite impulse balance rather than force balance. Time rate gradient effects explain how the weight of a precisely vertical and precisely uniform electric field or a precisely vertical and precisely uniform magnetic field is supported in a precisely unidirectional gravitational field. Time rate gradient effects also explain how the weight of a unidirectional gravitational field is reacted. It is confirmed that the mass density of the gravitational field is negative. http://www.TimeRateGradient.com; http://www.Negative-Mass.com; http://www.EinsteinsElevator.com

  19. Calculations of Polar Ozone Loss Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Wu, J.

    1999-01-01

    We calculate vortex-averaged ozone loss rates at 465-K potential temperature during the Aug.-Sept. time period in the southern hemisphere and Feb.-Mar. time period in the northern hemisphere. Ozone loss rates are calculated two ways. First, from the time series of measurements of 03. Second, from measurements of ClO, from which ozone loss is inferred based on our theories of Cl-catalyzed ozone destruction. Both measurement sets are from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument. We find good agreement between vortex-averaged ozone loss rates calculated from these methods. Our analysis provides no support for recent work suggesting that current theories of Cl-catalyzed ozone loss underestimate the observed decrease in polar ozone during the ozone "hole" period.

  20. Axiomatic Design of Micro Quartz Rate Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yang-he; ZHANG Hong-hai; LIU Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Quartz rate sensors (QRS) made out of one single piece of quartz crystal are inertial devices which can be used for general rate control, stabilization, automotive and aerospace/defense markets,etc. The mechanical design of the QRS has been investigated based on axiomatic design. The axiomatic design matrix of the mechanical structure of Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscopes (CVG) has been proposed. The mechanical function of QRS is divided into three Function Requirements ( FR ) , i. e. , FR1 is the drive mode, FR2 is the sense mode, FR3 is a coupled connection where the Coriolis force can couple the two modes with a term proportional to the rotational rate. A new QRS which is easy to be fabricated has been put forward. Furthermore, the new QRS indicated that the axiomatic design is a help to functional design of products.

  1. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ramos

    Full Text Available Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database, a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  2. Lattice constraints on the thermal photon rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Laine, M.; Meyer, F.

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the photon production rate from an SU(3) plasma at temperatures of about 1.1 Tc and 1.3 Tc . Lattice results for the vector current correlator at spatial momenta k ˜(2 -6 )T are extrapolated to the continuum limit and analyzed with the help of a polynomial interpolation for the corresponding spectral function, which vanishes at zero frequency and matches to high-precision perturbative results at large invariant masses. For small invariant masses the interpolation is compared with the next-to-leading-order (NLO) weak-coupling result, hydrodynamics, and a holographic model. At vanishing invariant mass we extract the photon rate which for k ≳3 T is found to be close to the NLO weak-coupling prediction. For k ≲2 T uncertainties remain large but the photon rate is likely to fall below the NLO prediction, in accordance with the onset of a strongly interacting behavior characteristic of the hydrodynamic regime.

  3. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mc Spirit

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares grade inflation rates among different ability students at a large, open admissions public University. Specifically, this study compares trends in graduating grade point average (GPA from 1983 to 1996 across low, typical and higher ability students. This study also tests other explanations for increases in graduating GPA. These other explanations are changes in 1 ACT score 2 gender 3 college major and 4 vocational programs. With these other explanations considered, regression results still report an inflationary trend in graduating GPA. Time, as measured by college entry year, is still a significant positive predictor of GPA. More directly, comparisons of regression coefficients reveal lower ability students as experiencing the highest rate of grade increase. Higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students.

  5. Strain Rate Induced Amorphization in Metallic Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Y.; Cagin, T.; Goddard, W.A. III [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ikeda, H.; Samwer, K.; Johnson, W.L. [Keck Laboratory of Engineering Materials, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with a many-body force field, we studied the deformation of single crystal Ni and NiCu random alloy nanowires subjected to uniform strain rates but kept at 300thinspthinspK. For all strain rates, the Ni nanowire is elastic up to 7.5{percent} strain with a yield stress of 5.5thinspthinspGPa, far above that of bulk Ni. At high strain rates, we find that for both systems the crystalline phase transforms continuously to an amorphous phase, exhibiting a dramatic change in atomic short-range order and a near vanishing of the tetragonal shear elastic constant perpendicular to the tensile direction. This amorphization which occurs directly from the homogeneous, elastically deformed system with no chemical or structural inhomogeneities exhibits a new mode of amorphization. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Estimating Hurricane Rates in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, K.; Laepple, T.; Rowlands, D.; Jewson, S.; Bellone, E.

    2009-04-01

    The estimation of hurricane risk is of life-and-death importance for millions of people living on the West Coast of the Atlantic. Risk Management Solutions (RMS) provides products and services for the quantification and management of many catastrophe risks, including the risks associated with Atlantic hurricanes. Of particular importance in the modeling of hurricane risk, is the estimation of future hurricane rates. We are interested in making accurate estimates over the next 5-years of the underlying rates associated with Atlantic Hurricanes that make landfall. This presentation discusses our methodology used in making these estimates. Specifically, we discuss the importance of estimating the changing environments, both local and global, that affect hurricane formation and development. Our methodology combines statistical modeling, physical insight and modeling and expert opinion to provide RMS with accurate estimates of the underlying rate associated with landfalling hurricanes in the Atlantic.

  7. [Orthorectic eating behaviour - nosology and prevalence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2012-12-01

    Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to evaluate the clinical significance of orthorectic eating behaviour. This article discusses nosological classifications of orthorexia and presents prevalence rates of extremely healthy eating behaviour in general population as well as in several specific subgroups. To summarise, orthorectic eating behaviour seems to be most likely an eating disorder with healthy dieting as an overvalued idea. Data on prevelance of orthorectic eating behaviour, assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, suggest a rate of 1 to 2% in general population. PMID:22700108

  8. Estimation of transition probabilities of credit ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    The present research is based on the quarterly credit ratings of ten companies over 15 years taken from the database of the Taiwan Economic Journal. The components in the vector mi (mi1, mi2,⋯, mi10) may first be used to denote the credit ratings of the ten companies in the i-th quarter. The vector mi+1 in the next quarter is modelled to be dependent on the vector mi via a conditional distribution which is derived from a 20-dimensional power-normal mixture distribution. The transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) for getting mi+1,j = l given that mi, j = k is then computed from the conditional distribution. It is found that the variation of the transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) as i varies is able to give indication for the possible transition of the credit rating of the j-th company in the near future.

  9. Ultra low bit-rate speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, V

    2015-01-01

    "Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.

  10. Rating criteria and the Canadian utility sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Power Point presentation provides a brief overview of Standard and Poor's, their rating process, rating methodology, symbols, and rating trends. Key industry issues are described as being deregulation within the electric power and petroleum industry, and a series of risks including regulatory, sovereign, political, event, and financial risks. The paper summarized by noting that transmission and distribution companies have the greatest potential for high credit quality, based on monopoly status, efficient operations and supportive regulation. However, they will be challenged by regulatory and integration issues. The greatest business risk will be faced by generation companies. It was also noted that outside of Alberta and Nova Scotia, provincially-owned utilities dominate the electric power industry. 6 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-04

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, in- dicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing struc- ture and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions.

  12. Wall Shear Rates in Taylor Vortex Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sobolik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall shear rate and its axial and azimuthal components were evaluated in stable Taylor vortices. The measurements were carried out in a broad interval of Taylor numbers (52-725 and several gap width (R1/R2 = 0.5 – 0.8 by two three-segment electrodiffusion probes and three single probes flush mounted in the wall of the outer fixed cylinder. The axial distribution of wall shear rate components was obtained by sweeping the vortices along the probes using a slow axial flow. The experimental results were verified by CFD simulations. The knowledge of local wall shear rates and its fluctuations is of primordial interest for industrial applications like tangential filtration, membrane reactors and bioreactors containing shear sensitive cells.

  13. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  14. Rate-independent systems theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides both an introduction to and a thorough exposition of the theory of rate-independent systems, which the authors have worked on with a number of collaborators over many years. The focus is mostly on fully rate-independent systems, first on an abstract level with or without a linear structure, discussing various concepts of solutions with full mathematical rigor. The usefulness of the abstract concepts is then demonstrated on the level of various applications primarily in continuum mechanics of solids, including suitable approximation strategies with guaranteed numerical stability and convergence. Particular applications concern inelastic processes such as plasticity, damage, phase transformations, or adhesive-type contacts both at small strains and at finite strains. Other physical systems such as magnetic or ferroelectric materials, and couplings to rate-dependent thermodynamic models are also considered. Selected applications are accompanied by numerical simulations illustrating both t...

  15. Low data rate digital space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    The low available transmitter power and the large frequency uncertainty constrain the data rate to be low. An all-digital communication receiver is proposed, and its feasibility is established. Although coherent systems should be used whenever practical, the noncoherent MFSK system is more suitable for very low data rates. The effect of Rician fading on the performance of MFSK receiver is studied. Fading characteristics of the Venus channel are examined based on the exponential model and available experimental data on the Venus atmosphere. Because of the requirement of high communication efficiency, three codes are evaluated and compared. The rapidly varying phase error at low data rate has great effects on the tracking loop behaviors which are examined by extensive computer study of the phase plane trajectories.

  16. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports

  17. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  18. 77 FR 33470 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Ancillary Per Diem Rate Calendar Year 2012 Lower 48 States: $477 Alaska: $811 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date...

  19. 76 FR 24496 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Rate Calendar Year 2011 Lower 48 States 443 Alaska 756 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date for Calendar Year 2011...

  20. Mervento 3.6-118 Recycling Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    My Bachelor’s thesis work has been to make an investigation of the recycling rate of Mervento Oy's new wind turbine Mervento 3.6-118. The study has been part of Mervento Oy's environmental management system ISO 14001. The Bachelor’s thesis shows how the recycling rate has been determined through a material analysis and also the recycling methods that have been used and how the results were reported. According to the results, the part that cannot be recycled in the current situation consists m...

  1. How to improve colon cancer screening rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luiz; Ronaldo; Alberti; Diego; Paim; Carvalho; Garcia; Debora; Lucciola; Coelho; David; Correa; Alves; De; Lima; Andy; Petroianu

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is a common cause of death throughout the world and may be prevented by routine control, which can detect precancerous neoplasms and early cancers before they undergo malignant transformation or metastasis. Three strategies may improve colon cancer screening rates: convince the population about the importance of undergoing a screening test; achieve higher efficacy in standard screening tests and make them more available to the community and develop new more sensitive and efficacious screening methods and make them available as routine tests. In this light, the present study seeks to review these three means through which to increase colon cancer screening rates.

  2. Is there a Natural Rate of Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Kumar Narayan; Ingrid Nielsen; Russell Smyth

    2005-01-01

    Studies in the economics of crime literature have reached mixed conclusions on the deterrence hypothesis. One explanation which has been offered for the failure to find evidence of a deterrent effect in the long run is the natural rate of crime. This paper applies the univariate Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root test with one and two structural breaks to crime series for the United Kingdom and United States and the panel LM unit root test with and without a structural break to crime rates fo...

  3. Occupational differences in US Army suicide rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R. C.; Stein, M. B.; Bliese, P. D.; Bromet, E. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gilman, S. E.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rosellini, A. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Ursano, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. Method The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. Results There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2–39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2–22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.8). Adjustment for a differential ‘healthy warrior effect’ cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Conclusions Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk. PMID:26190760

  4. Maximal possible accretion rates for slim disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    It was proved in the previous work that there must be a maximal possible accretion rate Mmax for a slim disk. Here we discuss how the value of Mmax depends on the two fundamental parameters of the disk,namely the mass of the central black hole M and the viscosity parameter α. It is shown that Mmax increases with decreasing α,but is almost independent of M if Mmax is measured by the Eddington accretion rate MEdd ,which is in turn proportional to M.

  5. Variation of OER with dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OER has been measured from 276 Gy/hr to 0.89 Gy/hr for V-79 cells irradiated at 230 or 370C. As dose rate is decreased, the OER initially increased from 3.1 to a maximum of 4.0. Then, the OER decreases to a minimum of 2.4 at lower dose rates. Experiments with cells in nutrient poor conditions (HBSS without glucose) show a monotonic decrease in OER from 3.1 to 1.7. These findings are due to the differences in SLD repair capability and kinetics of cells under different pO/sub 2/ and nutrient conditions

  6. Does fiscal cooperation increase local tax rates ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Charlot; Sonia Paty; Virginie Piguet

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of fiscal cooperation on local taxation in a decentralized country, using the French experience. We estimate a model of tax setting for local business tax using spatial and dynamic econometric techniques, for the period 1993-2003. We find first that reducing the number of municipalities is likely to limit tax competition and increase local business tax rates as a consequence. Second, we find that tax rates are higher when groups of local...

  7. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  8. In silico dissolution rates of pharmaceutical ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Berna; Schneider, Julian; Reuter, Karsten

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between in vitro dissolution rates and the efficiency of drug formulations establishes an opportunity for accelerated drug development. Using in silico methods to predict the dissolution rates bears the prospect of further efficiency gains by avoiding the actual synthesis of candidate formulations. Here, we present a computational protocol that achieves such prediction for molecular crystals at low undersaturation. The protocol exploits the classic spiral dissolution model to minimize the number of material parameters that require explicit molecular simulations. Comparison to available data for acetylsalicylic acid and alpha lactose monohydrate indicates a tunable accuracy within one order of magnitude.

  9. The Piecewise Linear Reactive Flow Rate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, P; Souers, P C

    2005-07-22

    Conclusions are: (1) Early calibrations of the Piece Wise Linear reactive flow model have shown that it allows for very accurate agreement with data for a broad range of detonation wave strengths. (2) The ability to vary the rate at specific pressures has shown that corner turning involves competition between the strong wave that travels roughly in a straight line and growth at low pressure of a new wave that turns corners sharply. (3) The inclusion of a low pressure de-sensitization rate is essential to preserving the dead zone at large times as is observed.

  10. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  11. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  12. Investigation on correlation of aerosol leakage rate with gas leakage rate in capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to build up the correlation of the aerosol leakage rate with the gas leakage rate for evaluating aerosol leakage of nuclear facilities. The method of evaluating leakage rate of gas and sub-micron aerosol was summarized and also investigated by experiment. The effects of upstream aerosol number concentration, flow velocity and upstream pressure on aerosol leakage were analyzed based on the experimental results. The results show that the aerosol leakage rate is linearly related to the gas leakage rate in capillary when the gas leakage rate is higher than 10-4 Pa · m3 · S-1; the aerosol leakage rate falls sharply due to the diffusion deposition mainly for sub-micron aerosol when the gas le rate is lower than 10-4 Pa · m3 · S-1. The aerosol leakage rate is explored to be expressed as a function of the gas leakage rate and the orifice length under some certain assumptions for practical application. (authors)

  13. Role of Rate of Specific Growth Rate in Different Growth Processes: A First Principle Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Dibyendu; Patra, Sankar Nayaran

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication, effort is given for the development of a common platform that helps to address several growth processes found in literature. Based on first principle approach, the role of rate of specific growth rate in different growth processes has been considered in an unified manner. It is found that different growth equations can be derived from the same rate equation of specific growth rate. The dependence of growth features of different growth processes on the parameters of the rate equation of specific growth rate has been examined in detail. It is found that competitive environment may increase the saturation level of population size. The exponential growth could also be addressed in terms of two important factors of growth dynamics, as reproduction and competition. These features are, most probably, not reported earlier.

  14. Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-02-26

    This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.

  15. An approximate classical unimolecular reaction rate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meishan; Rice, Stuart A.

    1992-05-01

    We describe a classical theory of unimolecular reaction rate which is derived from the analysis of Davis and Gray by use of simplifying approximations. These approximations concern the calculation of the locations of, and the fluxes of phase points across, the bottlenecks to fragmentation and to intramolecular energy transfer. The bottleneck to fragment separation is represented as a vibration-rotation state dependent separatrix, which approximation is similar to but extends and improves the approximations for the separatrix introduced by Gray, Rice, and Davis and by Zhao and Rice. The novel feature in our analysis is the representation of the bottlenecks to intramolecular energy transfer as dividing surfaces in phase space; the locations of these dividing surfaces are determined by the same conditions as locate the remnants of robust tori with frequency ratios related to the golden mean (in a two degree of freedom system these are the cantori). The flux of phase points across each dividing surface is calculated with an analytic representation instead of a stroboscopic mapping. The rate of unimolecular reaction is identified with the net rate at which phase points escape from the region of quasiperiodic bounded motion to the region of free fragment motion by consecutively crossing the dividing surfaces for intramolecular energy exchange and the separatrix. This new theory generates predictions of the rates of predissociation of the van der Waals molecules HeI2, NeI2 and ArI2 which are in very good agreement with available experimental data.

  16. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  17. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  18. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  19. The Nonlinear Spatial Damping Rate in QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Jiarong, L

    1998-01-01

    The derivative expansion method has been used to solve the semiclassical kinetic equations of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The nonlinear spatial damping rate, the imaginary part of the wave vector, for the longitudinal secondary color waves in the long wavelength limit has been calculated numerically.

  20. Asynchronous Rate Chaos in Spiking Neuronal Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, Omri; Hansel, David

    2015-01-01

    The brain exhibits temporally complex patterns of activity with features similar to those of chaotic systems. Theoretical studies over the last twenty years have described various computational advantages for such regimes in neuronal systems. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear whether chaos requires specific cellular properties or network architectures, or whether it is a generic property of neuronal circuits. We investigate the dynamics of networks of excitatory-inhibitory (EI) spiking neurons with random sparse connectivity operating in the regime of balance of excitation and inhibition. Combining Dynamical Mean-Field Theory with numerical simulations, we show that chaotic, asynchronous firing rate fluctuations emerge generically for sufficiently strong synapses. Two different mechanisms can lead to these chaotic fluctuations. One mechanism relies on slow I-I inhibition which gives rise to slow subthreshold voltage and rate fluctuations. The decorrelation time of these fluctuations is proportional to the time constant of the inhibition. The second mechanism relies on the recurrent E-I-E feedback loop. It requires slow excitation but the inhibition can be fast. In the corresponding dynamical regime all neurons exhibit rate fluctuations on the time scale of the excitation. Another feature of this regime is that the population-averaged firing rate is substantially smaller in the excitatory population than in the inhibitory population. This is not necessarily the case in the I-I mechanism. Finally, we discuss the neurophysiological and computational significance of our results. PMID:26230679